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Sample records for acquired preparedness model

  1. The acquired preparedness model of risk for bulimic symptom development.

    PubMed

    Combs, Jessica L; Smith, Gregory T; Flory, Kate; Simmons, Jean R; Hill, Kelly K

    2010-09-01

    The authors applied person-environment transaction theory to test the acquired preparedness model of eating disorder risk. The model holds that (a) middle-school girls high in the trait of ineffectiveness are differentially prepared to acquire high-risk expectancies for reinforcement from dieting or thinness; (b) those expectancies predict subsequent binge eating and purging; and (c) the influence of the disposition of ineffectiveness on binge eating and purging is mediated by dieting or thinness expectancies. In a three-wave longitudinal study of 394 middle-school girls, the authors found support for the model. Seventh-grade girls' scores on ineffectiveness predicted their subsequent endorsement of high-risk dieting or thinness expectancies, which in turn predicted subsequent increases in binge eating and purging. Statistical tests of mediation supported the hypothesis that the prospective relation between ineffectiveness and binge eating was mediated by dieting or thinness expectancies, as was the prospective relation between ineffectiveness and purging. This application of a basic science theory to eating disorder risk appears fruitful, and the findings suggest the importance of early interventions that address both disposition and learning.

  2. Testing the Acquired Preparedness Model: Predicting College Student Gambling Frequency and Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Ginley, Meredith K.; Whelan, James P.; Relyea, George, E.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The acquired preparedness model posits that impulsivity influences the development of outcome expectancies that then influence the engagement in a specific risk taking behavior. The purpose of this study was to test the acquired preparedness model for gambling behavior of college students using a multidimensional approach to impulsivity. Employing a structural equation approach, it was predicted that a full mediational model that includes multiple dimensions of impulsivity and multiple outcome expectancies would predict gambling frequency and gambling symptomatology. Support was found for the acquired preparedness model in understanding why some college students gamble more frequently or problematically. Specifically, better model fit was found for the full mediational model that included outcome expectancies to predict both frequency and gambling symptomatology than the model that included the direct relation between impulsivity and gambling. PMID:24563083

  3. Impulsivity, negative expectancies, and marijuana use: a test of the acquired preparedness model.

    PubMed

    Vangsness, Laura; Bry, Brenna H; LaBouvie, Erich W

    2005-06-01

    According to the 'acquired preparedness model,' expectancies mediate the relationship between an impulsive personality style and alcohol use. The current study evaluated whether the model can also be applied to marijuana use. Estimated probabilities and subjective evaluations of personally expected marijuana effects, along with impulsivity and frequency of marijuana use, were assessed in 337 college undergraduates. Tests of mediation examining positive and negative marijuana expectancies showed negative expectancies to be a significant mediator for both males and females. That is, participants who were higher on impulsivity had fewer negative expectancies and in turn used more marijuana. This study provides evidence that the acquired preparedness model may help to explain marijuana use.

  4. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  5. Disordered models of acquired dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virasoro, M. A.

    We show that certain specific correlations in the probability of errors observed in dyslexic patients that are normally explained by introducing additional complexity in the model for the reading process are typical of any Neural Network system that has learned to deal with a quasiregular environment. On the other hand we show that in Neural Networks the more regular behavior does not become naturally the default behavior.

  6. Cross-cultural comparisons between the earthquake preparedness models of Taiwan and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jang, Li-Ju; Wang, Jieh-Jiuh; Paton, Douglas; Tsai, Ning-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan and New Zealand are both located in the Pacific Rim where 81 per cent of the world's largest earthquakes occur. Effective programmes for increasing people's preparedness for these hazards are essential. This paper tests the applicability of the community engagement theory of hazard preparedness in two distinct cultural contexts. Structural equation modelling analysis provides support for this theory. The paper suggests that the close fit between theory and data that is achieved by excluding trust supports the theoretical prediction that familiarity with a hazard negates the need to trust external sources. The results demonstrate that the hazard preparedness theory is applicable to communities that have previously experienced earthquakes and are therefore familiar with the associated hazards and the need for earthquake preparedness. The paper also argues that cross-cultural comparisons provide opportunities for collaborative research and learning as well as access to a wider range of potential earthquake risk management strategies. PMID:26282331

  7. Cross-cultural comparisons between the earthquake preparedness models of Taiwan and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jang, Li-Ju; Wang, Jieh-Jiuh; Paton, Douglas; Tsai, Ning-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan and New Zealand are both located in the Pacific Rim where 81 per cent of the world's largest earthquakes occur. Effective programmes for increasing people's preparedness for these hazards are essential. This paper tests the applicability of the community engagement theory of hazard preparedness in two distinct cultural contexts. Structural equation modelling analysis provides support for this theory. The paper suggests that the close fit between theory and data that is achieved by excluding trust supports the theoretical prediction that familiarity with a hazard negates the need to trust external sources. The results demonstrate that the hazard preparedness theory is applicable to communities that have previously experienced earthquakes and are therefore familiar with the associated hazards and the need for earthquake preparedness. The paper also argues that cross-cultural comparisons provide opportunities for collaborative research and learning as well as access to a wider range of potential earthquake risk management strategies.

  8. The Development of a Multi-Level Model for Crisis Preparedness and Intervention in the Greek Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzichristiou, Chryse; Issari, Philia; Lykitsakou, Konstantina; Lampropoulou, Aikaterini; Dimitropoulou, Panayiota

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a multi-level model for crisis preparedness and intervention in the Greek educational system. It presents: a) a brief overview of leading models of school crisis preparedness and intervention as well as cultural considerations for contextually relevant crisis response; b) a description of existing crisis intervention…

  9. The meta-leadership summit for preparedness initiative: an innovative model to advance public health preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Young, Andrea C; Marcus, Leonard J; Dorn, Barry C; Neslund, Verla S; McNulty, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    This article reports on the design, evaluation framework, and results from the Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness was a 5-year initiative based on the premise that national preparedness and emergency response is not solely the responsibility of government. From 2006 to 2011, 36 Meta-Leadership Summits were delivered in communities across the country. Summits were customized, 10-hour leadership development, networking, and community action planning events. They included participation from targeted federal, state, local, nonprofit/philanthropic, and private sector leaders who are directly involved in decision making during a major community or state-wide emergency. A total of 4,971 government, nonprofit, and business leaders attended Meta-Leadership Summits; distribution of attendees by sector was balanced. Ninety-three percent of respondents reported the summit was a valuable use of time, 91% reported the overall quality as "good" or "outstanding," and 91% would recommend the summit to their colleagues. In addition, approximately 6 months after attending a summit, 80% of respondents reported that they had used meta-leadership concepts or principles. Of these, 93% reported that using meta-leadership concepts or principles had made a positive difference for them and their organizations. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative was a value-added opportunity for communities, providing the venue for learning the concepts and practice of meta-leadership, multisector collaboration, and resource sharing with the intent of substantively improving preparedness, response, and recovery efforts.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has (CFD) has played an increasing in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-couple equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows. We are now embarking on a development program to incorporate prognostic models to generate, in real-time, the meteorological fields for the dispersion models. In contrast to diagnostic models, prognostic models are physically-based and are capable of incorporating many physical processes to treat highly complex flow scenarios.

  11. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness & response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has played an increasing role in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-coupled, nonlinear equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Until recently, such computer power could be found only in CRAY-class supercomputers. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Such models have been the cornerstones of the ARAC operational system for the past ten years. Kamada (1992) provides a review of diagnostic models and their applications to dispersion problems. However, because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows.

  12. Medical preparedness: Chernobyl as a model for southeastern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, F.J.; Apsey, D.; Kantor, K.; Hann, E.; Dienst, S.

    1987-08-07

    The Detroit Chapter of Physicians for Social Responsibility developed a project to evaluate the potential response of the local medical community to a small nuclear disaster involving radiation injuries. The model was patterned after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster of April 26, 1986. They surveyed the potential response to a hypothetical disaster at the Enrico Fermi II nuclear reactor located south of Detroit.

  13. Using simplified models to communicate the importance of prevention, detection and preparedness before a disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    McNab, B; Dubé, C; Alves, D

    2011-08-01

    Frontline farm workers and veterinary-policy-makers are arguably in the best positions to influence prevention, detection, and preparedness-for-control of farm animal diseases. It is important that such individuals make biologically sound decisions concerning the daily management and regulation of the health of animals. Such decisions should be based on a good understanding of key principles of disease spread and control. This paper summarises these principles, as described in previous publications, into simple models. These models may be used to communicate concepts to readers who may not have time to study more complex models. These models illustrate the relationship between the development of new disease cases (from existing cases, i.e., the reproductive ratio R) and (i) the duration of the period during which existing cases are available as infectious, (ii) contact rates, (iii) transmission rates and (iv) susceptibility. Understanding these concepts through models has great utility, facilitating better decisions for disease prevention, detection and preparedness-for-control, before an outbreak becomes unmanageable. These basic concepts apply to all animal species, including humans.

  14. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  15. Emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program. (ACR)

  16. Preparedness 101: Zombie Pandemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparedness and Response Activities Public Health Preparedness Capabilities Cities Readiness Initiative Funding and Technical Assistance Healthcare Preparedness Subscribe to Receive Updates Planning Resources Communities Community Planning Framework for Healthcare Preparedness ...

  17. Epicutaneous Model of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakara, Ranjani; Foreman, Oded; De Pascalis, Roberto; Lee, Gloria M.; Plaut, Roger D.; Kim, Stanley Y.; Stibitz, Scott; Elkins, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Although the majority of S. aureus community-acquired SSTIs are uncomplicated and self-clearing in nature, some percentage of these cases progress into life-threatening invasive infections. Current animal models of S. aureus SSTI suffer from two drawbacks: these models are a better representation of hospital-acquired SSTI than community-acquired SSTI, and they involve methods that are difficult to replicate. For these reasons, we sought to develop a murine model of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus SSTI (CA-MRSA SSTI) that can be consistently reproduced with a high degree of precision. We utilized this model to begin to characterize the host immune response to this type of infection. We infected mice via epicutaneous challenge of the skin on the outer ear pinna using Morrow-Brown allergy test needles coated in S. aureus USA300. When mice were challenged in this model, they developed small, purulent, self-clearing lesions with predictable areas of inflammation that mimicked a human infection. CFU in the ear pinna peaked at day 7 before dropping by day 14. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-21 were all significantly increased in the draining lymph node of infected mice, and there was neutrophil recruitment to the infection site. In vivo neutrophil depletion demonstrated that neutrophils play a protective role in preventing bacterial dissemination and fatal invasive infection. PMID:23381997

  18. Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed. PMID:26909207

  19. Hurricane Preparedness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Home Get Help Types of Emergencies Hurricane Preparedness Download the FREE Emergency App Find our Emergency App in the Apple Store or Google Play Aplicación de Emergencias - ahora ...

  20. Systemic valuation of strategic preparedness through application of the inoperability input-output model with lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Kenneth G; Haimes, Yacov Y; Taub, Gideon

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has mandated all regions to "carefully weigh the benefit of each homeland security endeavor and only allocate resources where the benefit of reducing risk is worth the amount of additional cost" (DHS, 2006, p. 64). This mandate illuminates the need to develop methods for systemic valuation of preparedness measures that support strategic decision making. This article proposes an analysis method that naturally emerges from the structure of the inoperability input-output model (IIM) through which various regional- and sector-specific impact analyses can be cost-effectively integrated for natural and man-made disasters. The IIM is described extensively in a companion paper (Lian et al., 2007). Its reliance on data classifications structured by the U.S. Census Bureau and its extensive accounting of economic interdependencies enables us to decompose a risk analysis activity, perform independent assessments, and properly integrate the assessment for a systemic valuation of risk and risk management activity. In this article, we account for and assess some of the major impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita to demonstrate this use of the IIM and illustrate hypothetical, reduced impacts resulting from various strategic preparedness decisions. Our results indicate the capability of the IIM to guide the decision-making processes involved in developing a preparedness strategy.

  1. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  2. Model of health? Distributed preparedness and multi-agency interventions surrounding UK regional airports.

    PubMed

    Warren, Adam; Bell, Morag; Budd, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The liberalisation of the European aviation sector has multiplied paths of entry into the United Kingdom (UK) for the international traveller. These changing mobilities necessitate a reconceptualisation of the border as a series of potentially vulnerable nodes occurring within, and extending beyond, national boundaries. In this paper, we consider the border through the lens of port health, the collective term for various sanitary operations enacted at international transport terminals. In the UK, a critical player in the oversight of port health is the Health Protection Agency (HPA), which became a non-Departmental public body in 2005. A major part of port health is preparedness, a set of techniques aimed at managing, and responding to, emergencies of public health concern. More recently, certain jurisdictions have embarked on public health preparedness work across a number of different geographical scales. Using methods pioneered by the military, this form of 'distributed preparedness' is of increased interest to social science and medical scholars. With reference to case studies conducted in localities surrounding two UK regional airports following the 2009-10 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we consider the extent to which distributed preparedness as a concept and a set of practices can inform current debates - in the UK, and beyond - concerning interventions at the border 'within'.

  3. Proposing and Testing a Model to Explain Traits of Algebra Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venenciano, Linda; Heck, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Early experiences with theoretical thinking and generalization in measurement are hypothesized to develop constructs we name here as logical reasoning and preparedness for algebra. Based on work of V. V. Davydov (1975), the Measure Up (MU) elementary grades experimental mathematics curriculum uses quantities of area, length, volume, and mass to…

  4. Using the Precaution Adoption Process model to describe a disaster preparedness intervention among low-income Latinos.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah C; Eisenman, David P; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2014-04-01

    Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through 'promotora' (community health worker) led small group meetings, and (ii) household preparedness education received through print media. Weinstein's Precaution Adoption Process, a stage model appropriate for risk communication guided the intervention. Outcomes are conceptualized as stages of decision making linked to having disaster supplies and creating a family communication plan. Quantitative results showed a significant shift over time from awareness to action and maintenance stages for disaster communication plans and supplies in both study arms; however, the shift in stage for a communication plan for those in the 'platica' study arm was (P < 0.0001) than for those in the media arm. For changes in stage linked to disaster supplies, people in both media and 'platica' study arms improved at the same rate. Simple media-based communications may be sufficient to encourage disadvantaged households to obtain disaster supplies; however, adoption of the more complex disaster family communication requires interpersonal education.

  5. Modeling Technology Preparedness as an Antecedent of Mathematic Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy, Perceived Usefulness and Intention toward Use of Information Technology in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Gimba, W. Rahmatu; Ahmed, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study test a specified model of information technology (IT) preparedness as antecedent of pre-service teachers' self efficacy, perceived usefulness, and intention toward IT use for teaching in Nigeria. Survey method was employed for prosecuting the study. The participants of the study comprise of 200 pre-service teachers studying Mathematics…

  6. Locating and communicating with at-risk populations about emergency preparedness: the vulnerable populations outreach model.

    PubMed

    Klaiman, Tamar; Knorr, Deborah; Fitzgerald, Shannon; Demara, Philip; Thomas, Chad; Heake, George; Hausman, Alice

    2010-10-01

    Vulnerable populations tend to have the worst health outcomes during and after disasters; however, these populations are rarely included in the emergency planning process. In Philadelphia, the Department of Public Health and the Office of Emergency Management have reached out to community-based organizations that serve vulnerable populations to include these key stakeholders in emergency planning. In this article, we outline strategies for locating, engaging, and communicating with vulnerable populations about both organizational and personal emergency preparedness. Such strategies include creating a method for bidirectional communication via a free quarterly health newsletter that is distributed to community-based organizations serving vulnerable populations. We also note successes and next steps from engaging vulnerable populations in the planning process in Philadelphia.

  7. The Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury Community Outreach Program (PABICOP) - an innovative comprehensive model of care for children and youth with an acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury Community Outreach Program - an innovative, comprehensive model of care for children and youth with an acquired brain injury is described. The background to the formation of the idea is delineated and the current function of the model given. Future directions are discussed. The program addresses the needs and issues of children and youth with an acquired brain injury and their families. Subsequent literature supports the concept of care that this program espouses.

  8. Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G.; Toner, Eric S.; Roxland, Beth E.; Penn, Matthew S.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Powell, Tia

    2015-01-01

    contribute to protecting hospitals and practitioners who act in good faith from liability. Finally, to address anticipated staffing shortages during severe and prolonged disasters and pandemics, governments should develop approaches to formally expand the availability of qualified health-care workers, such as through using official foreign medical teams. CONCLUSIONS As a fundamental element of health-care and public health emergency planning and preparedness, the law underlies critical aspects of disaster and pandemic responses. Effective responses require comprehensive advance planning efforts that include assessments of complex legal issues and authorities. Recent disasters have shown that although law is a critical response tool, it can also be used to hold health-care stakeholders who fail to appropriately plan for or respond to disasters and pandemics accountable for resulting patient or staff harm. Claims of liability from harms allegedly suffered during disasters and pandemics cannot be avoided altogether. However, appropriate planning and legal protections can help facilitate sound, consistent decision-making and support response participation among health-care entities and practitioners. PMID:25144203

  9. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk.

  10. Acquiring, Representing, and Evaluating a Competence Model of Diagnostic Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper describes NEOMYCIN, a computer program that models one physician's diagnostic reasoning within a limited area of medicine. NEOMYCIN's knowledge base and reasoning procedure constitute a model of how human knowledge is organized and how it is used in diagnosis. The hypothesis is tested that such a procedure can be used to simulate both…

  11. Beyond public health emergency legal preparedness: rethinking best practices.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    The concept of public health legal preparedness grew out of the public health emergency preparedness movement, but was conceptualized more broadly to be utilized to achieve full public health legal preparedness for all types of public health threats. This article analyzes the need to refocus public health legal preparedness to include all areas of public health law and presents a new model for the fourth core element that will aid in the development of legal benchmarks so public health systems can more effectively work towards attaining public health legal preparedness in all areas of public health practice.

  12. "Analyze, Acquire, Apply, and Write" as a New Learning Model in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Jeong V.

    2015-01-01

    I have developed a new teaching and learning model called AAAW, which stand for Analyze, Acquire, Apply and Write. This model grows from action research and unique experience in teaching a biochemistry course to high school students who are talented in math and science. In this model, students first "Analyze" lab data to generate…

  13. The Mobile Library and Staff Preparedness: Exploring Staff Competencies Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravani, Sarah-Jane; Haddow, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings of a study investigating the current state of preparedness of staff at institutes of technology and TAFE libraries across Australia and New Zealand in relation to delivering services through mobile technologies. In particular, the skills, knowledge, and competencies of staff in relation to mobile…

  14. An Integrated Model of School Crisis Preparedness and Intervention. A Shared Foundation to Facilitate International Crisis Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Brock, Stephen E.; Pletcher, Sarah W.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to promote the social and cognitive competence of youth, school psychologists must be prepared to address a multitude of contextual factors and life events that impact children's performance and adjustment in school and subsequent developmental trajectories. The domain of crisis preparedness and intervention has received increased…

  15. Using the Precaution Adoption Process Model to Describe a Disaster Preparedness Intervention among Low-Income Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glik, Deborah C.; Eisenman, David P.; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through…

  16. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns.

  17. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns. PMID:23050780

  18. Toward Establishing the Validity of the Transformative Optimism Construct Measurement for Tsunami Preparedness: A Structural Equation Model for Visitors of the Pacific Northwest Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Uribe, Carlos Andres

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of social constructs that evaluate natural hazard preparedness are important to decrease natural hazard vulnerability. Preparedness reduces natural hazard impacts and human vulnerability. Investment in education and education research contribute to human sustainable development and natural hazard preparedness. Faced with other needs,…

  19. 17. Introduction to preparedness.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Preparedness is the aggregate of all measures and policies adopted before an event occurs that promotes mitigation of the damage caused by an event and minimises the dysfunction that could result from the damage. More specifically, it includes all planning and resources that are devoted to preventing deaths and morbidity and, thus, to the alleviation of human (individual and collective) suffering during and after the event has taken place. It consists of measures that individuals, a family, a community, locale, country, region, institution, and states maintain, at a particular time, to combat the potential deleterious effects of hazards. Preparedness includes the absorbing, buffering, and response capacities; it also has been called the resilience of the society at risk, to a hazard(s). As the level of preparedness increases, the vulnerability of the community at risk decreases. Preparedness is difficult to measure. The impact of preparedness measures cannot be realised until the next event occurs or it has been shown to be of benefit during disaster drills and exercises. Hence, investments in preparedness have been relatively meager worldwide. PMID:24785814

  20. Acquire High Quality Meshes of Scale Models for AN Automatic Modelling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, F.; Jacquot, K.; Chevrier, C.; Halin, G.

    2013-07-01

    Urban scale models depicting whole towns such as the hundred-scale model collection known as plans-reliefs are a valuable source of information of cities and their surroundings. These physical representations of French strongholds from the 17th through the 19th century suffer from many problems that are, among other things, wear and tear or the lack of visibility and accessibility. A virtual collection would allow remote accessibility for visitors as well as history researchers. Moreover, it may also be linked to other digital collections and therefore, promote the collection to make people come to the museums to see the physical scale models. We also work on other physical town scale models like Epinal for which the scale is a bit higher. In a first part, we define a protocol for acquiring 3D meshes of town scale models from both photogrammetric and scanning methods. Then we compare the results of both methods The photogrammetric protocol has been elaborated by choosing the most accurate software, 123DCatch, which asks for about 60 pictures, and defining the settings needed to obtain exploitable photographs. In the same way, we defined the devices and settings needed for the laser scan acquisition method. In a second part, we segment the 3D meshes in planes by using Geomagic, which has been chosen between several programs, for its accurate resulting geometry.

  1. Ceres model application for increasing preparedness to climate variability in agricultural planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Z.; Kercheva, M.

    2003-04-01

    The paper should demonstrate how knowledge of climate variability and simulation analyses over 30 years could be used to study the vulnerability of maize and wheat ecosystems in the region of Sofia. The procedure of stepwise calibration and validation of agricultural simulation CERES-maize and CERES-wheat models was used at two fields of contrastive soil conditions (Chromic Luvisol and Vertisol). Lysimeters observations under "Chromic Luvisol-maize" combination enabled to test integrally the prediction capacity of CERES-maize, including water and nitrogen fluxes at the boundaries of this vulnerable system over "1.05.1997-1.10.1999" period. The role of soil, crop, climate and irrigation scheduling (under maize only) on drought consequences and groundwater pollution was quantified for four "soil-crop" combinations by CERES models. Four water supply treatments of maize were considered on both soils: one under rainfed conditions and three with varied irrigation application. Water application in initial, development, and mid season growth stages was scheduled by CROPWAT model at any day that soil matrix suction fell to 3.0-3.2 pF with one irrigation scenario and 2.4-2.6 pF with another one. The third drainage-controlling scenario was developed on the basis of 50-75% of the required irrigation depth by satisfying most sensible phases of maize. It was established that "Chromic Luvisol -maize - dry land" combination was associated with the greatest coefficient of variability of yields (Cv=42%) and drought frequency (75% of the years with yield losses more than 20%). Average yield losses in dry vegetation seasons were 60% of the productivity potential under sufficient soil moisture. As a consequence maize cultivation under these conditions was inefficient in 20% of the years when production expenses were greater than losses. Any irrigation practice, even the drainage controlling scenario, mitigated drought consequences on risky soils as Chromic Luvisol by reducing year

  2. A new multivariate statistical model for change detection in images acquired by homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors.

    PubMed

    Prendes, Jorge; Chabert, Marie; Pascal, Frederic; Giros, Alain; Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    2015-03-01

    Remote sensing images are commonly used to monitor the earth surface evolution. This surveillance can be conducted by detecting changes between images acquired at different times and possibly by different kinds of sensors. A representative case is when an optical image of a given area is available and a new image is acquired in an emergency situation (resulting from a natural disaster for instance) by a radar satellite. In such a case, images with heterogeneous properties have to be compared for change detection. This paper proposes a new approach for similarity measurement between images acquired by heterogeneous sensors. The approach exploits the considered sensor physical properties and specially the associated measurement noise models and local joint distributions. These properties are inferred through manifold learning. The resulting similarity measure has been successfully applied to detect changes between many kinds of images, including pairs of optical images and pairs of optical-radar images.

  3. Emergency Preparedness Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Robert, Ed.; LaValla, Patrick, Ed.

    The book is a collection of emergency preparedness instruction materials. It starts with the first chapter of "Living Life's Emergencies" by Robert Stoffel and Patrick LaValla which introduces emergency preparedness education, focusing on six major components (human body management, defensive living, time lag, disaster and civil preparedness,…

  4. Investigation of the best model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements acquired directly on the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, K.; Diop, M.; St. Lawrence, K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion changes, particularly in the brain. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of the expected random flow model. Carp et al. [Biomedical Optics Express, 2011] proposed a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, to capture both the random ballistic and diffusive nature of erythrocyte motion. The purpose of this study was to compare how well the Brownian diffusion and the hydrodynamic diffusion models characterized DCS data acquired directly on the brain, avoiding the confounding effects of scalp and skull. Data were acquired from seven pigs during normocapnia (39.9 +/- 0.7 mmHg) and hypocapnia (22.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg) with the DCS fibers placed 7 mm apart, directly on the cerebral cortex. The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide a consistently better fit to the autocorrelation functions compared to the Brownian diffusion model and was less sensitive to the chosen start and end time points used in the fitting. However, the decrease in cerebral blood flow from normocapnia to hypocapnia determined was similar for the two models (-42.6 +/- 8.6 % for the Brownian model and -42.2 +/- 10.2 % for the hydrodynamic model), suggesting that the latter is reasonable for monitoring flow changes.

  5. [A mathematical model for the chemical control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) having acquired chemical resistance].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Alape, Leonardo D; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever is a common vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. Since no vaccines are currently available which can protect against infection, disease control relies on controlling the mosquito population. This work was aimed at modelling such mosquito's population dynamics regarding chemical control of the adult population and its acquired resistance to chemicals. The model was analysed by using classical dynamic system theory techniques and mosquito growth threshold was determined as this establishes when a particular population may prosper in the environment or when it is likely to disappear. A suitable chemical control strategy was developed from such threshold. Simulations were made in control and non-control scenarios; this determined the degree of control application effectiveness against different levels of acquired resistance.

  6. [A mathematical model for the chemical control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) having acquired chemical resistance].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Alape, Leonardo D; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever is a common vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. Since no vaccines are currently available which can protect against infection, disease control relies on controlling the mosquito population. This work was aimed at modelling such mosquito's population dynamics regarding chemical control of the adult population and its acquired resistance to chemicals. The model was analysed by using classical dynamic system theory techniques and mosquito growth threshold was determined as this establishes when a particular population may prosper in the environment or when it is likely to disappear. A suitable chemical control strategy was developed from such threshold. Simulations were made in control and non-control scenarios; this determined the degree of control application effectiveness against different levels of acquired resistance. PMID:22030690

  7. Tornado Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    This pamphlet contains a set of guidelines for community leaders interested in developing preparedness plans for tornadoes and severe thunderstorms. Included in the guide is a list of the types of officials and agencies which should be involved in planning meetings. A set of suggestions for developing a community communications network and…

  8. Working Together for Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Daniel W. Sutherland, Officer for Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Department of Homeland Security, to discuss some of the Department's future goals related to emergency preparedness for people with special needs and to find out how citizens can help in that quest. This article also focuses on topics such as:…

  9. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  10. Imaging the urokinase plasminongen activator receptor in preclinical breast cancer models of acquired drug resistance.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Aaron M; Sevillano, Natalia; King, Mandy L; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Craik, Charles S; Murphy, Laura L; VanBrocklin, Henry F

    2014-01-01

    Subtype-targeted therapies can have a dramatic impact on improving the quality and quantity of life for women suffering from breast cancer. Despite an initial therapeutic response, cancer recurrence and acquired drug-resistance are commonplace. Non-invasive imaging probes that identify drug-resistant lesions are urgently needed to aid in the development of novel drugs and the effective utilization of established therapies for breast cancer. The protease receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a target that can be exploited for non-invasive imaging. The expression of uPAR has been associated with phenotypically aggressive breast cancer and acquired drug-resistance. Acquired drug-resistance was modeled in cell lines from two different breast cancer subtypes, the uPAR negative luminal A subtype and the uPAR positive triple negative subtype cell line MDA-MB-231. MCF-7 cells, cultured to be resistant to tamoxifen (MCF-7 TamR), were found to significantly over-express uPAR compared to the parental cell line. uPAR expression was maintained when resistance was modeled in triple-negative breast cancer by generating doxorubicin and paclitaxel resistant MDA-MB-231 cells (MDA-MB-231 DoxR and MDA-MB-231 TaxR). Using the antagonistic uPAR antibody 2G10, uPAR was imaged in vivo by near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging and (111)In-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Tumor uptake of the (111)In-SPECT probe was high in the three drug-resistant xenografts (> 46 %ID/g) and minimal in uPAR negative xenografts at 72 hours post-injection. This preclinical study demonstrates that uPAR can be targeted for imaging breast cancer models of acquired resistance leading to potential clinical applications. PMID:24505235

  11. Influences of Preparedness Knowledge and Beliefs on Household Disaster Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tracy N; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Harp, Victoria; Cioffi, Joan P

    2015-01-01

    In response to concern about strengthening the nation's ability to protect its population and way of life (i.e., security) and ability to adapt and recover from emergencies (i.e., resilience), the President of the United States issued Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (PPD-8) (1). Signed on March 30, 2011, PPD-8 is a directive for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to coordinate a comprehensive campaign across government, private and nonprofit sectors, and individuals to build and sustain national preparedness. Despite efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other organizations to educate U.S. residents on becoming prepared, growth in specific preparedness behaviors, including actions taken in advance of a disaster to be better prepared to respond to and recover, has been limited (2). In 2012, only 52% of U.S. residents surveyed by FEMA reported having supplies for a disaster (2), a decline from 57% who reported having such supplies in 2009 (3). It is believed that knowledge influences behavior, and that attitudes and beliefs, which are correlated with knowledge, might also influence behavior (4). To determine the association between knowledge and beliefs and household preparedness, CDC analyzed baseline data from Ready CDC, a personal disaster preparedness intervention piloted among Atlanta- and Morgantown-based CDC staff members during 2013–2015. Compared with persons with basic preparedness knowledge, persons with advanced knowledge were more likely to have assembled an emergency kit (44% versus 17%), developed a written household disaster plan (9% versus 4%), and received county emergency alert notifications (63% versus 41%). Similarly, differences in household preparedness behaviors were correlated with beliefs about preparedness. Persons identified as having strong beliefs in the effectiveness of disaster preparedness engaged in preparedness behaviors at levels 7%–30% higher than those with weaker

  12. Influences of Preparedness Knowledge and Beliefs on Household Disaster Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tracy N; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Harp, Victoria; Cioffi, Joan P

    2015-09-11

    In response to concern about strengthening the nation's ability to protect its population and way of life (i.e., security) and ability to adapt and recover from emergencies (i.e., resilience), the President of the United States issued Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (PPD-8) (1). Signed on March 30, 2011, PPD-8 is a directive for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to coordinate a comprehensive campaign across government, private and nonprofit sectors, and individuals to build and sustain national preparedness. Despite efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other organizations to educate U.S. residents on becoming prepared, growth in specific preparedness behaviors, including actions taken in advance of a disaster to be better prepared to respond to and recover, has been limited (2). In 2012, only 52% of U.S. residents surveyed by FEMA reported having supplies for a disaster (2), a decline from 57% who reported having such supplies in 2009 (3). It is believed that knowledge influences behavior, and that attitudes and beliefs, which are correlated with knowledge, might also influence behavior (4). To determine the association between knowledge and beliefs and household preparedness, CDC analyzed baseline data from Ready CDC, a personal disaster preparedness intervention piloted among Atlanta- and Morgantown-based CDC staff members during 2013–2015. Compared with persons with basic preparedness knowledge, persons with advanced knowledge were more likely to have assembled an emergency kit (44% versus 17%), developed a written household disaster plan (9% versus 4%), and received county emergency alert notifications (63% versus 41%). Similarly, differences in household preparedness behaviors were correlated with beliefs about preparedness. Persons identified as having strong beliefs in the effectiveness of disaster preparedness engaged in preparedness behaviors at levels 7%–30% higher than those with weaker

  13. Effects of Performance Improvement Programs on Preparedness Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Bevc, Christine A.; Schenck, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In response to public health systems and services research priorities, we examined the extent to which participation in accreditation and performance improvement programs can be expected to enhance preparedness capacities. Methods Using data collected by the Local Health Department Preparedness Capacities Assessment Survey, we applied a series of weighted least-squares models to examine the effect of program participation on each of the eight preparedness domain scores. Participation was differentiated across four groups: North Carolina (NC) accredited local health departments (LHDs), NC non-accredited LHDs, national comparison LHDs that participated in performance or preparedness programs, and national comparison LHDs that did not participate in any program. Results Domain scores varied among the four groups. Statistically significant positive participation effects were observed on six of eight preparedness domains for NC accreditation programs, on seven domains for national comparison group LHDs that participated in performance programs, and on four domains for NC non-accredited LHDs. Conclusions Overall, accreditation and other performance improvement programs have a significant and positive effect on preparedness capacities. While we found no differences among accredited and non-accredited NC LHDs, this lack of significant difference in preparedness scores among NC LHDs is attributed to NC's robust statewide preparedness program, as well as a likely exposure effect among non-accredited NC LHDs to the accreditation program. PMID:25355971

  14. Mouse models of neurological disorders--a comparison of heritable and acquired traits.

    PubMed

    Harper, Alex

    2010-10-01

    Human neurological disorders include a wide range of illnesses which have a disproportionately high prevalence in the increasingly populous geriatric community. Any research effort directed at discovering the aetiology of neurological disease is greatly enhanced with in vivo models of the disease of interest. Scientific research incorporating the use of mice has advanced rapidly in the last three decades. Relatively simple to breed, maintain and train, mice have many advantages over other species for use in research. More than a century of selective breeding has provided investigators with a rich gene pool and sub-strain diversity from which to choose for their research. Thus the dramatic increase in genetic screening and gene engineering that has occurred in research in recent decades has enabled the generation of a multitude of mouse models. This review discusses the relative utility of mouse models in which a heritable or non-heritable (acquired) manipulation has been used to model a specified trait of a human neurological disorder. The techniques used in deriving useful genetic alterations or modifications and in generating acquired mouse models are outlined with examples of each provided.

  15. Connectionist models of artificial grammar learning: what type of knowledge is acquired?

    PubMed

    Kinder, Annette; Lotz, Anja

    2009-09-01

    Two experiments are presented that test the predictions of two associative learning models of Artificial Grammar Learning. The two models are the simple recurrent network (SRN) and the competitive chunking (CC) model. The two experiments investigate acquisition of different types of knowledge in this task: knowledge of frequency and novelty of stimulus fragments (Experiment 1) and knowledge of letter positions, of small fragments, and of large fragments up to entire strings (Experiment 2). The results show that participants acquired all types of knowledge. Simulation studies demonstrate that the CC model explains the acquisition of all types of fragment knowledge but fails to account for the acquisition of positional knowledge. The SRN model, by contrast, accounts for the entire pattern of results found in the two experiments.

  16. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel Force and Pressure Data Acquired on the HSR Rigid Semispan Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Rausch, Russ D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamic data acquired on the High Speed Research Rigid Semispan Model (HSR-RSM) during NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) Test 520 conducted from 18 March to 4 April, 1996. The purpose of this test was to assess the aerodynamic character of a rigid high speed civil transport wing. The wing was fitted with a single trailing edge control surface which was both steadily deflected and oscillated during the test to investigate the response of the aerodynamic data to steady and unsteady control motion. Angle-of-attack and control surface deflection polars at subsonic, transonic and low-supersonic Mach numbers were obtained in the tunnel?s heavy gas configuration. Unsteady pressure and steady loads data were acquired on the wing, while steady pressures were measured on the fuselage. These data were reduced using a variety of methods, programs and computer systems. The reduced data was ultimately compiled onto a CD-ROM volume which was distributed to HSR industry team members in July, 1996. This report documents the methods used to acquire and reduce the data, and provides an assessment of the quality, repeatability, and overall character of the aerodynamic data measured during this test.

  17. Science preparedness and science response: perspectives on the dynamics of preparedness conference.

    PubMed

    Lant, Timothy; Lurie, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the scientific modeling community to meaningfully contribute to postevent response activities during public health emergencies was the direct result of a discrete set of preparedness activities as well as advances in theory and technology. Scientists and decision-makers have recognized the value of developing scientific tools (e.g. models, data sets, communities of practice) to prepare them to be able to respond quickly--in a manner similar to preparedness activities by first-responders and emergency managers. Computational models have matured in their ability to better inform response plans by modeling human behaviors and complex systems. We advocate for further development of science preparedness activities as deliberate actions taken in advance of an unpredicted event (or an event with unknown consequences) to increase the scientific tools and evidence-base available to decision makers and the whole-of-community to limit adverse outcomes.

  18. Abnormal benzodiazepine and zinc modulation of GABAA receptors in an acquired absence epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Ellsworth, Kevin; Ellsworth, Marc; Schroeder, Katherine M; Smith, Kris; Fisher, Robert S

    2004-07-01

    Brain cholesterol synthesis inhibition (CSI) at a young age in rats has been shown to be a faithful model of acquired absence epilepsy, a devastating condition for which few therapies or models exist. We employed the CSI model to study cellular mechanisms of acquired absence epilepsy in Long-Evans Hooded rats. Patch-clamp, whole-cell recordings were compared from neurons acutely dissociated from the nucleus reticularis of thalamus (nRt) treated and untreated with a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, U18666A. In U18666A-treated animals, 91% of rats developed EEG spike-waves (SWs). Patchclamp results revealed that although there was no remarkable change in GABAA receptor affinity, both a loss of ability of benzodiazepines to enhance GABAA-receptor responses and an increase of Zn2+ inhibition of GABAA-receptor responses of nRt neurons occurred in Long-Evans Hooded rats previously administered U18666A. This change was specific, since no significant changes were found in neurons exposed to the GABA allosteric modulator, pentobarbital. Taken collectively, these findings provide evidence for abnormalities in benzodiazepine and Zn2+ modulation of GABAA receptors in the CSI model, and suggest that decreased gamma2 subunit expression may underlie important aspects of generation of thalamocortical SWs in atypical absence seizures. The present results are also consistent with recent findings that mutation of the gamma2 subunit of the GABAA receptor changes benzodiazepine modulation in families with generalized epilepsy syndromes.

  19. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  20. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  1. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  2. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  3. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is to... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness;...

  4. Risk Prediction Models for Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Yoon K.; Myint, Phyo Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several models have been developed to predict the risk of mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aims to systematically identify and evaluate the performance of published risk prediction models for CAP. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library in November 2011 for initial derivation and validation studies for models which predict pneumonia mortality. We aimed to present the comparative usefulness of their mortality prediction. Results. We identified 20 different published risk prediction models for mortality in CAP. Four models relied on clinical variables that could be assessed in community settings, with the two validated models BTS1 and CRB-65 showing fairly similar balanced accuracy levels (0.77 and 0.72, resp.), while CRB-65 had AUROC of 0.78. Nine models required laboratory tests in addition to clinical variables, and the best performance levels amongst the validated models were those of CURB and CURB-65 (balanced accuracy 0.73 and 0.71, resp.), with CURB-65 having an AUROC of 0.79. The PSI (AUROC 0.82) was the only validated model with good discriminative ability among the four that relied on clinical, laboratorial, and radiological variables. Conclusions. There is no convincing evidence that other risk prediction models improve upon the well-established CURB-65 and PSI models. PMID:24228253

  5. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhash K.; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2015-01-01

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca2+ homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload. PMID:26638758

  6. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhash K; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B; Hajjar, Roger J; Dyck, Jason R B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2015-12-07

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca(2+) homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload.

  7. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future.

  8. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future. PMID:25751222

  9. A population of patient-specific adult acquired flatfoot deformity models before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Spratley, E M; Matheis, E A; Hayes, C W; Adelaar, R S; Wayne, J S

    2014-09-01

    Following IRB approval, a cohort of 3-D rigid-body computational models was created from submillimeter MRIs of clinically diagnosed Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity patients and employed to investigate postoperative foot/ankle function and surgical effect during single-leg stance. Models were constrained through physiologic joint contact, passive soft-tissue tension, active muscle force, full body weight, and without idealized joints. Models were validated against patient-matched controls using clinically utilized radiographic angle and distance measures and plantar force distributions in the medial forefoot, lateral forefoot, and hindfoot. Each model further predicted changes in strain for the spring ligament, deltoid ligament, and plantar fascia, as well as joint contact loads for three midfoot joints, the talonavicular, navicular-1st cuneiform, and calcaneocuboid. Radiographic agreement ranged across measures, with average absolute deviations of <5° and <4 mm indicating generally good agreement. Postoperative plantar force loading in patients and models was reduced for the medial forefoot and hindfoot concomitant with increases in the lateral forefoot. Model predicted reductions in medial soft-tissue strain and increases in lateral joint contact load were consistent with in vitro observations and elucidate the biomechanical mechanisms of repair. Thus, validated rigid-body models offer promise for the investigation of foot/ankle kinematics and biomechanical behaviors that are difficult to measure in vivo.

  10. Etiology matters – Genomic DNA Methylation Patterns in Three Rat Models of Acquired Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dębski, Konrad J.; Pitkanen, Asla; Puhakka, Noora; Bot, Anna M.; Khurana, Ishant; Harikrishnan, KN; Ziemann, Mark; Kaspi, Antony; El-Osta, Assam; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna; Kobow, Katja

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that acquired epileptogenesis is accompanied by DNA methylation changes independent of etiology. We investigated DNA methylation and gene expression in the hippocampal CA3/dentate gyrus fields at 3 months following epileptogenic injury in three experimental models of epilepsy: focal amygdala stimulation, systemic pilocarpine injection, or lateral fluid-percussion induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. In the models studies, DNA methylation and gene expression profiles distinguished controls from injured animals. We observed consistent increased methylation in gene bodies and hypomethylation at non-genic regions. We did not find a common methylation signature in all three different models and few regions common to any two models. Our data provide evidence that genome-wide alteration of DNA methylation signatures is a general pathomechanism associated with epileptogenesis and epilepsy in experimental animal models, but the broad pathophysiological differences between models (i.e. pilocarpine, amygdala stimulation, and post-TBI) are reflected in distinct etiology-dependent DNA methylation patterns. PMID:27157830

  11. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  12. A causal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: disentangling predisposed from acquired neural abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Admon, Roee; Milad, Mohammed R; Hendler, Talma

    2013-07-01

    Discriminating neural abnormalities into the causes versus consequences of psychopathology would enhance the translation of neuroimaging findings into clinical practice. By regarding the traumatic encounter as a reference point for disease onset, neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can potentially allocate PTSD neural abnormalities to either predisposing (pre-exposure) or acquired (post-exposure) factors. Based on novel research strategies in PTSD neuroimaging, including genetic, environmental, twin, and prospective studies, we provide a causal model that accounts for neural abnormalities in PTSD, and outline its clinical implications. Current data suggest that abnormalities within the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex represent predisposing risk factors for developing PTSD, whereas dysfunctional hippocampal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) interactions may become evident only after having developed the disorder.

  13. First Experimental In Vivo Model of Enhanced Dengue Disease Severity through Maternally Acquired Heterotypic Dengue Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jowin Kai Wei; Zhang, Summer Lixin; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Yan, Benedict; Maria Martinez Gomez, Julia; Tan, Wei Yu; Lam, Jian Hang; Tan, Grace Kai Xin; Ooi, Eng Eong; Alonso, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Dengue (DEN) represents the most serious arthropod-borne viral disease. DEN clinical manifestations range from mild febrile illness to life-threatening hemorrhage and vascular leakage. Early epidemiological observations reported that infants born to DEN-immune mothers were at greater risk to develop the severe forms of the disease upon infection with any serotype of dengue virus (DENV). From these observations emerged the hypothesis of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease severity, whereby maternally acquired anti-DENV antibodies cross-react but fail to neutralize DENV particles, resulting in higher viremia that correlates with increased disease severity. Although in vitro and in vivo experimental set ups have indirectly supported the ADE hypothesis, direct experimental evidence has been missing. Furthermore, a recent epidemiological study has challenged the influence of maternal antibodies in disease outcome. Here we have developed a mouse model of ADE where DENV2 infection of young mice born to DENV1-immune mothers led to earlier death which correlated with higher viremia and increased vascular leakage compared to DENV2-infected mice born to dengue naïve mothers. In this ADE model we demonstrated the role of TNF-α in DEN-induced vascular leakage. Furthermore, upon infection with an attenuated DENV2 mutant strain, mice born to DENV1-immune mothers developed lethal disease accompanied by vascular leakage whereas infected mice born to dengue naïve mothers did no display any clinical manifestation. In vitro ELISA and ADE assays confirmed the cross-reactive and enhancing properties towards DENV2 of the serum from mice born to DENV1-immune mothers. Lastly, age-dependent susceptibility to disease enhancement was observed in mice born to DENV1-immune mothers, thus reproducing epidemiological observations. Overall, this work provides direct in vivo demonstration of the role of maternally acquired heterotypic dengue antibodies in the enhancement of dengue

  14. First experimental in vivo model of enhanced dengue disease severity through maternally acquired heterotypic dengue antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jowin Kai Wei; Zhang, Summer Lixin; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Yan, Benedict; Martinez, Julia Maria; Tan, Wei Yu; Lam, Jian Hang; Tan, Grace Kai Xin; Ooi, Eng Eong; Alonso, Sylvie

    2014-04-01

    Dengue (DEN) represents the most serious arthropod-borne viral disease. DEN clinical manifestations range from mild febrile illness to life-threatening hemorrhage and vascular leakage. Early epidemiological observations reported that infants born to DEN-immune mothers were at greater risk to develop the severe forms of the disease upon infection with any serotype of dengue virus (DENV). From these observations emerged the hypothesis of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease severity, whereby maternally acquired anti-DENV antibodies cross-react but fail to neutralize DENV particles, resulting in higher viremia that correlates with increased disease severity. Although in vitro and in vivo experimental set ups have indirectly supported the ADE hypothesis, direct experimental evidence has been missing. Furthermore, a recent epidemiological study has challenged the influence of maternal antibodies in disease outcome. Here we have developed a mouse model of ADE where DENV2 infection of young mice born to DENV1-immune mothers led to earlier death which correlated with higher viremia and increased vascular leakage compared to DENV2-infected mice born to dengue naïve mothers. In this ADE model we demonstrated the role of TNF-α in DEN-induced vascular leakage. Furthermore, upon infection with an attenuated DENV2 mutant strain, mice born to DENV1-immune mothers developed lethal disease accompanied by vascular leakage whereas infected mice born to dengue naïve mothers did no display any clinical manifestation. In vitro ELISA and ADE assays confirmed the cross-reactive and enhancing properties towards DENV2 of the serum from mice born to DENV1-immune mothers. Lastly, age-dependent susceptibility to disease enhancement was observed in mice born to DENV1-immune mothers, thus reproducing epidemiological observations. Overall, this work provides direct in vivo demonstration of the role of maternally acquired heterotypic dengue antibodies in the enhancement of dengue

  15. Validation of a population of patient-specific adult acquired flatfoot deformity models.

    PubMed

    Spratley, E Meade; Matheis, Erika A; Hayes, Curtis W; Adelaar, Robert S; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2013-12-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is a degenerative disease resulting in malalignment of the mid- and hindfoot secondary to posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and increasing implication of ligament pathologies. Despite the complex 3D nature of AAFD, 2D radiographs are still employed to diagnose and stage the disease. Computer modeling techniques allow for accurate 3D recreations of musculoskeletal systems for the investigation of biomechanical factors contributing to disease. Following Institutional Review Board approval, the lower limbs of six diagnosed AAFD sufferers were imaged with MRI, photographs, and X-ray. Next, a radiologist graded the MRI attenuation of eight soft-tissues implicated in AAFD. Six patient-specific rigid-body models were then created and loaded according to patient weight, graded soft-tissues, and extrinsic muscles. Model function was validated using clinically relevant kinematic measures in three planes. Agreement varied depending on the measure, with average absolute deviations of < 7° for angles and <4 mm for distances. Additionally, the clinically favored AP talonavicular coverage angle, ML talo-1st metatarsal angle, and ML 1st cuneiform height showed strong correlations of R(2) = 0.63, 0.75, and 0.85, respectively. Thus, computer modeling offers a promising methodology for the non-invasive investigation of in vivo kinematic behavior in pathologic feet and, once validated, may further be used to investigate biomechanical parameters that are difficult to measure clinically.

  16. Words and maps: developmental changes in mental models of spatial information acquired from descriptions and depictions.

    PubMed

    Uttal, David H; Fisher, Joan A; Taylor, Holly A

    2006-03-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present research investigated how these source differences influence the mental models that children and adults form of the presented information. In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds and adults learned the layout of a six-room space either from verbal descriptions or from a map. They then constructed the configuration and pointed to target locations. Participants who learned from the map performed significantly better than those who learned from the description. Ten-year-olds performed nearly as well as adults did. The 8-year-olds' mental models differed substantially from the older children's and adults' mental models. The younger children retained the sequential information but did not integrate the relations into a survey-like cognitive map. Experiment 2 demonstrated that viewing the shape of the configuration, without seeing the map in full, could facilitate 8-year-olds' use of the verbal information and their ability to integrate the locations. The results demonstrate developmental differences in the mental representation of spatial information from descriptions. In addition, the results reveal that maps and other graphic representations can facilitate children's spatial thinking by helping them to transcend the sequential nature of language and direct experience.

  17. National Veterans Health Administration inpatient risk stratification models for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Robert M; VanHouten, Jacob P; Siew, Edward D; Eden, Svetlana K; Fihn, Stephan D; Nielson, Christopher D; Peterson, Josh F; Baker, Clifton R; Ikizler, T Alp; Speroff, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is a potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Identifying high-risk patients prior to the onset of kidney injury is a key step towards AKI prevention. Materials and Methods A national retrospective cohort of 1,620,898 patient hospitalizations from 116 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record (EHR) data collected from 2003 to 2012. HA-AKI was defined at stage 1+, stage 2+, and dialysis. EHR-based predictors were identified through logistic regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression, and random forests, and pair-wise comparisons between each were made. Calibration and discrimination metrics were calculated using 50 bootstrap iterations. In the final models, we report odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and importance rankings for predictor variables to evaluate their significance. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the different model outcomes ranged from 0.746 to 0.758 in stage 1+, 0.714 to 0.720 in stage 2+, and 0.823 to 0.825 in dialysis. Logistic regression had the best AUC in stage 1+ and dialysis. Random forests had the best AUC in stage 2+ but the least favorable calibration plots. Multiple risk factors were significant in our models, including some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure medications, antibiotics, and intravenous fluids given during the first 48 h of admission. Conclusions This study demonstrated that, although all the models tested had good discrimination, performance characteristics varied between methods, and the random forests models did not calibrate as well as the lasso or logistic regression models. In addition, novel modifiable risk factors were explored and found to be significant. PMID:26104740

  18. The Role of Acquired Immunity in the Spread of Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Explorations with a Microsimulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Matthijsse, Suzette M.; van Rosmalen, Joost; Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Bakker, Roel; de Kok, Inge M. C. M.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; de Vlas, Sake J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular the role of immunity, is crucial in estimating the (cost-) effectiveness of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening strategies, because naturally acquired immunity after clearing an infection may already protect part of the risk population against new HPV infections. Methods We used STDSIM, an established stochastic microsimulation model, quantified to the Netherlands. We explored different assumptions regarding the natural history of HPV-16 and HPV-18, and estimated the transmission probabilities and durations of acquired immunity necessary to reproduce age-specific prevalence. Results A model without acquired immunity cannot reproduce the age-specific patterns of HPV. Also, it is necessary to assume a high degree of individual variation in the duration of infection and acquired immunity. According to the model estimates, on average 20% of women are immune for HPV-16 and 15% for HPV-18. After an HPV-16 infection, 50% are immune for less than 1 year, whereas 20% exceed 30 years. For HPV-18, up to 12% of the individuals are immune for less than 1 year, and about 50% over 30 years. Almost half of all women will never acquire HPV-16 or HPV-18. Conclusions Acquired immunity likely plays a major role in HPV epidemiology, but its duration shows substantial variation. Combined with the lifetime risk, this explains to a large extent why many women will never develop cervical cancer. PMID:25642941

  19. Emergency preparedness: one community's response.

    PubMed

    Glick, Doris F; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Nolan, Mary Anne; Burke, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, our nations' leaders, the press, and the general public have looked to the health sector for leadership in addressing acts of terrorism. It has become urgent for health agencies and related public services to collaborate and for all health professionals to become knowledgeable about disaster preparedness. This article describes collaboration between the public health department, local hospitals and the school of nursing in one community, Charlottesville, Virginia, to address disaster preparedness. In this story about our community's emergency preparedness, the focus is both on preparation and the hope we will never need to utilize this knowledge. PMID:15596974

  20. Emergency preparedness for home healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Shirley

    2012-06-01

    Unfortunately, disasters occur. We cannot always know the effects ahead of time, but we do know that lives can be lost, property damaged, and public health and home care agencies may not be able to provide the normal standard of care. Studies have shown that disaster preparedness content is limited in U.S. nursing programs (). Given the magnitude of recent natural disasters, such as the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in 2011, these findings are alarming. The increasing demands on healthcare providers in response to emergencies force home healthcare clinicians to identify their roles and responsibilities in emergency preparedness. This article discusses 1 model of disaster response and the role of the home healthcare provider at each stage. It further guides home healthcare nurses in creating a personal and professional plan, enabling them to understand how to minimize the impact of disasters and address the needs of their patients and those close to them.

  1. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Nicholas J; Ledoux, William R; Roush, Grant C; Whittaker, Eric C; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) dysfunction (PTTD) is associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity. PTTD is commonly treated with a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer (FDLTT) to the navicular (NAV), medial cuneiform (CUN), or distal residuum of the degraded PTT (rPTT). We assessed the kinetic and kinematic outcomes of these three attachment sites using cadaveric gait simulation. Three transfer locations (NAV, CUN, rPTT) were tested on seven prepared flatfoot models using a robotic gait simulator (RGS). The FDLTT procedures were simulated by pulling on the PTT with biomechanically realistic FDL forces (rPTT) or by pulling on the transected FDL tendon after fixation to the navicular or medial cuneiform (NAV and CUN, respectively). Plantar pressure and foot bone motion were quantified. Peak plantar pressure significantly decreased from the flatfoot condition at the first metatarsal (NAV) and hallux (CUN). No difference was found in the medial-lateral center of pressure. Kinematic findings showed minimal differences between flatfoot and FDLTT specimens. The three locations demonstrated only minimal differences from the flatfoot condition, with the NAV and CUN procedures resulting in decreased medial pressures. Functionally, all three surgical procedures performed similarly.

  2. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Nicholas J; Ledoux, William R; Roush, Grant C; Whittaker, Eric C; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) dysfunction (PTTD) is associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity. PTTD is commonly treated with a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer (FDLTT) to the navicular (NAV), medial cuneiform (CUN), or distal residuum of the degraded PTT (rPTT). We assessed the kinetic and kinematic outcomes of these three attachment sites using cadaveric gait simulation. Three transfer locations (NAV, CUN, rPTT) were tested on seven prepared flatfoot models using a robotic gait simulator (RGS). The FDLTT procedures were simulated by pulling on the PTT with biomechanically realistic FDL forces (rPTT) or by pulling on the transected FDL tendon after fixation to the navicular or medial cuneiform (NAV and CUN, respectively). Plantar pressure and foot bone motion were quantified. Peak plantar pressure significantly decreased from the flatfoot condition at the first metatarsal (NAV) and hallux (CUN). No difference was found in the medial-lateral center of pressure. Kinematic findings showed minimal differences between flatfoot and FDLTT specimens. The three locations demonstrated only minimal differences from the flatfoot condition, with the NAV and CUN procedures resulting in decreased medial pressures. Functionally, all three surgical procedures performed similarly. PMID:24115238

  3. Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of by the expected random flow model. Recently, a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, was proposed, which combines the random and Brownian flow models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the best model to describe autocorrelation functions acquired directly on the brain in order to avoid confounding effects of extracerebral tissues. Data were acquired from 11 pigs during normocapnia and hypocapnia, and flow changes were verified by computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide the best fit to the autocorrelation functions; however, no significant difference for relative flow changes measured by the Brownian and hydrodynamic diffusion models was observed. PMID:26600995

  4. Early warnings: health care preparedness.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri

    2005-11-01

    As nurses, we represent the backbone of the health care system. It is essential that we have a core understanding of infectious disease emergencies and begin to use the strengths that characterize nursing. These strengths include the ability to evaluate situations and use evidence on which to base our actions. Early identification of an infectious disease emergency is one example of using nursing skills to strengthen emergency preparedness. During an infectious disease emergency, nurses certainly will bear the burden of patient management. Because of this, the need for infectious disease emergency preparedness has become a national priority and a moral imperative for all nurses. One topic necessary for ED and OH nurses' preparedness has been discussed in this article, but nurses must take the initiative to learn more about disaster preparedness and incorporate these skills into everyday practice.

  5. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Experimental Space Shuttle Orbiter Studies to Acquire Data for Code and Flight Heating Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadhams, T. P.; Holden, M. S.; MacLean, M. G.; Campbell, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In an experimental study to obtain detailed heating data over the Space Shuttle Orbiter, CUBRC has completed an extensive matrix of experiments using three distinct models and two unique hypervelocity wind tunnel facilities. This detailed data will be employed to assess heating augmentation due to boundary layer transition on the Orbiter wing leading edge and wind side acreage with comparisons to computational methods and flight data obtained during the Orbiter Entry Boundary Layer Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM during STS-119 reentry. These comparisons will facilitate critical updates to be made to the engineering tools employed to make assessments about natural and tripped boundary layer transition during Orbiter reentry. To achieve the goals of this study data was obtained over a range of Mach numbers from 10 to 18, with flight scaled Reynolds numbers and model attitudes representing key points on the Orbiter reentry trajectory. The first of these studies were performed as an integral part of Return to Flight activities following the accident that occurred during the reentry of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) in February of 2003. This accident was caused by debris, which originated from the foam covering the external tank bipod fitting ramps, striking and damaging critical wing leading edge heating tiles that reside in the Orbiter bow shock/wing interaction region. During investigation of the accident aeroheating team members discovered that only a limited amount of experimental wing leading edge data existed in this critical peak heating area and a need arose to acquire a detailed dataset of heating in this region. This new dataset was acquired in three phases consisting of a risk mitigation phase employing a 1.8% scale Orbiter model with special temperature sensitive paint covering the wing leading edge, a 0.9% scale Orbiter model with high resolution thin-film instrumentation in the span direction, and the primary 1.8% scale Orbiter model with detailed

  7. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2016-01-01

    The current review aims to present a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide; a component of Joiner’s (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This review is aimed at integrating the points discussed by Joiner into a unified and specific conceptualization of acquired capability. Additionally, we offer some points of elaboration; such as the interaction between specific diatheses with life events, the role of short-term bolstering of the capability for suicide, and how contextual factors moderate the experience of painful and provocative life events; thereby leading to fearlessness and pain insensitivity to the actions and ideas involved in suicide. PMID:20560748

  8. Words and Maps: Developmental Changes in Mental Models of Spatial Information Acquired from Descriptions and Depictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; Fisher, Joan A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present…

  9. "High Schools That Work" and College Preparedness: Measuring the Model's Impact on Mathematics and Science Pipeline Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Luke C.; Mittleman, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The "High Schools That Work" school improvement initiative is the nation's largest comprehensive school reform model with over a thousand schools adopting its framework. The initiative's premise is that all students can meet the demands of a college preparatory curriculum if provided the right supports. Analyzing over a decade of data on student…

  10. Logic Modeling as a Tool to Prepare to Evaluate Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zantal-Wiener, Kathy; Horwood, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a comprehensive evaluation framework to prepare for evaluating school emergency management programs. This framework involves a logic model that incorporates Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures as a foundation for comprehensive evaluation that complements performance monitoring used by the U.S. Department of…

  11. Maternal Modeling and the Acquisition of Fear and Avoidance in Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Preparedness and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubi, Kathrin; Rapee, Ronald M.; Emerton, Jane L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal modeling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance towards fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant, novel stimuli in a sample of 71 toddlers. Children were shown a rubber snake or spider (fear-relevant objects) and a rubber mushroom or flower (fear-irrelevant objects), which were…

  12. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Modeling and Decision Support System for Radiological and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Baskett, R; Larsen, S; Bradley, M

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates with several government agencies and laboratories in order to accomplish its mission. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and

  13. Missouri nurses' bioterrorism preparedness.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Mohr, Lisa Buettner

    2008-09-01

    Nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers and will be at the forefront during a response to a bioterrorism attack in the U.S. However, nurses' bioterrorism risk perceptions and their participation in bioterrorism preparedness activities, such as bioterrorism-related exercises or drills, have not been evaluated. We mailed a survey to all members of the Missouri Nurses Association in July 2006, consisting of 1,528 registered nurses. The instrument measured risk perception, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, bioterrorism education received, participation in exercises/drills, and personal response plan thoroughness. The response rate was 31% (474/1,528). Most respondents believe that a bioterrorism attack will occur in the U.S. (82.3%; n = 390), but few (21.3%; n = 101) believe that one will occur in their community. The majority of nurses reported that they believe that a bioterrorism attack would have serious consequences (96.1%, n = 448), including having a serious impact on U.S. citizens' safety (90.7%, n = 446) and on their own safety (84.3%, n = 379). Most (60%, n = 284) reported that they had not received any bioterrorism-related education nor participated in any drills/exercises (82.7%, n = 392). Of those who had received education, most had participated in 3 or fewer programs and in only 1 drill. Few nurses (3.6%, n = 15) reported having all aspects of a personal bioterrorism response plan; approximately 20% (19.4%, n = 81) did not have any components of a plan. Most of the registered nurses in Missouri who were surveyed are not receiving bioterrorism education, participating in bioterrorism exercises, or developing thorough personal response plans. Nurses need to be aware of and encouraged to participate in the many education and training opportunities on bioterrorism and infectious disease disasters.

  14. Acquired lymphangiectasis.

    PubMed

    Celis, A V; Gaughf, C N; Sangueza, O P; Gourdin, F W

    1999-01-01

    Acquired lymphangiectasis is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels that can result as a complication of surgical intervention and radiation therapy for malignancy. Acquired lymphangiectasis shares clinical and histologic features with the congenital lesion, lymphangioma circumscriptum. Diagnosis and treatment of these vesiculo-bullous lesions is important because they may be associated with pain, chronic drainage, and cellulitis. We describe two patients who had these lesions after treatment for cancer and review the pertinent literature. Although a number of treatment options are available, we have found CO2 laser ablation particularly effective. PMID:9932832

  15. Disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces a network-enabled model to examine the disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations (STOs). Little attention is devoted to this matter in recent research. This study places emphasis on such organisations and the proposed model tests hypotheses related to network relation and coordination preparedness. It analyses the data set entitled 'Preparedness of large retail malls to prevent and respond to terrorist attack, 2004', which contains 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls in the United States.(1) The following questions form the basis of this study: 'What do STOs need to be better prepared to respond to a disaster?'; 'How does network relationship between STOs and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of STOs for disaster recovery?'; and 'Which centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse coordination preparedness?' The results show that STOs with a high level of connectedness and strong ties to other emergency agencies are better prepared for disaster response.

  16. Does Classroom Management Coursework Influence Pre-service Teachers' Perceived Preparedness or Confidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    There has been conjecture that completing focused coursework units on classroom management during pre-service teacher preparation might lead to increased feelings of preparedness and confidence. This study reports the preparedness in managing specific problem behaviours, familiarity, and confidence in using management strategies and models of…

  17. Quality control of meteorological data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program.

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, J.C.; Tschopp, S.; Rogers, K.; Wasmer, F.; Liljegren, L.; Myirski, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency

    2009-08-01

    The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Meteorological Support Project ensures the accuracy and reliability of data acquired by meteorological monitoring stations located at seven U.S. Army chemical weapons depots where storage and weapons destruction (demilitarization) activities are ongoing. The data are delivered in real time to U.S. Army plume dispersion models, which are used to plan for and respond to a potential accidental release of a chemical weapons agent. The project provides maintenance, calibration, and audit services for the instrumentation; collection, automated screening, visual inspection, and analysis of the data; and problem reporting and tracking to carefully control the data quality. The resulting high-quality meteorological data enhance emergency response modeling and public safety.

  18. Emergency Preparedness: Are You Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Most Americans who consider emergency preparedness think of someone or another country attacking the United States. Most newspaper and televised accounts involve community leaders and policymakers preparing for a terrorist attack. However, anyone who operates a child care center, family child care home, or has children of her own, knows that…

  19. Disaster management and physician preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajoy; Weibley, Eilene

    2013-01-01

    There are an increasing amount and variety of disasters occurring throughout the United States. Many of these disasters require physicians to provide medical assistance. This article provides a brief introduction to disaster preparedness and its recent history and physicians' obligations, role, education, preparation, and response. It is the intent of this article to increase awareness and provide pathways for physician education and involvement.

  20. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  1. One Health and emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Kendra E; Conti, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Emergencies such as hurricanes, floods and nuclear disasters do not just affect people and the environment; they also affect domestic animals. In this latest article in Veterinary Record's One Health series, Kendra Stauffer and Lisa Conti discuss how One Health considerations are being incorporated into emergency preparedness planning in the USA.

  2. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  3. Glutamate receptors and transporters in genetic and acquired models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, B S; Akbar, M T; Chapman, A G

    1999-09-01

    Glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, acts on three families of ionotropic receptor--AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid), kainate and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors and three families of metabotropic receptor (Group I: mGlu1 and mGlu5; Group II: mGlu2 and mGlu3; Group III: mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8). Glutamate is removed from the synaptic cleft and the extracellular space by Na+-dependent transporters (GLAST/EAAT1, GLT/EAAT2, EAAC/EAAT3, EAAT4, EAAT5). In rodents, genetic manipulations relating to the expression or function of glutamate receptor proteins can induce epilepsy syndromes or raise seizure threshold. Decreased expression of glutamate transporters (EAAC knockdown, GLT knockout) can lead to seizures. In acquired epilepsy syndromes, a wide variety of changes in receptors and transporters have been described. Electrically-induced kindling in the rat is associated with functional potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated responses at various limbic sites. Group I metabotropic responses are enhanced in the amygdala. To date, no genetic epilepsy in man has been identified in which the primary genetic defect involves glutamate receptors or transporters. Changes are found in some acquired syndromes, including enhanced NMDA receptor responses in dentate granule cells in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:10515165

  4. The impact of federal bioterrorism funding programs on local health department preparedness activities.

    PubMed

    Avery, George H; Zabriskie-Timmerman, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    Using the 2005 National Association of County and City Health Officers Profile of Local Health Departments data set, bivariate probit and Heckman selection models were used to test the hypothesis that the level of federal funding received for bioterrorism preparedness is related to the preparedness activities undertaken by local health departments. Overall budget, leadership, and crisis experience are found to be the most important determinants of local preparedness activity, but Centers for Disease Control and Prevention preparedness funding plays a mediating role by building capacity through the hiring of one key leadership position, the emergency preparedness coordinator. Additional research is needed to determine the potential impact of these funds on other aspects of the local public health system, such as the scope of services delivered, to determine secondary effects of the program.

  5. An Academic-Government-Faith Partnership to Build Disaster Mental Health Preparedness and Community Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Semon, Natalie L.; Lating, Jeffrey M.; Everly, George S.; Perry, Charlene J.; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Mosley, Adrian M.; Thompson, Carol B.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Faculty and affiliates of the Johns Hopkins Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center partnered with local health departments and faith-based organizations to develop a dual-intervention model of capacity-building for public mental health preparedness and community resilience. Project objectives included (1) determining the feasibility of the tri-partite collaborative concept; (2) designing, delivering, and evaluating psychological first aid (PFA) training and guided preparedness planning (GPP); and (3) documenting preliminary evidence of the sustainability and impact of the model. Methods We evaluated intervention effectiveness by analyzing pre- and post-training changes in participant responses on knowledge-acquisition tests administered to three urban and four rural community cohorts. Changes in percent of correct items and mean total correct items were evaluated. Criteria for model sustainability and impact were, respectively, observations of nonacademic partners engaging in efforts to advance post-project preparedness alliances, and project-attributable changes in preparedness-related practices of local or state governments. Results The majority (11 of 14) test items addressing technical or practical PFA content showed significant improvement; we observed comparable testing results for GPP training. Government and faith partners developed ideas and tools for sustaining preparedness activities, and numerous project-driven changes in local and state government policies were documented. Conclusions Results suggest that the model could be an effective approach to promoting public health preparedness and community resilience. PMID:25355980

  6. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  7. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  8. Radiological emergency preparedness (REP) program

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    This talk focuses on the accomplishments of Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program. Major topics include the following: strengthening the partnership between FEMA, the States, and the Industry; the Standard Exercise Report Format (SERF); Multi-year performance partnership agreement (MYPPA); new REP Program guidance; comprehensive exercise program; federal radiological emergency response plan (FRERP); international interest; REP user fee; implementation EPA PAGs and Dose Limits; Contamination monitoring standard for portal monitors; guidance documents and training.

  9. Hurricane Preparedness and Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This plan establishes policy and sets forth guidance, responsibilities and procedures utilized by Federal Electric Corp., communications department in support of the KSC Emergency Preparedness Plan, Annex A, Hurricane Control Plan (GP-355) dated 27 May 1971. This plan covers all FEC communications department personnel, facilities, and equipment situated at the Kennedy Space Center that are the responsibility of FEC contract NAS 10-4967.

  10. Mean-field thalamocortical modeling of longitudinal EEG acquired during intensive meditation training.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-07-01

    Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and

  11. How People Acquire Information: A Model of the Public Affairs Information Attainment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanervo, Ellen W.

    A public affairs information acquisition model postulated 26 causal lines among the background variables parental status, educational attainment, income, social/political participation, five communication sources, and public affairs information status. Since this sequential model had 35 possible paths among the variables but hypothesized that only…

  12. Health Informatics for Pediatric Disaster Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R.V.; Ryutov, T.; Neches, R.; Upperman, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. Methods A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words “children” AND “disaster preparedness and disaster” AND “informatics”. Results A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. Conclusion The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed. PMID:23616840

  13. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  14. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury.

  15. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings.

  16. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wogensen, Elise; Malá, Hana; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used were: exercise (and) animal model (or) rodent (or) rat (and) traumatic brain injury (or) cerebral ischemia (or) brain irradiation. Studies were selected if they were (1) in English, (2) used adult animals subjected to acquired brain injury, (3) used exercise as an intervention tool after inflicted injury, (4) used exercise paradigms demanding movement of all extremities, (5) had exercise intervention effects that could be distinguished from other potential intervention effects, and (6) contained at least one measure of cognitive and/or emotional function. Out of 2308 hits, 22 publications fulfilled the criteria. The studies were examined relative to cognitive effects associated with three themes: exercise type (forced or voluntary), timing of exercise (early or late), and dose-related factors (intensity, duration, etc.). The studies indicate that exercise in many cases can promote cognitive recovery after brain injury. However, the optimal parameters to ensure cognitive rehabilitation efficacy still elude us, due to considerable methodological variations between studies. PMID:26509085

  17. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wogensen, Elise; Malá, Hana; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used were: exercise (and) animal model (or) rodent (or) rat (and) traumatic brain injury (or) cerebral ischemia (or) brain irradiation. Studies were selected if they were (1) in English, (2) used adult animals subjected to acquired brain injury, (3) used exercise as an intervention tool after inflicted injury, (4) used exercise paradigms demanding movement of all extremities, (5) had exercise intervention effects that could be distinguished from other potential intervention effects, and (6) contained at least one measure of cognitive and/or emotional function. Out of 2308 hits, 22 publications fulfilled the criteria. The studies were examined relative to cognitive effects associated with three themes: exercise type (forced or voluntary), timing of exercise (early or late), and dose-related factors (intensity, duration, etc.). The studies indicate that exercise in many cases can promote cognitive recovery after brain injury. However, the optimal parameters to ensure cognitive rehabilitation efficacy still elude us, due to considerable methodological variations between studies.

  18. A Comparison of Human Neutrophils Acquired from Four Experimental Models of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Madhur P.; Day, Richard M.; Gilroy, Derek W.; O’Brien, Alastair J.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in neutrophil function have been implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. Several models are employed to study activated human neutrophils akin to those found at a site of inflammation. These include whole blood (WB) ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in vivo techniques: cantharidin blister, skin windows and intra-dermal injection of UV-killed E.coli (UVKEc). Neutrophils obtained from these have never been compared. We compared the activation status of neutrophils from each technique in order to inform the optimal model for use in human studies. Healthy male volunteers were randomised to undergo one of the four techniques (n = 5/group). LPS: WB stimulated with 1ng/ml of LPS for 4 hours. Cantharidin: 12.5μl of 0.1% cantharidin elicited a single blister, aspirated at 24 hours. Skin windows: four 6mm mechanical-suction blisters created, de-roofed and an exudate-collection chamber placed over the windows for 4 hours before aspiration. UVKEc: 1.5 x 107 UVKEc injected intra-dermally. A single 10mm mechanical-suction blister formed and aspirated at 4 hours. Unstimulated WB used as the control. Flow cytometry was used to determine activation status using CD16, CD11b, CD54, CD62L and CD88. Functional status was assessed with a phagocytosis assay. The pattern of neutrophil activation was similar in all models. Neutrophil CD11b was elevated in all models, most markedly in UVKEc (p<0.0001), and CD54 was also elevated but only significant in the LPS model (p = 0.001). CD62L was significantly reduced in all 4 models (p<0.0001) and CD88 was also suppressed in all. There were no changes in CD16 in any model, neither was there any significant difference in the phagocytic capacity of the neutrophils. In summary, there are no significant differences in activation marker expression or phagocytic capacity in the neutrophils obtained from each technique. Therefore we believe whole blood stimulation is the best model in experimentally challenging

  19. A Cognitive Model of Acquiring Embodied Expertise Through Meta-cognitive Verbalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Masaki

    Based on the conjecture that acquisition of embodied expertise is a phenomenon that occurs through interactions among the learner's verbal thoughts, perception, physical movements and the surrounding environment, Suwa [2005b] has claimed the significance of dealing with subjective data such as verbalized thoughts in researches on embodied skills, and has advocated a theory on meta-cognitive verbalization. The present paper, based on the empirical findings in playing darts game, provides a cognitive model of embodied meta-cognitive verbalization. This model theorizes what kinds of cognitive processes involve embodied meta-cognitive verbalization, and how these processes change a learner's thoughts, perception, actions and self-awareness to those, and thereby promote acquisition of embodied expertise.

  20. The value of a UAV-acquired DEM for flood inundation mapping and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Muhlhausen, Joseph; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Remotely Piloted Systems also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle have rapidly developed as tools for remote sensing and mapping and publications referring to RPS remote sensing applications is increasing each year. In particular Structure from Motion (SfM), a relatively new photogrammetry approach has been documented for various applications. Some papers have focused on the accuracy of the output generated by SfM by validating relative and absolute accuracy using ground control points, others have looked at various applications. Yet we argue that a major aspect of SfM has been overlooked, its ability to generate highly accurate point cloud models without the use of ground control points. We demonstrate this by comparing with a LIDAR DEM, a dataset which has been transformative in flood inundation research and applications. Our results demonstrate that a point cloud collected using a RPS and a 16M pixel Bayer sensor camera using a rolling shutter can achieve a RMSE of 39 cm compared to LIDAR. We conclude that a SfM model is not only highly accurate but could complement LIDAR for floodplain mapping and modelling, especially in cases where smaller coverage is sufficient and LiDAR acquisition via airplane may be too costly or impractical.

  1. Stigma models: Testing hypotheses of how images of Nevada are acquired and values are attached to them

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1994-12-01

    This report analyzes data from surveys on the effects that images associated with nuclear power and waste (i.e., nuclear images) have on people`s preference to vacation in Nevada. The analysis was stimulated by a model of imagery and stigma which assumes that information about a potentially hazardous facility generates signals that elicit negative images about the place in which it is located. Individuals give these images negative values (valences) that lessen their desire to vacation, relocate, or retire in that place. The model has been used to argue that the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository could elicit images of nuclear waste that would stigmatize Nevada and thus impose substantial economic losses there. This report proposes a revised model that assumes that the acquisition and valuation of images depend on individuals` ideological and cultural predispositions and that the ways in which new images will affect their preferences and behavior partly depend on these predispositions. The report tests these hypotheses: (1) individuals with distinct cultural and ideological predispositions have different propensities for acquiring nuclear images, (2) these people attach different valences to these images, (3) the variations in these valences are important, and (4) the valences of the different categories of images within an individual`s image sets for a place correlate very well. The analysis largely confirms these hypotheses, indicating that the stigma model should be revised to (1) consider the relevant ideological and cultural predispositions of the people who will potentially acquire and attach value to the image, (2) specify the kinds of images that previously attracted people to the host state, and (3) consider interactions between the old and potential new images of the place. 37 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Generation of Anti-Murine ADAMTS13 Antibodies and Their Application in a Mouse Model for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Deforche, Louis; Tersteeg, Claudia; Roose, Elien; Vandenbulcke, Aline; Vandeputte, Nele; Pareyn, Inge; De Cock, Elien; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Deckmyn, Hans; De Meyer, Simon F.; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy linked to a deficiency in the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. In the current study, a novel mouse model for acquired TTP was generated to facilitate development and validation of new therapies for this disease. Therefore, a large panel (n = 19) of novel anti-mouse ADAMTS13 (mADAMTS13) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of mouse origin was generated. Inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs were identified using the FRETS-VWF73 assay. Four mAbs strongly inhibited mADAMTS13 activity in vitro (∼68–90% inhibition). Injecting a combination of 2 inhibitory mAbs (13B4 and 14H7, 1.25 mg/kg each) in Adamts13+/+ mice resulted in full inhibition of plasma ADAMTS13 activity (96 ± 4% inhibition, day 1 post injection), leading to the appearance of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (UL-VWF) multimers. Interestingly, the inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs 13B4 and 14H7 were ideally suited to induce long-term ADAMTS13 deficiency in Adamts13+/+ mice. A single bolus injection resulted in full ex vivo inhibition for more than 7 days. As expected, the mice with the acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency did not spontaneously develop TTP, despite the accumulation of UL-VWF multimers. In line with the Adamts13-/- mice, TTP-like symptoms could only be induced when an additional trigger (rVWF) was administered. On the other hand, the availability of our panel of anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs allowed us to further develop a sensitive ELISA to detect ADAMTS13 in mouse plasma. In conclusion, a novel acquired TTP mouse model was generated through the development of inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs. Consequently, this model provides new opportunities for the development and validation of novel treatments for patients with TTP. In addition, these newly developed inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs are of great value to specifically study the role of ADAMTS13 in mouse models of thrombo-inflammatory disease. PMID:27479501

  3. Generation of Anti-Murine ADAMTS13 Antibodies and Their Application in a Mouse Model for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Deforche, Louis; Tersteeg, Claudia; Roose, Elien; Vandenbulcke, Aline; Vandeputte, Nele; Pareyn, Inge; De Cock, Elien; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Deckmyn, Hans; De Meyer, Simon F; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy linked to a deficiency in the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. In the current study, a novel mouse model for acquired TTP was generated to facilitate development and validation of new therapies for this disease. Therefore, a large panel (n = 19) of novel anti-mouse ADAMTS13 (mADAMTS13) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of mouse origin was generated. Inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs were identified using the FRETS-VWF73 assay. Four mAbs strongly inhibited mADAMTS13 activity in vitro (∼68-90% inhibition). Injecting a combination of 2 inhibitory mAbs (13B4 and 14H7, 1.25 mg/kg each) in Adamts13+/+ mice resulted in full inhibition of plasma ADAMTS13 activity (96 ± 4% inhibition, day 1 post injection), leading to the appearance of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (UL-VWF) multimers. Interestingly, the inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs 13B4 and 14H7 were ideally suited to induce long-term ADAMTS13 deficiency in Adamts13+/+ mice. A single bolus injection resulted in full ex vivo inhibition for more than 7 days. As expected, the mice with the acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency did not spontaneously develop TTP, despite the accumulation of UL-VWF multimers. In line with the Adamts13-/- mice, TTP-like symptoms could only be induced when an additional trigger (rVWF) was administered. On the other hand, the availability of our panel of anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs allowed us to further develop a sensitive ELISA to detect ADAMTS13 in mouse plasma. In conclusion, a novel acquired TTP mouse model was generated through the development of inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs. Consequently, this model provides new opportunities for the development and validation of novel treatments for patients with TTP. In addition, these newly developed inhibitory anti-mADAMTS13 mAbs are of great value to specifically study the role of ADAMTS13 in mouse models of thrombo-inflammatory disease. PMID:27479501

  4. Derivation of a risk assessment model for hospital-acquired venous thrombosis: the NAVAL score.

    PubMed

    de Bastos, Marcos; Barreto, Sandhi M; Caiafa, Jackson S; Boguchi, Tânia; Silva, José Luiz Padilha; Rezende, Suely M

    2016-05-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) is a preventable cause of death in hospitalized patients. The main strategy to decrease VT incidence is timely thromboprophylaxis in at-risk patients. We sought to evaluate the reliability of risk assessment model (RAM) data, the incremental usefulness of additional variables and the modelling of an adjusted score (the NAVAL score). We used the RAM proposed by Caprini for initial assessment. A 5 % systematic sample of data was independently reviewed for reliability. We evaluated the incremental usefulness of six variables for VT during the score modelling by logistic regression. We then assessed the NAVAL score for calibration, reclassification and discrimination performances. We observed 11,091 patients with 37 (0.3 %) VT events. Using the Caprini RAM, high-risk and moderate-risk patients were respectively associated with a 17.4 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.1-49.9) and 4.2 (95 % CI 1.6-11.0) increased VT risk compared with low-risk patients. Four independent variables were selected for the NAVAL score: "Age", "Admission clinic", "History of previous VT event" and "History of thrombophilia". The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for the NAVAL score was 0.72 (95 % CI 0.63-0.81). The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) for the NAVAL score compared with the Caprini RAM was -0.1 (95 % CI -0.3 to 0.1; p = 0.28). We conclude that the NAVAL score is a simplified tool for the stratification of VT risk in hospitalized patients. With only four variables, it demonstrated good performance and discrimination, but requires external validation before clinical application. We also confirm that the Caprini RAM can effectively stratify VT risk in hospitalized patients in our population. PMID:26446587

  5. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications.

  6. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  7. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  8. 33 CFR 101.300 - Preparedness communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparedness communications. 101.300 Section 101.300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Communication (Port-Facility-Vessel) § 101.300 Preparedness communications. (a) Notification of MARSEC...

  9. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  10. 78 FR 54743 - National Preparedness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21822 Filed 9-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9009 of August 30, 2013 National Preparedness Month, 2013 By the President of... communities' resilience. During National Preparedness Month, we refocus our efforts on readying ourselves,...

  11. 75 FR 53563 - National Preparedness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Preparedness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During National Preparedness Month, we stress the importance of strengthening the security and resiliency of our Nation...

  12. 77 FR 55097 - National Preparedness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-22149 Filed 9-5-12; 11:15 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8854 of August 31, 2012 National Preparedness Month, 2012 By the President of..., emergencies and natural disasters have tested the fabric of our country. During National Preparedness...

  13. 76 FR 54917 - National Preparedness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-22768 Filed 9-1-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... September 2, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8700--National Preparedness Month, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Preparedness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whenever our...

  14. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  15. The Earthquake Preparedness Task Force Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal-Allard, Lucille

    A report on Earthquake Preparedness presents California school districts with direction for complying with existing earthquake preparedness planning laws. It first contains two sets of recommendations. The first set requires state action and is presented to the Legislature for consideration. The second set consists of policy statements and…

  16. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Foluso; McCarthy, Tara; Biddinger, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior participation in preparedness exercises was predictive of better performance on objective measures of response. We conducted a statewide tabletop exercise that focused on a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) scenario and assessed performance using our developed evaluation tool. The evaluative score was analyzed in relation to the number of HAZMAT exercises in the past 3 years, participation in prior CHEMPACK-specific exercise, hospital size, teaching status of the hospital, preparedness training experience, and participants years of experience in preparedness activities. Hospitals that had participated in more exercises in the past 3 years performed significantly better than hospitals that had participated in fewer exercises. No significant differences were found between the performance of hospitals in relation to size, teaching status, preparedness training experience, and participants' years of experience in preparedness activities. Our results suggest that more frequent participation in exercises may result in improved overall response.

  17. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Foluso; McCarthy, Tara; Biddinger, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior participation in preparedness exercises was predictive of better performance on objective measures of response. We conducted a statewide tabletop exercise that focused on a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) scenario and assessed performance using our developed evaluation tool. The evaluative score was analyzed in relation to the number of HAZMAT exercises in the past 3 years, participation in prior CHEMPACK-specific exercise, hospital size, teaching status of the hospital, preparedness training experience, and participants years of experience in preparedness activities. Hospitals that had participated in more exercises in the past 3 years performed significantly better than hospitals that had participated in fewer exercises. No significant differences were found between the performance of hospitals in relation to size, teaching status, preparedness training experience, and participants' years of experience in preparedness activities. Our results suggest that more frequent participation in exercises may result in improved overall response. PMID:23903400

  18. Factors predicting individual emergency preparedness: a multi-state analysis of 2006 BRFSS data.

    PubMed

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Konda, Kurt; Kelley, Crystal L

    2009-09-01

    Disasters pose a very real threat to every individual in the United States. One way to mitigate the threat of disasters is through personal preparedness, yet numerous studies indicate that individual Americans are not prepared for a disaster. This study attempted to identify the factors most likely to predict individual disaster preparedness. We used 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from the 5 states that included the optional general preparedness module. Respondents were defined as being "prepared" if they were deficient in no more than 1 of the 6 actionable preparedness measures included on the BRFSS. Analyses were conducted comparing preparedness rates based on medical and demographic factors. Using logistic regression, a predictive model was constructed to identify which factors most strongly predicted an individual's likelihood of being prepared. Although 78% of respondents reported feeling prepared for a disaster, just 45% of respondents were actually prepared by objective measures. Factors predicting an increased likelihood of preparedness included feeling "well prepared" (OR 9.417), having a disability or health condition requiring special equipment (OR 1.298), being 55 to 64 years old (OR 1.794), and having an annual income above $50,000 (OR 1.286). Among racial and ethnic minorities, an inability to afford medical care in the previous year (OR .581) was an important factor in predicting a decreased likelihood of being prepared. This study revealed a pervasive lack of disaster preparedness overall and a substantial gap between perceived and objective preparedness. Income and age were important predictors of disaster preparedness.

  19. Tsunami Preparedness in California (videos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about tsunami preparedness in California distinguish between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).

  20. States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R. M. S.; Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Bronzan, J.; Rodehorst, B.; Bhat, C.; Dix, B.; Savonis, M.; Wiles, R.

    2015-12-01

    Many states are already experiencing the costly impacts of extreme climate and weather events. The occurrence, frequency and intensity of these events may change under future climates. Preparing for these changes takes time, and state government agencies and communities need to recognize the risks they could potentially face and the response actions already undertaken. The States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card project is the first-ever study that quantifies five climate-change-driven hazards, and the relevant state government response actions in each of the 50 states. The changing characteristics of extreme heat, drought, wildfires, inland and coastal flooding were assessed for the baseline period (around year 2000) through the years 2030 and 2050 across all 50 states. Bias-corrected statistically-downscaled (BCSD) climate projections (Reclamation, 2013) and hydrology projections (Reclamation, 2014) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) under RCP8.5 were used. The climate change response action analysis covers five critical sectors: Transportation, Energy, Water, Human Health and Communities. It examined whether there is evidence that the state is taking action to (1) reduce current risks, (2) raise its awareness of future risks, (3) plan for adaptation to the future risks, and (4) implement specific actions to reduce future risks for each applicable hazards. Results from the two analyses were aggregated and translated into a rating system that standardizes assessments across states, which can be easily understood by both technical and non-technical audiences. The findings in this study not only serve as a screening tool for states to recognize the hazards they could potentially face as climate changes, but also serve as a roadmap for states to address the gaps in response actions, and to improve climate preparedness and resilience.

  1. 49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239.203... Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan. Each passenger...), shall each retain one copy of the emergency preparedness plan required by § 239.201 and one copy of...

  2. 49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239.203... Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan. Each passenger...), shall each retain one copy of the emergency preparedness plan required by § 239.201 and one copy of...

  3. Modeling Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevalence on Medical-Surgical Units: Nurse Workload, Expertise, and Clinical Processes of Care

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Carolyn; Donaldson, Nancy; Stotts, Nancy A; Fridman, Moshe; Brown, Diane Storer

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study modeled the predictive power of unit/patient characteristics, nurse workload, nurse expertise, and hospital-acquired pressure ulcer (HAPU) preventive clinical processes of care on unit-level prevalence of HAPUs. Data Sources Seven hundred and eighty-nine medical-surgical units (215 hospitals) in 2009. Study Design Using unit-level data, HAPUs were modeled with Poisson regression with zero-inflation (due to low prevalence of HAPUs) with significant covariates as predictors. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Hospitals submitted data on NQF endorsed ongoing performance measures to CALNOC registry. Principal Findings Fewer HAPUs were predicted by a combination of unit/patient characteristics (shorter length of stay, fewer patients at-risk, fewer male patients), RN workload (more hours of care, greater patient [bed] turnover), RN expertise (more years of experience, fewer contract staff hours), and processes of care (more risk assessment completed). Conclusions Unit/patient characteristics were potent HAPU predictors yet generally are not modifiable. RN workload, nurse expertise, and processes of care (risk assessment/interventions) are significant predictors that can be addressed to reduce HAPU. Support strategies may be needed for units where experienced full-time nurses are not available for HAPU prevention. Further research is warranted to test these finding in the context of higher HAPU prevalence. PMID:25290866

  4. Hospital strategic preparedness planning: the new imperative.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Peter M; Duncan, W Jack; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    Strategic preparedness planning is an important new imperative for many hospitals. Strategic preparedness planning goes beyond traditional product/market strategic planning by focusing on disaster prevention, containment, and response roles. Hospitals, because of their unique mission, size, complexity, the types of materials they handle, and the types of patients they encounter, are especially vulnerable to natural and human-initiated disasters. In addition, when disasters occur, hospitals must develop well-conceived first responder (receiver) strategies. This paper argues the case for strategic preparedness planning for hospitals and proposes a process for this relatively new and much needed type of planning.

  5. Disaster preparedness planning and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.; Roberts, F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a brief overview of a United States Department of Defense (DoD) initiative to enhance Military Support to Civilian Authorities (MSCA). The targeted user group was the emergency operations centers at US military installations. The mission was to evaluate current products and technologies and assess their potential in enhancing the capability of US military installations to provide MSCA for All-Hazards disasters. The team implemented a systems approach to integrating the many commercial and government off-the-shelf products and services which are available to enhance disaster preparedness, emergency response, and reduce human suffering at both a national and international level. The authors concurrently employed a product oriented approach focused on providing interoperable, user oriented products, not producing another study or developing a new software package. The products demonstrate the integration of today`s technologies and capabilities.

  6. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the US has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident. The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements. For example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with US Environmental Protection Agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is constrasted with typical US evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Citizen preparedness for disasters: are current assumptions valid?

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie; Kellermann, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    US government programs and communications regarding citizen preparedness for disasters rest on several untested, and therefore unverified, assumptions. We explore the assumptions related to citizen preparedness promotion and argue that in spite of extensive messaging about the importance of citizen preparedness and countless household surveys purporting to track the preparedness activities of individuals and households, the role individual Americans are being asked to play is largely based on conventional wisdom. Recommendations for conceptualizing and measuring citizen preparedness are discussed.

  8. Capturing Micro-topography of an Arctic Tundra Landscape through Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) Acquired from Various Remote Sensing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Tweedie, C. E.; Oberbauer, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    The need to improve the spatial and temporal scaling and extrapolation of plot level measurements of ecosystem structure and function to the landscape level has been identified as a persistent research challenge in the arctic terrestrial sciences. Although there has been a range of advances in remote sensing capabilities on satellite, fixed wing, helicopter and unmanned aerial vehicle platforms over the past decade, these present costly, logistically challenging (especially in the Arctic), technically demanding solutions for applications in an arctic environment. Here, we present a relatively low cost alternative to these platforms that uses kite aerial photography (KAP). Specifically, we demonstrate how digital elevation models (DEMs) were derived from this system for a coastal arctic landscape near Barrow, Alaska. DEMs of this area acquired from other remote sensing platforms such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Airborne Laser Scanning, and satellite imagery were also used in this study to determine accuracy and validity of results. DEMs interpolated using the KAP system were comparable to DEMs derived from the other platforms. For remotely sensing acre to kilometer square areas of interest, KAP has proven to be a low cost solution from which derived products that interface ground and satellite platforms can be developed by users with access to low-tech solutions and a limited knowledge of remote sensing.

  9. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  10. Factors affecting emergency preparedness competency of public health inspectors: a cross-sectional study in northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Ning; Kang, Zheng; Jiao, Mingli; Hao, Yanhua; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Hong; Wu, Qunhong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the emergency preparedness competency specific to public health inspectors (PHIs), preparedness limitations and needs of the workforce, as well as to identify important factors that affect the preparedness competency of PHIs. Setting Cross-sectional survey was conducted in Heilongjiang, a province in northeastern China. Participants A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 368 PHIs from 17 public health inspection agencies, chosen by stratified cluster sampling strategy. 9 PHIs and 6 agency's leaders were invited to participate in an in-depth interview. Outcome measures Self-rated preparedness competency in quantitative study was measured. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to test the associations between individual determinants and self-rated preparedness competency. Key themes relating to preparedness competency of PHIs in qualitative study were analysed. Results Although 82% of PHIs highly rated their general preparedness competency, there were significant differences among the assessment on specific domains of their competency. Comparing with attitude, the domains of skills and knowledge tend to be lower (p=0.000). Awareness on one's own responsibilities regarding emergency response work was identified as the most important factor associated with preparedness competency (adjusted OR=6.33, 95% CI 3.30 to 12.16). Lack of explicit national job requirements, overlapping responsibilities and poor collaboration among agencies, together with poor knowledge and skills level of personnel, led to an ambiguity of responsibility, and hindered the preparedness competency enhancement of PHIs furthermore. Conclusions Ambiguity responsibility in emergency response is still a prominent issue that hinders the further improvement on the preparedness competency for PHIs’ in China. Intensified capacity-building activities targeting at individuals’ weakness in specific knowledge and skills are urgently needed; in addition, capacity

  11. Preparedness for emerging infectious diseases: pathways from anticipation to action.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Hernández-Jover, M; Black, P F; Ward, M P

    2015-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious disease (EID) events can have devastating human, animal and environmental health impacts. The emergence of EIDs has been associated with interconnected economic, social and environmental changes. Understanding these changes is crucial for EID preparedness and subsequent prevention and control of EID events. The aim of this review is to describe tools currently available for identification, prioritization and investigation of EIDs impacting human and animal health, and how these might be integrated into a systematic approach for directing EID preparedness. Environmental scanning, foresight programmes, horizon scanning and surveillance are used to collect and assess information for rapidly responding to EIDs and to anticipate drivers of emergence for mitigating future EID impacts. Prioritization of EIDs - using transparent and repeatable methods - based on disease impacts and the importance of those impacts to decision-makers can then be used for more efficient resource allocation for prevention and control. Risk assessment and simulation modelling methods assess the likelihood of EIDs occurring, define impact and identify mitigation strategies. Each of these tools has a role to play individually; however, we propose integration of these tools into a framework that enhances the development of tactical and strategic plans for emerging risk preparedness.

  12. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites. PMID:11676515

  13. Preparedness for an anthrax attack.

    PubMed

    Franz, David R

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a long-known bacterial organism with a uniquely stable spore stage. Its stability and the lethal disease which results when the spore is inhaled made it a favorite of state-sponsored biological weapons programs throughout the Cold War era. It is also believed to be high on the list of candidate microbial agents which could be used by terrorist groups or lone actors. Its unique characteristics make protection of humans, especially civilians, from an intentional biological attack very difficult. The author argues that an all-hazards/public health approach - which would also be needed for any natural or deliberate outbreak, no matter the agent - should serve as a foundation of preparation for the specific anthrax countermeasures. Because B. anthracis is a unique organism, specific countermeasures for anthrax detection, diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy, should be developed in nations or regions where the threat of biological attack is believed to warrant such preparation. Other considerations for a nation interested in anthrax preparedness are discussed.

  14. Preparedness for an anthrax attack.

    PubMed

    Franz, David R

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a long-known bacterial organism with a uniquely stable spore stage. Its stability and the lethal disease which results when the spore is inhaled made it a favorite of state-sponsored biological weapons programs throughout the Cold War era. It is also believed to be high on the list of candidate microbial agents which could be used by terrorist groups or lone actors. Its unique characteristics make protection of humans, especially civilians, from an intentional biological attack very difficult. The author argues that an all-hazards/public health approach - which would also be needed for any natural or deliberate outbreak, no matter the agent - should serve as a foundation of preparation for the specific anthrax countermeasures. Because B. anthracis is a unique organism, specific countermeasures for anthrax detection, diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy, should be developed in nations or regions where the threat of biological attack is believed to warrant such preparation. Other considerations for a nation interested in anthrax preparedness are discussed. PMID:19619577

  15. (Geo)Ethics. Step 1: Preparedness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards have been defined in several ways in recent decades. Whatever your choice, it will be fine provided you consider that they are complex physical phenomena that expose a natural area to risk of loss of life, environmental degradation and property damages. In a time-line, one may divide the hazards, particularly those considered extremes, in a pre-event phase, the event itself and a post-event period. At this moment, I would like to promote an initial reflection by focusing in the geoethical behaviour scientists have to bear in mind accordingly to the particular characteristics of the pre-event phase, considering ethics as a way of systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In an accelerated world, where the pressure of the every day life gives us little room to exercise our mind to think in such apparent démodé issues as ethics, society, nature, responsibilities and duties, I would like to invite you to stop few minutes and reflect on the ethical implications of being a geoscientists dealing with natural hazards in the XXI century. The most dangerous hazards are those extreme events with a rapid onset (earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.). Thus far, science has not found effective ways to predict and reduce most natural hazards. If we are not capable to forecast or minimize the effect of an extreme event, geosciences, and scientists, are responsible of in deep risk assessments for areas that might be subject to natural hazards also contributing to preparedness of society. However, we have been working on that issues, but it seems we are not being as efficient as needed. On the risk analysis, which includes forecast models, we use to be too Cartesians, taking too much time in arriving to conclusions when a non clear cause-effect chain can be identified. It is our ethical duty to evaluate when to stop searching for causes when dealing with complex systems. The search for a specific cause for a given extreme natural event

  16. Community preparedness for emergency: a cross-sectional survey of residents in Heilongjiang of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weilan; Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong; Ning, Ning; You, Jia; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Gao, Lijun; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Sun, Hong; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Han, Xiaonan; Fang, Xin; Zhao, Xiyan; Hu, Man; Ding, Ding; Gao, Hao; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article aims to identify factors that shape the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of community residents in China's Heilongjiang province towards emergency preparedness. Findings of such a study may provide evidence to support the development of effective public risk communication strategies and education campaigns. Design A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Heilongjiang province in 2014. A stratified cluster sampling strategy was employed to select study participants. The questionnaires were administered using face-to-face interviews. 2800 questionnaires were completed, among which 2686 (95.9%) were considered valid for data analyses. A multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to identify the extent to which the independent variables were associated with emergency preparedness. Results Fewer than 5% respondents were well prepared for emergency. Over half (52%) of poorly prepared respondents did not know what to do in emergency; women (OR=1.691), higher household income (OR ranging from 1.666 to 2.117), previous experience with emergency (OR=1.552), higher levels of knowledge about emergency (OR=2.192), risk awareness (OR=1.531), self-efficacy (OR=1.796), as well as positive attitudes towards emergency preparedness (OR=2.265) were significant predictors for emergency preparedness. Neither educational attainment nor exposure to awareness-raising entered into the logic regression model as a significant predictor for emergency preparedness. Conclusions The level of emergency preparedness in Heilongjiang residents is very low, which is linked with poor knowledge and attitudes of the residents towards emergency preparedness. Future emergency awareness campaigns should be more focused and tailored to the needs of intended audience, taking into consideration of their usual source of information and knowledge in relation to emergency. PMID:26553829

  17. 78 FR 72122 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... development and maintenance of emergency preparedness program elements. The NRC is publishing...

  18. The anatomical foundations of acquired reading disorders: a neuropsychological verification of the dual-route model of reading.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, E; Aggujaro, S; Molteni, F; Zonca, G; Frustaci, M; Luzzatti, C

    2014-07-01

    In this study we investigated the neural correlates of acquired reading disorders through an anatomo-correlative procedure of the lesions of 59 focal brain damaged patients suffering from acquired surface, phonological, deep, undifferentiated dyslexia and pure alexia. Two reading tasks, one of words and nonwords and one of words with unpredictable stress position, were used for this study. We found that surface dyslexia was predominantly associated with left temporal lesions, while in phonological dyslexia the lesions overlapped in the left insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) and that pure alexia was associated with lesions in the left fusiform gyrus. A number of areas and white matter tracts, which seemed to involve processing along both the lexical and the sublexical routes, were identified for undifferentiated dyslexia. Two cases of deep dyslexia with relatively dissimilar anatomical correlates were studied, one compatible with Coltheart's right-hemisphere hypothesis (1980) whereas the other could be interpreted in the context of Morton and Patterson's (1980), multiply-damaged left-hemisphere hypothesis. In brief, the results of this study are only partially consistent with the current state of the art, and propose new and stimulating challenges; indeed, based on these results we suggest that different types of acquired dyslexia may ensue after different cortical damage, but white matter disconnection may play a crucial role in some cases.

  19. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  20. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  1. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  2. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  3. 49 CFR 239.101 - Emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency preparedness plan. 239.101 Section 239....101 Emergency preparedness plan. (a) Each railroad to which this part applies shall adopt and comply with a written emergency preparedness plan approved by FRA under the procedures of § 239.201. The...

  4. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.22 Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process....

  5. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.22 Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process....

  6. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness... participation: Disaster preparedness. The organization has a written plan, periodically rehearsed, with... of their employment orientation, in all aspects of preparedness for any disaster. The...

  7. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.22 Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process....

  8. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness... participation: Disaster preparedness. The organization has a written plan, periodically rehearsed, with... of their employment orientation, in all aspects of preparedness for any disaster. The...

  9. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.22 Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process....

  10. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness... participation: Disaster preparedness. The organization has a written plan, periodically rehearsed, with... of their employment orientation, in all aspects of preparedness for any disaster. The...

  11. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Preparedness Cooperative... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.22 Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process....

  12. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness... participation: Disaster preparedness. The organization has a written plan, periodically rehearsed, with... of their employment orientation, in all aspects of preparedness for any disaster. The...

  13. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness... participation: Disaster preparedness. The organization has a written plan, periodically rehearsed, with... of their employment orientation, in all aspects of preparedness for any disaster. The...

  14. Reducing losses from earthquakes through personal preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A prerequisite to personal preparedness is familiarity with and concern about the other hazard-reduction phases. Strengthening the structure of the home, storing water, and showing family members how to shut off utility-supply lines are only a part of personal preparedness. Equally important are other phases such as picking up children from an evacuated school, securing heavy objects at the work palce as well as in the home, and retrofitting the commuter-highway overpasses needed to reunite a family. 

  15. Enhancing the Relevance of Incident Management Systems in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Novel Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, Richard; Grant, Moira; Schwartz, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We outline a conceptual framework developed to meet the needs of public health professionals in the province of Ontario for incident management system-related education and training. By using visual models, this framework applies a public health lens to emergency management, introducing concepts relevant to public health and thereby shifting the focus of emergency preparedness from a strict "doctrine" to a more dynamic and flexible approach grounded in the traditional principles of incident management systems. These models provide a foundation for further exploration of the theoretical foundations for public health emergency preparedness in practice.

  16. [Preparedness of pharmaceutical assistance for disasters: a study in five Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Pimenta-de-Souza, Paula; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2014-09-01

    A number of Brazilian municipalities have been affected by disasters in recent years. Municipal managers need to invest in preparedness to mitigate the impact of events and to restrict damages. Disaster preparedness should be conducted on various fronts, including the health sector, of which pharmaceutical services (PS) are a part. The scope of this paper is to describe and analyze PS preparedness in municipalities recently stricken by disasters. For this purpose, an investigation of a cross-sectional design involving various sources (official documents, newspaper articles, public databases and interviews with key PS informants) was conducted in five municipalities in two different regions. Analysis was based on an instrument with a logical model and indicators. Despite the fact that these municipalities are historically disaster-prone, very few measures of PS preparedness were encountered, which is clear evidence that management of PS has not been achieved. It is to be hoped that this presentation of the experiences of these municipalities might foster PS preparedness in other Brazilian municipalities.

  17. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  18. Turning point sets the stage for emergency preparedness planning.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Dahl, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Nearly a billion dollars were made available to state health departments through federal grants in the spring of 2002 for public health emergency preparedness plans. Twenty-one states had already been participating for some years in The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Turning Point Initiative. This article illustrates how earlier practice and experience in developing cross-sector collaborations and institutionalizing a model of broad-based partnerships for public health decision making can increase effectiveness and efficiency in responding to a call for action around an emergency. PMID:15503602

  19. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  20. Meeting the Standards? Exploring Preparedness for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swabey, Karen; Castleton, Geraldine; Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the perceptions of pre-service and beginning health and physical education (HPE) teachers in relation to their preparedness for teaching. A questionnaire was designed to engage with teacher professional standards addressing (i), professional knowledge; (ii), professional relationships and (iii), professional practice.…

  1. Candidate industrial preparedness program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannell, R.; Schuert, E.

    1980-12-01

    Research in the area of industrial preparedness was most active in the 1960s when numerous studies were completed on subjects directly related to the survival of industry during a nuclear war. However, during this period no national policy evolved on the role industry should play nor were the requirements for a comprehensive industrial preparedness program developed. Industrial preparedness can be implemented either during peaceful times, or during a period of crisis at which time a nuclear attack appears to be imminent. The selected program should consist of those components necessary for survival of the population during the early post-attack period and for augmentation during the period of national recovery. In order to establish the requirements of industry in the post-attack environment it was necessary to estimate the condition of the country after a large-scale nuclear exchange, especially the relationship between the surviving population and the capacity of the residual industry to produce goods. Thus those industries essential to national survival and eventual recovery were evaluated with respect to their capability to provide products. Where the capability was insufficient to support the post-attack population, those industries became prime candidates for assistance through an industrial preparedness program.

  2. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  3. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  4. Proceedings: Wide-Area Disaster Preparedness Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-01

    Representatives of electric utilities, government agencies, research groups, and private industry met at the Disaster Preparedness Conference to study and discuss the most effective ways to plan for disasters. This conference provided the industry with an important forum for the exchange of information concerning several types of disasters and the experiences of leading utilities in coping with them.

  5. Teaching Disaster Preparedness in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Sven; Stone, Lee D.; Casey, Melinda C.; Curtis, Mary D.; Doyle, Amber L.; Earle, Brian D.; Jones, Douglas D.; Rodriguez, Philip; Schermerhorn, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme natural and human-made disasters can affect the lives of thousands of citizens. The only way we can prepare ourselves for such situations is to learn and establish basic survival strategies within our families and communities. This article explores how K-12 teachers could help educating children about disaster preparedness by utilizing…

  6. MBA Students' Preparedness for Enterpreneurial Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thandi, Harch; Sharma, Raj

    2004-01-01

    This is a survey of MBA students' preparedness for launching new business initiatives or other entrepreneurial activities. It explores the readiness of the MBA students, estimated on dimensions comprising knowledge, attitude, skills,experience, opportunity and networks. The variation of the postgraduate students' perceptions along these six…

  7. Communication, neighbourhood belonging and household hurricane preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Kang, Jinae

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports on an examination of data on how local residents in Tuscaloosa, a mid-sized city in the state of Alabama, United States, responded to Hurricane Ivan of September 2004. The evaluation revealed that an integrated connection to community-level communication resources-comprising local media, community organisations and interpersonal networks-has a direct impact on the likelihood of engaging in pre-hurricane preparedness activities and an indirect effect on during-hurricane preparedness activities. Neighbourhood belonging mediated the relation between an integrated connection to community-level communication resources and during-hurricane preparedness activities. Neighbourhood belonging was determined to increase the likelihood of taking preparedness actions during Hurricane Ivan, but not prior to it. In addition, we discovered an interesting pattern for two different types of risk perceptions: social and personal risk perceptions. Social risk perceptions increase the likelihood of taking preventative steps before a hurricane while personal risk perceptions are positively related to engaging in preventative action during a hurricane.

  8. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... evacuate passengers. See 73 FR 6369 (February 1, 2008). While this final rule did not make any changes to... existing requirements as well as create new requirements for passenger train emergency systems. See 77...

  9. Advances in Monitoring, Modelling and Forecasting Volcanic Ash Plumes over the Past 5 Years and the Impact on Preparedness from the London VAAC Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Lisk, I.

    2015-12-01

    Hosted and run by the Met Office, the London VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre) is responsible for issuing advisories on the location and likely dispersion of ash clouds originating from volcanoes in the North East Atlantic, primarily from Iceland. These advisories and additional guidance products are used by the civil aviation community to make decisions on airspace flight management. London VAAC has specialist forecasters who use a combination of volcano source data, satellite-based, ground-based and aircraft observations, weather forecast models and dispersion models. Since the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, which resulted in the decision by many northern European countries to impose significant restrictions on the use of their airspace, London VAAC has been active in further developing its volcanic ash monitoring, modelling and forecasting capabilities, collaborating with research organisations, industry, other VAACs, Meteorological Services and the Volcano Observatory in Iceland. It has been necessary to advance operational capabilities to address evolving requirements, including for more quantitative assessments of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Here we summarise advances in monitoring, modelling and forecasting of volcanic ash plumes over the past 5 years from the London VAAC perspective, and the realization of science into operations. We also highlight the importance of collaborative activities, such as the 'VAAC Best Practice' Workshop, where information is exchanged between all nine VAACs worldwide on the operational practices in monitoring and forecasting volcanic ash, with the aim of working toward a more harmonized service for decision makers in the aviation community. We conclude on an evaluation of how better we are prepared for the next significant ash-rich Icelandic eruption, and the challenges still remaining.

  10. Learning Environment, Preparedness and Satisfaction in Osteopathy in Europe: The PreSS Study

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Emanuele; van Dun, Patrick L. S.; Esteves, Jorge Eduardo; Lunghi, Christian; Petracca, Marco; Papa, Liria; Merdy, Olivier; Jäkel, Anne; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective 1) to assess the preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment amongst new graduates from European osteopathic institutions; 2) to compare the results of preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment between and within countries where osteopathy is regulated and where regulation is still to be achieved; 3) to identify possible correlations between learning environment and preparedness to practice. Method Osteopathic education providers of full-time education located in Europe were enrolled, and their final year students were contacted to complete a survey. Measures used were: Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and a demographic questionnaire. Scores were compared across institutions using one-way ANOVA and generalised linear model. Results Nine European osteopathic education institutions participated in the study (4 located in Italy, 2 in the UK, 1 in France, 1 in Belgium and 1 in the Netherlands) and 243 (77%) of their final-year students completed the survey. The DREEM total score mean was 121.4 (SEM: 1.66) whilst the AAMC was 17.58 (SEM:0.35). A generalised linear model found a significant association between not-regulated countries and total score as well as subscales DREEM scores (p<0.001). Learning environment and preparedness to practice were significantly positively correlated (r=0.76; p<0.01). Discussion A perceived higher level of preparedness and satisfaction was found amongst students from osteopathic institutions located in countries without regulation compared to those located in countries where osteopathy is regulated; however, all institutions obtained a ‘more positive than negative’ result. Moreover, in general, cohorts with fewer than 20 students scored significantly higher compared to larger student cohorts. Finally, an overall positive correlation between students’ preparedness and satisfaction were found across all

  11. Assessing and improving cross-border chemical incident preparedness and response across Europe.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Evans, James; Hall, Lisbeth; Czerczak, Slawomir; Manley, Kevin; Dobney, Alec; Hoffer, Sally; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka

    2014-11-01

    Good practices in emergency preparedness and response for chemical incidents include practices specific to the different functions of exposure assessment (e.g., within the monitoring function, the use of mobile monitoring equipment; within the modelling function, the use of rapid dispersion models with integrated mapping software) and generic practices to engage incident response stakeholders to maximise exposure assessment capabilities (e.g., sharing protocols and pre-prepared information and multi-agency training and exercising). Such practices can optimise cross-border collaboration. A wide range of practices have been implemented across MSs during chemical incident response, particularly during incidents that have cross-border and trans-boundary impacts. This paper proposes a self-assessment methodology to enable MSs, or organisations within MSs, to examine exposure assessment capabilities and communication pathways between exposure assessors and public health risk assessors. Where gaps exist, this methodology provides links to good practices that could improve response, communication and collaboration across local, regional and national borders. A fragmented approach to emergency preparedness for chemical incidents is a major obstacle to improving cross-border exposure assessment. There is no one existing body or structure responsible for all aspects of chemical incident preparedness and response in the European Union. Due to the range of different organisations and networks involved in chemical incident response, emergency preparedness needs to be drawn together. A number of recommendations are proposed, including the use of networks of experts which link public health risk assessors with experts in exposure assessment, in order to coordinate and improve chemical incident emergency preparedness. The EU's recent Decision on serious cross-border threats to health aims to facilitate MSs' compliance with the International Health Regulations, which require

  12. The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program: Successes in Tsunami Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Formed in 1995 by Congressional Action, the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP) provides the framework for tsunami preparedness activities in the United States. The Program consists of the 28 U.S. coastal states, territories, and commonwealths (STCs), as well as three Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Since its inception, the NTHMP has advanced tsunami preparedness in the United States through accomplishments in many areas of tsunami preparedness: - Coordination and funding of tsunami hazard analysis and preparedness activities in STCs; - Development and execution of a coordinated plan to address education and outreach activities (materials, signage, and guides) within its membership; - Lead the effort to assist communities in meeting National Weather Service (NWS) TsunamiReady guidelines through development of evacuation maps and other planning activities; - Determination of tsunami hazard zones in most highly threatened coastal communities throughout the country by detailed tsunami inundation studies; - Development of a benchmarking procedure for numerical tsunami models to ensure models used in the inundation studies meet consistent, NOAA standards; - Creation of a national tsunami exercise framework to test tsunami warning system response; - Funding community tsunami warning dissemination and reception systems such as sirens and NOAA Weather Radios; and, - Providing guidance to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers regarding warning dissemination and content. NTHMP activities have advanced the state of preparedness of United States coastal communities, and have helped save lives and property during recent tsunamis. Program successes as well as future plans, including maritime preparedness, are discussed.

  13. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preparedness for disasters and emergencies at individual, community and organizational levels could be more effective tools in mitigating (the growing incidence) of disaster risk and ameliorating their impacts. That is, to play more significant roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Preparedness efforts focus on changing human behaviors in ways that reduce people’s risk and increase their ability to cope with hazard consequences. While preparedness initiatives have used behavioral theories to facilitate DRR, many theories have been used and little is known about which behavioral theories are more commonly used, where they have been used, and why they have been preferred over alternative behavioral theories. Given that theories differ with respect to the variables used and the relationship between them, a systematic analysis is an essential first step to answering questions about the relative utility of theories and providing a more robust evidence base for preparedness components of DRR strategies. The goal of this systematic review was to search and summarize evidence by assessing the application of behavioral theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness across the world. Methods: The protocol was prepared in which the study objectives, questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sensitive search strategies were developed and pilot-tested at the beginning of the study. Using selected keywords, articles were searched mainly in PubMed, Scopus, Mosby’s Index (Nursing Index) and Safetylit databases. Articles were assessed based on their titles, abstracts, and their full texts. The data were extracted from selected articles and results were presented using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: In total, 2040 titles, 450 abstracts and 62 full texts of articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, whilst five articles were archived from other sources, and then finally, 33 articles were selected. The Health Belief Model (HBM

  14. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preparedness for disasters and emergencies at individual, community and organizational levels could be more effective tools in mitigating (the growing incidence) of disaster risk and ameliorating their impacts. That is, to play more significant roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Preparedness efforts focus on changing human behaviors in ways that reduce people’s risk and increase their ability to cope with hazard consequences. While preparedness initiatives have used behavioral theories to facilitate DRR, many theories have been used and little is known about which behavioral theories are more commonly used, where they have been used, and why they have been preferred over alternative behavioral theories. Given that theories differ with respect to the variables used and the relationship between them, a systematic analysis is an essential first step to answering questions about the relative utility of theories and providing a more robust evidence base for preparedness components of DRR strategies. The goal of this systematic review was to search and summarize evidence by assessing the application of behavioral theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness across the world. Methods: The protocol was prepared in which the study objectives, questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sensitive search strategies were developed and pilot-tested at the beginning of the study. Using selected keywords, articles were searched mainly in PubMed, Scopus, Mosby’s Index (Nursing Index) and Safetylit databases. Articles were assessed based on their titles, abstracts, and their full texts. The data were extracted from selected articles and results were presented using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: In total, 2040 titles, 450 abstracts and 62 full texts of articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, whilst five articles were archived from other sources, and then finally, 33 articles were selected. The Health Belief Model (HBM

  15. A Solutions Network for Disaster Preparedness and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, B.; Tuttle, M.; Fernandez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Careful planning and management strategies are essential for disaster preparedness and prevention and to the implementation of responses strategies when emergencies do occur. Disasters related to climate and weather extremes, such as hurricanes, floods, wildfires, blizzards, droughts, and tornadoes may have a period for watching and warning within which emergency preparedness measures can be taken to reduce risk to population and critical infrastructures. The ability to effectively address emergency preparedness and response operations is dependent upon a strong global spatial data infrastructure, and geospatial modeling and simulation capabilities that can complement the decision making process at various stages of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. It is well understood that a strong linkage between data and analytical capabilities are nucleus to effective decision making ability and that disaster consequence management organizations should have access to the best available geospatial technical expertise, global and regional data sets, and modeling and analytical tools. However, such optimal combination of data assets and modeling expertise are often beyond the resources available internally within a single organization but can be accessed through external collaboration with other "Earth science community-of-practice" organizations. This provides an opportunity to develop a solutions network for disaster preparedness and response. However, our current capability and state of general practice in disaster consequence management is, for the most part, built around such networks that are not very well defined, often formed on an ad-hoc basis soon after a disaster, loosely coupled, and functions at less than desirable pace. We will illustrate this concept of a solutions network through the current functions of the Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG) of the Department of Energy, to which multiple national laboratories and other federal agencies

  16. Promoting Career Preparedness and Intrinsic Work-Goal Motivation: RCT Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Mutanen, Pertti; Vuori, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of an in-company training program aimed at enhancing employees' intrinsic work-goal motivation by increasing their career preparedness in a randomized field experimental study. The program activities were implemented using an organization-level two-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and…

  17. The Effect of Coping Knowledge on Emergency Preparedness in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and…

  18. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  19. Communications in public health emergency preparedness: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-09-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis.

  20. Preparedness: medical ethics versus public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Burns, Kelly A; Etkind, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Medical ethics generally applies to individual interactions between physicians and patients. Conversely, public health ethics typically applies to interactions between an agency or institution and a community or population. Four main principles underlie medical ethics: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. By contrast, public health ethical principles address issues such as interdependence, community trust, fundamentality, and justice. In large part because of the significant community-level effects of public health issues, medical ethics are suboptimal for assessing community-level public health interventions or plans-especially in the area of emergency preparedness. To be effective, as well as ethical, public health preparedness efforts must address all of the core principles of public health ethics.

  1. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training.

  2. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training. PMID:19202395

  3. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  4. Differences Between US and UK Adults in Stroke Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Gary A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Mackintosh, Joan E.; Gellert, Paul; Skolarus, Lesli E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Although time-dependent treatment is available, most people delay contacting emergency medical services for stroke. Given differences in the healthcare system and public health campaigns, exploring between-country differences in stroke preparedness may identify novel ways to increase acute stroke treatment. Methods— A survey was mailed to population-based samples in Ingham County, Michigan, US (n=2500), and Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (n=2500). Surveys included stroke perceptions and stroke/nonstroke scenarios to assess recognition and response to stroke. Between-country differences and associations with stroke preparedness were examined using t tests and linear mixed models. Results— Overall response rate was 27.4%. The mean age of participants was 55 years, and 58% were female. US participants were better in recognizing stroke (70% versus 63%, d=0.27) and were more likely to call emergency medical services (55% versus 52%, d=0.11). After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, US participants remained more likely to recognize stroke but were not more likely to respond appropriately. A greater belief that medical treatment can help with stroke and understanding of stroke was associated with improved stroke recognition and response. Conclusions— Overall, stroke recognition and response were moderate. US participants were modestly better at recognizing stroke, although there was little difference in response to stroke. Future stroke awareness interventions could focus more on stroke outcome expectations and developing a greater understanding of stroke among the public. PMID:26419968

  5. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters.

  6. Vested interest, disaster preparedness, and strategic campaign message design.

    PubMed

    Adame, Bradley J; Miller, Claude H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for imminent disasters. Vested interest theory (Crano, 1997) is presented as a framework for designing and testing the effectiveness of television-based disaster preparedness campaign messages. High- and low-vested versions of an extant control message are compared to assess message efficacy as indicated by behavioral intentions, message acceptance, and preparedness related attitudes. Results indicate television-based video public service announcements manipulated with subtle message variations can be effective at influencing critical preparedness-related attitudes. The high-vested condition performed significantly better than the low-vested and control conditions for both behavioral intentions and perceptions of self-efficacy, two vitally important outcome variables associated with disaster preparedness.

  7. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P < .001; 98% confidence interval) improvements in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster. PMID:26352654

  8. 75 FR 56127 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... finalization of Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program Manual and NUREG-0654 Supplement 4, and (4) REP Program Manual and Supplement 4 Implementation ``Impact Papers.'' The FRPCC Chair shall...

  9. Declining Trends in Local Health Department Preparedness Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Bevc, Christine A.; Schenck, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined local health department (LHD) preparedness capacities in the context of participation in accreditation and other performance improvement efforts. Methods. We analyzed preparedness in 8 domains among LHDs responding to a preparedness capacity instrument from 2010 through 2012. Study groups included LHDs that (1) were exposed to a North Carolina state-based accreditation program, (2) participated in 1 or more performance improvement programs, and (3) had not participated in any performance improvement programs. We analyzed mean domain preparedness scores and applied a series of nonparametric Mann–Whitney Wilcoxon tests to determine whether preparedness domain scores differed significantly between study groups from 2010 to 2012. Results. Preparedness capacity scores fluctuated and decreased significantly for all study groups for 2 domains: surveillance and investigation and legal preparedness. Significant decreases also occurred among participants for plans and protocols, communication, and incident command. Declines in capacity scores were not as great and less likely to be significant among North Carolina LHDs. Conclusions. Decreases in preparedness capacities over the 3 survey years may reflect multiple years of funding cuts and job losses, specifically for preparedness. An accreditation program may have a protective effect against such contextual factors. PMID:25211720

  10. Downsizer - A Graphical User Interface-Based Application for Browsing, Acquiring, and Formatting Time-Series Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward-Garrison, Christian; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Downsizer is a computer application that selects, downloads, verifies, and formats station-based time-series data for environmental-resource models, particularly the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. Downsizer implements the client-server software architecture. The client presents a map-based, graphical user interface that is intuitive to modelers; the server provides streamflow and climate time-series data from over 40,000 measurement stations across the United States. This report is the Downsizer user's manual and provides (1) an overview of the software design, (2) installation instructions, (3) a description of the graphical user interface, (4) a description of selected output files, and (5) troubleshooting information.

  11. Refinement of a model of acquired epilepsy for identification and validation of biomarkers of epileptogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Claudia; Rankovic, Vladan; Töllner, Kathrin; Klee, Rebecca; Bröer, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    In rodent models in which status epilepticus (SE) is used to induce epilepsy, typically most animals develop spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). The SE duration for induction of epileptogenesis depends on the type of SE induction. In models with electrical SE induction, the minimum duration of SE to induce epileptogenesis in >90% of animals ranges from 3-4h. A high incidence of epilepsy is an advantage in the search of antiepileptogenic treatments, whereas it is a disadvantage in the search for biomarkers of epileptogenesis, because it does not allow a comparison of potential biomarkers in animals that either develop or do not develop epilepsy. The aim of this project was the refinement of an established SE rat model so that only ~50% of the animals develop epilepsy. For this purpose, we used an electrical model of SE induction, in which a self-sustained SE develops after prolonged stimulation of the basolateral amygdala. Previous experiments had shown that the majority of rats develop SRS after 4-h SE in this model so that the SE reduced duration to 2.5h by administering diazepam. This resulted in epilepsy development in only 50% of rats, thus reaching the goal of the project. The latent period to onset of SRS wa s >2weeks in most rats. Development of epilepsy could be predicted in most rats by behavioral hyperexcitability, whereas seizure threshold did not differentiate rats that did and did not develop SRS. The refined SE model may offer a platform to identify and validate biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:27343814

  12. Diphtheria Toxin- and GFP-Based Mouse Models of Acquired Hypoparathyroidism and Treatment With a Long-Acting Parathyroid Hormone Analog.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ruiye; Fan, Yi; Lauter, Kelly; Hu, Jing; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Cradock, Jim; Yuan, Quan; Gardella, Thomas; Mannstadt, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HP) arises most commonly from parathyroid (PT) gland damage associated with neck surgery, and is typically treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D. Such treatment effectively increases levels of serum calcium (sCa), but also brings risk of hypercalciuria and renal damage. There is thus considerable interest in using PTH or PTH analogs to treat HP. To facilitate study of this disease and the assessment of new treatment options, we developed two mouse models of acquired HP, and used them to assess efficacy of PTH(1-34) as well as a long-acting PTH analog (LA-PTH) in regulating blood calcium levels. In one model, we used PTHcre-iDTR mice in which the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) is selectively expressed in PT glands, such that systemic DT administration selectively ablates parathyroid cells. For the second model, we generated GFP-PT mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is selectively expressed in PT cells, such that parathyroidectomy (PTX) is facilitated by green fluorescence of the PT glands. In the PTHcre-iDTR mice, DT injection (2 × 5 μg/kg, i.p.) resulted in moderate yet consistent reductions in serum PTH and sCa levels. The more severe hypoparathyroid phenotype was observed in GFP-PT mice following GFP-guided PTX surgery. In each model, a single subcutaneous injection of LA-PTH increased sCa levels more effectively and for a longer duration (>24 hours) than did a 10-fold higher dose of PTH(1-34), without causing excessive urinary calcium excretion. These new mouse models thus faithfully replicate two degrees of acquired HP, moderate and severe, and may be useful for assessing potential new modes of therapy. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26678919

  13. A theoretical framework to model DSC-MRI data acquired in the presence of contrast agent extravasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, C. C.; Gochberg, D. F.; Gore, J. C.; Yankeelov, T. E.

    2009-10-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI methods rely on compartmentalization of the contrast agent such that a susceptibility gradient can be induced between the contrast-containing compartment and adjacent spaces, such as between intravascular and extravascular spaces. When there is a disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as is frequently the case with brain tumors, a contrast agent leaks out of the vasculature, resulting in additional T1, T2 and T*2 relaxation effects in the extravascular space, thereby affecting the signal intensity time course and reducing the reliability of the computed hemodynamic parameters. In this study, a theoretical model describing these dynamic intra- and extravascular T1, T2 and T*2 relaxation interactions is proposed. The applicability of using the proposed model to investigate the influence of relevant MRI pulse sequences (e.g. echo time, flip angle), and physical (e.g. susceptibility calibration factors, pre-contrast relaxation rates) and physiological parameters (e.g. permeability, blood flow, compartmental volume fractions) on DSC-MRI signal time curves is demonstrated. Such a model could yield important insights into the biophysical basis of contrast-agent-extravasastion-induced effects on measured DSC-MRI signals and provide a means to investigate pulse sequence optimization and appropriate data analysis methods for the extraction of physiologically relevant imaging metrics.

  14. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits. PMID:27118135

  15. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits.

  16. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department...

  17. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  18. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  19. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  20. Sandia National Laboratories approach to emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Galegar, F.H.; Yourick, P.D.; Ross, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is located on Kirtland AFB on Albuquerque, NM. The Air Force Base proper covers about 74 square miles in which SNL maintains 5 technical areas and the Coyote Test Field. These SNL areas add up to about 18,000 acres. However, SNL has other locations where we conduct corporate emergency planning: Kauai Test Facility (at Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii), and the Tonopah Test Range (Nevada). SNL/California located in Livermore has an independent emergency preparedness organization for their emergency planning activities.

  1. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  2. Preparedness 3.0: Addressing the Future.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Georges C

    2015-12-01

    The last 14 years has taught us that that we are facing a new reality; a reality in which public health emergencies are a common occurrence. Today, we live in a world with dangerous people without state sponsorship who are an enormous threat to our safety; one where emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are waiting to break out; a world where the benefits of globalization in trade, transportation, and social media brings threats to our communities faster and with a greater risk than ever before. Even climate change has entered into the preparedness equation, bringing with it the forces of nature in the form of extreme weather and its complications.

  3. Preparedness 3.0: Addressing the Future.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Georges C

    2015-12-01

    The last 14 years has taught us that that we are facing a new reality; a reality in which public health emergencies are a common occurrence. Today, we live in a world with dangerous people without state sponsorship who are an enormous threat to our safety; one where emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are waiting to break out; a world where the benefits of globalization in trade, transportation, and social media brings threats to our communities faster and with a greater risk than ever before. Even climate change has entered into the preparedness equation, bringing with it the forces of nature in the form of extreme weather and its complications. PMID:26545197

  4. [Acquired haemophilia (acquired factor VIII inhibitor)].

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, José M; Duboscq, Cristina; Fondevila, Carlos; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare disorder. The clinical picture ranges from mild ecchymosis and anaemia to life threatening bleeding in up to 20% of patients. The disease is produced by an antibody against Factor VIII and it usually occurs in the elderly, with no previous history of a bleeding disorder. It can be associated to an underlying condition such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, drugs or pregnancy. It has a typical laboratory pattern with isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) that fails to correct upon mixing tests with normal plasma and low levels of factor VIII. Treatment recommendations are based on controlling the acute bleeding episodes with either bypassing agent, recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and eradication of the antibody with immunosuppressive therapy.

  5. 75 FR 29389 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-12753 Filed 5-25-10... Preparedness Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year during... National Hurricane Preparedness Week, I urge individuals, families, communities, and businesses to...

  6. 77 FR 32877 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13515 Filed...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8830 of May 25, 2012 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012 By the... Preparedness Week, we rededicate ourselves to preventing loss of life and damage to property by...

  7. 78 FR 32535 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... May 30, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 8986--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013... 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8986 of May 24, 2013 National Hurricane Preparedness Week,...

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  9. 78 FR 33862 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... it is practical to do so, but assurance of consideration cannot be given except for comments received.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carolyn Kahler, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response, U.S... Director for Emergency Preparedness, Division of Preparedness and Response, Office of Nuclear Security...

  10. Teaching Activities for Defensive Living and Emergency Preparedness. Education Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Grit, Ed.; And Others

    Designed for teaching a generalized program in emergency preparedness education, the eight units of the manual can be used together or alone in any course that teaches human response to emergency preparedness or in physical education, recreation, health, biology, physiology, or science classes. The guide includes an introduction and seven major…

  11. Making Connections: A Network Approach to University Disaster Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Catherine H.; Vickio, Craig J.; Fogo, Wendy R.; Abraham, Kristen M.

    2007-01-01

    A network approach to disaster preparedness in university settings is described. Basic network concepts relevant for disaster preparedness and methods for analyzing network data without complex mathematics are presented. A case study of campus mental health and academic units at a midwestern university is presented to illustrate the practical…

  12. BAREPP: Earthquake preparedness for the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    The threat of major and damaging earthquakes in California is a fact. How people respond to that threat is a concern shared by many local, state, federal, volunteer and private sector organizations. The Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project (BAREPP) promotes comprehensive earthquake preparedness actions by these organizations and provides technical and planning assistance for a variety of programs.

  13. Presidential Perspectives of Crisis Preparedness at Christian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Stacy M.; Heiselt, April K.

    2012-01-01

    Crises, whether human or natural, occur on all college campuses. Extensive research has been conducted on crisis preparedness at four-year, nondenominational institutions. This study examined crisis preparedness at Christian institutions of higher education. The study examined the perspectives of presidents of Christian institutions of higher…

  14. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  15. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  17. A Newly Developed Fluorescence Model for C2H6 v5 and Application to Cometary Spectra Acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; A?Hearn, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate rotational temperatures are essential for extracting production rates for parent volatiles in comets. Two strong bands of ethane (v7 at 2985.39/cm and v5 at 2895.67/cm) are seen in infrared cometary spectra, but the Q-branches of v7 are not resolved by current instruments and cannot provide an accurate rotational temperature with current models.We developed a fluorescence model for the C2H6 v5 band that can be used to derive a rotational temperature.We applied our C2H6 5 model to high-resolution infrared spectra of the comets C/2004 Q2 Machholz and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), acquired with the Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We demonstrate agreement among the rotational temperatures derived from C2H6 v5 and other species, and between mixing ratios derived from C2H6 v5 and C2H6 v7. As a symmetric hydrocarbon, C2H6 is observed only in the infrared, and it is now the fifth molecule (along with H2O, HCN, CO, and H2CO) for which we can derive a reliable rotational temperature from cometary infrared spectra.

  18. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  19. 49 CFR 239.201 - Emergency preparedness plan; filing and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency preparedness plan; filing and approval... Review, Approval, and Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.201 Emergency preparedness plan... passenger operations, whichever is later. The emergency preparedness plan shall include the name,...

  20. 49 CFR 239.201 - Emergency preparedness plan; filing and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency preparedness plan; filing and approval... Review, Approval, and Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.201 Emergency preparedness plan... passenger operations, whichever is later. The emergency preparedness plan shall include the name,...

  1. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  2. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  3. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  4. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  5. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  6. The Common Ground Preparedness Framework: A Comprehensive Description of Public Health Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities. PMID:22397343

  7. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  8. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally. PMID:25068939

  9. Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia S; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M; Ronan, Kevin R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research has found little or no direct link between beliefs about earthquake risk and household preparedness. Furthermore, only limited work has been conducted on how people's beliefs influence the nature and number of preparedness measures adopted. To address this gap, 48 qualitative interviews were undertaken with residents in three urban locations in New Zealand subject to seismic risk. The study aimed to identify the diverse hazard and preparedness-related beliefs people hold and to articulate how these are influenced by public education to encourage preparedness. The study also explored how beliefs and competencies at personal, social, and environmental levels interact to influence people's risk management choices. Three main categories of beliefs were found: hazard beliefs; preparedness beliefs; and personal beliefs. Several salient beliefs found previously to influence the preparedness process were confirmed by this study, including beliefs related to earthquakes being an inevitable and imminent threat, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, personal responsibility, responsibility for others, and beliefs related to denial, fatalism, normalization bias, and optimistic bias. New salient beliefs were also identified (e.g., preparedness being a "way of life"), as well as insight into how some of these beliefs interact within the wider informational and societal context.

  10. Theoretical perspectives on public communication preparedness for terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Wray, Ricardo J; Kreuter, Matthew W; Jacobsen, Heather; Clements, Bruce; Evans, R Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The experience of federal health authorities in responding to the mailed anthrax attacks in the Fall of 2001 sheds light on the challenges of public information dissemination in emergencies. Lessons learned from the Fall of 2001 have guided more recent efforts related to crisis communication and preparedness goals. This article applies theories and evidence from the field of communication to provide an orientation to how public health communication can best contribute to the preparedness effort. This theoretical orientation provides a framework to systematically assess current recommendations for preparedness communication. PMID:15596970

  11. Implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, B.

    1994-08-01

    A slide presentation is given on the National Preparedness Response Exercise Program (PREP). PREP is designed to interpret and provide a consistent approach to the pollution response exercise requirements outlined in various federal regulations implementing the provisions of OPA90. PREP is designed as a voluntary, non-regulatory program, but compliance will fully satisfy all OPA mandated federal requirements for pollution response exercises, as well as the requirements of many coastal states. It is believed that the PREP program will be a critical part in enhancing national preparedness, improving contingency plans, and reinforcing OPA`s process of preparedness.

  12. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  13. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency.

  14. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike

    2011-10-01

    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies.

  15. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. PMID:21729940

  16. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  17. Molecular modeling, dynamics studies and virtual screening of Fructose 1, 6 biphosphate aldolase-II in community acquired- methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Gurmit; Gautam, Budhayash; Singh, Satendra; Yadav, Madhu; Srivastav, Upasana; Singh, Brijendra

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has recently emerged as a nosocomial pathogen to the community which commonly causes skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). This strain (MW2) has now become resistant to the most of the beta-lactam antibiotics; therefore it is the urgent need to identify the novel drug targets. Recently fructose 1,6 biphosphate aldolase-II (FBA) has been identified as potential drug target in CA-MRSA. The FBA catalyses the retro-ketolic cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to yield dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) in glycolytic pathway. In the present research work the 3D structure of FBA was predicted using the homology modeling method followed by validation. The molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) of the predicted model was carried out using the 2000 ps time scale and 1000000 steps. The MDS results suggest that the modeled structure is stable. The predicted model of FBA was used for virtual screening against the NCI diversity subset-II ligand databases which contain 1364 compounds. Based on the docking energy scores, it was found that top four ligands i.e. ZINC01690699, ZINC13154304, ZINC29590257 and ZINC29590259 were having lower energy scores which reveal higher binding affinity towards the active site of FBA. These ligands might act as potent inhibitors for the FBA so that the menace of antimicrobial resistance in CA-MRSA can be conquered. However, pharmacological studies are required to confirm the inhibitory activity of these ligands against the FBA in CA-MRSA.

  18. [Recommendations for earthquake preparedness in Israel].

    PubMed

    Adler, J; Eldar, R

    2001-09-01

    Earthquakes have occurred in the past in our region, along the Afro-Syrian fault line and along the eastern border of Israel. Several earthquakes had a magnitude between 6.25 and 6.5 on the Richter scale and caused severe damage to the populated areas in the Galilee, the Judean Hills and along the coastline. The last major earthquake occurred in 1927 in the Jordan Valley and caused more than 300 fatalities and extensive property damage. If we consider the present densely populated regions in the areas at risk, the occurrence of an earthquake with a magnitude of > 6.25 will constitute a major disaster, causing thousands of casualties and extensive property and economic damage. Israel is presently planning a comprehensive response to mitigate the damages by enforcing existing anti-seismic building codes, retrofitting of public buildings, including hospitals and utilizing all available manpower and material resources in case of such an event. The health sector is a vital part of the overall preparedness and response. Hospitals have to plan alternative sites for continued activity and increase the number of beds. Army medical teams will have to operate in the disaster area in conjunction and coordination with the Home Front Command rescue teams and the EMS. Public and primary health services will have to be reinforced to deal with acute and chronic health problems in the wake of the disaster. The burial of the dead and their identification will become a major logistic and emotional problem and must be planned in advance. Preparedness includes establishing contact with NGOs and agencies in countries, which may render medical assistance in such an event.

  19. Applying behavioral science to workforce challenges in the public health emergency preparedness system.

    PubMed

    McCabe, O Lee; DiClemente, Carlo C; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    When disasters and other broad-scale public health emergencies occur in the United States, they often reveal flaws in the pre-event preparedness of those individuals and agencies charged with responsibility for emergency response and recovery activities. A significant contributor to this problem is the unwillingness of some public health workers to participate in the requisite planning, training, and response activities to ensure quality preparedness. The thesis of this article is that there are numerous, empirically supported models of behavior change that hold potential for motivating role-appropriate behavior in public health professionals. The models that are highlighted here for consideration and prospective adaptation to the public health emergency preparedness system (PHEPS) are the Transtheoretical Model of Intentional Behavior Change (TTM) and Motivational Interviewing (MI). Core concepts in TTM and MI are described, and specific examples are offered to illustrate the relevance of the frameworks for understanding and ameliorating PHEPS-based workforce problems. Finally, the requisite steps are described to ensure the readiness of organizations to support the implementation of the ideas proposed. PMID:22916453

  20. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Prina, Elena; Ranzani, Otavio T; Torres, Antoni

    2015-09-12

    Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualised antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria. New approaches for fast clinical (lung ultrasound) and microbiological (molecular biology) diagnoses are promising. Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with early and late mortality and increased rates of cardiovascular events. Studies are needed that focus on the long-term management of pneumonia.

  1. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

  2. A baseline assessment of emergency planning and preparedness in Italian universities.

    PubMed

    Marincioni, Fausto; Fraboni, Rita

    2012-04-01

    Besides offering teaching and research services, schools and universities also must provide for the safety and security of their employees, students, and visitors. This paper describes emergency preparedness in a sample of Italian universities. In particular it examines risk perception within a specific professional category (university safety and security officers) in a specific cultural context (Italy). In addition, it discusses the transposition and implementation in a European Union (EU) member state of EU Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989, on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers. The findings highlight heterogeneous and fragmented emergency management models within the Italian university system, underlining the need for a stricter framework of standardised safety protocols and emergency management guidelines. The study also points out that enhancing emergency planning and preparedness in Italian universities entails increasing safety leadership, employee engagement and individual responsibility for safety and security; essentially, it necessitates improving the culture of risk prevention.

  3. Insuring against earthquakes: simulating the cost-effectiveness of disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    de Hoop, Thomas; Ruben, Ruerd

    2010-04-01

    Ex-ante measures to improve risk preparedness for natural disasters are generally considered to be more effective than ex-post measures. Nevertheless, most resources are allocated after an event in geographical areas that are vulnerable to natural disasters. This paper analyses the cost-effectiveness of ex-ante adaptation measures in the wake of earthquakes and provides an assessment of the future role of private and public agencies in disaster risk management. The study uses a simulation model approach to evaluate consumption losses after earthquakes under different scenarios of intervention. Particular attention is given to the role of activity diversification measures in enhancing disaster preparedness and the contributions of (targeted) microcredit and education programmes for reconstruction following a disaster. Whereas the former measures are far more cost-effective, missing markets and perverse incentives tend to make ex-post measures a preferred option, thus occasioning underinvestment in ex-ante adaptation initiatives.

  4. Emergency medical preparedness during the 2006 World Cup in Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Betlehem, Jozsef; Schaefer, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes emergency medical preparedness during FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) World Cup matches in Frankfurt, Germany, in 2006. The methods employed were document analysis and personal observation of games over five days in June-July 2006. The medical authorities in Frankfurt drew on a wide range of scientific literature and experiences to elaborate a National Concept. They paid attention to different models of handling mass catastrophes in shaping the final version of the document. The participation of designated authorities, associations, and volunteer organisations was coordinated sufficiently and the games in Frankfurt proceeded without great incident, even though more than 300,000 people in total attended. The adopted emergency medical procedure was appropriate for a mass gathering event. Official and volunteer organisations collaborated precisely in emergency preparedness. While one uniform concept for all mass gatherings events cannot be developed, case reports and experiences are useful tools. PMID:19682004

  5. Modeling Covariates of Self-Perceived and Epidemiologic Notions of Risk for Acquiring STIs/HIV among Military Personnel: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mgbere, Osaro; Monjok, Emmanuel; Abughosh, Susan; Ekong, Ernest; Holstad, Marcia M.; Essien, E. James

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the socio-demographic and selected behavioral characteristics associated with self-perceived and epidemiologic notions of risk for acquiring STIs/HIV infection using data from a cross-sectional survey involving 346 consenting female military personnel from two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Findings revealed significant discordance in participants’ risk status based on the two assessment methods, with Kappa coefficients ranging from −0.021 to 0.115. Using epidemiologic assessment as the “gold standard”, 45.4% of the study population were able to accurately assessed their risk levels through self-perception with significant (p≤.01) socio-demographic variations. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that STIs/HIV risk models using both self-perceived and epidemiologic notions of risk were significantly determined by different set of covariates. It is recommended that STIs/HIV prevention intervention should integrate the identified covariates and be targeted at changing individual risk behaviors and perceptions, as well as the social contexts in which risky behaviors occur in the military population. PMID:22271332

  6. A model-based approach for detection of runways and other objects in image sequences acquired using an on-board camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Tang, Yuan-Liang

    1994-01-01

    This research was initiated as a part of the Advanced Sensor and Imaging System Technology (ASSIST) program at NASA Langley Research Center. The primary goal of this research is the development of image analysis algorithms for the detection of runways and other objects using an on-board camera. Initial effort was concentrated on images acquired using a passive millimeter wave (PMMW) sensor. The images obtained using PMMW sensors under poor visibility conditions due to atmospheric fog are characterized by very low spatial resolution but good image contrast compared to those images obtained using sensors operating in the visible spectrum. Algorithms developed for analyzing these images using a model of the runway and other objects are described in Part 1 of this report. Experimental verification of these algorithms was limited to a sequence of images simulated from a single frame of PMMW image. Subsequent development and evaluation of algorithms was done using video image sequences. These images have better spatial and temporal resolution compared to PMMW images. Algorithms for reliable recognition of runways and accurate estimation of spatial position of stationary objects on the ground have been developed and evaluated using several image sequences. These algorithms are described in Part 2 of this report. A list of all publications resulting from this work is also included.

  7. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that they must make their pipeline emergency response...

  8. Earthquake preparedness levels amongst youth and adults in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, M.; Arroyo-Ruiz, D.; Crockett, C.; Dixon, G.; Jones, M.; Lei, P.; Phillips, B.; Romero, D.; Scott, M.; Spears, D.; Tate, L.; Whitlock, J.; Diaz, J.; Chagolla, R.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area has not experienced a large earthquake since 1989. However research shows that the Hayward fault is overdue for a tremor, based on paleo-seismic research. To analyze the level of earthquake preparedness in the Oakland area (close to the Hayward fault), we surveyed over 150 people to assess their understanding of earthquakes. Our research evaluates whether increased earthquake knowledge impacts people's preparedness and concern toward earthquake events. Data was collected using smart-phone technology and survey software in four sites across Oakland including; North Oakland, Downtown, East Oakland, and a summer school program in East Oakland, which has youth from throughout the city. Preliminary studies show that over 60% of interviewees have sufficient earthquake knowledge, but that over half of all interviewees are not prepared for a seismic event. Our study shows that in Oakland, California earthquake preparedness levels vary, which could mean we need to develop more ways to disseminate information on earthquake preparedness.

  9. Emergency preparedness training of tribal community health representatives.

    PubMed

    Hites, Lisle S; Granillo, Brenda S; Garrison, Edward R; Cimetta, Adriana D; Serafin, Verena J; Renger, Ralph F; Wakelee, Jessica F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of online Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) training adapted to the learning styles and needs of tribal Community Health Representatives (CHRs). Working through a university-tribal community college partnership, the Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Arizona and Diné College of the Navajo Nation delivered a blended online and face-to-face public health preparedness certificate program based on core public health emergency preparedness competencies. This program was carefully adapted to meet the environmental and learning needs of the tribal CHRs. The certificate program was subsequently evaluated via a scenario-based decision-making methodology. Significant improvements in five of six competency areas were documented by comparison of pre- and post-certificate training testing. Based on statistical support for this pedagogical approach the cultural adaptations utilized in delivery of the certificate program appear to be effective for PHEP American Indian education. PMID:21240557

  10. Emergency preparedness training of tribal community health representatives.

    PubMed

    Hites, Lisle S; Granillo, Brenda S; Garrison, Edward R; Cimetta, Adriana D; Serafin, Verena J; Renger, Ralph F; Wakelee, Jessica F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of online Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) training adapted to the learning styles and needs of tribal Community Health Representatives (CHRs). Working through a university-tribal community college partnership, the Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Arizona and Diné College of the Navajo Nation delivered a blended online and face-to-face public health preparedness certificate program based on core public health emergency preparedness competencies. This program was carefully adapted to meet the environmental and learning needs of the tribal CHRs. The certificate program was subsequently evaluated via a scenario-based decision-making methodology. Significant improvements in five of six competency areas were documented by comparison of pre- and post-certificate training testing. Based on statistical support for this pedagogical approach the cultural adaptations utilized in delivery of the certificate program appear to be effective for PHEP American Indian education.

  11. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  12. Mass casualty events: blood transfusion emergency preparedness across the continuum of care.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Heidi; Glasgow, Simon; Kristoffersen, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Transfusion support is a key enabler to the response to mass casualty events (MCEs). Transfusion demand and capability planning should be an integrated part of the medical planning process for emergency system preparedness. Historical reviews have recently supported demand planning for MCEs and mass gatherings; however, computer modeling offers greater insights for resource management. The challenge remains balancing demand and supply especially the demand for universal components such as group O red blood cells. The current prehospital and hospital capability has benefited from investment in the management of massive hemorrhage. The management of massive hemorrhage should address both hemorrhage control and hemostatic support. Labile blood components cannot be stockpiled and a large surge in demand is a challenge for transfusion providers. The use of blood components may need to be triaged and demand managed. Two contrasting models of transfusion planning for MCEs are described. Both illustrate an integrated approach to preparedness where blood transfusion services work closely with health care providers and the donor community. Preparedness includes appropriate stock management and resupply from other centers. However, the introduction of alternative transfusion products, transfusion triage, and the greater use of an emergency donor panel to provide whole blood may permit greater resilience.

  13. Disaster preparedness: institutional capacity building in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, J L; de Ville de Goyet, C

    1996-01-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries are prone to natural, technological and "complex" disasters. This vulnerability to catastrophic events led the region to undertake the long journey away from an ad hoc response towards institutional preparedness and, more recently, to disaster prevention and mitigation. This article attempts to outline the definitions and basic principles of institutional emergency preparedness, including reliance on the more effective use of existing resources, rather than establishment of special stockpiles and equipment; the critical importance of general participation and awareness; and the interrelationship of the health sector with others and the potential for leadership. How to assess the level of preparedness is discussed. Stress is placed on the fact that preparedness is traditionally confused with the existence of a written disaster plan. Preparedness should be seen as a never-ending, complex process that can only be assessed through an in-depth review of coordination, planning, training and logistic elements. There is also a fundamental distinction between preparedness, i.e., "getting ready to respond" and disaster prevention/mitigation, which aims to reduce the health impact. The latter calls for the collaboration of engineers, architects, planners and economists with the health sector. It is illustrated by the regional initiative in the Americas to reduce the physical vulnerability of hospitals to earthquakes and hurricanes. In spite of the encouraging achievements, much remains to be done. Weak areas include preparedness for technological disasters, and a true inter-country preventive approach to common disasters across borders. Electronic communications through the Internet will also help to suppress borders and boundaries, contributing to a truly collective approach to emergency preparedness and disaster relief coordination.

  14. Regional-scale geometry of the central Skellefte district, northern Sweden—results from 2.5D potential field modeling along three previously acquired seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Saman; Bauer, Tobias E.; Elming, Sten-Åke; Thunehed, Hans; Weihed, Pär

    2012-10-01

    The Skellefte district in northern Sweden is one of the most important mining districts in Europe hosting approximately 80 volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Due to its economical importance, geological and geophysical studies were carried out in order to create an image of the geometry of the upper crustal structure and integral geological elements and to evaluate their relationship to mineral deposits. Consequently, seismic reflection data along three sub-parallel profiles were acquired during 2009-2010 to map the spatial relationships between the geological structures down to a depth of ~ 4.5 km. Although these seismic studies helped researchers understand the regional relationship between geologic units in the central Skellefte district (CSD), the seismic reflection data did not succeed entirely in mapping the lithological contacts in the area. In this study, the model derived from the seismic reflection data was examined by using 2.5D modeling of potential field data (down to a 5 km depth) constrained by physical properties of the rocks and surface geology. Moreover, we modeled gravity and magnetic data along the non-reflective or poorly reflective parts of the seismic profiles to identify major lithological contacts and shear zones in the CSD, which could not be modeled on the basis of the seismic reflection data. Gravity and magnetic data helped reveal the spatial relationship between the Skellefte volcanic rocks, Vargfors group meta-sedimentary rocks and two meta­intrusive complexes. Results suggest a maximum depth extent of 2.1 km for the tectonic contact at the southern border of the Jörn granitoid. Furthermore, this north-dipping Skellefte-Jörn contact coincides closely with magnetic lows and gravity highs, which implies that the Jörn intrusive rocks have a greater thickness than the underlying basalt. Further to the NW, gravity and magnetic data suggest a depth extent of 2 km for the Gallejaur complex, which coincides with a set of gently

  15. The danger of declining funds: Public Health Preparedness in NYC.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Monica; Patel, Prachee; Raphael, Marisa; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) has built a strong public health preparedness foundation, made possible in large part by funding from the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While this funding has allowed NYC DOHMH to make great progress in areas such as all-hazards planning, risk communication, disease surveillance, and lab capacity, the erosion of federal preparedness dollars for all-hazards preparedness has the potential to reverse these gains. Since the initiation of the PHEP grant in 2002, PHEP funding has steadily declined nationwide. Specifically, the total federal allocation has decreased approximately 20%, from $862,777,000 in 2005 to $688,914,546 in 2009. With city and state budgets at an all-time low, federal funding cuts will have a significant impact on public health preparedness programs nationwide. In this time of strict budgetary constraints, the nation would be better served by strategically awarding federal preparedness funds to areas at greatest risk. The absence of risk-based funding in determining PHEP grant awards leaves the nation's highest-risk areas, like New York City, with insufficient resources to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies. This article examines the progress New York City has made and what is at stake as federal funding continues to wane. PMID:19821753

  16. The influenza pandemic preparedness planning tool InfluSim

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Duerr, Hans-Peter; Brockmann, Stefan O

    2007-01-01

    Background Planning public health responses against pandemic influenza relies on predictive models by which the impact of different intervention strategies can be evaluated. Research has to date rather focused on producing predictions for certain localities or under specific conditions, than on designing a publicly available planning tool which can be applied by public health administrations. Here, we provide such a tool which is reproducible by an explicitly formulated structure and designed to operate with an optimal combination of the competing requirements of precision, realism and generality. Results InfluSim is a deterministic compartment model based on a system of over 1,000 differential equations which extend the classic SEIR model by clinical and demographic parameters relevant for pandemic preparedness planning. It allows for producing time courses and cumulative numbers of influenza cases, outpatient visits, applied antiviral treatment doses, hospitalizations, deaths and work days lost due to sickness, all of which may be associated with economic aspects. The software is programmed in Java, operates platform independent and can be executed on regular desktop computers. Conclusion InfluSim is an online available software which efficiently assists public health planners in designing optimal interventions against pandemic influenza. It can reproduce the infection dynamics of pandemic influenza like complex computer simulations while offering at the same time reproducibility, higher computational performance and better operability. PMID:17355639

  17. Acquired methemoglobinemia revisited.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Larry; Will, John

    2010-10-01

    Dentistry has two medications in its pain management armamentarium that may cause the potentially life-threatening disorder methemoglobinemia. The first medications are the topical local anesthetics benzocaine and prilocaine. The second medication is the injectable local anesthetic prilocaine. Acquired methemoglobinemia remains a source of morbidity and mortality in dental and medical patients despite the fact that it is better understood now than it was even a decade ago. It is in the interest of all dental patients that their treating dentists review this disorder. The safety of dental patients mandates professional awareness.

  18. Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): a new disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-02-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list control arm. Earthquake safety knowledge and preparedness supplies were assessed prior to the intervention and at 1 month after the intervention (N  =  82). Adults in the experimental arm significantly increased preparedness by 19 percentage points, from 56% to 75% completed (p < .0001), and improved their knowledge by 8 percentage points, from 79% to 87% correct (p  =  .001). This is the first peer-mentored, targeted, and tailored disaster preparedness program tested with this population.

  19. Preparedness for Pandemics: Does Variation Among States Affect the Nation as a Whole?

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Margaret A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Grefenstette, John; Keane, Christopher R.; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Quinn, Sandra C.; Stebbins, Samuel; Sweeney, Patricia M.; Burke, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since states’ public health systems differ as to pandemic preparedness, this study explored whether such heterogeneity among states could affect the nation’s overall influenza rate. Design The CDC produced a uniform set of scores on a 100-point scale from its 2008 national evaluation of state preparedness to distribute materiel from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). This study used these SNS scores to represent each state’s relative preparedness to distribute influenza vaccine in a timely manner and assumed that “optimal” vaccine distribution would reach at least 35% of the state’s population within 4 weeks. The scores were used to determine the timing of vaccine distribution for each state: each 10-point decrement of score below 90 added an additional delay increment to the distribution time. Setting and Participants A large-scale agent-based computational model simulated an influenza pandemic in the U.S. population. In this synthetic population each individual or agent had an assigned household, age, workplace or school destination, daily commute, and domestic inter-city air travel patterns. Main Outcome Measures Simulations compared influenza case rates both nationally and at the state level under three scenarios: no vaccine distribution (baseline), optimal vaccine distribution in all states, and vaccine distribution time modified according to state-specific SNS score. Results Between optimal and SNS-modified scenarios, attack rates rose not only in low-scoring states but also in high-scoring states, demonstrating an inter-state spread of infections. Influenza rates were sensitive to variation of the SNS-modified scenario (delay increments of 1-day versus 5-days), but the inter-state effect remained. Conclusions The effectiveness of a response activity such as vaccine distribution could benefit from national standards and preparedness funding allocated in part to minimize inter-state disparities. PMID:22473116

  20. Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers: Using a Public Health Systems Approach to Improve All-Hazards Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Leinhos, Mary; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems. PMID:25355970

  1. Continuous administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine, even after acquired resistance to bevacizumab, restored anti-angiogenic and antitumor effect in a human colorectal cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Toshiki; Sugimoto, Masamichi; Harada, Suguru; Yorozu, Keigo; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Kaname

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralizing therapy with bevacizumab has become increasingly important for treating colorectal cancer. It was demonstrated that second-line chemotherapy together with bevacizumab after disease progression (PD) on first-line therapy including bevacizumab showed clinical benefits in metastatic colorectal and breast cancers (ML18147 trial, TANIA trial). One of the rationales for these trials was that the refractoriness to first-line therapy is caused by resistance to not so much bevacizumab as to the chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, resistance to bevacizumab cannot be ruled out because VEGF-independent angiogenesis has been reported to be a mechanism of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. In this study, we used a xenograft model with the human colon cancer HT-29 cells to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of continued administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine even after resistance to bevacizumab was acquired. The combination of capecitabine plus bevacizumab exhibited significantly stronger antitumor and anti-angiogenic activities than did monotherapy with either agent. Capecitabine treatment significantly increased the intratumoral VEGF level compared with the control group; however, the combination with bevacizumab neutralized the VEGF. Among angiogenic factors other than VEGF, intratumoral galectin-3, which reportedly promotes angiogenesis both dependent on, and independently of VEGF, was significantly decreased in the capecitabine group and the combination group compared with the control group. In an in vitro experiment, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an active metabolite of capecitabine, inhibited galectin-3 production by HT-29 cells. These results suggested that capecitabine has a dual mode of action: namely, inhibition of tumor cell growth and inhibition of galectin-3 production by tumor cells. Thus, capecitabine and bevacizumab may work in a mutually complementary manner in tumor angiogenesis inhibition

  2. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  3. Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

  4. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  5. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  6. Emergency Nurses’ Requirements for Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Abbasi Dolatabadi, Zahra; Rajabifard, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters affect people, communities, and health systems. Nurses play a key role in the health system and must be prepared for appropriate response in disasters. Objectives: This study was done to assess the current knowledge of nurses in emergency departments for disaster preparedness. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Based on the findings, most of the participants (64.5%) were aged 30 - 39 years old. 84% of the cases were female and 97.3% had a bachelor’s degree. The average perceived knowledge of nurses was 2.43 ± 1.01. The nurses had the highest familiarity with triage and lowest knowledge in epidemiology and decision-making. Conclusions: Lack knowledge of nurses regarding response to disaster situations indicates inefficiencies in the current system. Therefore, it is recommended to organize more workshops, annual training courses, and maneuvers based on staff needs and formulate continuous education courses for nurses. PMID:26839868

  7. Emergency preparedness for imaging service providers.

    PubMed

    Junk, Robert; Gilk, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    While the images of Hurricane Katrina are still vivid, it is important to draw from them the lessons that can be applied to protect patient care services in the event of other disasters. It is important that healthcare providers anticipate the possibility of these events and plan accordingly. A comprehensive plan involves preparation for a disaster, prioritization of the community's immediate needs to restore critical patient care services first, and prevention of future event impacts. A number of considerations should serve as a starting point for conversations regarding a facility's emergency preparedness plan. These involve identifying potential natural and man-made disasters, utility interruptions, equipment damage, patient transportation, case prioritization, and potential outside resources. Some important points to remember when preparing for substantial wind and flood damage: Follow original equipment manufacturer (OEM) recommendations regarding preemptive equipment power-down/ramp-down,particularly for concerns about storm quenches. For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners left running, to p off cryogens, if possible. Cover all non-removable equipment with taped-down heavy plastic sheeting to protect against roof failures/leaks. Raise all electronic equipment and emergency response supplies as high off the floor as safely possible to protect against flooding. Provide adequate food and potable water for staff/patients that cannot be evacuated. Prior to the storm, contact vendors to secure options imaging equipment, portable generators, and cryogen service after the storm passes. If power is lost, restore power to the MRI cold-head as quickly as possible.

  8. Disaster mental health preparedness plan in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, G Pandu; Viora, Eka

    2006-12-01

    The tsunami brought into focus many issues related to mental health and psychosocial distress. A prompt response to the disaster relies on existing disaster management plans so that appropriate interventions can be put in place in order to meet the needs of the affected populations. The response must involve both physical and psychological aspects of care. The Indonesian experience was unique in a number of ways and it allowed us to explore the lessons in order to develop strategies to maximize the resources in order to ensure that the whole affected population was cared for. Massive destruction of the physical structures and the work force made the task particularly difficult. Existing policies did not include psychosocial efforts in the plan. However, mental health and psychosocial relief efforts are now being integrated into the disaster preparedness plan of Indonesia. To further implement the plan, a strong community mental health system is being developed. This system will be able to deliver mental health and psychosocial interventions on a routine basis and could be scaled up in times of disasters. PMID:17162698

  9. The Australian response: pandemic influenza preparedness.

    PubMed

    Horvath, John S; McKinnon, Moira; Roberts, Leslee

    2006-11-20

    Australia's preparedness for a potential influenza pandemic involves many players, from individual health carers to interdepartmental government committees. It embraces a wide number of strategies from the management of the disease to facilitating business continuity. The key strategy underlying Australia's planned response is an intensive effort to reduce transmission of the virus. This includes actions to reduce the likelihood of entry of the virus into the country and to contain outbreaks when they occur. Containment will provide time to allow production of a matched vaccine. The health strategies are outlined in the Australian health management plan for pandemic influenza. The plan is accompanied by technical annexes setting out key considerations and guidelines in the areas of clinical management and infection control. National plans present overall strategies and guidance, but the operational details can only be determined by individual states and territories, regions, and the services themselves. Primary health care practices will be on the frontline of an influenza pandemic. Every practice needs a plan that defines the roles of staff, incorporates infection control and staff protection measures, and considers business continuity. Most importantly, a practice needs to know how to implement that plan. PMID:17115949

  10. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  11. Disaster mental health preparedness plan in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, G Pandu; Viora, Eka

    2006-12-01

    The tsunami brought into focus many issues related to mental health and psychosocial distress. A prompt response to the disaster relies on existing disaster management plans so that appropriate interventions can be put in place in order to meet the needs of the affected populations. The response must involve both physical and psychological aspects of care. The Indonesian experience was unique in a number of ways and it allowed us to explore the lessons in order to develop strategies to maximize the resources in order to ensure that the whole affected population was cared for. Massive destruction of the physical structures and the work force made the task particularly difficult. Existing policies did not include psychosocial efforts in the plan. However, mental health and psychosocial relief efforts are now being integrated into the disaster preparedness plan of Indonesia. To further implement the plan, a strong community mental health system is being developed. This system will be able to deliver mental health and psychosocial interventions on a routine basis and could be scaled up in times of disasters.

  12. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  13. Personal Disaster Preparedness of Dialysis Patients in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Mark; Shofer, Frances; Principe, Stephanie; DeWalt, Darren; Falk, Ronald; Ferris, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Dialysis patients are among the most vulnerable patients during a disaster because they are sensitive to a lapse in treatment. Although thorough preparation could mitigate disaster effects, we hypothesized that dialysis patients' personal and medical disaster preparedness was inadequate. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This prevalence study surveyed mentally competent adults requiring care at six regional dialysis centers. We asked questions regarding demographics, general disaster preparedness utilizing Homeland Security recommended item lists, dialysis-specific preparation for an individual to shelter in place, and preparatory steps for a forced evacuation. To determine if preparedness differed by demographic variables (gender, race, age, and education) chi-squared tests were used. Results Four hundred forty-two patients were approached, and 311 (70%) completed the survey. Participants were 54% male, 60% black, average age was 58 (± 15) years, and although 79% completed high school, 50% of our sample had marginal or low health literacy. Although all units had a disaster preparedness program in place, the general disaster preparedness of most participants was poor. Age, gender, race, education, literacy, and socioeconomic status did not affect general disaster preparedness. However, home peritoneal dialysis patients were significantly more likely to be prepared for a disaster compared with hemodialysis patients. No other significant associations were noted. Conclusions Irrespective of sociodemographic characteristics, most subjects were unprepared for a disaster. Dialysis patients were poorly prepared to shelter in place or to evacuate in the face of a disaster. Education regarding personal and dialysis-specific disaster preparedness is warranted. PMID:21852660

  14. Progress of vaccine and drug development for Ebola preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the first case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea was reported in March 2014 by World Health Organization (WHO), the outbreak has continued through the year and the total number of 19,065 patients was reported as the confirmed or suspected in the EVD-affected countries. Among the cases, 7,388 patients were reported death by 19 December. Currently, available therapeutics to treat the infected patients or vaccines to prevent people from infection is not developed yet while viral diagnostic methods were already developed and firmly established in a lot of countries as a first step for the preparedness of Ebola outbreak. Some potential therapeutic materials including ZMapp were supplied and the treated people got over the EVD. Several candidates of vaccines also were investigated their efficacy in animal models by National Institute of Health (NIH) and Department of Defense, and they are processing of clinical tests in West Africa aiming to finish the development by the 2015. Vaccine and therapeutic development is essential to stop the EVD outbreak in West Africa, also to protect the world from the risk which can be generated by potential spread of Ebola virus. PMID:25648233

  15. Progress of vaccine and drug development for Ebola preparedness.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Young; Hong, Kee-Jong; Hong, Joo Eun; Lee, Won-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Since the first case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea was reported in March 2014 by World Health Organization (WHO), the outbreak has continued through the year and the total number of 19,065 patients was reported as the confirmed or suspected in the EVD-affected countries. Among the cases, 7,388 patients were reported death by 19 December. Currently, available therapeutics to treat the infected patients or vaccines to prevent people from infection is not developed yet while viral diagnostic methods were already developed and firmly established in a lot of countries as a first step for the preparedness of Ebola outbreak. Some potential therapeutic materials including ZMapp were supplied and the treated people got over the EVD. Several candidates of vaccines also were investigated their efficacy in animal models by National Institute of Health (NIH) and Department of Defense, and they are processing of clinical tests in West Africa aiming to finish the development by the 2015. Vaccine and therapeutic development is essential to stop the EVD outbreak in West Africa, also to protect the world from the risk which can be generated by potential spread of Ebola virus.

  16. The "Zurich E-Learning Certificate": A Role Model for the Acquirement of eCompetence for Academic Staff and an Example of a Practical Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Benno; Keller, Stefan Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since 2002 the "Zurich E-Learning Certificate" offers lecturers and academic staff from the three main universities in Zurich the possibility to take part in a professional development program which supports the acquirement of eCompetence. The program is the result of a cooperation between the University of Zurich (UZH), the Swiss Federal…

  17. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Methods Adults in New South Wales (NSW) completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2010 (N=2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Results Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR)=2.07, p=0.001) learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05), establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p<0.001), willingness to evacuate homes (AOR=2.20, p=0.039), and willingness to evacuate workplaces or public facilities (AOR=6.19, p=0.015) during potential future incidents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness

  18. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident.

  19. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities.

  20. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident. PMID:25915551

  1. Disaster preparedness of linguistically isolated populations: practical issues for planners.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Vishnu; Banerjee, Deborah; Perry, Mark; Scott, Deborah

    2012-03-01

    In the absence of culturally and linguistically appropriate disaster preparedness plans, several linguistically isolated and culturally diverse population groups are disproportionately disadvantaged in the United States. The communication gap poses challenges to emergency preparedness planners and response personnel in predisaster communication and postdisaster response efforts. Houston Department of Health and Human Services aimed to develop practical recommendations for local emergency response personnel so as to improve dissemination of emergency information and equitable delivery of services to linguistically isolated communities in the greater Houston area. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted among linguistically isolated immigrant populations living in the greater Houston metropolitan area who primarily spoke one of the Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Somali languages. Our questions focused on general knowledge and understanding of disasters and explored experiences during Houston's most recent disaster, Hurricane Ike. We found that (a) understanding of disaster and preparedness is contextual, (b) awareness of preparedness needs and actual plans among LIPs is inadequate, and (c) word of mouth is the preferred information source for linguistically isolated groups. Disaster preparedness plans of a given jurisdiction should reflect the culturally and linguistically appropriate components addressing the needs, concerns, context-based knowledge or awareness, and perceptions of linguistically isolated populations.

  2. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts.

  3. Evaluation of a Tabletop Emergency Preparedness Exercise for Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity’s effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity’s success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students’ knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes. PMID:27170821

  4. 1986 viewpoint of emergency preparedness in the upper midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Parkyn, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The recent Soviet emergency preparedness disaster has started a new round of interactions between utilities and civil governments regarding the adequacy of emergency preparedness around nuclear plants. The 1986 annual meeting of the cooperative produced several questions regarding the potentials of the plant and its impact on the public and the cooperative in the event of an off-normal situation. Emergency preparedness requires a real partnership between local civil authorities and the utility in a close spirit of cooperation with local law enforcement, which is frequently charged with the strongest burdens of emergency planning. It is more evident that the virtual veto power of local branches of government over emergency preparedness needs to be more fully recognized by utilities. Early notification and warning systems are coming under a tighter scrutiny as public perception of their fallibility increases. Another continuing problem with emergency preparedness has been the recognition that guarantees of reaching every individual, particularly in more hostile environments, can not be easily made. The lessons learned in nuclear planning indicate that this is an area too often not given a high enough threshold in the total spectrum of nuclear safety and which, from the utility standpoint, needs to be elevated to a higher threshold of importance.

  5. Disaster preparedness: an investigation on motivation and barriers.

    PubMed

    Dorasamy, Magiswary; Raman, Murali; Marimuthu, Maran; Kaliannan, Maniam

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary investigation on the motivations for and the barriers that hinder preparedness toward disasters in a community. Survey questionnaires were distributed to local individuals in the nine districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. A total of 402 usable questionnaires were analyzed. The initial findings revealed that community members are motivated for disaster preparedness mainly for family safety reason. However, generally they do not know how to be prepared. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of knowledge and information in community preparedness. This research is limited to one state in Malaysia. However, the chosen state has a large effect on the Malaysian gross domestic product; hence, lack of preparedness poses a critical risk to its large population. This study on motivation and barriers for disaster preparedness is intended to increase the effectiveness of community readiness as a whole toward major disasters such as landslide and flood. The result of this study is valuable to the scientific community within the disaster management domain, the government agencies for policy and strategy formulations, and the local community to preempt, deal with, and ultimately survive disasters. This research aims to ensure that the community is continuously prepared and able to meet the evolving needs of the individual citizen as the nation strives toward promoting a knowledgeable society.

  6. Disaster preparedness: an investigation on motivation and barriers.

    PubMed

    Dorasamy, Magiswary; Raman, Murali; Marimuthu, Maran; Kaliannan, Maniam

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary investigation on the motivations for and the barriers that hinder preparedness toward disasters in a community. Survey questionnaires were distributed to local individuals in the nine districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. A total of 402 usable questionnaires were analyzed. The initial findings revealed that community members are motivated for disaster preparedness mainly for family safety reason. However, generally they do not know how to be prepared. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of knowledge and information in community preparedness. This research is limited to one state in Malaysia. However, the chosen state has a large effect on the Malaysian gross domestic product; hence, lack of preparedness poses a critical risk to its large population. This study on motivation and barriers for disaster preparedness is intended to increase the effectiveness of community readiness as a whole toward major disasters such as landslide and flood. The result of this study is valuable to the scientific community within the disaster management domain, the government agencies for policy and strategy formulations, and the local community to preempt, deal with, and ultimately survive disasters. This research aims to ensure that the community is continuously prepared and able to meet the evolving needs of the individual citizen as the nation strives toward promoting a knowledgeable society. PMID:24623112

  7. Promoting public health legal preparedness for emergencies: review of current trends and their relevance in light of the Ebola crisis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Odeya; Feder-Bubis, Paula; Bar-Dayan, Yaron; Adini, Bruria

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health legal preparedness (PHLP) for emergencies is a core component of the health system response. However, the implementation of health legal preparedness differs between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and developed countries. Objective This paper examines recent trends regarding public health legal preparedness for emergencies and discusses its role in the recent Ebola outbreak. Design A rigorous literature review was conducted using eight electronic databases as well as Google Scholar. The results encompassed peer-reviewed English articles, reports, theses, and position papers dating from 2011 to 2014. Earlier articles concerning regulatory actions were also examined. Results The importance of PHLP has grown during the past decade and focuses mainly on infection–disease scenarios. Amid LMICs, it mostly refers to application of international regulations, whereas in developed states, it focuses on independent legislation and creation of conditions optimal to promoting an effective emergency management. Among developed countries, the United States’ utilisation of health legal preparedness is the most advanced, including the creation of a model comprising four elements: law, competencies, information, and coordination. Only limited research has been conducted in this field to date. Nevertheless, in both developed and developing states, studies that focused on regulations and laws activated in health systems during emergencies, identified inconsistency and incoherence. The Ebola outbreak plaguing West Africa since 2014 has global implications, challenges and paralleling results, that were identified in this review. Conclusions The review has shown the need to broaden international regulations, to deepen reciprocity between countries, and to consider LMICs health capacities, in order to strengthen the national health security. Adopting elements of the health legal preparedness model is recommended. PMID:26449204

  8. Near-misses and future disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Robin L; Tinsley, Catherine H; Burns, William J

    2014-10-01

    Disasters garner attention when they occur, and organizations commonly extract valuable lessons from visible failures, adopting new behaviors in response. For example, the United States saw numerous security policy changes following the September 11 terrorist attacks and emergency management and shelter policy changes following Hurricane Katrina. But what about those events that occur that fall short of disaster? Research that examines prior hazard experience shows that this experience can be a mixed blessing. Prior experience can stimulate protective measures, but sometimes prior experience can deceive people into feeling an unwarranted sense of safety. This research focuses on how people interpret near-miss experiences. We demonstrate that when near-misses are interpreted as disasters that did not occur and thus provide the perception that the system is resilient to the hazard, people illegitimately underestimate the danger of subsequent hazardous situations and make riskier decisions. On the other hand, if near-misses can be recognized and interpreted as disasters that almost happened and thus provide the perception that the system is vulnerable to the hazard, this will counter the basic "near-miss" effect and encourage mitigation. In this article, we use these distinctions between resilient and vulnerable near-misses to examine how people come to define an event as either a resilient or vulnerable near-miss, as well as how this interpretation influences their perceptions of risk and their future preparedness behavior. Our contribution is in highlighting the critical role that people's interpretation of the prior experience has on their subsequent behavior and in measuring what shapes this interpretation. PMID:24773610

  9. Acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Elaine M

    2004-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a disorder characterized by a profound deficit of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, bone marrow hypocellularity, and peripheral blood pancytopenia. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. The majority of cases are idiopathic; however, idiosyncratic reactions to some drugs, chemicals, and viruses have been implicated in its etiology. An autoimmune T-cell reaction likely causes the stem cell depletion, but the precise mechanism, as well as the eliciting and target antigens, is unknown. Symptoms vary from severe life-threatening cytopenias to moderate or non-severe disease that does not require transfusion support. The peripheral blood typically exhibits pancytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and normocytic or macrocytic erythrocytes. The bone marrow is hypocellular and may exhibit dysplasia of the erythrocyte precursors. First line treatment for severe AA consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young patients with HLA identical siblings, while immunosuppression therapy is used for older patients and for those of any age who lack a HLA matched donor. Patients with AA have an increased risk of developing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia. Further elucidation of the pathophysiology of this disease will result in a better understanding of the interrelationship among AA, PNH, and MDS, and may lead to novel targeted therapies.

  10. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... influenza preparedness via the Federal Register on September 14, 2010; 75 FR 55776-55777. The Department of... International Trade Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza... the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (...

  11. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.22 Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). Under 44 CFR part 351, the role of...

  12. The pitfalls of bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax and smallpox experiences.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hillel W; Gould, Robert M; Sidel, Victor W

    2004-10-01

    Bioterrorism preparedness programs have contributed to death, illness, and waste of public health resources without evidence of benefit. Several deaths and many serious illnesses have resulted from the smallpox vaccination program; yet there is no clear evidence that a threat of smallpox exposure ever existed. The anthrax spores released in 2001 have been linked to secret US military laboratories-the resultant illnesses and deaths might not have occurred if those laboratories were not in operation. The present expansion of bioterrorism preparedness programs will continue to squander health resources, increase the dangers of accidental or purposeful release of dangerous pathogens, and further undermine efforts to enforce international treaties to ban biological and chemical weapons. The public health community should acknowledge the substantial harm that bioterrorism preparedness has already caused and develop mechanisms to increase our public health resources and to allocate them to address the world's real health needs. PMID:15451727

  13. Mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Htay, Hla

    2006-12-01

    Myanmar as a country in South-East Asia is vulnerable to disasters including storms, floods, fire, earth fall, earthquakes, depending on the geographical nature and climate of the area. The National Health Committee (NHC) of Myanmar has formed under it an Emergency Healthcare Committee. After the Asian tsunami, the Ministry of Health (MoH) formed the National Disaster Preparedness and Response Committee which developed the National Guidelines for Disasters Preparedness and Response. The experience of dealing with the tsunami has shown that psychosocial support to the affected community not only reduces its psychological distress but can also facilitate physical rehabilitation. Thus mental health and psychosocial aspects have been included in disaster preparedness and management plans of the MoH. PMID:17162701

  14. Disaster preparedness for children and families: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Kevin R; Alisic, Eva; Towers, Briony; Johnson, Victoria A; Johnston, David M

    2015-07-01

    Preparedness for disasters is universally low; children and families are particularly vulnerable groups. Against this backdrop, research on disaster preparedness for children and families is reviewed, with a focus on disaster preparedness and prevention education programs. Following definitions and theory/rationale, research is critically analyzed. While findings indicate a large growth in research in the past 15 years and largely positive findings, significant challenges remain. These challenges include issues related to methodological rigor, long-term effectiveness, and implementation. Recent research reflecting these important challenges is reviewed. At the same time, other recent research documents real potential for these programs, including findings which suggest that increased attention to incorporating theory- and evidence-supported components can enhance outcomes. Thus, despite some important limitations and challenges, research done to date signals promise for these programs in reducing risk and increasing resilience to disasters for children, families, and the households and communities in which they live.

  15. Disaster Preparedness: Need for inclusion in undergraduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed.

  16. Radiological incident preparedness: planning at the local level.

    PubMed

    Tan, Clive M; Barnett, Daniel J; Stolz, Adam J; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-03-01

    Radiological terrorism has been recognized as a probable scenario with high impact. Radiological preparedness planning at the federal and state levels has been encouraging, but translating complex doctrines into operational readiness at the local level has proved challenging. Based on the authors' experience with radiological response planning for the City of Baltimore, this article describes an integrated approach to municipal-level radiological emergency preparedness planning, provides information on resources that are useful for radiological preparedness planning, and recommends a step-by-step process toward developing the plan with relevant examples from the experience in Baltimore. Local governmental agencies constitute the first line of response and are critical to the success of the operation. This article is intended as a starting framework for local governmental efforts toward developing a response plan for radiological incidents in their communities. PMID:21402808

  17. 77 FR 20823 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... include: (1) Briefings and BSC deliberation on the following topics: CDC Laboratory Preparedness; OPHPR... Management Team; Estimating the Cost of Preparedness; (2) Programmatic responses to...

  18. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  19. 76 FR 77235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road...

  20. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....45 Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under... development and planning activities for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate...

  1. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....45 Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under... development and planning activities for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 749 - Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines B... PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. B Appendix B to Part 749—Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines Credit... program address the following five elements: 1 See 12 CFR 748.1(b) concerning a FICU's reporting of...

  3. 44 CFR 352.25 - Limitation on committing Federal facilities and resources for emergency preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal facilities and resources for emergency preparedness. 352.25 Section 352.25 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.25 Limitation...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 749 - Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines B... PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. B Appendix B to Part 749—Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines Credit... program address the following five elements: 1 See 12 CFR 748.1(b) concerning a FICU's reporting of...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 749 - Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines B... PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. B Appendix B to Part 749—Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines Credit... program address the following five elements: 1 See 12 CFR 748.1(b) concerning a FICU's reporting of...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 749 - Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines B... PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. B Appendix B to Part 749—Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines Credit... program address the following five elements: 1 See 12 CFR 748.1(b) concerning a FICU's reporting of...

  7. 44 CFR 352.25 - Limitation on committing Federal facilities and resources for emergency preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal facilities and resources for emergency preparedness. 352.25 Section 352.25 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.25 Limitation...

  8. 3 CFR 8412 - Proclamation 8412 of September 4, 2009. National Preparedness Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Preparedness Month, 2009 8412 Proclamation 8412 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8412 of September 4, 2009 Proc. 8412 National Preparedness Month, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Preparedness is an essential element of a resilient and secure Nation....

  9. 44 CFR 352.25 - Limitation on committing Federal facilities and resources for emergency preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal facilities and resources for emergency preparedness. 352.25 Section 352.25 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.25 Limitation...

  10. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....45 Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under... development and planning activities for emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 749 - Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines B... PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. B Appendix B to Part 749—Catastrophic Act Preparedness Guidelines Credit... program address the following five elements: 1 See 12 CFR 748.1(b) concerning a FICU's reporting of...

  12. Critical Event Preparedness and Response: Keynote Address to the 2006 Sloan Research Workshop by Jon Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet C.

    2008-01-01

    At the intersection of online education and preparedness, Johns Hopkins University's (JHU) Center for Public Health Preparedness provides all-hazards preparedness and response training for public health and public safety professionals. This report comes from Jonathan Links' keynote address to the Sloan Summer Research Workshop in Baltimore,…

  13. CDC Online Course: Reproductive Health in Emergency Preparedness and Response.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Marianne E; Ellington, Sascha R; Perez, Mirna

    2016-09-01

    In an emergency, the needs of women of reproductive age, particularly pregnant and postpartum women, introduce unique challenges for public health and clinical care. Incorporating reproductive health issues and considerations into emergency preparedness and response is a relatively new field. In recent years, several resources and tools specific to reproductive health have been developed. However, there is still a need for training about the effects of emergencies on women of reproductive age. In an effort to train medical and public health professionals about these topics, the CDC Division of Reproductive Health developed Reproductive Health in Emergency Preparedness and Response, an online course that is available across the United States. PMID:27631300

  14. Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B.

    2013-04-01

    As with many professions, safety planners and first responders tend to be specialists in certain areas. To be truly useful, tools should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Thus, general software suites aimed at the professional geographic information system (GIS) community might not be the best solution for a first responder with little training in GIS terminology and techniques. On the other hand, commonly used web-based map viewers may not have the capability to be customized for the planning, response, and recovery (PR&R) mission. Data formats should be open and foster easy information flow among local, state, and federal partners. Tools should be free or low-cost to address real-world budget constraints at the local level. They also need to work both with and without a network connection to be robust. The Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) can satisfy many of these needs while working in harmony with established systems at the local, state, and federal levels. The IMPACT software framework, termed the Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment (GIPSE), organizes tasks, tools, and resources for the end user. It uses the concept of software wizards to both customize and extend its functionality. On the Tasks panel are a number of buttons used to initiate various operations. Similar to macros, these task buttons launch scripts that utilize the full functionality of the underlying foundational components such as the SQL spatial database and ORNL-developed map editor. The user is presented with a series of instruction pages which are implemented with HTML for interactivity. On each page are links which initiate specific actions such as creating a map showing various features. Additional tasks may be quickly programmed and added to the panel. The end user can customize the graphical interface to faciltate its use during an emergency. One of the major components of IMPACT is the ORNL Geospatial Viewer (OGV). It is used to

  15. Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    2013-04-01

    As with many professions, safety planners and first responders tend to be specialists in certain areas. To be truly useful, tools should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Thus, general software suites aimed at the professional geographic information system (GIS) community might not be the best solution for a first responder with little training in GIS terminology and techniques. On the other hand, commonly used web-based map viewers may not have the capability tomore » be customized for the planning, response, and recovery (PR&R) mission. Data formats should be open and foster easy information flow among local, state, and federal partners. Tools should be free or low-cost to address real-world budget constraints at the local level. They also need to work both with and without a network connection to be robust. The Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) can satisfy many of these needs while working in harmony with established systems at the local, state, and federal levels. The IMPACT software framework, termed the Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment (GIPSE), organizes tasks, tools, and resources for the end user. It uses the concept of software wizards to both customize and extend its functionality. On the Tasks panel are a number of buttons used to initiate various operations. Similar to macros, these task buttons launch scripts that utilize the full functionality of the underlying foundational components such as the SQL spatial database and ORNL-developed map editor. The user is presented with a series of instruction pages which are implemented with HTML for interactivity. On each page are links which initiate specific actions such as creating a map showing various features. Additional tasks may be quickly programmed and added to the panel. The end user can customize the graphical interface to faciltate its use during an emergency. One of the major components of IMPACT is the ORNL Geospatial Viewer (OGV). It is

  16. Generic tsunami scenarios for disasters and early warning preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillande, Richard; Gardi, Annalisa; Valencia, Nathalia; Salaün, Tugdual

    2010-05-01

    The implementation of the tsunami early warning systems in the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean regions will occur in countries with no preparedness and very little knowledge of potentially affected coastal zones by the various tsunami sources. The final link to coastal communities will be sirens to distribute in the concerned areas. The SCHEMA project aims at elaboration of a generic method to consider various parameters of a particular tsunami scenario. A scenario corresponds to a specific source with a given magnitude or intensity. Since we do not consider only the remote sources with possibilities of warning, local earthquake and submarine landslides are also translated in scenarios to allow the civil protections, municipalities and local stakeholders to assess cases with no real warning possibility, where life will be saved by self evacuation in nearby shelter areas or buildings. The specific temporal dimension of tsunami phenomenon is considered. Oceanic propagation time, expected duration of dangerous waves and wavelength are taken into account with their level of uncertainties. Scenarios are presented by maps and layouts with various information: inundation extension, submersion depth, receding sea limit, currents velocity or modulus of flow, modeled damage level to buildings, affected networks and lifelines. Variable dimensions such as residing or working population, by hour of the day and by season are also considered. Secondary vulnerability factors which may increase damage level to buildings are added (potentially floating objects which may turn into projectiles). The potential evacuation routes and obstacles are represented to support installation of warning networks and definition of shelters as well as evacuation routes. The scenarios are calculated using accurate digital bathymetric and topographic model with less than 10 m ground resolution allowing a very detailed mapping. This accuracy is especially important for scenarios with moderate waves for

  17. Development of a distributed, adaptive, direction, and control (civil preparedness communications) network within the State of Rhode Island, which may serve as a prototype model for the design of state area networks in other states. Final report, 22 September 1978-31 March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the problems and a series of solutions to the implementation of a statewide Civil Preparedness Telecommunications System that linked together logical control points of local governments and Emergency Response units. The system was composed of cost effective two way radio voice equipment with facsimile record copy capability (unattended). To permit operation under blackout conditions, a unique battery power module was developed to power the unit up to two weeks under such conditions. Simple EMP measures, were taken at each station as well as special modifications to prevent the radios from being either turned off or the volume from being set too low. The project was coordinated with the R.I. National Guard who helped in licensing the system as a joint public service effect. Positive Voice Identification made simple the task of identifying stations on the network. Station location site selection was a challenge and each station ultimately had to be approved by the head of Local Government, Local CD Director, and State Director. The result was places where true direction and control activities take place based upon actual experience. The network is operational as a demonstration model with continuous weekly test taking place to ensure continued availability in time of emergency.

  18. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  19. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  20. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  1. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  2. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.

  3. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  4. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  5. Appraisal of Faculty Preparedness by Using Selected Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjad ur

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of changes in the criteria by which faculty preparedness is evaluated focuses on a study of six graduate programs of library education in Pakistan that evaluated faculty based on academic qualifications, professional experience, and research and publication credentials. Shortcomings are discussed, and remedial measures are suggested,…

  6. College Students' Perceptions of College Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Star

    2013-01-01

    As educational leaders struggle to meet state and federal mandates, many students graduate from high school without the skills necessary to meet the demands of a college education. Guided by the tenets of constructivism, this qualitative case study explored college students' perceptions of their college preparedness through math, science, and…

  7. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  8. Alternative Certification Programs & Pre-Service Teacher Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Adrie; Feldhaus, Charles Robert; Fernandez, Eugenia; Hundley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This explanatory sequential mixed methods research study investigated motives and purpose exhibited by professionals transitioning from careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to secondary education. The study also analyzed personal perceptions of teaching preparedness, and explored barriers to successful teaching. STEM career…

  9. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    PubMed

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  10. The Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the competencies of culturally responsive teaching and construct a Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale (CRTPS) for the use of teacher preparation programs and preservice teachers. Competencies listed in the scale were identified through literature reviews and input from experts. The…

  11. 76 FR 30491 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-13166 Filed 5-24-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... May 25, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8679--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011 Proclamation 8680--National Safe Boating Week, 2011 Proclamation 8681--Armed Forces Day, 2011 Proclamation...

  12. A Disaster Preparedness Plan for Small Public Libraries, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jan, Comp.

    The State Library of Ohio designed this disaster preparedness plan to assist small libraries in gathering information that will be invaluable in the event of an emergency. This plan, which focuses on fire and water disaster prevention, is devoted to using simple and inexpensive measures to prevent a disaster or to lessen its effect. The plan…

  13. Disaster Preparedness Resource Guide for Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This guide offers best practices for disaster management at child welfare agencies. Its recommendations are firmly rooted in published disaster-related research and the advice of human service and preparedness experts. It is not a reinvention of disaster management--much quality work has been done in this field--but a synthesis of experts'…

  14. Disaster Preparedness Manual and Workbook for Pennsylvania Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This document suggests components for a sound disaster plan for libraries and archives. The planning process includes four steps which are covered in this manual: educating the staff about disaster preparedness literature; planning to prevent disasters; preparing to respond to an emergency and minimize its effects; and planning how to restore…

  15. 49 CFR 239.101 - Emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occurred. Each railroad shall designate an employee responsible for maintaining current emergency telephone numbers for use in making such notifications. (2) Employee training and qualification—(i) On-board personnel. The railroad's emergency preparedness plan shall address individual employee responsibilities...

  16. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... planning. 5152.208-9001 Section 5152.208-9001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... planning. As prescribed at 5108-070(g)(4) insert the following clause in full text in contracts where the contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  17. Does Gender Matter? University Library Access and Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine how the gender of distance learning students related to variables such as the perception of the availability of library resources, technology available at home and work, technology provided by a university for distance learning, and career preparedness. A total of 166 master's students in the…

  18. Primary Teacher Trainees Preparedness to Teach Science: A Gender Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutisya, Sammy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Primary Teacher Education (PTE) Trainees' perceptions regarding their preparedness to teach science in primary schools. A descriptive survey research design was used and stratified proportionate random sampling techniques used to select 177 males and 172 females. The study found out that more male trainee…

  19. School Security and Crisis Preparedness: Make It Your Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    The top five security risks in today's schools include aggressive behavior, weapons possession or use, drug trafficking, gangs, and "stranger danger." Home-made bomb threats are common. This article also discusses security system costs, risk-reduction frameworks, security assessments, crisis-preparedness guidelines, and security-related staffing.…

  20. Multicultural Education Knowledgebase, Attitudes and Preparedness for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasonga, Teresa A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to investigate the effect of multicultural knowledgebase on attitudes and feelings of preparedness to teach children from diverse backgrounds among pre-service teachers. Currently issues of multicultural education have been heightened by the academic achievement gap and emphasis on standardized test-scores as the indicator…

  1. Earthquake Preparedness 101: Planning Guidelines for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Governor's Office, Sacramento.

    This publication is a guide for California colleges and universities wishing to prepare for earthquakes. An introduction aimed at institutional leaders emphasizes that earthquake preparedness is required by law and argues that there is much that can be done to prepare for earthquakes. The second section, addressed to the disaster planner, offers…

  2. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  3. Characterization of emergency preparedness at DOE contractor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillings, J.C.; Murphy, B.L.; Corbit, C.D.; MacLellan, J.A.; Essig, T.H.; Higby, D.P.; Hooker, C.D.; Laughlin, G.J.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Swinth, K.L.

    1984-07-01

    A study of emergency preparedness capabilities at DOE facilities was initiated following the incident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station. It was designed to parallel but expand on a study on emergency preparedness instrumentation that was conducted in 1970 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The 1970 survey findings led to the publication of four reports on performance criteria for radiological emergency instrumentation. Three of these reports - BNWL-1635 (Selby et al. 1972), BNWL-1742 (Anderson et al. 1974) and BNWL-1857 (Andersen et al. 1976) - addressed the criteria for emergency instrumentation at reactors, mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, and fuel reprocessing plants, respectively. The fourth report, BNWL-1991 (Bramson et al. 1976), addressed evaluation testing and calibration methodology for these instruments. This report is presented in three parts. Part One is a review of the BNWL documents to determine whether they are applicable to state-of-the-art instrument capabilities. The Appendix to Part One provides a comparison between the instrument performance criteria established in BNWL-1991 to applicable American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for portable survey and contamination meters, installed radiation and area monitors, effluent monitors, calibration techniques, criticality detection systems, alarm systems, and direct reading dosimeters. Part Two compares the 1970 survey results with the 1980 survey results to identify trends in emergency preparedness. Part Three is a discussion of the results of the 1980 emergency preparedness survey and the supporting data for each of the 15 modules. 8 references. (ACR)

  4. Disaster Preparedness for University/Community Transit Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Geary Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Public transportation, with its open access, creates an opportunity for masses of people to be hurt while using transit services during human-made or natural disasters. This dissertation reviews the body of academic and professional literature and recent disaster events to characterize the current state of preparedness for disasters affecting…

  5. The importance of establishing a national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, John R; Miller, Yoon K; Inglesby, Tom; Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Angela T; Slemp, Catherine C; Burhans, Robert L; Blumenstock, James; Khan, Ali S

    2013-03-01

    Natural disasters, infectious disease epidemics, terrorism, and major events like the nuclear incident at Fukushima all pose major potential challenges to public health and security. Events such as the anthrax letters of 2001, Hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and West Nile virus outbreaks, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have demonstrated that public health, emergency management, and national security efforts are interconnected. These and other events have increased the national resolve and the resources committed to improving the national health security infrastructure. However, as fiscal pressures force federal, state, and local governments to examine spending, there is a growing need to demonstrate both what the investment in public health preparedness has bought and where gaps remain in our nation's health security. To address these needs, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR), is creating an annual measure of health security and preparedness at the national and state levels: the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI). PMID:23506403

  6. The importance of establishing a national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, John R; Miller, Yoon K; Inglesby, Tom; Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Angela T; Slemp, Catherine C; Burhans, Robert L; Blumenstock, James; Khan, Ali S

    2013-03-01

    Natural disasters, infectious disease epidemics, terrorism, and major events like the nuclear incident at Fukushima all pose major potential challenges to public health and security. Events such as the anthrax letters of 2001, Hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and West Nile virus outbreaks, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have demonstrated that public health, emergency management, and national security efforts are interconnected. These and other events have increased the national resolve and the resources committed to improving the national health security infrastructure. However, as fiscal pressures force federal, state, and local governments to examine spending, there is a growing need to demonstrate both what the investment in public health preparedness has bought and where gaps remain in our nation's health security. To address these needs, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR), is creating an annual measure of health security and preparedness at the national and state levels: the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI).

  7. Transportation radiological emergency preparedness: STAR 95 Exercise final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-12

    Emergency response for a transportation accident involving radiological materials, while not inherently difficult, presents a challenge for several reasons. These accidents, although they can occur anywhere, are rare. Also, although the health consequences are usually slight, accidents involving radioactive materials generally cause a great deal of concern, both for the emergency responders and the general public. How can communities be prepared for an event that requires some technical knowledge, but is so rare that it will never occur in most areas, without expending an effort disproportionate to the actual risk? How can one appropriately deal with an event that may cause excessive public concern? These questions are at the heart of the preparedness issues this program addressed. The overall goal of the Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program was to establish the framework for a coordinated response by all levels of government to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. The Program involved both preparedness activities and the development, conduct and evaluation of a field exercise in Saratoga County, New York. This Report concentrates on the functional activities, lessons learned, recommendations, and action plans for improving preparedness and response to a transportation accident involving radioactive materials.

  8. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  9. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    PubMed

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  10. Acquiring and Organizing Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lare, Gary A.

    This book addresses two areas of need in a curriculum materials center--where to find curriculum materials for acquisition and how to organize these materials for efficient and effective access once they are acquired. The book is arranged in two parts: "Acquiring and Organizing the Collection" and "Resources." The book brings together many…

  11. The National Data Center Preparedness Exercise 2009 - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Bönnemann, Christian; Ceranna, Lars; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The NDC preparedness initiative was initiated by 8 signature states. It has now a history of more than 2 years with two successful exercises and subsequent fruitful discussions during the NDC Evaluation Workshops of the CTBTO. The first exercise was carried out in 2007 (NPE07). The objectives of and the idea behind this exercise have been described in the working paper CTBT/WGB-28/DE-IT/1 of the CTBTO. The exercise simulates a fictitious violation of the CTBT and all NDCs are invited to clarify the nature of the selected event. This exercise should help to evaluate the effectiveness of analysis procedures applied at NDCs, as well as the quality, completeness, and usefulness of IDC products. Moreover, the NPE is a measure for the readiness of the NDCs to fulfil their duties in regard of the CTBT verification: the treaty compliance based judgments about the nature of events as natural or artificial and chemical or nuclear, respectively. The NPE09 has started on 1 October 2009, 00:00 UTC. In addition to the previous exercises, three technologies (seismology, infrasound, and radionuclide) have been taken into account leading to tentative mock events generated by strong explosions in open pit mines. Consequently, the first event, which fulfils all previously defined criteria, was close to the Kara-Zhyra mine in Eastern Kazakhstan and occurred on 28 November 2009 at 07:20:31 UTC. It generated seismic signals as well as infrasound signals at the closest IMS stations. The forward atmospheric transport modelling indicated that a sufficient number of radionuclide stations were also affected to enable the application of a negative testing scenario. First results of the seismo-acoustic analysis of the NPE09 event were presented along with details on the event selection process.

  12. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  13. Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems.

    PubMed

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2012-11-01

    Natural and human-induced disasters affect organizations in myriad ways because of the inherent interconnectedness and interdependencies among human, cyber, and physical infrastructures, but more importantly, because organizations depend on the effectiveness of people and on the leadership they provide to the organizations they serve and represent. These human-organizational-cyber-physical infrastructure entities are termed systems of systems. Given the multiple perspectives that characterize them, they cannot be modeled effectively with a single model. The focus of this article is: (i) the centrality of the states of a system in modeling; (ii) the efficacious role of shared states in modeling systems of systems, in identification, and in the meta-modeling of systems of systems; and (iii) the contributions of the above to strategic preparedness, response to, and recovery from catastrophic risk to such systems. Strategic preparedness connotes a decision-making process and its associated actions. These must be: implemented in advance of a natural or human-induced disaster, aimed at reducing consequences (e.g., recovery time, community suffering, and cost), and/or controlling their likelihood to a level considered acceptable (through the decisionmakers' implicit and explicit acceptance of various risks and tradeoffs). The inoperability input-output model (IIM), which is grounded on Leontief's input/output model, has enabled the modeling of interdependent subsystems. Two separate modeling structures are introduced. These are: phantom system models (PSM), where shared states constitute the essence of modeling coupled systems; and the IIM, where interdependencies among sectors of the economy are manifested by the Leontief matrix of technological coefficients. This article demonstrates the potential contributions of these two models to each other, and thus to more informative modeling of systems of systems schema. The contributions of shared states to this modeling and to

  14. Knowledge, awareness, and preparedness unlinked in layperson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2012-12-01

    take action for disaster prevention. Examinees are 200 high school and undergraduate students who do not major in Earth science. We first gave them information of basic knowledge such as tectonic backgrounds of Japan and the latest research outcomes such as long-term evaluation of large earthquake occurrence or the strong ground motion, and then asked what they felt. The results show that neither the basic knowledge nor the latest research outcomes motivate examinees to take action for the disaster prevention or even to give awareness. We then showed them the movies of the past earthquake disasters and some episodes who had lost their loved ones from the recent earthquakes, and asked the same question. As psychology implies, this information made examinees feel dread and they became aware of the risks lie ahead. But still, they did not mention what to do to prevent the tragedy. In the presentation, we would like to show the difficulty to make people take action to protect their lives from earthquake disasters. We also show peoples' preparedness/unpreparedness with the information released by a Japanese research group in the late January saying the possibility of metropolitan Tokyo earthquake being 70% in this coming 4-year.

  15. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  16. Assessment of Hospital Pharmacy Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the preparedness of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey to provide pharmaceutical services in mass casualty scenarios. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was developed to assess the general knowledge of available resources and attitudes toward the preparedness of the pharmacy department. Results: Out of 60 invitations to participate, 18 surveys (30%) were completed. Respondents practiced at community hospitals (12, 66.6%) with no trauma center designation (11, 67.4%) that served more than 500 licensed beds (five, 29.4%). Six respondents (35.3%) indicated that 75,000 to 100,000 patients visited their emergency departments annually. Seventeen sites (94.4%) reported the existence of an institutional disaster preparedness protocol; 10 (55.5%) indicated that there is a specific plan for the pharmacy department. Most respondents (10, 55.5%) were unsure whether their hospitals had an adequate supply of analgesics, rapid sequence intubation agents, vasopressors, antiemetics, respiratory medications, ophthalmics, oral antimicrobials, and chemical-weapon-specific antidotes. Five (27.7%) agreed that the pharmacy disaster plan included processes to ensure care for patients already hospitalized, and four (22.2%) agreed that the quantity of medication was adequate to treat patients and hospital employees if necessary. Medication stock and quantities were determined based on national or international guidelines at three (16.6%) institutions surveyed. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness. Standardized recommendations from government and/or professional pharmacy organizations should be developed to guide the preparation of hospital pharmacy departments for mass casualty scenarios. PMID:25859121

  17. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  18. Towards an Integrated Flood Preparedness and Response: Centralized Data Access, Analysis, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in internet and cyberinfrastucture technologies have provided the capability to understand the hydrological and meteorological systems at space and time scales that are critical for making accurate understanding and prediction of flooding, and emergency preparedness. A novel example of a cyberinfrastructure platform for flood preparedness and response is the Iowa Flood Center's Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS). IFIS is a one-stop web-platform to access community-based flood conditions, forecasts, visualizations, inundation maps and flood-related data, information, and applications. An enormous volume of real-time observational data from a variety of sensors and remote sensing resources (radars, rain gauges, stream sensors, etc.) and complex flood inundation models are staged on a user-friendly maps environment that is accessible to the general public. IFIS has developed into a very successful tool used by agencies, decision-makers, and the general public throughout Iowa to better understand their local watershed and their personal and community flood risk, and to monitor local stream and river levels. IFIS helps communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and alerts communities in advance to help minimize flood damages. IFIS is widely used by general public in Iowa and the Midwest region with over 120,000 unique users, and became main source of information for many newspapers and TV stations in Iowa. IFIS has features for general public to improve emergency preparedness, and for decision makers to support emergency response and recovery efforts. IFIS is also a great platform for educators and local authorities to educate students and public on flooding with games, easy to use interactive environment, and data rich system.

  19. Canine rabies in Australia: a review of preparedness and research needs.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, J; Fleming, P J S; Ballard, G; Scott-Orr, H; Durr, S; Ward, M P

    2015-06-01

    Australia is unique as a populated continent in that canine rabies is exotic, with only one likely incursion in 1867. This is despite the presence of a widespread free-ranging dog population, which includes the naturalized dingo, feral domestic dogs and dingo-dog cross-breeds. To Australia's immediate north, rabies has recently spread within the Indonesian archipelago, with outbreaks occurring in historically free islands to the east including Bali, Flores, Ambon and the Tanimbar Islands. Australia depends on strict quarantine protocols to prevent importation of a rabid animal, but the risk of illegal animal movements by fishing and recreational vessels circumventing quarantine remains. Predicting where rabies will enter Australia is important, but understanding dog population dynamics and interactions, including contact rates in and around human populations, is essential for rabies preparedness. The interactions among and between Australia's large populations of wild, free-roaming and restrained domestic dogs require quantification for rabies incursions to be detected and controlled. The imminent risk of rabies breaching Australian borders makes the development of disease spread models that will assist in the deployment of cost-effective surveillance, improve preventive strategies and guide disease management protocols vitally important. Here, we critically review Australia's preparedness for rabies, discuss prevailing assumptions and models, identify knowledge deficits in free-roaming dog ecology relating to rabies maintenance and speculate on the likely consequences of endemic rabies for Australia.

  20. Canine rabies in Australia: a review of preparedness and research needs.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, J; Fleming, P J S; Ballard, G; Scott-Orr, H; Durr, S; Ward, M P

    2015-06-01

    Australia is unique as a populated continent in that canine rabies is exotic, with only one likely incursion in 1867. This is despite the presence of a widespread free-ranging dog population, which includes the naturalized dingo, feral domestic dogs and dingo-dog cross-breeds. To Australia's immediate north, rabies has recently spread within the Indonesian archipelago, with outbreaks occurring in historically free islands to the east including Bali, Flores, Ambon and the Tanimbar Islands. Australia depends on strict quarantine protocols to prevent importation of a rabid animal, but the risk of illegal animal movements by fishing and recreational vessels circumventing quarantine remains. Predicting where rabies will enter Australia is important, but understanding dog population dynamics and interactions, including contact rates in and around human populations, is essential for rabies preparedness. The interactions among and between Australia's large populations of wild, free-roaming and restrained domestic dogs require quantification for rabies incursions to be detected and controlled. The imminent risk of rabies breaching Australian borders makes the development of disease spread models that will assist in the deployment of cost-effective surveillance, improve preventive strategies and guide disease management protocols vitally important. Here, we critically review Australia's preparedness for rabies, discuss prevailing assumptions and models, identify knowledge deficits in free-roaming dog ecology relating to rabies maintenance and speculate on the likely consequences of endemic rabies for Australia. PMID:24934203

  1. Atmospheric release advisory capability pilot project at two nuclear power plants and associated state offices of emergency preparedness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    A project to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) limited service with commercial nuclear power plants and their associated state offices of emergency preparedness is discussed. Preliminary planning, installation and testing of the ARAC site facilities at Indian Point Nucler Power Station, New York State; at New York State Office of Emergency Preparedness, Albany, New York; at Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, California; and at the State of California Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, California, are summarized. ARAC participation in the Robert E. Ginna nuclear generating plant accident in New York on January 25, 1982, is discussed. The ARAC system is evaluated with emphasis on communications, the suite of models contained within the ARAC system, and the staff. The implications of this project in designing the next-generation ARAC system to service federal and state needs are assessed.

  2. Evidence-based support for the all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decade there has been a need to respond and recover from various types of emergencies including mass casualty events (MCEs), mass toxicological/chemical events (MTEs), and biological events (pandemics and bio-terror agents). Effective emergency preparedness is more likely to be achieved if an all-hazards response plan is adopted. Objectives To investigate if there is a relationship among hospitals' preparedness for various emergency scenarios, and whether components of one emergency scenario correlate with preparedness for other emergency scenarios. Methods Emergency preparedness levels of all acute-care hospitals for MCEs, MTEs, and biological events were evaluated, utilizing a structured evaluation tool based on measurable parameters. Evaluations were made by professional experts in two phases: evaluation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) followed by a site visit. Relationships among total preparedness and different components' scores for various types of emergencies were analyzed. Results Significant relationships were found among preparedness for different emergencies. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for biological events correlated with preparedness for all investigated emergency scenarios. Strong correlations were found between training and drills with preparedness for all investigated emergency scenarios. Conclusions Fundamental critical building blocks such as SOPs, training, and drill programs improve preparedness for different emergencies including MCEs, MTEs, and biological events, more than other building blocks, such as equipment or knowledge of personnel. SOPs are especially important in unfamiliar emergency scenarios. The findings support the adoption of an all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness. PMID:23098065

  3. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Results: Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. Conclusion: LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection. PMID:27694648

  4. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Results: Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. Conclusion: LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection.

  5. Re-inventing prevention? - An evaluation of tools for strengthening private preparedness for floods and heavy rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohland, Stefanie; Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Seebauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: private preparedness, property protection, flood, heavy rains, Transtheoretical Model, evaluation of methods and tools Experiences in Europe and Austria from coping with numerous floods and heavy rain events in recent decades point to room for improvement in reducing damages and adverse effects. One of the emerging issues is private preparedness, which has only received punctual attention in Austria until now. Current activities to promote property protection are, however, not underpinned by a long-term strategy, thus minimizing their cumulative effect. While printed brochures and online information are widely available, innovative information services, tailored to and actively addressing specific target groups, are thin on the ground. This project reviews (national as well as international) established approaches, with a focus on German-speaking areas, checking their long-term effectiveness with the help of expert workshops and an empirical analysis of survey data. The Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska, 1977) serves as the analytical framework: We assign specific tools to distinct stages of behavioural change. People's openness to absorb risk information or their willingness to engage in private preparedness depend on an incremental process of considering, appraising, introducing and finally maintaining preventive actions. Based on this stage-specific perspective and the workshop results, gaps of intervention are identified to define best-practice examples and recommendations that can be realized within the prevailing legislative and organizational framework at national, regional and local level in Austria.

  6. Preparedness Perceptions, Sociodemographic Characteristics, and Level of Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    DeBastiani, Summer D; Strine, Tara W; Vagi, Sara J; Barnett, Daniel J; Kahn, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to inform state and community interventions focused on increasing household preparedness by examining the association between self-reported possession of household disaster preparedness items (ie, a 3-day supply of food and water, a written evacuation plan, and a working radio and flashlight) and perceptions of household preparedness on a 3-point scale from "well prepared" to "not at all prepared." Data were analyzed from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey: the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n = 104,654). Only 25.3% of the population felt they were well prepared, and only 12.3% had all 5 of the recommended items. Fewer than half the households surveyed had 4 or more of the recommended preparedness items (34.1%). Respondents were more likely to report their households were well prepared as the number of preparedness items possessed by their household increased. Risk factors for having no preparedness items were: younger age, being female, lower levels of education, and requesting the survey to be conducted in Spanish. To increase household disaster preparedness, more community-based preparedness education campaigns targeting vulnerable populations, such as those with limited English abilities and lower reading levels, are needed.

  7. An automated computerized methodology for the segmentation of in vivo acquired DSA images: application in the New Zealand hindlimb ischemia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagadis, G. C.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Samaras, N.; Daskalakis, A.; Spyridonos, P.; Katsanos, K.; Karnabatidis, D.; Sourgiadaki, E.; Cavouras, D.; Siablis, D.; Nikiforidis, G. C.

    2009-05-01

    In-vivo dynamic visualization and accurate quantification of vascular networks is a prerequisite of crucial importance in both therapeutic angiogenesis and tumor anti-angiogenesis studies. A user independent computerized tool was developed, for the automated segmentation and quantitative assessment of in-vivo acquired DSA images. Automatic vessel assessment was performed employing the concept of image structural tensor. Initially, vasculature was estimated according to the largest eigenvalue of the structural tensor. The resulted eigenvalue matrix was treated as gray-matrix from which the vessels were gradually segmented and then categorized in three main sub-groups; large, medium and small-size vessels. The histogram percentiles, corresponding to 85%, 65% and 47% of prime eigenvalue gray-matrix were optimally found to give the thresholds T1, T2 and T3 respectively, for extracting vessels of different size. The proposed methodology was tested on a series of DSA images in both normal rabbits (group A) and in rabbits with experimental induced chronic hindlimb ischemia (group B). As a result an automated computerized tool was developed to process images without any user intervention in either experimental or clinical studies. Specifically, a higher total vascular area and length were calculated in group B compared to group A (p=0.0242 and p=0.0322 respectively), which is in accordance to the fact that significantly more collateral arteries are developed during the physiological response to the stimuli of ischemia.

  8. Seismological investigation of the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Hartmann, Gernot; Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all kinds of nuclear explosions conducted on Earth - underground, underwater or in the atmosphere. The verification regime of the CTBT is designed to detect any treaty violation. While the data of the International Monitoring System (IMS) is collected, processed and technically analyzed at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBT-Organization, National Data Centres (NDC) of the member states provide interpretation and advice to their government concerning suspicious detections. The NDC Preparedness Exercises (NPE) are regularly performed dealing with fictitious treaty violations to practice the combined analysis of CTBT verification technologies. These exercises should help to evaluate the effectiveness of analysis procedures applied at NDCs and the quality, completeness and usefulness of IDC products for example. The exercise trigger of NPE2013 is a combination of a tempo-spatial indication pointing to a certain waveform event and simulated radionuclide concentrations generated by forward Atmospheric Transport Modelling based on a fictitious release. For the waveform event the date (4 Sept. 2013) is given and the region is communicated in a map showing the fictitious state of "Frisia" at the Coast of the North Sea in Central Europe. The potential connection between the waveform and radionuclide evidence remains unclear for exercise participants. The verification task was to identify the waveform event and to investigate potential sources of the radionuclide findings. The final question was whether the findings are CTBT relevant and justify a request for On-Site-Inspection in "Frisia". The seismic event was not included in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC. The available detections from the closest seismic IMS stations lead to a epicenter accuracy of about 24 km which is not sufficient to specify the 1000 km2 inspection area in case of an OSI. With use of data from local stations and

  9. The Role of Scientific Collections in Scientific Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Building on the findings and recommendations of the Interagency Working Group on Scientific Collections, Scientific Collections International (SciColl) aims to improve the rapid access to science collections across disciplines within the federal government and globally, between government agencies and private research institutions. SciColl offered a novel opportunity for the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, to explore the value of scientific research collections under the science preparedness initiative and integrate it as a research resource at each stage in the emergence of the infectious diseases cycle. Under the leadership of SciColl’s executive secretariat at the Smithsonian Institution, and with multiple federal and international partners, a workshop during October 2014 fully explored the intersections of the infectious disease cycle and the role scientific collections could play as an evidentiary scientific resource to mitigate risks associated with emerging infectious diseases. PMID:26380390

  10. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness Modules in Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    von Waldner, Trina; McEwen, Deanna W.; White, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of emergency preparedness simulations in mass triage and mass dispensing on student pharmacist performance and perceived competency when assuming pharmacist roles in disaster situations. Design. Second-year student pharmacists (144) completed two 3-hour simulations focusing on mass triage and mass dispensing. The mass triage simulation consisted of virtual and live victims to be triaged and assigned a transport order. In the mass dispensing simulation, students assumed patient and pharmacist roles in a point-of-dispensing exercise for influenza. Assessment. For the mass triage simulation, students were challenged most by determining which patients could wait for emergency care but did well assessing those who required immediate or minimal care (83% and 64% correct, respectively). During the mass dispensing simulation, students performed screening and dispensing functions with accuracy rates of 88% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion. Student pharmacists performed well in screening and dispensing functions, but struggled with mass casualty triage during emergency preparedness simulations. PMID:27073276

  11. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness Modules in Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hannings, Ashley N; von Waldner, Trina; McEwen, Deanna W; White, Catherine A

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To determine the impact of emergency preparedness simulations in mass triage and mass dispensing on student pharmacist performance and perceived competency when assuming pharmacist roles in disaster situations. Design. Second-year student pharmacists (144) completed two 3-hour simulations focusing on mass triage and mass dispensing. The mass triage simulation consisted of virtual and live victims to be triaged and assigned a transport order. In the mass dispensing simulation, students assumed patient and pharmacist roles in a point-of-dispensing exercise for influenza. Assessment. For the mass triage simulation, students were challenged most by determining which patients could wait for emergency care but did well assessing those who required immediate or minimal care (83% and 64% correct, respectively). During the mass dispensing simulation, students performed screening and dispensing functions with accuracy rates of 88% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion. Student pharmacists performed well in screening and dispensing functions, but struggled with mass casualty triage during emergency preparedness simulations. PMID:27073276

  12. An academic approach to climate change emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Trask, Jeffrey A

    To achieve effective emergency management and business continuity, all hazards should be considered during the planning and preparedness process. In recent years, several new hazards have attracted the attention of Emergency Management and Business Continuity practitioners. Climate change presents a unique challenge. Practitioners must rely on historical data combined with scientific projections to guide their planning and preparedness efforts. This article examines how an academic institution's emergency management programme can plan successfully for this hazard by focusing on best practices in the area of building cross-departmental and cross-jurisdictional relationships. Examples of scientific data related to the hazard of climate change will be presented along with the latest guidance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency encouraging the planning for future hazards. The article presents a functional exercise in which this hazard was prominently featured, and presents testimony from subject matter experts. Recommendations for emergency management and business continuity programmes are so provided. PMID:26642169

  13. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  14. The WOMED model of benign thyroid disease: Acquired magnesium deficiency due to physical and psychological stressors relates to dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to discern whether a relation between biochemical parameters, sonography and musculoskeletal data exists in cases of hyperthyroidism and whether they are modifiable through supplementation with selenomethionine and magnesium citrate as well as by acupuncture and manual medicine methods. Results A direct correlation between whole blood selenium and serum magnesium was found in subjects without thyroid disease and in menopausal women while it was reversed in cases of thyroid diseases as well as in patients with depression, infection, and in infertile women. Vascularization indices were elevated in cases of newly diagnosed benign thyroid diseases. Musculoskeletal changes i.e. lateral tension and idiopathic moving toes, as well as situations of physical and psychological stress and minor trauma and infection led to an increase of vascularization. Magnesium levels correlated negatively with these two conditions. The supplementation brought a reduction of the vascularization indices and reduced the incidence of idiopathic moving toes. Treatment of lateral tension required manual medicine methods and acupuncture (gastrocnemius). A small subgroup of patients showed a further reduction of hyper-vascularization after receiving coenzyme Q10. Conclusions We interpret the elevated thyroid vascularization and low magnesium levels as signs of an inflammatory process related to the musculoskeletal changes. Improvement of thyroid function and morphology can be achieved after correcting the influence of stressors together with the supplementation regime. We hypothesize that the central biochemical event in thyroid disease is that of an acquired, altered mitochondrial function due to deficiency of magnesium, selenium, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:26675817

  15. STE20/SPS1-Related Proline/Alanine-Rich Kinase Is Involved in Plasticity of GABA Signaling Function in a Mouse Model of Acquired Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jueqian; Chen, Shuda; Chen, Yishu; Chen, Ziyi; Wang, Qian; Fang, Ziyan; Zhou, Liemin

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of chloride ([Cl-]i) determines the strength and polarity of GABA neurotransmission. STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is known as an indirect regulator of [Cl-]i for its activation of Na-K-2 Cl-co-transporters (NKCC) and inhibition of K-Cl-co-transporters (KCC) in many organs. NKCC1 or KCC2 expression changes have been demonstrated previously in the hippocampal neurons of mice with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). However, it remains unclear whether SPAK modulates [Cl-]i via NKCC1 or KCC2 in the brain. Also, there are no data clearly characterizing SPAK expression in cortical or hippocampal neurons or confirming an association between SPAK and epilepsy. In the present study, we examined SPAK expression and co-expression with NKCC1 and KCC2 in the hippocampal neurons of mice with PISE, and we investigated alterations in SPAK expression in the hippocampus of such mice. Significant increases in SPAK mRNA and protein levels were detected during various stages of PISE in the PISE mice in comparison to levels in age-matched sham (control) and blank treatment (control) mice. SPAK and NKCC1 expression increased in vitro, while KCC2 was down-regulated in hippocampal neurons following hypoxic conditioning. However, SPAK overexpression did not influence the expression levels of NKCC1 or KCC2. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we determined that the intensity of interaction between SPAK and NKCC1 and between SPAK and KCC2 increased markedly after oxygen-deprivation, whereas SPAK overexpression strengthened the relationships. The [Cl-]i of hippocampal neurons changed in a corresponding manner under the different conditions. Our data suggests that SPAK is involved in the plasticity of GABA signaling function in acquired epilepsy via adjustment of [Cl-]i in hippocampal neurons. PMID:24058604

  16. State of the art in risk analysis of workforce criticality influencing disaster preparedness for interdependent systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Herrera, Lucia Castro; Yu, Krista Danielle S; Pagsuyoin, Sheree Ann T; Tan, Raymond R

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss a needed paradigm shift in disaster risk analysis to emphasize the role of the workforce in managing the recovery of interdependent infrastructure and economic systems. Much of the work that has been done on disaster risk analysis has focused primarily on preparedness and recovery strategies for disrupted infrastructure systems. The reliability of systems such as transportation, electric power, and telecommunications is crucial in sustaining business processes, supply chains, and regional livelihoods, as well as ensuring the availability of vital services in the aftermath of disasters. There has been a growing momentum in recognizing workforce criticality in the aftermath of disasters; nevertheless, significant gaps still remain in modeling, assessing, and managing workforce disruptions and their associated ripple effects to other interdependent systems. The workforce plays a pivotal role in ensuring that a disrupted region continues to function and subsequently recover from the adverse effects of disasters. With this in mind, this article presents a review of recent studies that have underscored the criticality of workforce sectors in formulating synergistic preparedness and recovery policies for interdependent infrastructure and regional economic systems. PMID:24593287

  17. Burn disaster preparedness and the southern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy; Holmes, James; Cairns, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Disasters with significant numbers of burn-injured patients create incredible challenges for disaster planners. Although not unique to burn care, high-intensity areas of specialty such as burns, pediatrics, and trauma quickly become scarce resources in a disaster.All disasters are local, but regional support is critical in burn disaster planning. On a day-to-day basis, burn bed capacity can be problematic. A review of the literature and our experiences, including mathematical modeling and real events, reaffirm how rapidly we can overwhelm our resources.This review includes the Southern Burn Plan, created by the burn centers of the American Burn Association's Southern Region, should there be a need for additional hospital burn beds (capacity) and burn care (capability) in response to a disaster. This article also explores planning and preparedness developments and describes options to improve our efforts, including training and education.It is incumbent upon everyone in the healthcare profession to become comfortable managing burn-injured patients until the patients can be moved to a burn center. Understanding the regional capacity, capability, and when a surge of patients may require the practice of altered standards of care is essential for those involved in medical disaster preparedness.

  18. A baseline assessment of emergency planning and preparedness in Italian universities.

    PubMed

    Marincioni, Fausto; Fraboni, Rita

    2012-04-01

    Besides offering teaching and research services, schools and universities also must provide for the safety and security of their employees, students, and visitors. This paper describes emergency preparedness in a sample of Italian universities. In particular it examines risk perception within a specific professional category (university safety and security officers) in a specific cultural context (Italy). In addition, it discusses the transposition and implementation in a European Union (EU) member state of EU Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989, on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers. The findings highlight heterogeneous and fragmented emergency management models within the Italian university system, underlining the need for a stricter framework of standardised safety protocols and emergency management guidelines. The study also points out that enhancing emergency planning and preparedness in Italian universities entails increasing safety leadership, employee engagement and individual responsibility for safety and security; essentially, it necessitates improving the culture of risk prevention. PMID:21995686

  19. State of the art in risk analysis of workforce criticality influencing disaster preparedness for interdependent systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Herrera, Lucia Castro; Yu, Krista Danielle S; Pagsuyoin, Sheree Ann T; Tan, Raymond R

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss a needed paradigm shift in disaster risk analysis to emphasize the role of the workforce in managing the recovery of interdependent infrastructure and economic systems. Much of the work that has been done on disaster risk analysis has focused primarily on preparedness and recovery strategies for disrupted infrastructure systems. The reliability of systems such as transportation, electric power, and telecommunications is crucial in sustaining business processes, supply chains, and regional livelihoods, as well as ensuring the availability of vital services in the aftermath of disasters. There has been a growing momentum in recognizing workforce criticality in the aftermath of disasters; nevertheless, significant gaps still remain in modeling, assessing, and managing workforce disruptions and their associated ripple effects to other interdependent systems. The workforce plays a pivotal role in ensuring that a disrupted region continues to function and subsequently recover from the adverse effects of disasters. With this in mind, this article presents a review of recent studies that have underscored the criticality of workforce sectors in formulating synergistic preparedness and recovery policies for interdependent infrastructure and regional economic systems.

  20. National Alliance for Radiation Readiness: Leveraging Partnerships to Increase Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Blumenstock, James S; Allen, Meredith

    2016-02-01

    The National Alliance for Radiation Readiness (NARR) is an alliance of 16 national member organizations that have banded together to serve as the collective "voice of health" in radiological preparedness through: • participation in national dialogues on radiological emergency issues; • provision of thoughtful feedback on documents, policies, and guidelines; and • convening of partners to raise awareness of and resolve radiological emergency issues. NARR benefits from the intersection and interaction of public health, radiation control, healthcare, and emergency management professionals--all with an interest in bolstering the nation's preparedness for a radiological or nuclear incident. NARR is able to provide a unique perspective on radiological and nuclear preparedness by creating multi-disciplinary workgroups to develop guidance, recommendations, and provide subject matter feedback. NARR aims to build response and recovery capacity and capabilities by supporting the sharing of resources and tools, including technical methods and information through the development of an online clearinghouse. NARR also aims to identify and disseminate best practices, as well as define and educate on the roles and responsibilities of local, state, and federal government and the numerous agencies involved with the response to a radiological emergency. PMID:26717184

  1. PRIORITIZATION OF PEDIATRIC CBRNE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS EDUCATION AND TRAINING NEEDS

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, David; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Needle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Children are the members of our population who are most vulnerable to the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE) attack. It has been over 12 years since 9/11 and the majority of clinicians who would be providing care to children in the event of another attack still lack the requisite disaster preparedness training. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the recent developments that will enable the affordable creation of key CBRNE educational and just in time material. In 2011, the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) convened a pediatric disaster preparedness conference. Much of the initial groundwork for development of a pediatric disaster preparedness curriculum, including the identification of target audiences and requisite role specific CBRNE curriculum content, was the product of this conference. Much of the needed pediatric education and training content for the diagnosis and treatment of the injurious effects of CBRNE has recently been both developed and well vetted. Bringing together these efforts in an educational program will result in a workforce that is better trained and prepared to address the needs of children impacted by these types of disasters. PMID:25587241

  2. A framework for assessing e-health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Geisler, Elie; Schaffer, Jonathan L

    2005-01-01

    Whilst healthcare is the biggest service industry on the globe, it has yet to realise the full potential of the e-business revolution in the form of e-health. This is due to many reasons including the fact that the healthcare industry is faced with many complex challenges in trying to deliver cost-effective, high-value, accessible healthcare and has traditionally been slow to embrace new business techniques and technologies. Given that e-health, to a great extent, is a macro level concern that has far reaching micro level implications, this paper firstly develops a framework to assess a country's preparedness with respect to embracing e-health (the application of e-commerce to healthcare) and from this an e-health preparedness grid to facilitate the assessment of any e-health initiative. Taken together, the integrative framework and preparedness grid provide useful and necessary tools to enable successful e-health initiatives to ensue by helping country and/or an organisation within a country to identify and thus address areas that require further attention in order for it to undertake a successful e-health initiative.

  3. A framework for assessing e-health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Geisler, Elie; Schaffer, Jonathan L

    2005-01-01

    Whilst healthcare is the biggest service industry on the globe, it has yet to realise the full potential of the e-business revolution in the form of e-health. This is due to many reasons including the fact that the healthcare industry is faced with many complex challenges in trying to deliver cost-effective, high-value, accessible healthcare and has traditionally been slow to embrace new business techniques and technologies. Given that e-health, to a great extent, is a macro level concern that has far reaching micro level implications, this paper firstly develops a framework to assess a country's preparedness with respect to embracing e-health (the application of e-commerce to healthcare) and from this an e-health preparedness grid to facilitate the assessment of any e-health initiative. Taken together, the integrative framework and preparedness grid provide useful and necessary tools to enable successful e-health initiatives to ensue by helping country and/or an organisation within a country to identify and thus address areas that require further attention in order for it to undertake a successful e-health initiative. PMID:18048213

  4. A review of instruments assessing public health preparedness.

    PubMed Central

    Asch, Steven M.; Stoto, Michael; Mendes, Marc; Valdez, R. Burciaga; Gallagher, Meghan E.; Halverson, Paul; Lurie, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to review instruments that assess the level of preparedness of state and local public health departments to respond to health threats such as bioterrorism. METHODS: The authors examined 27 published population-based instruments for planning or evaluating preparedness that were mostly unavailable in the peer-reviewed literature. Using the Essential Public Health Services framework, the instruments were evaluated for (1) clarity of measurement parameters, (2) balance between structural and process measures, (3) evidence of effectiveness, and (4) specification of an accountable entity. RESULTS: There was a great deal of overlap but little consistency in what constitutes "preparedness" or how it should be measured. Most instruments relied excessively on subjective or structural measures, lacked scientific evidence for measures assessed, and failed to clearly define what entity was accountable for accomplishing the task or function. CONCLUSION: Strategies for improvement include measure standardization, better interagency communication, and investment in public health practice research to develop the underlying evidence base required for developing quality measures and assessments. PMID:16224986

  5. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach.

  6. Demographic Determinants of Disaster Preparedness Behaviors Amongst Tehran Inhabitants, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Jabbari, Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tehran is vulnerable to natural hazards, especially earthquakes. Disaster preparedness behaviors (DPB) are measures that can mitigate the adverse consequences of disasters. Demographic factors affect DPB, however, the role of some of these factors is not still clear. By understanding these effects, disaster specialists could design interventions toward specific demographics. In the present study, we aimed to investigate demographic determinants of DPB. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2014. The target population included inhabitants of Tehran who were 18 years or older. A total of 1250 participants were selected randomly and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Results of our study showed that monthly income level, previous disaster experience, residential district and occupation are demographic factors that influence DPB significantly. However, disaster preparedness was not affected by gender, educational level, number of household members, home type, home ownership and being the head of household. Conclusion: To promote DPB in Tehran, disaster specialists should focus on improving DPB in low-income and unemployed people, and individuals who live in high risk districts, especially in those who have not experienced disasters. Key words: Disaster, Preparedness behavior, Demographic determinants.     PMID:26767148

  7. Perceptions of older people on disaster response and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Seana; Deeny, Pat; Spelman, Ruth; Vitale, Catherine T

    2010-03-01

    Most disasters occur in developing countries but in the last decade due to the increasing threat of floods, air disasters and terrorist threat, disaster response and preparedness is a growing global concern. Due to an ageing population across the world, older people now constitute a significant proportion of those at risk from disasters. This paper reports on a qualitative study carried out in Sri Lanka and in the United States where a group of older people were asked about aspects of disaster response and preparedness. The group from Sri Lanka (n=9) who had direct experience of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami were asked how they perceived international aid relief and a group of white Caucasians from East Coast USA (n=8) were asked about disaster preparedness. Findings indicate that both groups had similar issues albeit that they were looking at different phases of the disaster cycle and from different cultural perspectives. Both groups identified issues related to, protecting the rights of the older person and preventing loss of independence in responding and preparing for a disaster, mistrust of government and access to resources and all expressed strong feelings of self-responsibility.

  8. Raising Awareness and Preparedness to Earthquake and Tsunami Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Mata, Isabel; Silveira, Graça; Matias, Luis

    2014-05-01

    In the field of natural risks, awareness and preparedness are deeply rooted on education and outreach (EO). In this presentation we will review of a series of EO activities carried out in Portugal over the last years with the goals of increasing the awareness and preparedness of the population to earthquake and tsunami risk. Portugal is a country with a long history of destructive earthquakes, which includes the largest historical earthquake of Europe: the 1755 great Lisbon earthquake, a landmark in the history of seismology. However, recurrence times between large earthquakes are long, resulting on widespread unconsciousness of earthquake and tsunami risk, most noticeable on younger people who never experienced strong earthquakes. Over the past years we developed a series of EO activities with the aims of increasing the scientific understanding of solid Earth dynamics and promoting risk adequate behaviors. These activities have been extremely well received by the public, encouraging us to pursue efforts in this field. Different activities were devised for students in 1) kindergarten and primary school; 2) highschool; 3) pre-university; 4) university. Specific activities were developed for teachers. Other activities aimed at reaching the general public. We found that the balance between preparedness and scientific contents of the activities had to very adaptable to the specific public. In this presentation we will summarize the activities developed for each type of public, their rationale, the public's reaction, and we will share the lessons learned from our rewarding experience.

  9. National Alliance for Radiation Readiness: Leveraging Partnerships to Increase Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Blumenstock, James S; Allen, Meredith

    2016-02-01

    The National Alliance for Radiation Readiness (NARR) is an alliance of 16 national member organizations that have banded together to serve as the collective "voice of health" in radiological preparedness through: • participation in national dialogues on radiological emergency issues; • provision of thoughtful feedback on documents, policies, and guidelines; and • convening of partners to raise awareness of and resolve radiological emergency issues. NARR benefits from the intersection and interaction of public health, radiation control, healthcare, and emergency management professionals--all with an interest in bolstering the nation's preparedness for a radiological or nuclear incident. NARR is able to provide a unique perspective on radiological and nuclear preparedness by creating multi-disciplinary workgroups to develop guidance, recommendations, and provide subject matter feedback. NARR aims to build response and recovery capacity and capabilities by supporting the sharing of resources and tools, including technical methods and information through the development of an online clearinghouse. NARR also aims to identify and disseminate best practices, as well as define and educate on the roles and responsibilities of local, state, and federal government and the numerous agencies involved with the response to a radiological emergency.

  10. US Civilian Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program, 2003.

    PubMed

    Strikas, Raymond A; Neff, Linda J; Rotz, Lisa; Cono, Joanne; Knutson, Donna; Henderson, Joseph; Orenstein, Walter A

    2008-03-15

    Variola virus, the cause of smallpox disease, has been deemed a possible bioterrorism agent. Since November 2001, federal, state, and local public health partners implemented activities to prepare for a possible smallpox outbreak. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produced and delivered training and educational materials for smallpox preparedness in many formats, developed detailed smallpox vaccine information statements about vaccine contraindications and vaccination site care, and established mechanisms to monitor and respond to adverse events after smallpox vaccination. The last included enhancements to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, a pregnancy registry for inadvertently vaccinated pregnant women, and a Clinician Telephone Information Line to collect reports about adverse events. The civilian responder vaccination program was conducted with rigorous safety procedures, and few historically recognized adverse events were observed. However, myocarditis and/or pericarditis was newly recognized as an adverse event caused by the New York City Board of Health vaccinia vaccine strain. This smallpox preparedness program put into place a number of measures to advance the United States' readiness for a smallpox outbreak that have assisted in preparedness for other threats. PMID:18284355

  11. Disaster preparedness: what training do our interns receive during medical school?

    PubMed

    Jasper, Edward; Berg, Katherine; Reid, Matthew; Gomella, Patrick; Weber, Danielle; Schaeffer, Arielle; Crawford, Albert; Mealey, Kathleen; Berg, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Disaster preparedness training is a critical component of medical student education. Despite recent natural and man-made disasters, there is no national consensus on a disaster preparedness curriculum. The authors designed a survey to assess prior disaster preparedness training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2010, the authors surveyed incoming interns (n = 130) regarding the number of hours of training in disaster preparedness received during medical school, including formal didactic sessions and simulation, and their level of self-perceived proficiency in disaster management. Survey respondents represented 42 medical schools located in 20 states. Results demonstrated that 47% of interns received formal training in disaster preparedness in medical school; 64% of these training programs included some type of simulation. There is a need to improve the level of disaster preparedness training in medical school. A national curriculum should be developed with aspects that promote knowledge retention.

  12. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication. PMID:20574880

  13. Rural mass casualty preparedness and response: the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kristin P; Bass, Robert; Wijetunge, Gamunu; Altevogt, Bruce M

    2012-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events hosted a workshop at the request of the Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services (FICEMS) that brought together a range of stakeholders to broadly identify and confront gaps in rural infrastructure that challenge mass casualty incident (MCI) response and potential mechanisms to fill them. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions around 6 major issues specific to rural MCI preparedness and response: (1) improving rural response to MCI through improving daily capacity and capability, (2) leveraging current and emerging technology to overcome infrastructure deficits, (3) sustaining and strengthening relationships, (4) developing and sharing best practices across jurisdictions and sectors, (5) establishing metrics research and development, and (6) fostering the need for federal leadership to expand and integrate EMS into a broader rural response framework. PMID:23077273

  14. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Plan, U.S. Department of Energy Region 6

    SciTech Connect

    Marsha Keister

    2010-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Region 6 Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Plan (TEPP Plan) operates within the framework of the DOE emergency management system for developing, coordinating, and directing emergency planning, preparedness, and readiness assurance activities for radiological transportation incidents. The DOE Region 6 TEPP Plan is a narrative description of the DOE Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program activities, training and technical assistance provided to states and tribes along DOE's transportation corridors in DOE Region 6.

  15. Committee opinion no. 555: hospital disaster preparedness for obstetricians and facilities providing maternity care.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Numerous occurrences in the past decade have brought the issue of disaster preparedness, and specifically hospital preparedness, to the national forefront. Much of the work in this area has focused on large hospital system preparedness for various disaster scenarios. Many unique features of the obstetric population warrant additional consideration in order to optimize the care received by expectant mothers and their fetuses or newborns in the face of future natural or biologic disasters.

  16. Building capacity for community disaster preparedness: a call for collaboration between public environmental health and emergency preparedness and response programs.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Maldonado, Thelma; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Sinclair, Ryan; Montgomery, Susanne; Dyjack, David T

    2012-09-01

    Partnerships among local public environmental health (EH), emergency preparedness and response (EPR) programs, and the communities they serve have great potential to build community environmental health emergency preparedness (EHEP) capacity. In the study described in this article, the beliefs and organizational practices pertaining to community EHEP outreach and capacity were explored through key informant (KI) interviews (N = 14) with a sample of governmental EH and EPR administrators and top-level managers from Riverside and San Bernardino counties in Southern California. The results indicate that KIs were highly confident in their workforces' efficacy, ability, willingness, and motivation to directly engage local communities in EHEP. Best practices to combat organizational and systematic barriers to community EHEP outreach were identified. Based on the authors' results, training in participatory methods is needed to bridge technical knowledge in emergency management to daily practice. The lessons learned will form the basis of future interventions aimed to prepare EH and EPR professions to implement community-focused emergency preparedness strategies.

  17. Building Capacity for Community Disaster Preparedness: A Call for Collaboration Between Public Environmental Health and Emergency Preparedness and Response Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Maldonado, Thelma; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Sinclair, Ryan; Montgomery, Susanne; Dyjack, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Partnerships among local public environmental health (EH), emergency preparedness and response (EPR) programs, and the communities they serve have great potential to build community environmental health emergency preparedness (EHEP) capacity. In the study described in this article, the beliefs and organizational practices pertaining to community EHEP outreach and capacity were explored through key informant (KI) interviews (N = 14) with a sample of governmental EH and EPR administrators and top-level managers from Riverside and San Bernardino counties in Southern California. The results indicate that KIs were highly confident in their workforces’ efficacy, ability, willingness, and motivation to directly engage local communities in EHEP. Best practices to combat organizational and systematic barriers to community EHEP outreach were identified. Based on the authors’ results, training in participatory methods is needed to bridge technical knowledge in emergency management to daily practice. The lessons learned will form the basis of future interventions aimed to prepare EH and EPR professions to implement community-focused emergency preparedness strategies. PMID:22984732

  18. Opperational Systems for Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Baskett, R

    2003-11-10

    Operational systems predict the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials for real-time emergency response, pre-event planning, and post-incident assessment. Such systems provide federal, state, and local agencies, emergency planners and responders, public health officials, military personnel, and other users with critical information on which to base life-and-death decisions on safe zones for siting of incident command posts, sheltering-in-place or evacuation advisories, the need for protective equipment, and the utilization of hospital and health care resources. A range of operational modeling capabilities is required to support different types of release events, distance scales, and response times. Fast-response deployable models are used to perform hazard assessments and initial response functions, and can serve as a backup when connections to a reach-back center are not available. Higher-fidelity three-dimensional dispersion models, coupled to real-time observational data and numerical weather prediction model output, are used for real-time response and support expert quality-assured predictions and refined assessments. Computational fluid dynamics models, which explicitly resolve urban structures, are used for high fidelity applications including vulnerability analyses and planning studies. This paper will briefly discuss the types and capabilities of models used or under development for emergency response systems, customer products, supporting data, and a few representative examples of operational systems. Some selected research priorities are summarized in the final sections.

  19. Proposing a New Conceptual Model and an Exemplar Measure Using Health Information: Technology to Examine the Impact of Relational Nurse Continuity on Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Khokhar, Ashfaq; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the staffing variable relational nurse continuity on patient outcomes has been rarely studied and with inconclusive results. Multiple definitions and an absence of systematic methods for measuring the influence of continuity have resulted in its exclusion from nurse-staffing studies and conceptual models. We present a new conceptual model and an innovative use of health information technology to measure relational nurse continuity and to demonstrate the potential for bringing the results of big data science back to the bedside. Understanding the power of big data to address critical clinical issues may foster a new direction for nursing administration theory development. PMID:26244480

  20. An Assessment of State Board of Pharmacy Legal Documents for Public Health Emergency Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Ford, Heath; Trent, Shane; Wickizer, Stephen

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To estimate pharmaceutical emergency preparedness of US states and commonwealth territories. Methods. A quantitative content analysis was performed to evaluate board of pharmacy legal documents (ie, statutes, rules, and regulations) for the presence of the 2006 Rules for Public Health Emergencies (RPHE) from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy's (NABP) Model Pharmacy Practice Act. Results. The median number of state-adopted RPHE was one, which was significantly less than the hypothesized value of four. Rule Two, which recommended policies and procedures for reporting disasters, was adopted significantly more than other RPHE. Ten states incorporated language specific to public health emergency refill dispensing, and among these, only six allowed 30-day refill quantities. Conclusion. Based on the 2006 NABP model rules, it does not appear that states are prepared to expedite an effective pharmaceutical response during a public health emergency. Boards of pharmacy should consider adding the eight RPHE to their state pharmacy practice acts. PMID:27073273

  1. An Assessment of State Board of Pharmacy Legal Documents for Public Health Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Shane; Wickizer, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To estimate pharmaceutical emergency preparedness of US states and commonwealth territories. Methods. A quantitative content analysis was performed to evaluate board of pharmacy legal documents (ie, statutes, rules, and regulations) for the presence of the 2006 Rules for Public Health Emergencies (RPHE) from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy’s (NABP) Model Pharmacy Practice Act. Results. The median number of state-adopted RPHE was one, which was significantly less than the hypothesized value of four. Rule Two, which recommended policies and procedures for reporting disasters, was adopted significantly more than other RPHE. Ten states incorporated language specific to public health emergency refill dispensing, and among these, only six allowed 30-day refill quantities. Conclusion. Based on the 2006 NABP model rules, it does not appear that states are prepared to expedite an effective pharmaceutical response during a public health emergency. Boards of pharmacy should consider adding the eight RPHE to their state pharmacy practice acts. PMID:27073273

  2. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  3. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  4. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  5. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  6. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  7. MicroRNA-132 Interact with p250GAP/Cdc42 Pathway in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Model of Acquired Epilepsy and Associated with Epileptogenesis Process

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Xu, Tao; Ma, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that epilepsy is the result of synaptic reorganization and pathological excitatory loop formation in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. We proposed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) and p250GAP might play important roles in this process by activating the downstream Rho GTPase family. We tested this hypothesis using a magnesium-free medium-induced epileptic model of cultured hippocampal neurons. We investigated whether miR-132 regulates GTPase activity through p250GAP and found that Cdc42 was significantly activated in our experimental model. Silencing miR-132 inhibited the electrical excitability level of cultured epileptic neurons, whereas silencing p250GAP had an opposite effect. In addition, we verified the effect of miR-132 in vivo and found that silencing miR-132 inhibited the aberrant formation of dendritic spines and chronic spontaneous seizure in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Finally, we confirmed that silencing miR-132 has a neuroprotective effect on cultured epileptic neurons; however, this effect did not occur through the p250GAP pathway. Generally, silencing miR-132 may suppress spontaneous seizure activity through the miR-132/p250GAP/Cdc42 pathway by regulating the morphology and electrophysiology of dendritic spines; therefore, miR-132 may serve as a potential target for the development of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:27579184

  8. MicroRNA-132 Interact with p250GAP/Cdc42 Pathway in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Model of Acquired Epilepsy and Associated with Epileptogenesis Process.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinxian; Huang, Hao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Li, Ruohan; Ma, Limin; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that epilepsy is the result of synaptic reorganization and pathological excitatory loop formation in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. We proposed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) and p250GAP might play important roles in this process by activating the downstream Rho GTPase family. We tested this hypothesis using a magnesium-free medium-induced epileptic model of cultured hippocampal neurons. We investigated whether miR-132 regulates GTPase activity through p250GAP and found that Cdc42 was significantly activated in our experimental model. Silencing miR-132 inhibited the electrical excitability level of cultured epileptic neurons, whereas silencing p250GAP had an opposite effect. In addition, we verified the effect of miR-132 in vivo and found that silencing miR-132 inhibited the aberrant formation of dendritic spines and chronic spontaneous seizure in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Finally, we confirmed that silencing miR-132 has a neuroprotective effect on cultured epileptic neurons; however, this effect did not occur through the p250GAP pathway. Generally, silencing miR-132 may suppress spontaneous seizure activity through the miR-132/p250GAP/Cdc42 pathway by regulating the morphology and electrophysiology of dendritic spines; therefore, miR-132 may serve as a potential target for the development of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:27579184

  9. A Conceptual Framework to Measure Systems’ Performance during Emergency Preparedness Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Agboola, Foluso; Biddinger, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale public health emergencies require a sophisticated, coordinated response involving multiple entities to protect health and minimize suffering. However, the rarity of such emergencies presents a barrier to gathering observational data about the effectiveness of the public health response before such events occur. For this reason, public health practitioners increasingly have relied on simulated emergencies, known as “exercises” as proxies to test their emergency capabilities. However, the formal evaluation of performance in these exercises, historically has been inconsistent, and there is little research to describe how data acquired from simulated emergencies actually support conclusions about the quality of the public health emergency response system. Over the past six years, we have designed and evaluated more than seventy public health emergency exercises, collaborating with public health agencies, hospitals and others to test a wide variety of systems and their capabilities. Using the data and experience that we gathered, we have developed a conceptual framework that describes the essential elements necessary to consider when applying performance measurement science to public health emergency exercises. We suggest that this framework may assist practitioners and researchers who wish to better measure performance in exercises and to improve public health emergency preparedness. PMID:25233015

  10. Strategy for NMR metabolomic analysis of urine in mouse models of obesity--from sample collection to interpretation of acquired data.

    PubMed

    Pelantová, Helena; Bugáňová, Martina; Anýž, Jiří; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, Daniel; Haluzík, Martin; Kuzma, Marek

    2015-11-10

    The mouse model of monosodium glutamate induced obesity was used to examine and consequently optimize the strategy for analysis of urine samples by NMR spectroscopy. A set of nineteen easily detectable metabolites typical in obesity-related studies was selected. The impact of urine collection protocol, choice of (1)H NMR pulse sequence, and finally the impact of the normalization method on the detected concentration of selected metabolites were investigated. We demonstrated the crucial effect of food intake and diurnal rhythms resulting in the choice of a 24-hour fasting collection protocol as the most convenient for tracking obesity-induced increased sensitivity to fasting. It was shown that the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment is a better alternative to one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (1D-NOESY) for NMR analysis of mouse urine due to its ability to filter undesirable signals of proteins naturally present in rodent urine. Normalization to total spectral area provided comparable outcomes as did normalization to creatinine or probabilistic quotient normalization in the CPMG-based model. The optimized approach was found to be beneficial mainly for low abundant metabolites rarely monitored due to their overlap by strong protein signals. PMID:26263053

  11. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  12. Toxicological aspects of preparedness and aftercare for chemical-incidents.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Michael; Kluge, Stefan; Jaroni, Hanswerner

    2005-10-30

    The threat of using chemical warfare agents still exists despite the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Preparedness for attacks with chemical agents has become an important issue of national security programs. It can be anticipated that toxicologists will be increasingly involved in preparedness programs of their institutions and of the government, no matter whether they work in agencies, industry or universities. Toxicologists must get prepared to give fast and reliable advice in the case of an attack, a sabotage or an accident with release of toxic chemicals. They should be familiar with the principles of hazard management and with incident command structures and cooperate with first responders of other organizations involved such as fire department and medical emergency teams already in the planning phase. In the emergency planning phase, toxicologists are expected to help identifying possible hazards. Moreover, they consult public health services with regard to toxicosurveillance and advice hospitals regarding antidotes, decontamination procedures and shelters. They may be involved in the procurement of antidotes and of protective equipment and will support qualified analytical laboratories. In the response phase, toxicologists must be ready to gain and to interpret analytical data, to support the medical care of poisoned victims and to provide repeated risk assessment reports. This requires an on-scene access to databases and registries. The aftercare phase includes the identification of exposed persons, mapping of contaminated areas, organization of decontamination measures and the release of areas. A medical study may be initiated to observe long-term health effects. Good cooperation between regulatory and clinical toxicologists, specific education of toxicologist in the field of chemical emergencies and regular trainings are essential elements of good preparedness. PMID:16118031

  13. Are short-term focused training courses on a phantom model using porcine gall bladder useful for trainees in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills?

    PubMed

    Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Panwar, Rajesh; Misra, Mahesh C; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K; Jindal, Vikas; Loli, Athiko; Goswami, Amit; Krishna, Asuri; Tamang, Tseten

    2012-04-01

    The best training method in laparoscopic surgery has not been defined. We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopic skills acquisition in a short-term focused program. Two hundred fifty-six participants undergoing training on a phantom model were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 had no exposure and group 2 had performed a few laparoscopic surgeries. Acquisition of laparoscopic skills was assessed by operation time and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) scale. A questionnaire was sent to the participants after 3 to 6 months for assessment of impact of training. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessed parameters and in the mean score of all 5 domains of GOALS. The participants in group 2 performed better than those in group 1 in the first case. The difference between both the groups disappeared after the training. Participants who responded to the questionnaire felt that training helped them in improving their performance in the operation theater. PMID:22487631

  14. Are short-term focused training courses on a phantom model using porcine gall bladder useful for trainees in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills?

    PubMed

    Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Panwar, Rajesh; Misra, Mahesh C; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K; Jindal, Vikas; Loli, Athiko; Goswami, Amit; Krishna, Asuri; Tamang, Tseten

    2012-04-01

    The best training method in laparoscopic surgery has not been defined. We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopic skills acquisition in a short-term focused program. Two hundred fifty-six participants undergoing training on a phantom model were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 had no exposure and group 2 had performed a few laparoscopic surgeries. Acquisition of laparoscopic skills was assessed by operation time and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) scale. A questionnaire was sent to the participants after 3 to 6 months for assessment of impact of training. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessed parameters and in the mean score of all 5 domains of GOALS. The participants in group 2 performed better than those in group 1 in the first case. The difference between both the groups disappeared after the training. Participants who responded to the questionnaire felt that training helped them in improving their performance in the operation theater.

  15. Survival transcriptome in the coenzyme Q10 deficiency syndrome is acquired by epigenetic modifications: a modelling study for human coenzyme Q10 deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ayala, Daniel J M; Guerra, Ignacio; Jiménez-Gancedo, Sandra; Cascajo, Maria V; Gavilán, Angela; DiMauro, Salvatore; Hirano, Michio; Briones, Paz; Artuch, Rafael; De Cabo, Rafael; Salviati, Leonardo; Navas, Plácido

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency syndrome is a rare condition that causes mitochondrial dysfunction and includes a variety of clinical presentations as encephalomyopathy, ataxia and renal failure. First, we sought to set up what all have in common, and then investigate why CoQ10 supplementation reverses the bioenergetics alterations in cultured cells but not all the cellular phenotypes. Design Modelling study This work models the transcriptome of human CoQ10 deficiency syndrome in primary fibroblast from patients and study the genetic response to CoQ10 treatment in these cells. Setting Four hospitals and medical centres from Spain, Italy and the USA, and two research laboratories from Spain and the USA. Participants Primary cells were collected from patients in the above centres. Measurements We characterised by microarray analysis the expression profile of fibroblasts from seven CoQ10-deficient patients (three had primary deficiency and four had a secondary form) and aged-matched controls, before and after CoQ10 supplementation. Results were validated by Q-RT-PCR. The profile of DNA (CpG) methylation was evaluated for a subset of gene with displayed altered expression. Results CoQ10-deficient fibroblasts (independently from the aetiology) showed a common transcriptomic profile that promotes cell survival by activating cell cycle and growth, cell stress responses and inhibiting cell death and immune responses. Energy production was supported mainly by glycolysis while CoQ10 supplementation restored oxidative phosphorylation. Expression of genes involved in cell death pathways was partially restored by treatment, while genes involved in differentiation, cell cycle and growth were not affected. Stably demethylated genes were unaffected by treatment whereas we observed restored gene expression in either non-methylated genes or those with an unchanged methylation pattern. Conclusions CoQ10 deficiency induces a specific transcriptomic profile that promotes

  16. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies.

  17. Bioterrorism vs. health security--crafting a plan of preparedness.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Kourtney; van Caulil, Karen; Liberman, Aaron

    2002-09-01

    Bioterrorism, once a subject of fantasy and speculation, has become all too real in a world turned upside down by the September 11, 2001. series of events. An essential, but as yet unanswered, question has become a crucial topic for discussion on the nightly news and in living rooms across the United States: How much of a terrorist threat do we face, and what must be done to control its potential for mass destruction? This article seeks to both answer this question and explore proper plans of preparedness for the eventuality of the unthinkable. PMID:12243568

  18. General Household Emergency Preparedness: A Comparison Between Veterans and Nonveterans

    PubMed Central

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Strine, Tara; Atia, Mangwi; Chu, Karen; Mitchell, Michael N.; Dobalian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite federal and local efforts to educate the public to prepare for major emergencies, many US households remain unprepared for such occurrences. United States Armed Forces veterans are at particular risk during public health emergencies as they are more likely than the general population to have multiple health conditions. Methods This study compares general levels of household emergency preparedness between veterans and nonveterans by focusing on seven surrogate measures of household emergency preparedness (a 3-day supply of food, water, and prescription medications, a battery-operated radio and flashlight, a written evacuation plan, and an expressed willingness to leave the community during a mandatory evacuation). This study used data from the 2006 through 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state representative, random sample of adults aged 18 and older living in 14 states. Results The majority of veteran and nonveteran households had a 3-day supply of food (88% vs 82%, respectively) and prescription medications (95% vs 89%, respectively), access to a working, battery-operated radio (82% vs 77%, respectively) and flashlight (97% vs 95%, respectively), and were willing to leave the community during a mandatory evacuation (91% vs 96%, respectively). These populations were far less likely to have a 3-day supply of water (61% vs 52%, respectively) and a written evacuation plan (24% vs 21%, respectively). After adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, general health status, and disability status, households with veterans were significantly more likely than households without veterans to have 3-day supplies of food, water, and prescription medications, and a written evacuation plan; less likely to indicate that they would leave their community during a mandatory evacuation; and equally likely to have a working, battery-operated radio and fiashlight. Conclusion These findings suggest that veteran households appear to be

  19. Bioterrorism vs. health security--crafting a plan of preparedness.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Kourtney; van Caulil, Karen; Liberman, Aaron

    2002-09-01

    Bioterrorism, once a subject of fantasy and speculation, has become all too real in a world turned upside down by the September 11, 2001. series of events. An essential, but as yet unanswered, question has become a crucial topic for discussion on the nightly news and in living rooms across the United States: How much of a terrorist threat do we face, and what must be done to control its potential for mass destruction? This article seeks to both answer this question and explore proper plans of preparedness for the eventuality of the unthinkable.

  20. Partnered disaster preparedness: lessons learned from international events.

    PubMed

    Born, Christopher T; Cullison, Thomas R; Dean, Jeffrey A; Hayda, Roman A; McSwain, Norman; Riddles, Lawrence M; Shimkus, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    Military, governmental, and civilian agencies routinely respond to disasters around the world, including large-scale mass casualty events such as the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005, Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, and the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Potential exists for improved coordination of medical response between civilian and military sectors and for the creation of a planned and practiced interface. Disaster preparedness could be enhanced with more robust disaster education for civilian responders; creation of a database of precredentialed, precertified medical specialists; implementation of a communication bridge; and the establishment of agreements between military and civilian medical/surgical groups in advance of major catastrophic events.

  1. Partnered disaster preparedness: lessons learned from international events.

    PubMed

    Born, Christopher T; Cullison, Thomas R; Dean, Jeffrey A; Hayda, Roman A; McSwain, Norman; Riddles, Lawrence M; Shimkus, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    Military, governmental, and civilian agencies routinely respond to disasters around the world, including large-scale mass casualty events such as the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005, Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, and the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Potential exists for improved coordination of medical response between civilian and military sectors and for the creation of a planned and practiced interface. Disaster preparedness could be enhanced with more robust disaster education for civilian responders; creation of a database of precredentialed, precertified medical specialists; implementation of a communication bridge; and the establishment of agreements between military and civilian medical/surgical groups in advance of major catastrophic events. PMID:21304048

  2. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  3. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). 352.22 Section 352.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS...

  4. The Difficult Transition? Teaching, Research, Service: Examining the Preparedness of Communication Faculty Entering the Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Toni Selena; Hickerson, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a survey of graduate students seeking employment, examines the categories and levels of preparedness of new professors/instructors as they enter academe. Preparedness was examined in several ways--specifically knowledge about higher education requirements and their preparation for teaching, advising, and service in the field…

  5. 78 FR 25277 - Office of the Secretary; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Response (ASPR), as last amended at 78 FR 7784, dated February 4, 2013, and at 75 FR 35035- 35038, dated June 21, 2010. This organizational change is to rename the Office of Preparedness and Emergency... Management.'' II. Under Part A, Chapter AN, Section AN.20, Functions, Paragraph C, Office of Preparedness...

  6. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.22 Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). Under 44 CFR part 351, the role of the... facilities and resources for implementing subparts A and B of this part. This assistance activity is...

  7. A Study of Emergency Preparedness of U.S. Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a framework for institutions of higher education to measure to what extent their emergency preparedness plans align with the National Response Framework (NRF). The author used alignment with the five principles of the NRF as a proxy to measure emergency preparedness at colleges and universities and to answer the following…

  8. Situated Preparedness: The Negotiation of a Future Catastrophic Earthquake in a California University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Natalie Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines disaster preparedness as engaged at a large university in southern California using inductive research and grounded theory data collection and analysis methods. The thesis consists of three parts, all addressing the problem of disaster preparedness as enacted in this at-risk context. I use in-depth interviews, archival…

  9. The "Uncanny" Character of Race: An Exploration of UK Preparedness through Youth Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarty, Namita

    2011-01-01

    Performance is a key tool in emergency preparedness and the rehearsal of professional response, simultaneously raising questions about the practice of cultural assumptions in this context. Usually the actors in preparedness exercises are civil servants who perform the work of the nihilistic imagination in often-apocalyptic fictional scenarios,…

  10. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  11. Natural Hazard Preparedness in an Auckland Community: Child and Community Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patricia; Dirks, Kim; Neuwelt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement in natural hazard preparedness is crucial to ensure sustainable initiatives. Children are important members of communities, and can actively contribute to community preparedness. This article presents research undertaken with 11- to 12-year-old students from a school in Auckland, New Zealand, and leaders associated with the…

  12. 78 FR 40743 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC OPHPR) In accordance with... Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR... Address Contact Person for More Information: Marquita Black, Office of Science and Public Health...

  13. Impact of an Education Intervention on Missouri K-12 School Disaster and Biological Event Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebmann, Terri; Elliott, Michael B.; Artman, Deborah; VanNatta, Matthew; Wakefield, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background:A 2011 nationwide school pandemic preparedness study found schools to be deficient. We examined the impact of a school nurse educational intervention aimed at improving K-12 school biological event preparedness. Mehods: Missouri Association of School Nurses (MASN) members were e-mailed a survey link in fall 2013 (ie, preintervention),…

  14. Practitioners' & LIS Students' Perceptions on Preparedness in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Stacy L.; Pollicino, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study that focused on the perceived preparedness of recent graduates. Fifty-five St. John's University MLS students surveyed 348 practitioners in public libraries (181) and school libraries (167) concerning perceived preparedness of recent MLS graduates for the realities of working in libraries. The overriding…

  15. Emergency Preparedness as Public Pedagogy: The Absent-Presence of Race in "Preparing for Emergencies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John; Avery, Barry; Chakrabarty, Namita; Edmonds, Casey

    2011-01-01

    Emergency preparedness can be considered to be a form of lifelong learning and public pedagogy with implications for race equality. The paper is based on an ESRC project "Preparedness pedagogies and race: an interdisciplinary approach" considering the policy process around the construction of the "Preparing for Emergencies" (PFE) campaign. This…

  16. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  17. Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

  18. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  19. Resistance to extinction of fear-relevant stimuli: preparedness or selective sensitization?

    PubMed

    Lovibond, P F; Siddle, D A; Bond, N W

    1993-12-01

    Human conditioning research has revealed an apparent resistance to extinction of aversive conditioning to pictures of fear-relevant stimuli such as snakes and spiders, supporting M. E. P. Seligman's (1971) preparedness theory of fears and phobias. This article examines an alternative account based on activation of preexisting response tendencies under threat (selective sensitization). Two experiments demonstrate that selective sensitization of electrodermal responses is attenuated when a fear-relevant stimulus serves as a negative conditioned stimulus (CS-), but is maintained when it serves as a positive conditioned stimulus (CS+). Previous extinction results may therefore be due to preservation of initial responding to CS+ but not CS-. Selective sensitization offers a model for the nonassociative activation of fears and phobias to prepotent stimuli under conditions of stress or threat. Possible genetic and cognitive mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Use of simulated patients and reflective video analysis to assess occupational therapy students' preparedness for fieldwork.

    PubMed

    Giles, Amanda K; Carson, Nancy E; Breland, Hazel L; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Bowman, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Educators must determine whether occupational therapy students are adequately prepared for Level II fieldwork once they have successfully completed the didactic portion of their coursework. Although studies have shown that students regard the use of video cameras and simulated patient encounters as useful tools for assessing professional and clinical behaviors, little has been published in the occupational therapy literature regarding the practical application of simulated patients or reflective video analysis. We describe a model for a final Comprehensive Practical Exam that uses both simulated patients and reflective video analysis to assess student preparedness for Level II fieldwork, and we report on student perceptions of these instructional modalities. We provide recommendations for designing, implementing, and evaluating simulated patient experiences in light of existing educational theory. PMID:25397940

  1. Regionalization in local public health systems: public health preparedness in the Washington metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Stoto, Michael A; Morse, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    The Washington metropolitan area was closely examined to understand how these regional preparedness structures have been organized, implemented, and governed, as well as to assess the likely impact of such regional structures on public health preparedness and public health systems more generally. It was found that no single formal regional structure for the public health system exists in the Washington metropolitan area, although the region is designated by the Department of Homeland Security as the National Capital Region (NCR). In fact, the vast majority of preparedness planning and response activities in this area are the result of voluntary self-organization through both governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Some interviewed felt that this was an optimal arrangement, as personal relationships prove crucial in responding to a public health emergency and an informal response is often more timely than a formal response. The biggest challenge for public health preparedness in the NCR is incorporating all federal government agencies in the area in NCR preparedness planning.

  2. Assessment of household preparedness through training exercises--two metropolitan counties, Tennessee, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-09-14

    Public health emergency preparedness involves improving both workforce and household capacity to manage disasters. To improve preparedness at both levels, the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) formed a Rapid Assessment of Populations Impacted by Disasters (RAPID) team. In 2011, the team used Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) two-stage cluster sampling methodology to measure household preparedness for disasters or emergencies in two metropolitan counties. In the two counties, 23% and 31% of households reported being "well-prepared" to handle disasters or emergencies, 43% and 44% reported being "somewhat prepared," and 25% and 20% reported being "not at all prepared." As a result of this experience, RAPID teams were able to improve their methods, streamline processes, and create a better community assessment toolkit. To increase preparedness at both the community and workforce levels, public health departments should assess community preparedness to inform the planning process and provide field training and exercise opportunities for public health workers.

  3. Increasing institutional deliveries among antenatal clients: effect of birth preparedness counselling.

    PubMed

    Soubeiga, Dieudonné; Sia, Drissa; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization recommends birth and emergency preparedness (BEP) as essential components of the Focused Antenatal Care model. The purpose of providing BEP messages to women during their antenatal visits is to increase the use of skilled attendance at childbirth. However, the effectiveness of this component has not yet been clearly established in routine contexts. This retrospective cohort study examined the association between exposing women to BEP messages during antenatal visits and the use of the skilled attendance at childbirth in two rural districts of Burkina Faso (Koupela and Dori). The study included 456 antenatal care users in 30 rural health centres in these two districts. Data were collected using modified questionnaires from the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics and from demographic and health surveys. Logistic regression was performed with a model of generalized estimating equation to adjust for clustered effects. In the Koupela district, where the rate of institutional deliveries (80%) was relatively high, the use of BEP messages was not associated with an increase in institutional deliveries. In contrast, in the district of Dori, where the rate of institutional deliveries (47%) was lower, messages regarding danger signs [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.93; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.07, 3.49] and cost of care (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.22) were associated with an increased probability of institutional births. Based on these results, it appears that birth and emergency preparedness messages provided during antenatal visits may increase the use of skilled attendance (increase the rate of institutional births) in areas where institutional births are low. Therefore, it is important to adapt the content of the messages to meet the particular needs of the users in each locality. Furthermore, BEP counselling should be implemented in health facilities.

  4. Flash Mob Science - Increasing Seismic Hazard Awareness and Preparedness in Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J. S.; Lownsbery, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Living in a region of imminent threat of a magnitude-9.0 (M­­­w ≈ ­9) earthquake is a daily reality for the millions of people predicted to be directly affected by a full rupture of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), a fault line extending for hundreds of miles off the western coast of North America. Many coastal residents and visitors will also be affected by the tsunami caused by the rupture. How can the scientific community effectively communicate with those who are unaware of the threat and unprepared to respond? We are studying the effects of a novel approach to science outreach we have called Flash Mob Science. You have probably seen examples of flash mobs staging dynamic musical and dance routines to unsuspecting audiences. Similarly, Flash Mob Science takes the challenging (and often avoided) topic of earthquake and tsunami awareness and preparedness to unsuspecting audiences. However, Flash Mob Science seeks to move beyond having an audience of observers by engaging others as participants who enact important roles in an unfolding drama. We simulate the effects of seismic and tsunami events (e.g., prolonged surface shaking, falling debris, repeated tsunami surges) and model best practices in response (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On" and moving quickly to high ground). True to the general flash mob model, when the Cascadia event inevitably does occur, it will come suddenly, and everyone affected will unavoidably be involved as actors in a real-life drama of immense scale. We seek to embed the learning of basic understandings and practices for an actual Cascadia event in a very small-scale, memorable, and sometimes even humorous, dramatization. We present here the lessons we have learned in the background, planning, and implementation of Flash Mob Science. We highlight the successes, limitations, and preliminary results evaluating the effectiveness of this outreach in developing learners' understandings and preparedness in an Oregon community affected by

  5. 44 CFR 350.5 - Criteria for review and approval of State and local radiological emergency plans and preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approval of State and local radiological emergency plans and preparedness. 350.5 Section 350.5 Emergency... REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF STATE AND LOCAL RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 350.5 Criteria for review and approval of State and local radiological emergency plans and preparedness. (a) Section...

  6. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 64 - Priority Access Service (PAS) for National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) B Appendix B to Part 64 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Preparedness (NSEP) 1. Authority This appendix is issued pursuant to sections 1, 4(i), 201 through 205 and 303...; (d) National Coordinating Center; (e) National Security Emergency Preparedness...

  7. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 64 - Priority Access Service (PAS) for National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) B Appendix B to Part 64 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Preparedness (NSEP) 1. Authority This appendix is issued pursuant to sections 1, 4(i), 201 through 205 and 303...; (d) National Coordinating Center; (e) National Security Emergency Preparedness...

  8. State of Virtual Reality Based Disaster Preparedness and Response Training

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Edbert B.; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D.; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform. PMID:23653102

  9. The zombie thermographer apocalypse preparedness 101: zombie thermographer pandemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, Fred

    2013-05-01

    Fact: The U.S Government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, rather remarkably has dedicated part of their web site to" Zombie Preparedness". See: http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/zombies.htm for more information. This is a tongue-incheek campaign with messages to engage audiences with the hazards of unpreparedness. The CDC director, U.S. Assistant Surgeon General Ali S. Khan (RET), MD, MPH notes, "If you are generally well equipped to deal with a zombie apocalypse you will be prepared for a hurricane, pandemic, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Make a plan, and be prepared!" (CDC Website, April 26th, 2013). Today we can make an easy comparison between the humor that the CDC is bringing to light, and what is actually happening in the Thermographic Industry. It must be acknowledge there are "Zombie Thermographers" out there. At times, it can be observed from the sidelines as a pandemic apocalypse attacking the credibility and legitimacy of the science and the industry that so many have been working to advance for over 30 years. This paper outlines and explores the trends currently taking place, the very real risks to facility plant, property, and human life as a result, and the strategies to overcome these problems.

  10. Tabletop scenarios for realism in bioterrorism and threat preparedness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rachel T; Walls, Richard T; Fischer, Mark; Markovic-Reed, Sandra; Solovieva, Tatiana I; Russell, Floyd K; Ducatman, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    Five realistic tabletop scenarios were designed to facilitate threat preparedness training of Medical, Public Health, Nursing, Emergency Services, Mental Health, Allied Health, and Pharmacy personnel. Training scenarios were (1) student contaminates lettuce (Act) in a state university with Shigella sonnei (Agent), (2) dismissed athlete contaminates ice (Act) at the basketball tournament with Escherichia coli (Agent), (3) workers fail to report abandoned backpacks (Act) at a state fair that contain smallpox virus (Agent), (4) terrorists expose county residents (Act) to Pneumonic plague bacterium (Agent), and (5) infected birds expose field-trip participants (Act) to Avian influenza virus (Agent). Evaluation of the tabletops yielded positive ratings of educational outcomes in these domains: well-structured, organized, plausible, realistic, engaging, on-target, useful, and multidisciplinary. Attendees with previous blended-learning courses on bioterrorism and threat preparedness enhanced performance in the tabletop exercises. Evaluative data indicated a new level of competence and self-confidence about being part of a coordinated, local-level, interdisciplinary response.

  11. Preparedness for a smallpox pandemic in Japan: public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Matsukuma, Susumu; Matsumura, Takuya; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Saito, Tomoya

    2015-04-01

    Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the Variola virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family. Until the 1970s, smallpox had been a pandemic disease for more than 3000 years, endemic in tropical and developing areas and periodically epidemic worldwide. The World Health Organization declared smallpox to be completely eradicated in 1980 as the result of global vaccination efforts. At that time, all routine vaccination programs were terminated, given the success of thismonumental eradication. Although smallpox remains fully eradicated, uncertainty exists regarding the possibility of recurrent smallpox outbreaks. At the end of the Cold War, concerns regarding unstable international security and the feasibility of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction have been highlighted. The potential threat of intentional release of smallpox has forced regional health authorities to reconsider their political landscape and create preparedness plans to protect the community in the event of biological attacks. Here we present current countermeasures to this biological threat in Japan and discuss methods for strengthening public health preparedness both domestically and internationally. These methods include infection control, vaccination policy, and international partnerships to help deter or contain a contagious smallpox pandemic.

  12. A Counter-IED Preparedness Methodology for Large Event Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Patricia W; Koch, Daniel B

    2011-01-01

    Since 2009, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in a project sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate aimed at improving preparedness against Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) at large sporting events. Led by the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) as part of the Southeast Region Research Initiative, the project partners have been developing tools and methodologies for use by security personnel and first responders at sports stadiums. ORNL s contribution has been to develop an automated process to gather and organize disparate data that is usually part of an organization s security plan. The organized data informs a table-top exercise (TTX) conducted by USM using additional tools developed by them and their subcontractors. After participating in several pilot TTXs, patterns are beginning to emerge that would enable improvements to be formulated to increase the level of counter-IED preparedness. This paper focuses on the data collection and analysis process and shares insights gained to date.

  13. Bioterrorism preparedness and response in European public health institutes.

    PubMed

    Coignard, B

    2001-11-01

    The terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and the deliberate release of anthrax in the United States had consequences for public health not only there, but also in Europe. Europe's public health systems had to manage numerous postal materials possibly contaminated with anthrax. Our survey aimed to document the response of European public health institutes to recent bioterrorist events to identify the gaps that need to be addressed; 18 institutes from 16 countries participated in this Euroroundup. Bioterrorist threats in Europe were hoaxes only, and should be considered as a "preparedness exercise" from which three lessons can be drawn. Firstly, because of inadequate preparedness planning and funding arrangements, Europe was not ready in October 2001 to respond to bioterrorism. Secondly, although European institutes reacted quickly and adapted their priorities to a new type of threat, they need adequate and sustained support from national governments to maintain their overall capacity. Thirdly, the recent crisis demonstrated the need for increased investment in epidemiology training programmes and the establishment of a technical coordination unit for international surveillance and outbreak response in the European Union. PMID:11891386

  14. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy.

  15. State of virtual reality based disaster preparedness and response training.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Edbert B; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-04-24

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform.

  16. Seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness: a global threat.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J; Monto, Arnold S

    2006-11-01

    The increase in the incidence of avian influenza worldwide in both poultry and humans introduces the potential for another influenza A pandemic that could pose a significant threat to both human health and the global economy. The impact of the next influenza pandemic will be influenced, in part, by how well the medical, government, business, and lay communities are prepared. Despite the additional tools and resources that have become available since prior epidemics, there are limits to the quantity of antiviral drugs that can be manufactured and concerns over the current vaccine production systems. Despite these challenges, there is an opportunity to take action before the emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and, possibly, to prevent its spread or at least mitigate its impact on the world. In February 2006, a group of representatives from federal, state, and local governments; professional bodies; academia; and the pharmaceutical industry met to review the current state of preparedness in the United States for a potential influenza pandemic and its relationship to seasonal influenza. The goal of the meeting was to examine the recently revised US Department of Health and Human Services plan for preparedness and response to an influenza pandemic and to make recommendations to actualize this plan at the state and local levels.

  17. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy.

  18. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  19. [Preparedness of health system in Israel for mass emergencies].

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Václav; Navrátil, Leoš

    2015-01-01

    The vast number of outbreaks of tension on the planet shows that it is impossible to underestimate the preparation level of population protection in emergencies. The possibility of a terrorist attack, including the use of particularly toxic or biological substances cannot be excluded or totally prevented at this point. In fact, there may not only be a terrorist attack. Rampant population migration increases the risk of the transmission of infectious diseases, even to considerable distances from the states where the epidemiological situation might not be completely under control. The current state of the Czech healthcare system in terms of preparedness for mass emergencies is insufficient and requires prompt correction, though not through hastily adopted measures. Ideally, looking into the success of the Israeli preparedness system, where the public has been exposed to high levels of threat from a variety of causes for decades, could greatly aid the Czech Republic in moving forward effectively. The number of victims of terrorist attacks there outpaces 10000, a fact that shows Israel is experienced in responding to emergency incidents. PMID:26311029

  20. Preparedness for a smallpox pandemic in Japan: public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Matsukuma, Susumu; Matsumura, Takuya; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Saito, Tomoya

    2015-04-01

    Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the Variola virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family. Until the 1970s, smallpox had been a pandemic disease for more than 3000 years, endemic in tropical and developing areas and periodically epidemic worldwide. The World Health Organization declared smallpox to be completely eradicated in 1980 as the result of global vaccination efforts. At that time, all routine vaccination programs were terminated, given the success of thismonumental eradication. Although smallpox remains fully eradicated, uncertainty exists regarding the possibility of recurrent smallpox outbreaks. At the end of the Cold War, concerns regarding unstable international security and the feasibility of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction have been highlighted. The potential threat of intentional release of smallpox has forced regional health authorities to reconsider their political landscape and create preparedness plans to protect the community in the event of biological attacks. Here we present current countermeasures to this biological threat in Japan and discuss methods for strengthening public health preparedness both domestically and internationally. These methods include infection control, vaccination policy, and international partnerships to help deter or contain a contagious smallpox pandemic. PMID:26060873

  1. Revisiting blood transfusion preparedness: experience from the Bam earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, Hassan; Radfar, Mohammad H; Tabatabaee, Morteza; Hosseini-Divkolayee, Nasim S; Burkle, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    Blood transfusion plays a critical role in the provision of medical care for disasters due to man-made and natural hazards. Although the short-term increase in blood donations following national disasters is well-documented, some aspects of blood transfusion during disasters remain under study. The 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran resulted in the death of >29,000 people and injured 23,000. In total, 108,985 blood units were donated, but only 21,347 units (23%) actually were distributed to hospitals around the country. Kerman Province, the site of the disaster, received 1,231 (1.3%) of the donated units in the first four days after the disaster. The Bam experience revealed crucial missteps in the development of a post-event strategy for blood product management, and led to the development of a detailed disaster preparedness and response plan that addresses issues of donation, distribution, communication, transportation, and coordination. The current plan requires the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization to convene a disaster task force immediately as the main coordinator of all disaster preparedness and response activities.

  2. Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Wetter, D C; Daniell, W E; Treser, C D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined hospital preparedness for incidents involving chemical or biological weapons. METHODS: By using a questionnaire survey of 224 hospital emergency departments in 4 northwestern states, we examined administrative plans, training, physical resources, and representative medication inventories. RESULTS: Responses were received from 186 emergency departments (83%). Fewer than 20% of respondent hospitals had plans for biological or chemical weapons incidents. About half (45%) had an indoor or outdoor decontamination unit with isolated ventilation, shower, and water containment systems, but only 12% had 1 or more self-contained breathing apparatuses or supplied air-line respirators. Only 6% had the minimum recommended physical resources for a hypothetical sarin incident. Of the hospitals providing quantitative answers about medication inventories, 64% reported sufficient ciprofloxacin or doxycycline for 50 hypothetical anthrax victims, and only 29% reported sufficient atropine for 50 hypothetical sarin victims (none had enough pralidoxime). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital emergency departments generally are not prepared in an organized fashion to treat victims of chemical or biological terrorism. The planned federal efforts to improve domestic preparedness will require substantial additional resources at the local level to be truly effective. PMID:11344876

  3. Acquired Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Margaret A

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common congenital sensory impairment. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001 to 2008, 20.3% of subjects aged greater than or equal to 12 had unilateral or bilateral hearing loss. The World Health Organization notes that, worldwide, there are 360 million people with disabling hearing loss, with 50% preventable. Although many hearing losses are acquired, many others are manifestations of preexisting conditions. The purpose of a pediatric hearing evaluation is to identify the degree and type of hearing loss and etiology and to outline a comprehensive strategy that supports language and social development and communication.

  4. The inhibition of acquired fear.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most

  5. Malaria acquired in Haiti - 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, which borders the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The earthquake's epicenter was 10 miles west of the Haiti capital city of Port-au-Prince (estimated population: 2 million). According to the Haitian government, approximately 200,000 persons were killed, and 500,000 were left homeless. Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic in Haiti, and the principal mosquito vector is Anopheles albimanus, which frequently bites outdoors. Thus, displaced persons living outdoors or in temporary shelters and thousands of emergency responders in Haiti are at substantial risk for malaria. During January 12-February 25, CDC received reports of 11 laboratory-confirmed cases of P. falciparum malaria acquired in Haiti. Patients included seven U.S. residents who were emergency responders, three Haitian residents, and one U.S. traveler. This report summarizes the 11 cases and provides chemoprophylactic and additional preventive recommendations to minimize the risk for acquiring malaria for persons traveling to Haiti.

  6. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  7. Bosnia and Herzegovina Healthcare System Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza as of 2010

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Almir; Pilav, Aida; Dzananovic, Lejla; Cavaljuga, Semra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system is prepared for influenza pandemic; and to indicate strengths and weaknesses in planed resolution of pandemic influenza in Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system. Methodology: Qualitative systematic review, comparing established elements of healthcare systems with WHO’s guidelines on pandemic preparedness. Critical evaluations of available findings on preparedness of healthcare system of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) compared in details to preparedness of healthcare system of United Kingdom (UK) but in certain elements with some other European countries. Results and Discussion: Analysis of preparedness plans of B&H and UK are presented in details, with comparison of B&H with eight other countries by WHO guidelines categories and phases of pandemic preparedness and contingency plans. Conclusions: Disregarding the obstacles in B&H health care system policy Bosnia and Herzegovina has preparedness plans, that are made based on WHO’s guidelines but unlike all other analyzed countries does not have contingency plan. This can be seen as strength while weaknesses of B&H’s healthcare system are: late forming of preparedness plan with poor implementation of set activities, and lack of contingency plan. PMID:24511267

  8. Disaster preparedness and families of children with special needs: a geographic comparison.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lisa R; Cormier, Loretta A

    2013-02-01

    Over eleven million children in the United States have special health care needs. These unique needs can burden community and emergency responders after a disaster, complicating rescue and recovery efforts and generating reunification needs. Family disaster preparedness can help to moderate the extent that community resources are utilized by preparing families to be self-sustaining after a disaster and streamline access to medical care when needed. This study explored differences in two populations of families of children with special health care needs to determine if geographic differences exist in preparedness levels and whether a brief education intervention would prove successful in increasing baseline preparedness levels across both populations. A brief education intervention was delivered by trained community health educators to 210 families of children with special health care needs. A quasiexperimental pre-posttest design was used to compare baseline preparedness levels and 1 month follow-up levels. Although there was no difference in preparedness levels based on geographic location, both populations demonstrated a statistically significant increase in preparedness levels post-intervention. This study provides additional evidence that a brief education intervention helps to increase preparedness levels among families of children with special health care needs.

  9. Emergency Preparedness in the 10-Mile Emergency Planning Zone Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adalja, Amesh A.; Sell, Tara Kirk; Ravi, Sanjana J.; Minton, Katie; Morhard, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Each of the nuclear power plants in the US is encircled by an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). Within each EPZ, government officials, utility professionals, emergency managers, and public health practitioners collectively conduct extensive planning, exercises, and outreach to better protect their communities in the event of a nuclear accident. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional study of off-site public health preparedness within EPZs to better understand the dynamics of nuclear preparedness and uncover lessons for all-hazards preparedness. Methods Using a qualitative, interview-based method, we consulted 120 county emergency managers, state health preparedness officers, state radiation health officials, and industry officials from 17 EPZs in ten different states. Results Interviewees reflected that EPZ emergency preparedness is generally robust, results from strong public-private partnership between nuclear plants and emergency management agencies, and enhances all-hazard preparedness. However, there exist a few areas which merit further study and improvement. These areas include cross-state coordination, digital public communication, and optimizing the level of public education within EPZs. Conclusions This first-of-its-kind study provides a cross-sectional snapshot of emergency preparedness in the 10-mile EPZ surrounding nuclear power plants. PMID:26692825

  10. The Study to Improve Tsunami Preparedness Education in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Tanırcan, Gülüm; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Puskulcu, Seyhun; Kumamoto, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Compared to its long history on disastrous earthquakes, disaster education history in Turkey is rather short. It has just started with an initiative of Disaster Preparedness Education Unit of Bogazici University (BU/DPEU) after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Training modules and materials on disaster preparedness were prepared both for students, teachers and community. Regarding to the school education, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) reformed their education plan in 2003, and disaster education became one of eight focused components for primary-middle education. In 2011-2014 MoNE had conducted "School-based Disaster Education Project" in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The majority of the school education materials focus more on earthquake and there are very few education programs on tsunami. Within the MarDiM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) project between Turkey and Japan a multidisciplinary engineering research as well as development of disaster education, tsunami education booklet and video were newly developed in 2015. In order to investigate students' knowledge natural disasters and disaster preparedness with focus on tsunami, a questionnaire based survey was conducted. The survey aims to clarify following questions: 1) how students obtain natural disaster information, 2) how students prepare for natural disaster, 3) knowledge on tsunami (hazard mechanism, evacuation behavior, historical disaster). The study was conducted by BU/DPEU in 2015 and 375 students answered the questionnaire. Results showed that students have more interest on earthquake, flood, tsunami and landslide followed it. Most students have heard about tsunami and the school is a key resource of their information. They know relatively well about tsunami mechanism, however, they have less knowledge on tsunami evacuation behavior and tsunami history in Turkey. In order to let students have

  11. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which income statements are required, the smaller reporting company has acquired... acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  12. Expecting the unexpected: predicting physiological and psychological wildfire preparedness from perceived risk, responsibility, and obstacles.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Ilona M; Dunlop, Patrick D; Heath, Jonathan B; Skinner, Timothy C; Morrison, David L

    2013-10-01

    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural hazard: Perceived risk (i.e., perceived threat likelihood and severity) and perceived protection responsibility. We expanded this research by differentiating the influence of these factors on different types of wildfire preparedness (e.g., preparations for evacuation vs. for defending the house) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire. A survey completed by 1,003 residents of wildfire-prone areas in Perth, Australia, revealed that perceived risk (especially risk severity) and perceived protection responsibility were both positively associated with all types of preparedness, but the latter did not significantly predict preparedness after controlling for other predictors and demographics. Also, the two new expectancy-based factors were significantly associated with all types of preparedness, and remained significant predictors of some types of preparedness after controlling for other predictors and demographics: the expectation of being able to rely on an official fire warning and expecting to lose electricity both still predicted less preparedness around house resilience, and expecting to lose water still predicted increased planning preparedness. We discuss public policy implications that follow from this research.

  13. Art of Disaster Preparedness in European Union: a Survey on the Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M.; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. Method: A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Results: Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). Conclusion: This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal

  14. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  15. Preparing for the unthinkable: emergency preparedness for the hematopoietic cell transplant program.

    PubMed

    Wingard, John R; Leahigh, Alan K; Confer, Dennis; Edwards, John; Billups, Rocky L; van den Brink, Marcel; Keating, Armand

    2006-11-01

    Emergencies come at the most inopportune times. Some are totally unexpected, others come with short warnings. Although rare, an emergency comes with the potential to wreak disaster and pose serious risk to the services provided to hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients. Yet, the consequences of an emergency can be mitigated by thinking the unthinkable and having a plan for emergency preparedness in place. Each HCT center should develop a plan containing steps of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. This report provides the framework for a HCT-specific emergency preparedness plan that can be used by individual centers to develop customized guidelines on preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency.

  16. Emergency preparedness for genetics centers, laboratories, and patients: the Southeast Region Genetics Collaborative strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Hans C; Perry, William; Bowdish, Bruce; Floyd-Browning, Phaidra

    2011-10-01

    Emergencies occur unpredictably and interrupt routine genetic care. The events after hurricanes Katrina and Rita have led to the recognition that a coherent plan is necessary to ensure continuity of operations for genetic centers and laboratories, including newborn screening. No geographic region is protected from the effects of a variety of potential emergencies. Regional and national efforts have begun to address the need for such preparedness, but a plan for ensuring continuity of operations by creating an emergency preparedness plan must be developed for each genetic center and laboratory, with attention to the interests of patients. This article describes the first steps in development of an emergency preparedness plan for individual centers.

  17. Preparedness for threat of chikungunya in the pacific.

    PubMed

    Roth, Adam; Hoy, Damian; Horwood, Paul F; Ropa, Berry; Hancock, Thane; Guillaumot, Laurent; Rickart, Keith; Frison, Pascal; Pavlin, Boris; Souares, Yvan

    2014-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused significant outbreaks of illness during 2005-2007 in the Indian Ocean region. Chikungunya outbreaks have also occurred in the Pacific region, including in Papua New Guinea in 2012; New Caledonia in April 2013; and Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, in August 2013. CHIKV is a threat in the Pacific, and the risk for further spread is high, given several similarities between the Pacific and Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreaks. Island health care systems have difficulties coping with high caseloads, which highlights the need for early multidisciplinary preparedness. The Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network has developed several strategies focusing on surveillance, case management, vector control, laboratory confirmation, and communication. The management of this CHIKV threat will likely have broad implications for global public health.

  18. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  19. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  20. Safety and emergency preparedness considerations for geotechnical field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    The GEO Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories is involved in several remote-site drilling and/or experimental operations each year. In 1987, the Geothermal Research Division of the Department developed a general set of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) that could be applied to a variety of projects. This general set is supplemented by site-specific SOPs as needed. Effective field operations require: integration of safety and emergency preparedness planning with overall project planning, training of field personnel and inventorying of local emergency support resources, and, developing a clear line of responsibility and authority to enforce the safety requirements. Copies of SOPs used in recent operations are included as examples of working documents for the reader.