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Sample records for acquired somatic mutations

  1. Clinical significance of acquired somatic mutations in aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J C W; Mufti, G J

    2016-08-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) is frequently associated with other disorders of clonal haemopoiesis such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and T-large granular lymphocytosis. Certain clones may escape the immune attack within the bone marrow environment and proliferate and attain a survival advantage over normal haemopoietic stem cells, such as trisomy 8, loss of heterozygosity of short arm of chromosome 6 and del13q clones. Recently acquired somatic mutations (SM), excluding PNH clones, have been reported in around 20-25 % of patients with AA, which predispose to a higher risk of later malignant transformation to MDS/acute myeloid leukaemia. Furthermore, certain SM, such as ASXL1 and DNMT3A are associated with poor survival following immunosuppressive therapy, whereas PIGA, BCOR/BCORL1 predict for good response and survival. Further detailed and serial analysis of the immune signature in AA is needed to understand the pathogenetic basis for the presence of clones with SM in a significant proportion of patients.

  2. Acquired somatic ATRX mutations in myelodysplastic syndrome associated with alpha thalassemia (ATMDS) convey a more severe hematologic phenotype than germline ATRX mutations.

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P; Higgs, Douglas R; Fisher, Chris A; Gibbons, Richard J

    2004-03-15

    Acquired somatic mutations in ATRX, an X-linked gene encoding a chromatin-associated protein, were recently identified in 4 patients with the rare subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with thalassemia (ATMDS). Here we describe a series of novel point mutations in ATRX detected in archival DNA samples from marrow and/or blood of patients with ATMDS by use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), a technique sensitive to low-level mosaicism. Two of the new mutations result in changes in amino acids altered in previously described pedigrees with germ line ATRX mutations (ATR-X syndrome), but the hematologic abnormalities were much more severe in the patients with ATMDS than in the corresponding constitutional cases. In one ATMDS case where DNA samples from several time points were available, the proportion of ATRX-mutant subclones correlated with changes in the amount of hemoglobin H. This study strengthens the link between acquired, somatic ATRX mutations and ATMDS, illustrates how molecular defects associated with MDS and other hematologic malignancies masked by somatic mosaicism may be detected by DHPLC, and shows that additional factors increase the severity of the hematologic phenotype of ATRX mutations in ATMDS.

  3. CALR exon 9 mutations are somatically acquired events in familial cases of essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Elisa; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Pietra, Daniela; Milosevic, Jelena D; Casetti, Ilaria C; Bellini, Marta; Them, Nicole C C; Cavalloni, Chiara; Ferretti, Virginia V; Milanesi, Chiara; Berg, Tiina; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Boveri, Emanuela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Astori, Cesare; Kralovics, Robert; Cazzola, Mario

    2014-04-10

    Somatic mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene were recently discovered in patients with sporadic essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. We studied CALR mutation status in familial cases of myeloproliferative neoplasm. In a cohort of 127 patients, CALR indels were identified in 6 of 55 (11%) subjects with ET and in 6 of 20 (30%) with PMF, whereas 52 cases of polycythemia vera had nonmutated CALR. All CALR mutations were somatic, found in granulocytes but not in T lymphocytes. Patients with CALR-mutated ET showed a higher platelet count (P = .017) and a lower cumulative incidence of thrombosis (P = .036) and of disease progression (P = .047) compared with those with JAK2 (V617F). In conclusion, a significant proportion of familial ET and PMF nonmutated for JAK2 carry a somatic mutation of CALR.

  4. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P.; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Raine, Keiran; O’Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S.; Teague, Jon W.; Butler, Adam P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G.; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A.; Hayes, Neil D.; Janes, Sam M.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J.; Provenzano, Elena; van de Vijver, Marc; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin; Pinder, Sarah; Mac Grogan, Gaetan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Larsimont, Denis; Grabau, Dorthe; Sauer, Torill; Garred, Øystein; Ehinger, Anna; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; van Deurzen, C.H.M; Salgado, Roberto; Brock, Jane E.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Giri, Dilip D.; Arnould, Laurent; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Treilleux, Isabelle; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Fatima, Aquila; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stenhouse, Alasdair; Foekens, John; Martens, John; Sieuwerts, Anieta; Brinkman, Arjen; Stunnenberg, Henk; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Thomas, Gilles; Broeks, Annegein; Langerod, Anita; Aparicio, Samuel; Simpson, Peter T.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Erla Eyfjörd, Jórunn; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Jonasson, Jon G.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5′ truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  5. Exome Sequencing in Classic Hairy Cell Leukaemia Reveals Widespread Variation in Acquired Somatic Mutations between Individual Tumours Apart from the Signature BRAF V(600)E Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Weston-Bell, Nicola J.; Tapper, Will; Gibson, Jane; Bryant, Dean; Moreno, Yurany; John, Melford; Ennis, Sarah; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Collins, Andrew R.; Sahota, Surinder S.

    2016-01-01

    In classic Hairy cell leukaemia (HCLc), a single case has thus far been interrogated by whole exome sequencing (WES) in a treatment naive patient, in which BRAF V(600)E was identified as an acquired somatic mutation and confirmed as occurring near-universally in this form of disease by conventional PCR-based cohort screens. It left open however the question whether other genome-wide mutations may also commonly occur at high frequency in presentation HCLc disease. To address this, we have carried out WES of 5 such typical HCLc cases, using highly purified splenic tumour cells paired with autologous T cells for germline. Apart from BRAF V(600)E, no other recurrent somatic mutation was identified in these HCLc exomes, thereby excluding additional acquired mutations as also prevalent at a near-universal frequency in this form of the disease. These data then place mutant BRAF at the centre of the neoplastic drive in HCLc. A comparison of our exome data with emerging genetic findings in HCL indicates that additional somatic mutations may however occur recurrently in smaller subsets of disease. As mutant BRAF alone is insufficient to drive malignant transformation in other histological cancers, it suggests that individual tumours utilise largely differing patterns of genetic somatic mutations to coalesce with BRAF V(600)E to drive pathogenesis of malignant HCLc disease. PMID:26871591

  6. Exome Sequencing in Classic Hairy Cell Leukaemia Reveals Widespread Variation in Acquired Somatic Mutations between Individual Tumours Apart from the Signature BRAF V(600)E Lesion.

    PubMed

    Weston-Bell, Nicola J; Tapper, Will; Gibson, Jane; Bryant, Dean; Moreno, Yurany; John, Melford; Ennis, Sarah; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Collins, Andrew R; Sahota, Surinder S

    2016-01-01

    In classic Hairy cell leukaemia (HCLc), a single case has thus far been interrogated by whole exome sequencing (WES) in a treatment naive patient, in which BRAF V(600)E was identified as an acquired somatic mutation and confirmed as occurring near-universally in this form of disease by conventional PCR-based cohort screens. It left open however the question whether other genome-wide mutations may also commonly occur at high frequency in presentation HCLc disease. To address this, we have carried out WES of 5 such typical HCLc cases, using highly purified splenic tumour cells paired with autologous T cells for germline. Apart from BRAF V(600)E, no other recurrent somatic mutation was identified in these HCLc exomes, thereby excluding additional acquired mutations as also prevalent at a near-universal frequency in this form of the disease. These data then place mutant BRAF at the centre of the neoplastic drive in HCLc. A comparison of our exome data with emerging genetic findings in HCL indicates that additional somatic mutations may however occur recurrently in smaller subsets of disease. As mutant BRAF alone is insufficient to drive malignant transformation in other histological cancers, it suggests that individual tumours utilise largely differing patterns of genetic somatic mutations to coalesce with BRAF V(600)E to drive pathogenesis of malignant HCLc disease.

  7. Retrotransposons: A new and credible source of inherited and somatically acquired hepatocellular carcinoma mutations

    PubMed Central

    Rahrmann, Eric P.; Largaespada, David A.

    2014-01-01

    LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements comprising ~17% of the human genome. New L1 insertions can profoundly alter gene function and cause disease, though their significance in cancer remains unclear. Here, we applied enhanced retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) to 19 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) genomes and elucidated two archetypal L1-mediated mechanisms enabling tumorigenesis. In the first example, 4/19 (21.1%) donors presented germline retrotransposition events in the tumor suppressor mutated in colorectal cancers (MCC). MCC expression was ablated in each case, enabling oncogenic β-catenin/Wnt signaling. In the second example, suppression of tumorigenicity 18 (ST18) was activated by a tumor-specific L1 insertion. Experimental assays confirmed that the L1 interrupted a negative feedback loop by blocking ST18 repression of its enhancer. ST18 was also frequently amplified in HCC nodules from Mdr2(−/−) mice, supporting its assignment as a candidate liver oncogene. These proof-of-principle results substantiate L1-mediated retrotransposition as an important etiological factor in HCC. PMID:23665280

  8. Acquired somatic mutations in PNH reveal long-term maintenance of adaptive NK cells independent of HSPCs.

    PubMed

    Corat, Marcus A F; Schlums, Heinrich; Wu, Chuanfeng; Theorell, Jakob; Espinoza, Diego A; Sellers, Stephanie E; Townsley, Danielle M; Young, Neal S; Bryceson, Yenan T; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Winkler, Thomas

    2017-04-06

    Natural killer (NK) cells have long been considered short-lived effectors of innate immunity. However, recent animal models and human studies suggest that subsets of NK cells have adaptive features. We investigate clonal relationships of various NK-cell subsets, including the adaptive population, by taking advantage of naturally occurring X-linked somatic PIGA mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The affected HSPCs and their progeny lack expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors on their cell surface, allowing quantification of PIGA-mutant (GPI-negative) HSPC-derived peripheral blood cell populations. The fraction of GPI-negative cells within the CD56(dim) NK cells was markedly lower than that of neutrophils and the CD56(bright) NK-cell compartments. This discrepancy was most prominent within the adaptive CD56(dim) NK-cell population lacking PLZF expression. The functional properties of these adaptive NK cells were similar in PNH patients and healthy individuals. Our findings support the existence of a long-lived, adaptive NK-cell population maintained independently from GPI(pos)CD56(dim).

  9. Mutational signatures: the patterns of somatic mutations hidden in cancer genomes☆

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Stratton, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    All cancers originate from a single cell that starts to behave abnormally due to the acquired somatic mutations in its genome. Until recently, the knowledge of the mutational processes that cause these somatic mutations has been very limited. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and the development of novel mathematical approaches have allowed deciphering the patterns of somatic mutations caused by different mutational processes. Here, we summarize our current understanding of mutational patterns and mutational signatures in light of both the somatic cell paradigm of cancer research and the recent developments in the field of cancer genomics. PMID:24657537

  10. Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Thorsten; Gisslinger, Heinz; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Nivarthi, Harini; Rumi, Elisa; Milosevic, Jelena D; Them, Nicole C C; Berg, Tiina; Gisslinger, Bettina; Pietra, Daniela; Chen, Doris; Vladimer, Gregory I; Bagienski, Klaudia; Milanesi, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria Carola; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Elena, Chiara; Schischlik, Fiorella; Cleary, Ciara; Six, Melanie; Schalling, Martin; Schönegger, Andreas; Bock, Christoph; Malcovati, Luca; Pascutto, Cristiana; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert

    2013-12-19

    Approximately 50 to 60% of patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis carry a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2), and an additional 5 to 10% have activating mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). So far, no specific molecular marker has been identified in the remaining 30 to 45% of patients. We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify somatically acquired mutations in six patients who had primary myelofibrosis without mutations in JAK2 or MPL. Resequencing of CALR, encoding calreticulin, was then performed in cohorts of patients with myeloid neoplasms. Somatic insertions or deletions in exon 9 of CALR were detected in all patients who underwent whole-exome sequencing. Resequencing in 1107 samples from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms showed that CALR mutations were absent in polycythemia vera. In essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, CALR mutations and JAK2 and MPL mutations were mutually exclusive. Among patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis with nonmutated JAK2 or MPL, CALR mutations were detected in 67% of those with essential thrombocythemia and 88% of those with primary myelofibrosis. A total of 36 types of insertions or deletions were identified that all cause a frameshift to the same alternative reading frame and generate a novel C-terminal peptide in the mutant calreticulin. Overexpression of the most frequent CALR deletion caused cytokine-independent growth in vitro owing to the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) by means of an unknown mechanism. Patients with mutated CALR had a lower risk of thrombosis and longer overall survival than patients with mutated JAK2. Most patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis that was not associated with a JAK2 or MPL alteration carried a somatic mutation in CALR. The clinical course in these patients was more indolent than that in patients with the JAK2 V617F

  11. Acquired familial Mediterranean fever associated with a somatic MEFV mutation in a patient with JAK2 associated post-polycythemia myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Shinar, Yael; Tohami, Tali; Livneh, Avi; Schiby, Ginette; Hirshberg, Abraham; Nagar, Meital; Goldstein, Itamar; Cohen, Rinat; Kukuy, Olga; Shubman, Ora; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Gonzalez-Roca, Eva; Arostegui, Juan I; Rechavi, Gideon; Amariglio, Ninnette; Salomon, Ophira

    2015-06-30

    A study was designed to identify the source of fever in a patient with post-polycythemia myelofibrosis, associated with clonal Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation involving duplication of exon 12. The patient presented with 1-2 day long self-limited periodic episodes of high fever that became more frequent as the hematologic disease progressed. After ruling out other causes for recurrent fever, analysis of the pyrin encoding Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) was carried out by Sanger sequencing in peripheral blood DNA samples obtained 4 years apart, in buccal cells, laser dissected kidney tubular cells, and FACS-sorted CD3-positive or depleted mononucleated blood cells. Hematopoeitc cells results were validated by targeted deep sequencing. A Sanger sequence based screen for pathogenic variants of the autoinflammatory genes NLRP3, TNFRSF1A and MVK was also performed. A rare, c.1955G>A, p.Arg652His MEFV gene variant was identified at negligible levels in an early peripheral blood DNA sample, but affected 46 % of the MEFV alleles and was restricted to JAK2-positive, polymorphonuclear and CD3-depleted mononunuclear DNA samples obtained 4 years later, when the patient experienced fever bouts. The patient was also heterozygous for the germ line, non-pathogenic NLRP3 gene variant, p.Q705K. Upon the administration of colchicine, the gold standard treatment for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the fever attacks subsided. This is the first report of non-transmitted, acquired FMF, associated with a JAK2 driven clonal expansion of a somatic MEFV exon 10 mutation. The non-pathogenic germ line NLRP3 p.Q705K mutation possibly played a modifier role on the disease phenotype.

  12. Insertional mutagenesis combined with acquired somatic mutations causes leukemogenesis following gene therapy of SCID-X1 patients

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Steven J.; Mansour, Marc R.; Schwarzwaelder, Kerstin; Bartholomae, Cynthia; Hubank, Michael; Kempski, Helena; Brugman, Martijn H.; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Chatters, Stephen J.; de Ridder, Dick; Gilmour, Kimberly C.; Adams, Stuart; Thornhill, Susannah I.; Parsley, Kathryn L.; Staal, Frank J.T.; Gale, Rosemary E.; Linch, David C.; Bayford, Jinhua; Brown, Lucie; Quaye, Michelle; Kinnon, Christine; Ancliff, Philip; Webb, David K.; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Thrasher, Adrian J.

    2008-01-01

    X-linked SCID (SCID-X1) is amenable to correction by gene therapy using conventional gammaretroviral vectors. Here, we describe the occurrence of clonal T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) promoted by insertional mutagenesis in a completed gene therapy trial of 10 SCID-X1 patients. Integration of the vector in an antisense orientation 35 kb upstream of the protooncogene LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) caused overexpression of LMO2 in the leukemic clone. However, leukemogenesis was likely precipitated by the acquisition of other genetic abnormalities unrelated to vector insertion, including a gain-of-function mutation in NOTCH1, deletion of the tumor suppressor gene locus cyclin-dependent kinase 2A (CDKN2A), and translocation of the TCR-β region to the STIL-TAL1 locus. These findings highlight a general toxicity of endogenous gammaretroviral enhancer elements and also identify a combinatorial process during leukemic evolution that will be important for risk stratification and for future protocol design. PMID:18688286

  13. Insertional mutagenesis combined with acquired somatic mutations causes leukemogenesis following gene therapy of SCID-X1 patients.

    PubMed

    Howe, Steven J; Mansour, Marc R; Schwarzwaelder, Kerstin; Bartholomae, Cynthia; Hubank, Michael; Kempski, Helena; Brugman, Martijn H; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Chatters, Stephen J; de Ridder, Dick; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Adams, Stuart; Thornhill, Susannah I; Parsley, Kathryn L; Staal, Frank J T; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Bayford, Jinhua; Brown, Lucie; Quaye, Michelle; Kinnon, Christine; Ancliff, Philip; Webb, David K; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Gaspar, H Bobby; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2008-09-01

    X-linked SCID (SCID-X1) is amenable to correction by gene therapy using conventional gammaretroviral vectors. Here, we describe the occurrence of clonal T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) promoted by insertional mutagenesis in a completed gene therapy trial of 10 SCID-X1 patients. Integration of the vector in an antisense orientation 35 kb upstream of the protooncogene LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) caused overexpression of LMO2 in the leukemic clone. However, leukemogenesis was likely precipitated by the acquisition of other genetic abnormalities unrelated to vector insertion, including a gain-of-function mutation in NOTCH1, deletion of the tumor suppressor gene locus cyclin-dependent kinase 2A (CDKN2A), and translocation of the TCR-beta region to the STIL-TAL1 locus. These findings highlight a general toxicity of endogenous gammaretroviral enhancer elements and also identify a combinatorial process during leukemic evolution that will be important for risk stratification and for future protocol design.

  14. Somatic Mutation, Genomic Variation, and Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations causing human disease are conventionally thought to be inherited through the germ line from one’s parents and present in all somatic (body) cells, except for most cancer mutations, which arise somatically. Increasingly, somatic mutations are being identified in diseases other than cancer, including neurodevelopmental diseases. Somatic mutations can arise during the course of prenatal brain development and cause neurological disease—even when present at low levels of mosaicism, for example—resulting in brain malformations associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Novel, highly sensitive technologies will allow more accurate evaluation of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders and during normal brain development. PMID:23828942

  15. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Jones, Philip H.; Wedge, David C.; Sale, Julian E.; Campbell, Peter J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of a lifetime, somatic cells acquire mutations. Different mutational processes may contribute to the mutations accumulated in a cell, with each imprinting a mutational signature on the cell's genome. Some processes generate mutations throughout life at a constant rate in all individuals, and the number of mutations in a cell attributable to these processes will be proportional to the chronological age of the person. Using mutations from 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 cancer types, we investigated clock-like mutational processes that have been operating in normal human cells. Two mutational signatures show clock-like properties. Both exhibit different mutation rates in different tissues. However, their mutation rates are not correlated, indicating that the underlying processes are subject to different biological influences. For one signature, the rate of cell division may influence its mutation rate. This paper provides the first survey of clock-like mutational processes operating in human somatic cells.

  16. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Jones, Philip H.; Wedge, David C.; Sale, Julian E.; Campbell, Peter J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Stratton, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    During the course of a lifetime somatic cells acquire mutations. Different mutational processes may contribute to the mutations accumulated in a cell, with each imprinting a mutational signature on the cell’s genome. Some processes generate mutations throughout life at a constant rate in all individuals and the number of mutations in a cell attributable to these processes will be proportional to the chronological age of the person. Using mutations from 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 cancer types, we investigated clock-like mutational processes that have been operating in normal human cells. Two mutational signatures show clock-like properties. Both exhibit different mutation rates in different tissues. However, their mutation rates are not correlated indicating that the underlying processes are subject to different biological influences. For one signature, the rate of cell division may influence its mutation rate. This study provides the first survey of clock-like mutational processes operative in human somatic cells. PMID:26551669

  17. Secondary Somatic Mutations Restoring RAD51C and RAD51D Associated with Acquired Resistance to the PARP Inhibitor Rucaparib in High-Grade Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashova, Olga; Nguyen, Minh; Shield-Artin, Kristy; Tinker, Anna V.; Teng, Nelson N.H.; Harrell, Maria I.; Kuiper, Michael J.; Ho, Gwo-Yaw; Barker, Holly; Jasin, Maria; Prakash, Rohit; Kass, Elizabeth M.; Sullivan, Meghan R.; Brunette, Gregory J.; Bernstein, Kara A.; Coleman, Robert L.; Floquet, Anne; Friedlander, Michael; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; O'Malley, David M.; Oza, Amit; Sun, James; Robillard, Liliane; Maloney, Lara; Giordano, Heidi; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Simmons, Andrew D.; Harding, Thomas C.; Raponi, Mitch; McNeish, Iain A.; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Lin, Kevin K.; Scott, Clare L.

    2017-01-01

    High-grade epithelial ovarian carcinomas containing mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) homologous recombination (HR) genes are sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors (PARPi), while restoration of HR function due to secondary mutations in BRCA1/2 has been recognized as an important resistance mechanism. We sequenced core HR pathway genes in 12 pairs of pretreatment and postprogression tumor biopsy samples collected from patients in ARIEL2 Part 1, a phase II study of the PARPi rucaparib as treatment for platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian carcinoma. In 6 of 12 pretreatment biopsies, a truncation mutation in BRCA1, RAD51C, or RAD51D was identified. In five of six paired postprogression biopsies, one or more secondary mutations restored the open reading frame. Four distinct secondary mutations and spatial heterogeneity were observed for RAD51C. In vitro complementation assays and a patient-derived xenograft, as well as predictive molecular modeling, confirmed that resistance to rucaparib was associated with secondary mutations. Significance Analyses of primary and secondary mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D provide evidence for these primary mutations in conferring PARPi sensitivity and secondary mutations as a mechanism of acquired PARPi resistance. PARPi resistance due to secondary mutations underpins the need for early delivery of PARPi therapy and for combination strategies. PMID:28588062

  18. Somatic Mutations in Cerebral Cortical Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Jamuar, Saumya S.; Lam, Anh-Thu N.; Kircher, Martin; D'Gama, Alissa M.; Wang, Jian; Barry, Brenda J.; Zhang, Xiaochang; Hill, Robert Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Rozzo, Aldo; Servattalab, Sarah; Mehta, Bhaven K.; Topcu, Meral; Amrom, Dina; Andermann, Eva; Dan, Bernard; Parrini, Elena; Guerrini, Renzo; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Leventer, Richard J.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai Lin; Barkovich, A. James; Sahin, Mustafa; Chang, Bernard S.; Bamshad, Michael; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Shendure, Jay; Poduri, Annapurna; Yu, Timothy W.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although there is increasing recognition of the role of somatic mutations in genetic disorders, the prevalence of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disease and the optimal techniques to detect somatic mosaicism have not been systematically evaluated. METHODS Using a customized panel of known and candidate genes associated with brain malformations, we applied targeted high-coverage sequencing (depth, ≥200×) to leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 158 persons with brain malformations, including the double-cortex syndrome (subcortical band heterotopia, 30 persons), polymicrogyria with megalencephaly (20), periventricular nodular heterotopia (61), and pachygyria (47). We validated candidate mutations with the use of Sanger sequencing and, for variants present at unequal read depths, subcloning followed by colony sequencing. RESULTS Validated, causal mutations were found in 27 persons (17%; range, 10 to 30% for each phenotype). Mutations were somatic in 8 of the 27 (30%), predominantly in persons with the double-cortex syndrome (in whom we found mutations in DCX and LIS1), persons with periventricular nodular heterotopia (FLNA), and persons with pachygyria (TUBB2B). Of the somatic mutations we detected, 5 (63%) were undetectable with the use of traditional Sanger sequencing but were validated through subcloning and subsequent sequencing of the subcloned DNA. We found potentially causal mutations in the candidate genes DYNC1H1, KIF5C, and other kinesin genes in persons with pachygyria. CONCLUSIONS Targeted sequencing was found to be useful for detecting somatic mutations in patients with brain malformations. High-coverage sequencing panels provide an important complement to whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing in the evaluation of somatic mutations in neuropsychiatric disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others.) PMID:25140959

  19. (Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

  20. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells

    DOE PAGES

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Jones, Philip H.; Wedge, David C.; ...

    2015-11-09

    During the course of a lifetime, somatic cells acquire mutations. Different mutational processes may contribute to the mutations accumulated in a cell, with each imprinting a mutational signature on the cell's genome. Some processes generate mutations throughout life at a constant rate in all individuals, and the number of mutations in a cell attributable to these processes will be proportional to the chronological age of the person. Using mutations from 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 cancer types, we investigated clock-like mutational processes that have been operating in normal human cells. Two mutational signatures show clock-like properties. Both exhibit different mutationmore » rates in different tissues. However, their mutation rates are not correlated, indicating that the underlying processes are subject to different biological influences. For one signature, the rate of cell division may influence its mutation rate. This paper provides the first survey of clock-like mutational processes operating in human somatic cells.« less

  1. Domain landscapes of somatic mutations in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Large-scale tumor sequencing projects are now underway to identify genetic mutations that drive tumor initiation and development. Most studies take a gene-based approach to identifying driver mutations, highlighting genes mutated in a large percentage of tumor samples as those likely to contain driver mutations. However, this gene-based approach usually does not consider the position of the mutation within the gene or the functional context the position of the mutation provides. Here we introduce a novel method for mapping mutations to distinct protein domains, not just individual genes, in which they occur, thus providing the functional context for how the mutation contributes to disease. Furthermore, aggregating mutations from all genes containing a specific protein domain enables the identification of mutations that are rare at the gene level, but that occur frequently within the specified domain. These highly mutated domains potentially reveal disruptions of protein function necessary for cancer development. Results We mapped somatic mutations from the protein coding regions of 100 colon adenocarcinoma tumor samples to the genes and protein domains in which they occurred, and constructed topographical maps to depict the “mutational landscapes” of gene and domain mutation frequencies. We found significant mutation frequency in a number of genes previously known to be somatically mutated in colon cancer patients including APC, TP53 and KRAS. In addition, we found significant mutation frequency within specific domains located in these genes, as well as within other domains contained in genes having low mutation frequencies. These domain “peaks” were enriched with functions important to cancer development including kinase activity, DNA binding and repair, and signal transduction. Conclusions Using our method to create the domain landscapes of mutations in colon cancer, we were able to identify somatic mutations with high potential to drive cancer

  2. Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

  3. Emerging patterns of somatic mutations in cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Ian R; Takahashi, Koichi; Futreal, P Andrew; Chin, Lynda

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in technological tools for massively parallel, high-throughput sequencing of DNA have enabled the comprehensive characterization of somatic mutations in a large number of tumour samples. In this Review, we describe recent cancer genomic studies that have assembled emerging views of the landscapes of somatic mutations through deep-sequencing analyses of the coding exomes and whole genomes in various cancer types. We discuss the comparative genomics of different cancers, including mutation rates and spectra, as well as the roles of environmental insults that influence these processes. We highlight the developing statistical approaches that are used to identify significantly mutated genes, and discuss the emerging biological and clinical insights from such analyses, as well as the future challenges of translating these genomic data into clinical impacts.

  4. A simple consensus approach improves somatic mutation prediction accuracy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating true somatic mutations from artifacts in massively parallel sequencing data is an immense challenge. To develop methods for optimal somatic mutation detection and to identify factors influencing somatic mutation prediction accuracy, we validated predictions from three somatic mutation detection algorithms, MuTect, JointSNVMix2 and SomaticSniper, by Sanger sequencing. Full consensus predictions had a validation rate of >98%, but some partial consensus predictions validated too. In cases of partial consensus, read depth and mapping quality data, along with additional prediction methods, aided in removing inaccurate predictions. Our consensus approach is fast, flexible and provides a high-confidence list of putative somatic mutations. PMID:24073752

  5. Human somatic mutation assays as biomarkers of carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, P.J.E.; Smith, M.T. ); Hooper, K. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes four assays that detect somatic gene mutations in humans: the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase assay, the glycophorin A assay, the HLA-A assay, and the sickle cell hemoglobin assay. Somatic gene mutations can be considered a biomarker of carcinogenesis, and assays for somatic mutation may assist epidemiologists in studies that attempt to identify factors associated with increased risks of cancer. Practical aspects of the use of these assays are discussed.

  6. Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Somatic Mutations in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Judith; Awad, Issam A.; Recksiek, Peter; Shenkar, Robert; Breeze, Robert; Handler, Michael; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette Kay

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Germline mutations in three genes have been found in familial cases of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). We previously discovered somatic and germline truncating mutations in the KRIT1 gene supporting the “two-hit” mechanism of CCM lesion formation in a single lesion. The purpose of this study was to screen for somatic, nonheritable, mutations in three more lesions from different patients and identify the cell type(s) in which somatic mutations occur. METHODS Somatic mutations were sought in DNA from three surgically excised, fresh-frozen CCM lesions by cloning and screening PCR products generated from KRIT1 or PDCD10 coding regions. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolated endothelial and nonendothelial cells in order to determine if somatic mutations were found in endothelial cells. RESULTS A CCM lesion harbored somatic and germline KRIT1 mutations on different chromosomes and are therefore biallelic. Both mutations are predicted to truncate the protein. The KRIT1 somatic mutations (novel c.1800delG mutation and previously identified 34 nucleotide deletion) in CCMs from two different patients were only found in the vascular endothelial cells lining caverns. No obvious somatic mutations were identified in the two other lesions; however, the results were inconclusive possibly due to the technical limitations or the fact that these specimens had a small proportion of vascular endothelial cells lining pristine caverns. CONCLUSION The “two-hit” mechanism occurs in vascular endothelial cells lining CCM caverns from two patients with somatic and Hispanic-American KRIT1 germline mutations. Methods for somatic mutation detection should focus on vascular endothelial cells lining pristine caverns. PMID:19574835

  7. Patterns of Somatic Mutations in Immunoglobulin Variable Genes

    PubMed Central

    Golding, G. Brian; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Glickman, Barry W.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for somatic mutation in the variable genes of antibodies is unknown and may differ from previously described mechanisms that produce mutation in DNA. We have analyzed 421 somatic mutations from the rearranged immunoglobulin variable genes of mice to determine (1) if the nucleotide substitutions differ from those generated during meiosis and (2) if the presence of nearby direct and inverted repeated sequences could template mutations around the variable gene. The results reveal a difference in the pattern of substitutions obtained from somatic mutations vs. meiotic mutations. An increased frequency of T:A to C:G transitions and a decreased frequency of mutations involving a G in the somatic mutants compared to the meiotic mutants is indicated. This suggests that the mutational processes responsible for somatic mutation in antibody genes differs from that responsible for mutation during meiosis. An analysis of the local DNA sequences revealed many direct repeats and palindromic sequences that were capable of templating some of the known mutations. Although additional factors may be involved in targeting mutations to the variable gene, mistemplating by nearby repeats may provide a mechanism for the enhancement of somatic mutation. PMID:3557109

  8. Theoretical framework of population genetics with somatic mutations taken into account: application to copy number variations in humans.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, K; Innan, H

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally, population genetics focuses on the dynamics of frequencies of alleles acquired by mutations on germ-lines, because only such mutations are heritable. Typical genotyping experiments, however, use DNA from some somatic tissues such as blood, which harbors somatic mutations at the current generation in addition to germ-line mutations accumulated since the most recent common ancestor of the sample. This common practice may sometimes cause erroneous interpretations of polymorphism data, unless we properly understand the role of somatic mutations in population genetics. We here introduce a very basic theoretical framework of population genetics with somatic mutations taken into account. It is easy to imagine that somatic mutations at the current generation simply add individual-specific variations, as errors in mutation detection do. Our theory quantifies this increment under various conditions. We find that the major contribution of somatic mutations plus errors is to very rare variants, particularly to singletons. The relative contribution is markedly large when mutations are deleterious. Because negative selection also increases rare variants, it is important to distinguish the roles of these mutually confounding factors when we interpret the data, even after correcting for demography. We apply this theory to human copy number variations (CNVs), for which the composite effect of somatic mutations and errors may not be negligible. Using genome-wide CNV data, we demonstrate how the joint action of the two factors, selection and somatic mutations plus errors, shapes the observed pattern of polymorphism.

  9. Theoretical framework of population genetics with somatic mutations taken into account: application to copy number variations in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ezawa, K; Innan, H

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, population genetics focuses on the dynamics of frequencies of alleles acquired by mutations on germ-lines, because only such mutations are heritable. Typical genotyping experiments, however, use DNA from some somatic tissues such as blood, which harbors somatic mutations at the current generation in addition to germ-line mutations accumulated since the most recent common ancestor of the sample. This common practice may sometimes cause erroneous interpretations of polymorphism data, unless we properly understand the role of somatic mutations in population genetics. We here introduce a very basic theoretical framework of population genetics with somatic mutations taken into account. It is easy to imagine that somatic mutations at the current generation simply add individual-specific variations, as errors in mutation detection do. Our theory quantifies this increment under various conditions. We find that the major contribution of somatic mutations plus errors is to very rare variants, particularly to singletons. The relative contribution is markedly large when mutations are deleterious. Because negative selection also increases rare variants, it is important to distinguish the roles of these mutually confounding factors when we interpret the data, even after correcting for demography. We apply this theory to human copy number variations (CNVs), for which the composite effect of somatic mutations and errors may not be negligible. Using genome-wide CNV data, we demonstrate how the joint action of the two factors, selection and somatic mutations plus errors, shapes the observed pattern of polymorphism. PMID:23981956

  10. Acquired initiating mutations in early hematopoietic cells of CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Damm, Frederik; Mylonas, Elena; Cosson, Adrien; Yoshida, Kenichi; Della Valle, Véronique; Mouly, Enguerran; Diop, M'boyba; Scourzic, Laurianne; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Davi, Frederick; Lambert, Jérôme; Gautheret, Daniel; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Sutton, Laurent; Dessen, Philippe; Solary, Eric; Akashi, Koichi; Vainchenker, William; Mercher, Thomas; Droin, Nathalie; Ogawa, Seishi; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Bernard, Olivier A

    2014-09-01

    Appropriate cancer care requires a thorough understanding of the natural history of the disease, including the cell of origin, the pattern of clonal evolution, and the functional consequences of the mutations. Using deep sequencing of flow-sorted cell populations from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we established the presence of acquired mutations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Mutations affected known lymphoid oncogenes, including BRAF, NOTCH1, and SF3B1. NFKBIE and EGR2 mutations were observed at unexpectedly high frequencies, 10.7% and 8.3% of 168 advanced-stage patients, respectively. EGR2 mutations were associated with a shorter time to treatment and poor overall survival. Analyses of BRAF and EGR2 mutations suggest that they result in deregulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) intracellular signaling. Our data propose disruption of hematopoietic and early B-cell differentiation through the deregulation of pre-BCR signaling as a phenotypic outcome of CLL mutations and show that CLL develops from a pre-leukemic phase. The origin and pathogenic mechanisms of CLL are not fully understood. The current work indicates that CLL develops from pre-leukemic multipotent hematopoietic progenitors carrying somatic mutations. It advocates for abnormalities in early B-cell differentiation as a phenotypic convergence of the diverse acquired mutations observed in CLL. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. [Recurrent somatic mutation in hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Sári, Eszter; Nagy, Zsolt; Demeter, Judit

    2013-01-27

    Hairy cell leukemia is a mature B-cell non-Hogkin lymphoma characterized by unique clinical, morphological and immunhistochemical features. Patients with hairy cell leukemia usually present with splenomegaly, progressive pancytopenia and a relative indolent clinical course. The diagnosis does not always indicate immediate treatment, as treatment depends on the clinical stage of the leukemia. Asymptomatic disease without progression requires a watchful waiting policy, while other categories usually need treatment. The treatment of choice is purine nucleoside analogues (pentostatin, cladribine) which can achieve complete remission even for decades. Interferon and monoclonal CD20 antibodies can also significantly prolong event-free survival. Unfortunately, only the latter two therapies are easily available in Hungary. Splenectomy, which was suggested as first line treatment before the era of purine nucleoside analogues, is only recommended as a last resort. Although hairy cell leukemia is a well-defined lymphoproliferative disease, sometimes it is difficult to differentiate it from other similar entities such as hairy cell leukema variant, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma etc. Making the correct diagnosis is of utmost importance because of the great difference in treatment modalities. Recently, a somatic mutation was found in all analysed hairy cell leukemia samples, but not in other splenic B-cell lymphomas. This article reviews the significance of this observation and presents the different types of methods for the detection of this mutation.

  12. Somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma identified by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Hornick, Jason L; Woda, Bruce; Yu, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of presumed hematopoietic origin showing morphologic and immunophenotypic evidence of histiocytic differentiation. Somatic mutation importance in the pathogenesis or disease progression of histiocytic sarcoma was largely unknown. To identify somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma, we studied 5 histiocytic sarcomas [3 female and 2 male patients; mean age 54.8 (20-72), anatomic sites include lymph node, uterus, and pleura] and matched normal tissues from each patient as germ line controls. Somatic mutations in 50 "Hotspot" oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were examined using next generation sequencing. Three (out of five) histiocytic sarcoma cases carried somatic mutations in BRAF. Among them, G464V [variant frequency (VF) of 43.6 %] and G466R (VF of 29.6 %) located at the P loop potentially interfere with the hydrophobic interaction between P and activating loops and ultimately activation of BRAF. Also detected was BRAF somatic mutation N581S (VF of 7.4 %), which was located at the catalytic loop of BRAF kinase domain: its role in modifying kinase activity was unclear. A similar mutational analysis was also performed on nine acute monocytic/monoblastic leukemia cases, which did not identify any BRAF somatic mutations. Our study detected several BRAF mutations in histiocytic sarcomas, which may be important in understanding the tumorigenesis of this rare neoplasm and providing mechanisms for potential therapeutical opportunities.

  13. [Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

  14. Parkinson disease (PARK) genes are somatically mutated in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Yardena; Azizi, Esther; Qutob, Nouar; Inzelberg, Lilah; Domany, Eytan; Schechtman, Edna; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether Parkinson disease (PD) genes are somatically mutated in cutaneous melanoma (CM) tissue, because CM occurs in patients with PD at higher rates than in the general population and PD is more common than expected in CM cohorts. Methods: We cross-referenced somatic mutations in metastatic CM detected by whole-exome sequencing with the 15 known PD (PARK) genes. We computed the empirical distribution of the sum of mutations in each gene (Smut) and of the number of tissue samples in which a given gene was mutated at least once (SSampl) for each of the analyzable genes, determined the 90th and 95th percentiles of the empirical distributions of these sums, and verified the location of PARK genes in these distributions. Identical analyses were applied to adenocarcinoma of lung (ADENOCA-LUNG) and squamous cell carcinoma of lung (SQUAMCA-LUNG). We also analyzed the distribution of the number of mutated PARK genes in CM samples vs the 2 lung cancers. Results: Somatic CM mutation analysis (n = 246) detected 315,914 mutations in 18,758 genes. Somatic CM mutations were found in 14 of 15 PARK genes. Forty-eight percent of CM samples carried ≥1 PARK mutation and 25% carried multiple PARK mutations. PARK8 mutations occurred above the 95th percentile of the empirical distribution for SMut and SSampl. Significantly more CM samples harbored multiple PARK gene mutations compared with SQUAMCA-LUNG (p = 0.0026) and with ADENOCA-LUNG (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The overrepresentation of somatic PARK mutations in CM suggests shared dysregulated pathways for CM and PD. PMID:27123489

  15. Utilizing protein structure to identify non-random somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of somatic mutations in tumor suppressors and oncogenes within the genome. In the case of oncogenes, recent theory suggests that there are only a few key “driver” mutations responsible for tumorigenesis. As there have been significant pharmacological successes in developing drugs that treat cancers that carry these driver mutations, several methods that rely on mutational clustering have been developed to identify them. However, these methods consider proteins as a single strand without taking their spatial structures into account. We propose an extension to current methodology that incorporates protein tertiary structure in order to increase our power when identifying mutation clustering. Results We have developed iPAC (identification of Protein Amino acid Clustering), an algorithm that identifies non-random somatic mutations in proteins while taking into account the three dimensional protein structure. By using the tertiary information, we are able to detect both novel clusters in proteins that are known to exhibit mutation clustering as well as identify clusters in proteins without evidence of clustering based on existing methods. For example, by combining the data in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer, our algorithm identifies new mutational clusters in well known cancer proteins such as KRAS and PI3KC α. Further, by utilizing the tertiary structure, our algorithm also identifies clusters in EGFR, EIF2AK2, and other proteins that are not identified by current methodology. The R package is available at: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/2.12/bioc/html/iPAC.html. Conclusion Our algorithm extends the current methodology to identify oncogenic activating driver mutations by utilizing tertiary protein structure when identifying nonrandom somatic residue mutation clusters. PMID:23758891

  16. Immunohistochemical correlates of TP53 somatic mutations in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murnyák, Balázs; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Despite controversy on the correlation between p53 accumulation and TP53 mutational status, ihas long been used as a surrogate method for mutation analysis. The aim of our study was to characterise the IHC expression features of TP53 somatic mutations and define their occurrence in human cancers. A large-scale database analysis was conducted in the IARC TP53 Database (R17); 7878 mutations with IHC features were retrieved representing 60 distinct tumour sites. The majority of the alterations were immunopositive (p <0.001). Sex was known for 4897 mutations showing a female dominance (57.2%) and females carrying negative mutations were significantly younger. TP53 mutations were divided into three IHC groups according to mutation frequency and IHC positivity. Each group had female dominance. Among the IHC groups, significant correlations were observed with age at diagnosis in breast, bladder, liver, haematopoietic system and head & neck cancers. An increased likelihood of false negative IHC associated with rare nonsense mutations was observed in certain tumour sites. Our study demonstrates that p53 immunopositivity largely correlates with TP53 mutational status but expression is absent in certain mutation types.Besides, describing the complex IHC expression of TP53 somatic mutations, our results reveal some caveats for the diagnostic practice. PMID:27626311

  17. Immunohistochemical correlates of TP53 somatic mutations in cancer.

    PubMed

    Murnyák, Balázs; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-10-04

    Despite controversy on the correlation between p53 accumulation and TP53 mutational status, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of overexpressed protein has long been used as a surrogate method for mutation analysis. The aim of our study was to characterise the IHC expression features of TP53 somatic mutations and define their occurrence in human cancers. A large-scale database analysis was conducted in the IARC TP53 Database (R17); 7878 mutations with IHC features were retrieved representing 60 distinct tumour sites. The majority of the alterations were immunopositive (p <0.001). Sex was known for 4897 mutations showing a female dominance (57.2%) and females carrying negative mutations were significantly younger. TP53 mutations were divided into three IHC groups according to mutation frequency and IHC positivity. Each group had female dominance. Among the IHC groups, significant correlations were observed with age at diagnosis in breast, bladder, liver, haematopoietic system and head & neck cancers. An increased likelihood of false negative IHC associated with rare nonsense mutations was observed in certain tumour sites. Our study demonstrates that p53 immunopositivity largely correlates with TP53 mutational status but expression is absent in certain mutation types.Besides, describing the complex IHC expression of TP53 somatic mutations, our results reveal some caveats for the diagnostic practice.

  18. Somatic Mutations in Prostate Cancer: Closer to Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cubero, M J; Martinez-Gonzalez, L J; Robles-Fernandez, I; Martinez-Herrera, J; Garcia-Rodriguez, G; Pascual-Geler, M; Cozar, J M; Lorente, J A

    2017-04-01

    The molecular cause of prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear; however, its progression involves androgen, PI3K/Akt, and PTEN signaling, as cycle and apoptotic pathways. Alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes as PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS and TP53 are not very common. Recently, somatic mutations have been discovered in relation to cancer progression mainly in genes such as PIK3CA; however, little data has been described in PCa. Nowadays genetic tools allow us to investigate multiple details about the biological heterogeneity of PCa, to better understand the mechanisms of disease progression and treatment resistance. Therefore, if the most relevant somatic mutations were included during screening, we could identify the best treatment for the right patient, bringing us closer to personalized medicine. The main objective of this article is to provide a review of the principal somatic mutations that appear to have a relevant role in hormonal cancers, like prostate cancer.

  19. Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo

    DOE PAGES

    Ju, Young Seok; Martincorena, Inigo; Gerstung, Moritz; ...

    2017-03-22

    Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual’s life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and theirmore » contributions to adult tissues. Although it is known that gross chromosomal abnormalities are remarkably common in early human embryos, our understanding of early embryonic somatic mutations is very limited. Here we use whole-genome sequences of normal blood from 241 adults to identify 163 early embryonic mutations. We estimate that approximately three base substitution mutations occur per cell per cell-doubling event in early human embryogenesis and these are mainly attributable to two known mutational signatures. We used the mutations to reconstruct developmental lineages of adult cells and demonstrate that the two daughter cells of many early embryonic cell-doubling events contribute asymmetrically to adult blood at an approximately 2:1 ratio. As a result, this study therefore provides insights into the mutation rates, mutational processes and developmental outcomes of cell dynamics that operate during early human embryogenesis.« less

  20. Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young Seok; Martincorena, Inigo; Gerstung, Moritz; Petljak, Mia; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Rahbari, Raheleh; Wedge, David C; Davies, Helen R; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Fullam, Anthony; Martin, Sancha; Alder, Christopher; Patel, Nikita; Gamble, Steve; O'Meara, Sarah; Giri, Dilip D; Sauer, Torril; Pinder, Sarah E; Purdie, Colin A; Borg, Åke; Stunnenberg, Henk; van de Vijver, Marc; Tan, Benita K T; Caldas, Carlos; Tutt, Andrew; Ueno, Naoto T; van 't Veer, Laura J; Martens, John W M; Sotiriou, Christos; Knappskog, Stian; Span, Paul N; Lakhani, Sunil R; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Richardson, Andrea; Thompson, Alastair M; Viari, Alain; Hurles, Matthew E; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R

    2017-03-30

    Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual's life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and their contributions to adult tissues. Although it is known that gross chromosomal abnormalities are remarkably common in early human embryos, our understanding of early embryonic somatic mutations is very limited. Here we use whole-genome sequences of normal blood from 241 adults to identify 163 early embryonic mutations. We estimate that approximately three base substitution mutations occur per cell per cell-doubling event in early human embryogenesis and these are mainly attributable to two known mutational signatures. We used the mutations to reconstruct developmental lineages of adult cells and demonstrate that the two daughter cells of many early embryonic cell-doubling events contribute asymmetrically to adult blood at an approximately 2:1 ratio. This study therefore provides insights into the mutation rates, mutational processes and developmental outcomes of cell dynamics that operate during early human embryogenesis.

  1. Uncommon RB1 somatic mutations in a unilateral retinoblastoma patient.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Daniela; Alonso, Cristina; Szijan, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Somatic inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene in a developing retina is a crucial event in the initiation of tumorigenesis in most cases of isolated unilateral retinoblastoma. We analyzed the DNA from tumor tissue and peripheral blood of a unilateral retinoblastoma patient to determine the RB1 mutation status and to provide an accurate genetic counseling. A comprehensive approach, based on our previous experience, was used to identify the causative RB1 mutations. Screening for RB1 mutations was performed by PCR direct sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and Real Time-PCR analyses. Three different mutations were identified in the tumor DNA, which were absent in blood DNA. The somatic origin of these mutations was vital to rule out the heritable condition in this patient.

  2. Germ-line and somatic DICER1 mutations in pineoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    de Kock, Leanne; Sabbaghian, Nelly; Druker, Harriet; Weber, Evan; Hamel, Nancy; Miller, Suzanne; Choong, Catherine S.; Gottardo, Nicholas G.; Kees, Ursula R.; Rednam, Surya P.; van Hest, Liselotte P.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Jhangiani, Shalini; Lupski, James R.; Zacharin, Margaret; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Huang, Annie; Priest, John R.; Perry, Arie; Mueller, Sabine; Albrecht, Steffen; Malkin, David; Grundy, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Germ-line RB-1 mutations predispose to pineoblastoma (PinB), but other predisposing genetic factors are not well established. We recently identifed a germ-line DICER1 mutation in a child with a PinB. This was accompanied by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type allele within the tumour. We set out to establish the prevalence of DICER1 mutations in an opportunistically ascertained series of PinBs. Twenty-one PinB cases were studied: eighteen cases had not undergone previous testing for DICER1 mutations; three patients were known carriers of germ-line DICER1 mutations. The eighteen PinBs were sequenced by Sanger and/or Fluidigm-based next-generation sequencing to identify DICER1 mutations in blood gDNA and/or tumour gDNA. Testing for somatic DICER1 mutations was also conducted on one case with a known germ-line DICER1 mutation. From the eighteen PinBs, we identified four deleterious DICER1 mutations, three of which were germ line in origin, and one for which a germ line versus somatic origin could not be determined; in all four, the second allele was also inactivated leading to complete loss of DICER1 protein. No somatic DICER1 RNase IIIb mutations were identified. One PinB arising in a germ-line DICER1 mutation carrier was found to have LOH. This study suggests that germ-line DICER1 mutations make a clinically significant contribution to PinB, establishing DICER1 as an important susceptibility gene for PinB and demonstrates PinB to be a manifestation of a germ-line DICER1 mutation. The means by which the second allele is inactivated may differ from other DICER1-related tumours. PMID:25022261

  3. Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Van Loo, P.; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O’Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.-Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.P.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.P.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of samples obtained from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls. We established phylogenetic trees using hematopoietic colonies. We assessed calreticulin subcellular localization using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. RESULTS Exome sequencing identified 1498 mutations in 151 patients, with medians of 6.5, 6.5, and 13.0 mutations per patient in samples of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, respectively. Somatic CALR mutations were found in 70 to 84% of samples of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2, in 8% of myelodysplasia samples, in occasional samples of other myeloid cancers, and in none of the other cancers. A total of 148 CALR mutations were identified with 19 distinct variants. Mutations were located in exon 9 and generated a +1 base-pair frameshift, which would result in a mutant protein with a novel C-terminal. Mutant calreticulin was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum without increased cell-surface or Golgi accumulation. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels than patients with mutated JAK2. Mutation of CALR was detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Clonal analyses showed CALR mutations in the earliest phylogenetic node, a finding consistent with its role as an initiating mutation in some patients. CONCLUSIONS Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone CALR were found in a majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with

  4. Activating Somatic FGFR2 Mutations in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reintjes, Nadine; Li, Yun; Becker, Alexandra; Rohmann, Edyta; Schmutzler, Rita; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    It is known that FGFR2 gene variations confer a risk for breast cancer. FGFR2 and FGF10, the main ligand of FGFR2, are both overexpressed in 5–10% of breast tumors. In our study, we sequenced the most important coding regions of FGFR2 in somatic tumor tissue of 140 sporadic breast cancer patients and performed MLPA analysis to detect copy number variations in FGFR2 and FGF10. We identified one somatic heterozygous missense mutation, p.K660N (c.1980G>C), within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2 in tumor tissue of a sporadic breast cancer patient, which is likely mediated by the FGFR2-IIIb isoform. The presence of wild type and mutated alleles in equal quantities suggests that the mutation has driven clonal amplification of mutant cells. We have analyzed the tyrosine kinase activity of p.K660N and another recently described somatic breast cancer mutation in FGFR2, p.R203C, after expression in HEK293 cells and demonstrated that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of both mutant proteins is strongly increased resulting in elevated phosphorylation and activity of downstream effectors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of functional analysis of somatic breast cancer mutations in FGFR2 providing evidence for the activating nature of FGFR2-mediated signalling in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. PMID:23527311

  5. Somatic Mutation Theory - Why it's Wrong for Most Cancers.

    PubMed

    Brücher, Björn L D M; Jamall, Ijaz S

    2016-01-01

    Hysteron proteron reverses both temporal and logical order and this syllogism occurs in carcinogenesis and the somatic mutation theory (SMT): the first (somatic mutation) occurs only after the second (onset of cancer) and, therefore, observed somatic mutations in most cancers appear well after the early cues of carcinogenesis are in place. It is no accident that mutations are increasingly being questioned as the causal event in the origin of the vast majority of cancers as clinical data show little support for this theory when compared against the metrics of patient outcomes. Ever since the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA, virtually all chronic diseases came to be viewed as causally linked to one degree or another to mutations, even though we now know that genes are not simply blueprints, but rather an assemblage of alphabets that can, under non-genetic influences, be used to assemble a business letter or a work of Shakespearean literature. A minority of all cancers is indeed caused by mutations but the SMT has been applied to all cancers, and even to chemical carcinogenesis, in the absence of hard evidence of causality. Herein, we review the 100 year story of SMT and aspects that show why genes are not just blueprints, how radiation and mutation are associated in a more nuanced view, the proposed risk of cancer and bad luck, and the in vitro and in vivo evidence for a new cancer paradigm. This paradigm is scientifically applicable for the majority of non-heritable cancers and consists of a six-step sequence for the origin of cancer. This new cancer paradigm proclaims that somatic mutations are epiphenomena or later events occurring after carcinogenesis is already underway. This serves not just as a plausible alternative to SMT and explains the origin of the majority of cancers, but also provides opportunities for early interventions and prevention of the onset of cancer as a disease. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Somatic mutations of CASP3 gene in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Su Young; Park, Won Sang; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2004-07-01

    Failure of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer. As an execution-phase caspase, caspase-3 plays a crucial role during apoptosis. To explore the possibility that the genetic alterations of CASP3, which encodes caspase-3, might be involved in the development of human tumors, we analyzed the entire coding region and all splice sites of human CASP3 gene for the detection of somatic mutations in a series of 944 human tumors, including 165 stomach carcinomas, 95 colon carcinomas, 76 breast carcinomas, 80 hepatocellular carcinomas, 181 non-small cell lung cancers, 45 acute leukemias, 28 multiple myelomas, 12 medulloblastomas, 15 Wilms' tumors, 12 renal cell carcinomas, 40 esophagus carcinomas, 33 urinary bladder carcinomas, 33 laryngeal carcinomas, and 129 non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Overall, we detected 14 somatic mutations of the CASP3 gene, including six missense and four silent mutations, two mutations in the introns, one mutation in the 5'-untranslated region, and one mutation in the 3'-untranslated region. The mutations were observed in four of 98 colon carcinomas (4.1%), four of 181 non-small cell lung cancers (2.2%), two of 129 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (1.6%), two of 165 stomach carcinomas (1.2%), one of 80 hepatocellular carcinomas (1.3%), and one of 28 multiple myelomas (3.6%). This is the first report on CASP3 gene mutations in human tumors; these data indicate that the CASP3 gene is occasionally mutated in human tumors.

  7. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sougnez, Carrie; Greulich, Heidi; Muzny, Donna M.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert S.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wendl, Michael C.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Larson, David E.; Chen, Ken; Dooling, David J.; Sabo, Aniko; Hawes, Alicia C.; Shen, Hua; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Lewis, Lora R.; Hall, Otis; Zhu, Yiming; Mathew, Tittu; Ren, Yanru; Yao, Jiqiang; Scherer, Steven E.; Clerc, Kerstin; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Ng, Brian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Osborne, John R.; Meyer, Rick; Shi, Xiaoqi; Tang, Yuzhu; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Lin, Ling; Abbott, Rachel; Miner, Tracie L.; Pohl, Craig; Fewell, Ginger; Haipek, Carrie; Schmidt, Heather; Dunford-Shore, Brian H.; Kraja, Aldi; Crosby, Seth D.; Sawyer, Christopher S.; Vickery, Tammi; Sander, Sacha; Robinson, Jody; Winckler, Wendy; Baldwin, Jennifer; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Dutt, Amit; Fennell, Tim; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Thomas, Roman K.; Tonon, Giovanni; Weir, Barbara A.; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ziaugra, Liuda; Zody, Michael C.; Giordano, Thomas; Orringer, Mark B.; Roth, Jack A.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Ozenberger, Bradley; Good, Peter J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Beer, David G.; Watson, Mark A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Broderick, Stephen; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Province, Michael A.; Weinstock, George M.; Varmus, Harold E.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers—including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM—and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment. PMID:18948947

  8. Somatic mutation of PTEN in bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, J S; Skilleter, A; Habuchi, T; Knowles, M A

    1999-01-01

    The tumour suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1, which is mutated or homozygously deleted in glioma, breast and prostate cancer, is mapped to a region of 10q which shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in bladder cancer. We screened 123 bladder tumours for LOH in the region of PTEN. In 53 informative muscle invasive tumours (≥ pT2), allele loss was detected in 13 (24.5%) and allelic imbalance in four tumours (overall frequency 32%). LOH was found in four of 60 (6.6%) informative, non-invasive tumours (pTa/pT1). We screened 63 muscle invasive tumours for PTEN mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and for homozygous deletion by duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two homozygous deletions were identified but no mutations. Of 15 bladder tumour cell lines analysed, three showed homozygous deletion of all or part of the PTEN gene, but none had mutations detectable by SSCP analysis. Our results indicate that PTEN is involved in the development of some bladder tumours. The low frequency of mutation of the retained allele in tumours with 10q23 LOH suggests that there may be another predominant mechanism of inactivation of the second allele, for example small intragenic deletions, that hemizygosity may be sufficient for phenotypic effect, or that there is another target gene at 10q23. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10360673

  9. Frequent PIK3CA Mutations in Colorectal and Endometrial Cancer with Double Somatic Mismatch Repair Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stacey A.; Turner, Emily H.; Beightol, Mallory B.; Jacobson, Angela; Gooley, Ted A.; Salipante, Stephen J.; Haraldsdottir, Sigurdis; Smith, Christina; Scroggins, Sheena; Tait, Jonathan F.; Grady, William M.; Lin, Edward H.; Cohn, David E.; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Arnold, Mark W.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Pearlman, Rachel; Hampel, Heather; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Double somatic mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have recently been described in colorectal and endometrial cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI) not attributable to MLH1 hypermethylation or germline mutation. We sought to define the molecular phenotype of this newly recognized tumor subtype. Methods From two prospective Lynch syndrome screening studies, we identified patients with colorectal and endometrial tumors harboring ≥2 somatic MMR mutations, but normal germline MMR testing (“double somatic”). We determined the frequencies of tumor PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, and PTEN mutations by targeted next-generation sequencing and used logistic-regression models to compare them to: Lynch syndrome, MLH1 hypermethylated, and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. We validated our findings using independent datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Results Among colorectal cancer cases, we found that 14/21 (67%) of double somatic cases had PIK3CA mutations vs. 4/18 (22%) Lynch syndrome, 2/10 (20%) MLH1 hypermethylated, and 12/78 (15%) MSS tumors; p<0.0001. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 100% of 13 double somatic endometrial cancers (p=0.04). BRAF mutations were absent in double somatic and Lynch syndrome colorectal tumors. We found highly similar results in a validation cohort from TCGA (113 colorectal, 178 endometrial cancer), with 100% of double somatic cases harboring a PIK3CA mutation (p<0.0001). Conclusions PIK3CA mutations are present in double somatic mutated colorectal and endometrial cancers at substantially higher frequencies than other MSI subgroups. PIK3CA mutation status may better define an emerging molecular entity in colorectal and endometrial cancers, with the potential to inform screening and therapeutic decision making. PMID:27302833

  10. Somatic MMR gene mutations as a cause for MSI-H sebaceous neoplasms in Muir-Torre syndrome-like patients.

    PubMed

    Joly, Marie-Odile; Attignon, Valéry; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Desseigne, Françoise; Leroux, Dominique; Martin-Denavit, Tanguy; Giraud, Sophie; Bonnet-Dupeyron, Marie-Noëlle; Faivre, Laurence; Auclair, Jessie; Grand-Masson, Chloé; Audoynaud, Carole; Wang, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Sebaceous neoplasms are a major clinical feature of Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) associated with visceral malignancies, especially colorectal and endometrial tumors. The diagnosis of MTS relies largely on the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype in tumors, suggesting germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes responsible for the inherited disease. We hypothesized that in some MSI-H sebaceous tumors, acquired rather than inherited mutations in MMR genes could be involved. Using next-generation sequencing, we screened MMR gene mutations in 18 MSI-H sebaceous tumors. We found mutations in 17 samples (94%). Indeed, 12/17 (71%) were shown to carry acquired somatic mutations and among 12 samples, seven were shown to be associated with additional somatic alterations like loss of heterozygosity or multiple mutations, suggesting somatic second hits. Our findings strongly suggest that somatic MMR deficiency is responsible for a proportion of MSI-H sebaceous tumors. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Human mitochondrial DNA: roles of inherited and somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Eric A.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Hirano, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial genome are known to cause an array of diverse disorders, most of which are maternally inherited, and all of which are associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism. It is now emerging that somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are also linked to other complex traits, including neurodegenerative diseases, ageing and cancer. Here we discuss insights into the roles of mtDNA mutations in a wide variety of diseases, highlighting the interesting genetic characteristics of the mitochondrial genome and challenges in studying its contribution to pathogenesis. PMID:23154810

  12. Virmid: accurate detection of somatic mutations with sample impurity inference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwoo; Jeong, Kyowon; Bhutani, Kunal; Lee, Jeong; Patel, Anand; Scott, Eric; Nam, Hojung; Lee, Hayan; Gleeson, Joseph G; Bafna, Vineet

    2013-08-29

    Detection of somatic variation using sequence from disease-control matched data sets is a critical first step. In many cases including cancer, however, it is hard to isolate pure disease tissue, and the impurity hinders accurate mutation analysis by disrupting overall allele frequencies. Here, we propose a new method, Virmid, that explicitly determines the level of impurity in the sample, and uses it for improved detection of somatic variation. Extensive tests on simulated and real sequencing data from breast cancer and hemimegalencephaly demonstrate the power of our model. A software implementation of our method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/virmid/.

  13. Virmid: accurate detection of somatic mutations with sample impurity inference

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Detection of somatic variation using sequence from disease-control matched data sets is a critical first step. In many cases including cancer, however, it is hard to isolate pure disease tissue, and the impurity hinders accurate mutation analysis by disrupting overall allele frequencies. Here, we propose a new method, Virmid, that explicitly determines the level of impurity in the sample, and uses it for improved detection of somatic variation. Extensive tests on simulated and real sequencing data from breast cancer and hemimegalencephaly demonstrate the power of our model. A software implementation of our method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/virmid/. PMID:23987214

  14. Medulloblastoma exome sequencing uncovers subtype-specific somatic mutations.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Trevor J; Weeraratne, Shyamal Dilhan; Archer, Tenley C; Pomeranz Krummel, Daniel A; Auclair, Daniel; Bochicchio, James; Carneiro, Mauricio O; Carter, Scott L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Erlich, Rachel L; Greulich, Heidi; Lawrence, Michael S; Lennon, Niall J; McKenna, Aaron; Meldrim, James; Ramos, Alex H; Ross, Michael G; Russ, Carsten; Shefler, Erica; Sivachenko, Andrey; Sogoloff, Brian; Stojanov, Petar; Tamayo, Pablo; Mesirov, Jill P; Amani, Vladimir; Teider, Natalia; Sengupta, Soma; Francois, Jessica Pierre; Northcott, Paul A; Taylor, Michael D; Yu, Furong; Crabtree, Gerald R; Kautzman, Amanda G; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T W; Lichter, Peter; Pfister, Stefan M; Roberts, Thomas M; Meyerson, Matthew; Pomeroy, Scott L; Cho, Yoon-Jae

    2012-08-02

    Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumours in children. Identifying and understanding the genetic events that drive these tumours is critical for the development of more effective diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. Recently, our group and others described distinct molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma on the basis of transcriptional and copy number profiles. Here we use whole-exome hybrid capture and deep sequencing to identify somatic mutations across the coding regions of 92 primary medulloblastoma/normal pairs. Overall, medulloblastomas have low mutation rates consistent with other paediatric tumours, with a median of 0.35 non-silent mutations per megabase. We identified twelve genes mutated at statistically significant frequencies, including previously known mutated genes in medulloblastoma such as CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4 and TP53. Recurrent somatic mutations were newly identified in an RNA helicase gene, DDX3X, often concurrent with CTNNB1 mutations, and in the nuclear co-repressor (N-CoR) complex genes GPS2, BCOR and LDB1. We show that mutant DDX3X potentiates transactivation of a TCF promoter and enhances cell viability in combination with mutant, but not wild-type, β-catenin. Together, our study reveals the alteration of WNT, hedgehog, histone methyltransferase and now N-CoR pathways across medulloblastomas and within specific subtypes of this disease, and nominates the RNA helicase DDX3X as a component of pathogenic β-catenin signalling in medulloblastoma.

  15. Somatic mutations, acetylator status, and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardingham, J; Butler, W; Roder, D; Dobrovic, A; Dymock, R; Sage, R; Roberts-Thomson, I

    1998-01-01

    Background—Somatic mutations in K-ras and TP53 may be associated with both acetylator status and prognosis in colorectal cancer. 
Aims—To determine whether cancers with somatic mutations are more frequent in fast acetylators and whether mutations or acetylator status influence prognosis after colorectal surgery. 
Patients—One hundred consecutive subjects undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer. 
Methods—Acetylator status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping for polymorphism in the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene. Mutations in K-ras (codon 12) and TP53 were determined by PCR analysis using restriction enzyme digestion and single strand conformation polymorphism respectively. Survival from colorectal cancer for up to five years after diagnosis was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare survival rates after adjusting for tumour stage. 
Results—Mutations in K-ras and TP53 were independent of acetylator status. By log rank test, survival was significantly reduced in subjects with TP53 mutations (p=0.003) but was not significantly related to acetylator status or the presence of K-ras mutations. After adjustment for tumour stage, subjects with both TP53 and K-ras mutations had a 4.2-fold case fatality (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 11.6) when compared with that of a TP53 negative reference group. 
Conclusion—The presence of both TP53 and K-ras mutations in colorectal tumours is an adverse prognostic marker which is independent of tumour stage. 

 Keywords: colorectal cancer; TP53 and K-ras mutations; acetylator status; prognosis PMID:9659162

  16. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease with somatic KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Kunihiro; Piao, Jinhua; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Takagi, Mari; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Doisaki, Sayoko; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Morio, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Yoshihito; Koike, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Takao, Akira; Mizutani, Shuki

    2011-03-10

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is classically defined as a disease with defective FAS-mediated apoptosis (type I-III). Germline NRAS mutation was recently identified in type IV ALPS. We report 2 cases with ALPS-like disease with somatic KRAS mutation. Both cases were characterized by prominent autoimmune cytopenia and lymphoadenopathy/splenomegaly. These patients did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for ALPS or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and are probably defined as a new disease entity of RAS-associated ALPS-like disease (RALD).

  18. Somatic mutations activating STAT3 in human inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Pilati, Camilla; Amessou, Mohamed; Bihl, Michel P.; Balabaud, Charles; Van Nhieu, Jeanne Tran; Paradis, Valérie; Nault, Jean Charles; Izard, Tina; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Couchy, Gabrielle; Poussin, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (IHCAs) are benign liver tumors. 60% of these tumors have IL-6 signal transducer (IL6ST; gp130) mutations that activate interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling. Here, we report that 12% of IHCA subsets lacking IL6ST mutations harbor somatic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations (6/49). Most of these mutations are amino acid substitutions in the SH2 domain that directs STAT3 dimerization. In contrast to wild-type STAT3, IHCA STAT3 mutants constitutively activated the IL-6 signaling pathway independent of ligand in hepatocellular cells. Indeed, the IHCA STAT3 Y640 mutant homodimerized independent of IL-6 and was hypersensitive to IL-6 stimulation. This was associated with phosphorylation of tyrosine 705, a residue required for IL-6–induced STAT3 activation. Silencing or inhibiting the tyrosine kinases JAK1 or Src, which phosphorylate STAT3, impaired constitutive activity of IHCA STAT3 mutants in hepatocellular cells. Thus, we identified for the first time somatic STAT3 mutations in human tumors, revealing a new mechanism of recurrent STAT3 activation and underscoring the role of the IL-6–STAT3 pathway in benign hepatocellular tumorigenesis. PMID:21690253

  19. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Kruse, Torben A; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths.

  20. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Kruse, Torben A.; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths. PMID:27002637

  1. Somatic mutation of immunoglobulin VH6 genes in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Ridings, J; Dinan, L; Williams, R; Roberton, D; Zola, H

    1998-01-01

    Infants respond to antigen by making antibody that is generally of low affinity for antigen. Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes, and selection of cells expressing mutations with improved affinity for antigen, are the molecular and cellular processes underlying the maturation of antibody affinity. We have reported previously that neonates and infants up to 2 months of age, including individuals undergoing strong immunological challenge, show very few mutated VH6 sequences, with low mutation frequencies in mutated sequences, and little evidence of selection. We have now examined immunoglobulin genes from healthy infants between 2 and 10 months old for mutation and evidence of selection. In this age group, the proportion of VH6 sequences which are mutated and the mutation frequency in mutated sequences increase with age. There is evidence of selection from 6 months old. These results indicate that the process of affinity maturation, which depends on cognate T–B cell interaction and functional germinal centres, is approaching maturity from 6 months old. PMID:9764600

  2. CSN1 Somatic Mutations in Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feber, Andrew; de Winter, Patricia; Shah, Kunal; Arya, Manit; Saqib, Muhammad; Nigam, Raj; Malone, Peter R.; Tan, Wei Shen; Rodney, Simon; Freeman, Alex; Jameson, Charles; Wilson, Gareth A.; Powles, Tom; Beck, Stephan; Fenton, Tim; Sharp, Tyson V.; Muneer, Asif; Kelly, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Other than an association with HPV infection, little is known about the genetic alterations determining the development of penile cancer. Although penile cancer is rare in the developed world, it presents a significant burden in developing countries. Here, we report the findings of whole-exome sequencing (WES) to determine the somatic mutational landscape of penile cancer. WES was performed on penile cancer and matched germline DNA from 27 patients undergoing surgical resection. Targeted resequencing of candidate genes was performed in an independent 70 patient cohort. Mutation data were also integrated with DNA methylation and copy-number information from the same patients. We identified an HPV-associated APOBEC mutation signature and an NpCpG signature in HPV-negative disease. We also identified recurrent mutations in the novel penile cancer tumor suppressor genes CSN1(GPS1) and FAT1. Expression of CSN1 mutants in cells resulted in colocalization with AGO2 in cytoplasmic P-bodies, ultimately leading to the loss of miRNA-mediated gene silencing, which may contribute to disease etiology. Our findings represent the first comprehensive analysis of somatic alterations in penile cancer, highlighting the complex landscape of alterations in this malignancy. PMID:27325650

  3. [AML treatment strategy based on cytogenetic abnormalities and somatic mutations].

    PubMed

    Imai, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    In addition to morphological and histocytochemical analyses of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), data on cytogenetic abnormalities and somatic mutations are used for classification of AML. The risk stratification based on these examinations facilitates determining the treatment strategy for AML. Cytogenetic risk category definitions by the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB), and The Medical Research Council (MRC) classify AML patients into favorable, intermediate, and adverse groups. Approximately 80% of patients in the intermediate group have a normal karyotype and the importance of molecular genetic analyses in these patients is increasing. Somatic mutations of NPM1, CEBPA, and FLT3 are known to be related to the prognosis of AML patients. The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) introduced risk stratification for AML patients based on cytogenetic abnormalities and NPM1, CEBPA, and FLT3 mutations. This risk stratification can be used to select only chemotherapy or chemotherapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as consolidation therapy for individual AML patients. Development of molecular targeted therapies against FLT3 or IDH mutations is in progress and these novel therapies are expected to contribute to improving the prognosis of AML patients.

  4. Proteogenomics connects somatic mutations to signalling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mertins, Philipp; Mani, D R; Ruggles, Kelly V; Gillette, Michael A; Clauser, Karl R; Wang, Pei; Wang, Xianlong; Qiao, Jana W; Cao, Song; Petralia, Francesca; Kawaler, Emily; Mundt, Filip; Krug, Karsten; Tu, Zhidong; Lei, Jonathan T; Gatza, Michael L; Wilkerson, Matthew; Perou, Charles M; Yellapantula, Venkata; Huang, Kuan-lin; Lin, Chenwei; McLellan, Michael D; Yan, Ping; Davies, Sherri R; Townsend, R Reid; Skates, Steven J; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Ding, Li; Paulovich, Amanda G; Fenyö, David; Ellis, Matthew J; Carr, Steven A

    2016-06-02

    Somatic mutations have been extensively characterized in breast cancer, but the effects of these genetic alterations on the proteomic landscape remain poorly understood. Here we describe quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of 105 genomically annotated breast cancers, of which 77 provided high-quality data. Integrated analyses provided insights into the somatic cancer genome including the consequences of chromosomal loss, such as the 5q deletion characteristic of basal-like breast cancer. Interrogation of the 5q trans-effects against the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures, connected loss of CETN3 and SKP1 to elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and SKP1 loss also to increased SRC tyrosine kinase. Global proteomic data confirmed a stromal-enriched group of proteins in addition to basal and luminal clusters, and pathway analysis of the phosphoproteome identified a G-protein-coupled receptor cluster that was not readily identified at the mRNA level. In addition to ERBB2, other amplicon-associated highly phosphorylated kinases were identified, including CDK12, PAK1, PTK2, RIPK2 and TLK2. We demonstrate that proteogenomic analysis of breast cancer elucidates the functional consequences of somatic mutations, narrows candidate nominations for driver genes within large deletions and amplified regions, and identifies therapeutic targets.

  5. Targeted sequencing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 across a large unselected breast cancer cohort suggests that one-third of mutations are somatic

    PubMed Central

    Winter, C.; Nilsson, M. P.; Olsson, E.; George, A. M.; Chen, Y.; Kvist, A.; Törngren, T.; Vallon-Christersson, J.; Hegardt, C.; Häkkinen, J.; Jönsson, G.; Grabau, D.; Malmberg, M.; Kristoffersson, U.; Rehn, M.; Gruvberger-Saal, S. K.; Larsson, C.; Borg, Å.; Loman, N.; Saal, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A mutation found in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene of a breast tumor could be either germline or somatically acquired. The prevalence of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and the ratio between somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients are currently unclear. Patients and methods Paired normal and tumor DNA was analyzed for BRCA1/2 mutations by massively parallel sequencing in an unselected cohort of 273 breast cancer patients from south Sweden. Results Deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 (n = 10) or BRCA2 (n = 10) were detected in 20 patients (7%). Deleterious somatic mutations in BRCA1 (n = 4) or BRCA2 (n = 5) were detected in 9 patients (3%). Accordingly, about 1 in 9 breast carcinomas (11%) in our cohort harbor a BRCA1/2 mutation. For each gene, the tumor phenotypes were very similar regardless of the mutation being germline or somatically acquired, whereas the tumor phenotypes differed significantly between wild-type and mutated cases. For age at diagnosis, the patients with somatic BRCA1/2 mutations resembled the wild-type patients (median age at diagnosis, germline BRCA1: 41.5 years; germline BRCA2: 49.5 years; somatic BRCA1/2: 65 years; wild-type BRCA1/2: 62.5 years). Conclusions In a population without strong germline founder mutations, the likelihood of a BRCA1/2 mutation found in a breast carcinoma being somatic was ∼1/3 and germline 2/3. This may have implications for treatment and genetic counseling. PMID:27194814

  6. Oxidative stress is not a major contributor to somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Itsara, Leslie S; Kennedy, Scott R; Fox, Edward J; Yu, Selina; Hewitt, Joshua J; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Pallanck, Leo J

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is implicated in aging and common diseases of the elderly, including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. However, the mechanisms that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations are poorly understood. To develop a simple invertebrate model system to address this matter, we used the Random Mutation Capture (RMC) assay to characterize the age-dependent frequency and distribution of mtDNA mutations in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Because oxidative stress is a major suspect in the age-dependent accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations, we also used the RMC assay to explore the influence of oxidative stress on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. We found that many of the features associated with mtDNA mutations in vertebrates are conserved in Drosophila, including a comparable somatic mtDNA mutation frequency (∼10(-5)), an increased frequency of mtDNA mutations with age, and a prevalence of transition mutations. Only a small fraction of the mtDNA mutations detected in young or old animals were G∶C to T∶A transversions, a signature of oxidative damage, and loss-of-function mutations in the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, Sod2, had no detectable influence on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. Moreover, a loss-of-function mutation in Ogg1, which encodes a DNA repair enzyme that removes oxidatively damaged deoxyguanosine residues (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), did not significantly influence the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency of Sod2 mutants. Together, these findings indicate that oxidative stress is not a major cause of somatic mtDNA mutations. Our data instead suggests that somatic mtDNA mutations arise primarily from errors that occur during mtDNA replication. Further studies using Drosophila should aid in the identification of factors that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations.

  7. The functional relevance of somatic synonymous mutations in melanoma and other cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gotea, Valer; Gartner, Jared J.; Qutob, Nouar; Elnitski, Laura; Samuels, Yardena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent technological advances in sequencing have flooded the field of cancer research with knowledge about somatic mutations for many different cancer types. Most cancer genomics studies focus on mutations that alter the amino acid sequence, ignoring the potential impact of synonymous mutations. However, accumulating experimental evidence has demonstrated clear consequences for gene function, leading to a widespread recognition of the functional role of synonymous mutations and their causal connection to various diseases. Here, we review the evidence supporting the direct impact of synonymous mutations on gene function via gene splicing; mRNA stability, folding, and translation; protein folding; and miRNA-based regulation of expression. These results highlight the functional contribution of synonymous mutations to oncogenesis and the need to further investigate their detection and prioritization for experimental assessment. The identification of cancer-causing mutations and the corresponding functionally impacted processes represents the main goal of cancer genomics. The inception of large collaborative efforts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) has led to the discovery of numerous causal or driver mutations in many cancer types. Nevertheless, tumors continue to be found in the absence of conspicuous mutational events, such as nucleotide substitutions, translocations or copy number variants involving genes with well-established tumorigenic connections. The lack of clear driver events in some cancers motivates the search for somatically acquired events that are more rare or have less obvious functional consequences but mechanistically converge on genes and pathways involved in oncogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:26300548

  8. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth

    2012-10-11

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  9. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M; Brash, Douglas E; Stern, David F; Materin, Miguel A; Lo, Roger S; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K; Hayward, Nicholas K; Lifton, Richard P; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J; Halaban, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1P29S) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1P29S showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22842228

  10. Acquired TERT promoter mutations stimulate TERT transcription in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Panero, Julieta; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M; Roisman, Alejandro; Santana-Lemos, Barbara A; Falcão, Roberto P; Oliveira, Gustavo; Martins, Diego; Stanganelli, Carmen; Slavutsky, Irma; Calado, Rodrigo T

    2016-05-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoid neoplasm with poor prognosis. Acquired telomerase reverse transcriptase gene promoter (TERTp) mutations are among the most frequent somatic non-coding mutations in cancers. In this study, the prevalence of TERTp mutations in 24 MCL and 21 other lymphoid neoplasias (oLN) was investigated. Eight MCL samples (33%) carried TERTp mutations, two homozygous and six heterozygous (seven C228T and one C250T), which directly correlated with higher TERT transcription, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and IGHV mutational status in MCL neoplastic cells. TERTp mutations were not found in oLN. TERTp mutations correlated with more lymphoma proliferation and tumor burden, as suggested by the higher number of lymphoma cells circulating in peripheral blood, and tended to associate with longer MCL telomeres, especially in homozygous mutants, although not statistically significant. Telomere-biology genes were overexpressed in MCL cells in comparison to healthy lymphocytes, but were not influenced by mutation status. The findings described for the first time that acquired TERTp mutations are common in MCL but not in other lymphoid neoplasms. It was also demonstrated that TERTp mutations are associated with higher TERT mRNA expression in MCL cells in vivo and higher tumor burden, suggesting these mutations as a driver event in MCL development and progression.

  11. Deciphering the spectrum of somatic mutations in the entire mitochondrial DNA genome.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Z; Fang, Y; Shi, Y H; Cui, J H; Li, L Y; Xu, Y C; Ling, B

    2015-04-30

    The mitochondrion is a crucial intracellular organelle responsible for regulating cellular energy metabolism, producing free radicals, initiating and executing the apoptotic pathways. Previous studies have shown that somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA are associated with various tumors, which may be involved during carcinogenesis and tumor progression. To examine the mutation pattern in cancer, 625 reported somatic mutations in the mitochondrial DNA genome were analyzed. We found that, except for deletions and insertions, most somatic mutations were point mutations, accounting for 89.44% of somatic mutations. Transition was the predominant form of somatic mutation in the entire mitochondrial DNA genome, accounting for 87.12% of point mutations, most of which were homoplastic. Frequency statistics analysis of point mutations indicated that, except for 3 tRNA genes, the mutations were distributed on all resting genes and in the D-loop region, with the latter showing the highest frequency of somatic mutation (19.34%), followed by the tRNA leucine 2 gene and non-coding regions between base pairs 5892 and 5903, while 13 coding-region genes and 2 rRNA genes showed a relatively lower frequency of somatic point mutations. Nonsynonymous mutations and terminal amino acid changes were the primary point somatic mutations detected from 13 coding-region genes, which may cause mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. We found that the somatic mutations may affect the mitochondrial DNA genome; the non-coding region should be examined to identify somatic mutations as potential diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of cancer.

  12. Somatic cell gene mutations in humans: biomarkers for genotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, R J; Nicklas, J A; O'Neill, J P

    1993-01-01

    Somatic cell gene mutations arising in vivo in humans provide biomarkers for genotoxicity. Four assays, each measuring changes in a different "recorder" gene, are available for detecting mutations of the hemoglobin (Hb) and glycophorin A (gpa) genes in red blood cells and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) and HLA genes in T-lymphocytes. Mean adult background mutant frequencies have been established; i.e., approximately 4 x 10(-8) (Hb), 5-10 x 10(-6) (hprt), 10-20 x 10(-6) (gpa) and 30 x 10(-6) (HLA). All the assays have now been used in studies of individuals exposed to physical and/or chemical genotoxic agents, and all have shown elevated values following exposures; examples are presented. In addition to quantitation, the lymphocyte assays allow molecular analyses of in vivo mutations, the definition of background and induced mutational spectra, and the search for unique changes for characterizing specific mutagens. The HPRT system currently has the largest database in this regard. Approximately 15% of adult background hprt mutations are due to gross structural alterations (primarily deletions) having random breakpoints; 85% result from "point" changes detected only by sequencing. In contrast, a specific intragenic deletion due to DNA cleavage at specific sites characterizes fetal hprt mutations, implicating a developmental mistake in their genesis. (This kind of developmental mistake in other genes is frequently observed in lymphoid malignancies.) Mutational spectra are just beginning to be defined for induced hprt mutations, e.g., ionizing radiation produces large deletions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8143616

  13. Antibody diversification by somatic mutation: from Burnet onwards.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Michael S

    2008-02-01

    The clonal selection theory proposed by Burnet required a genetic process, for which there was then no precedent, which randomizes the region of the gene(s) responsible for the specification of gamma-globulin molecules. Work over the subsequent half-century substantiated Burnet's speculation, revealing two distinct novel genetic processes. During early development (when Burnet first thought the randomization took place) programmed gene segment rearrangement catalysed by the RAG1/RAG2 recombinase generates a substantial diversity of immunoglobulin molecules (the primary repertoire). Somatic hypermutation (triggered by the activation-induced deaminase (AID) DNA deaminase) then occurs following antigen encounter in man and mouse, yielding a secondary repertoire. This hypermutation allows both limitless diversification as well as maturation of the antibody response by a process of somatic evolution akin to that envisioned by Burnet in later formulations of the clonal selection theory. AID-triggered antigen receptor diversification probably arose earlier in evolution than RAG-mediated repertoire generation. Here I trace our insights into the molecular mechanism antibody somatic mutation from when it was first proposed through to our current understanding of how it is triggered by targeted deamination of deoxycytidine residues in immunoglobulin gene DNA.

  14. Fungal Infection Increases the Rate of Somatic Mutation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Ganea, Laura-Stefana; Razzak, Abdur M; García Gil, M R

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations are transmitted during mitosis in developing somatic tissue. Somatic cells bearing the mutations can develop into reproductive (germ) cells and the somatic mutations are then passed on to the next generation of plants. Somatic mutations are a source of variation essential to evolve new defense strategies and adapt to the environment. Stem rust disease in Scots pine has a negative effect on wood quality, and thus adversely affects the economy. It is caused by the 2 most destructive fungal species in Scandinavia: Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum. We studied nuclear genome stability in Scots pine under biotic stress (fungus-infected, 22 trees) compared to a control population (plantation, 20 trees). Stability was assessed as accumulation of new somatic mutations in 10 microsatellite loci selected for genotyping. Microsatellites are widely used as molecular markers in population genetics studies of plants, and are particularly used for detection of somatic mutations as their rate of mutation is of a much higher magnitude when compared with other DNA markers. We report double the rate of somatic mutation per locus in the fungus-infected trees (4.8×10(-3) mutations per locus), as compared to the controls (2.0×10(-3) mutations per locus) when individual samples were analyzed at 10 different microsatellite markers. Pearson's chi-squared test indicated a significant effect of the fungal infection which increased the number of mutations in the fungus-infected trees (χ(2) = 12.9883, df = 1, P = 0.0003134).

  15. Integrative analysis of somatic mutations altering microRNA targeting in cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Jesse D; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Cui, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Determining the functional impact of somatic mutations is crucial to understanding tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent sequences of several cancers have provided comprehensive lists of somatic mutations across entire genomes, enabling investigation of the functional impact of somatic mutations in non-coding regions. Here, we study somatic mutations in 3'UTRs of genes that have been identified in four cancers and computationally predict how they may alter miRNA targeting, potentially resulting in dysregulation of the expression of the genes harboring these mutations. We find that somatic mutations create or disrupt putative miRNA target sites in the 3'UTRs of many genes, including several genes, such as MITF, EPHA3, TAL1, SCG3, and GSDMA, which have been previously associated with cancer. We also integrate the somatic mutations with germline mutations and results of association studies. Specifically, we identify putative miRNA target sites in the 3'UTRs of BMPR1B, KLK3, and SPRY4 that are disrupted by both somatic and germline mutations and, also, are in linkage disequilibrium blocks with high scoring markers from cancer association studies. The somatic mutation in BMPR1B is located in a target site of miR-125b; germline mutations in this target site have previously been both shown to disrupt regulation of BMPR1B by miR-125b and linked with cancer.

  16. The Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC)

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, S.A.; Bhamra, G.; Bamford, S.; Dawson, E.; Kok, C.; Clements, J.; Menzies, A.; Teague, J.W.; Futreal, P.A.; Stratton, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    COSMIC is currently the most comprehensive global resource for information on somatic mutations in human cancer, combining curation of the scientific literature with tumor resequencing data from the Cancer Genome Project at the Sanger Institute, U.K. Almost 4800 genes and 250000 tumors have been examined, resulting in over 50000 mutations available for investigation. This information can be accessed in a number of ways, the most convenient being the Web-based system which allows detailed data mining, presenting the results in easily interpretable formats. This unit describes the graphical system in detail, elaborating an example walkthrough and the many ways that the resulting information can be thoroughly investigated by combining data, respecializing the query, or viewing the results in different ways. Alternate protocols overview the available precompiled data files available for download. PMID:18428421

  17. Consequences of the recurrent MYD88L265P somatic mutation for B cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, James Q.; Jeelall, Yogesh S.; Beutler, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    MYD88L265P has recently been discovered as an extraordinarily frequent somatic mutation in benign monoclonal IgM gammopathy, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. In this study, we analyze the consequences for antigen-activated primary B cells of acquiring MYD88L265P. The mutation induced rapid B cell division in the absence of exogenous TLR ligands and was inhibited by Unc93b13d mutation and chloroquine or TLR9 deficiency, indicating continued dependence on upstream TLR9 activation. Proliferation and NF-κB activation induced by MYD88L265P were nevertheless rapidly countered by the induction of TNFAIP3, an NF-κB inhibitor frequently inactivated in MYD88L265P–bearing lymphomas, and extinguished by Bim-dependent apoptosis. MYD88L265P caused self-reactive B cells to accumulate in vivo only when apoptosis was opposed by Bcl2 overexpression. These results reveal checkpoints that fortify TLR responses against aberrant B cell proliferation in response to ubiquitous TLR and BCR self-ligands and suggest that tolerance failure requires the accumulation of multiple somatic mutations. PMID:24534189

  18. Consequences of the recurrent MYD88(L265P) somatic mutation for B cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, James Q; Jeelall, Yogesh S; Beutler, Bruce; Horikawa, Keisuke; Goodnow, Christopher C

    2014-03-10

    MYD88(L265P) has recently been discovered as an extraordinarily frequent somatic mutation in benign monoclonal IgM gammopathy, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. In this study, we analyze the consequences for antigen-activated primary B cells of acquiring MYD88(L265P). The mutation induced rapid B cell division in the absence of exogenous TLR ligands and was inhibited by Unc93b1(3d) mutation and chloroquine or TLR9 deficiency, indicating continued dependence on upstream TLR9 activation. Proliferation and NF-κB activation induced by MYD88(L265P) were nevertheless rapidly countered by the induction of TNFAIP3, an NF-κB inhibitor frequently inactivated in MYD88(L265P)-bearing lymphomas, and extinguished by Bim-dependent apoptosis. MYD88(L265P) caused self-reactive B cells to accumulate in vivo only when apoptosis was opposed by Bcl2 overexpression. These results reveal checkpoints that fortify TLR responses against aberrant B cell proliferation in response to ubiquitous TLR and BCR self-ligands and suggest that tolerance failure requires the accumulation of multiple somatic mutations.

  19. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  20. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Cell-of-Origin-Specific 3D Genome Structure Acquired during Somatic Cell Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Di Stefano, Bruno; de Wit, Elzo; Limone, Francesco; van Oevelen, Chris; de Laat, Wouter; Graf, Thomas

    2016-05-05

    Forced expression of reprogramming factors can convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we studied genome topology dynamics during reprogramming of different somatic cell types with highly distinct genome conformations. We find large-scale topologically associated domain (TAD) repositioning and alterations of tissue-restricted genomic neighborhoods and chromatin loops, effectively erasing the somatic-cell-specific genome structures while establishing an embryonic stem-cell-like 3D genome. Yet, early passage iPSCs carry topological hallmarks that enable recognition of their cell of origin. These hallmarks are not remnants of somatic chromosome topologies. Instead, the distinguishing topological features are acquired during reprogramming, as we also find for cell-of-origin-dependent gene expression patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell-of-Origin-Specific 3D Genome Structure Acquired during Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Di Stefano, Bruno; de Wit, Elzo; Limone, Francesco; van Oevelen, Chris; de Laat, Wouter; Graf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Forced expression of reprogramming factors can convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we studied genome topology dynamics during reprogramming of different somatic cell types with highly distinct genome conformations. We find large-scale topologically associated domain (TAD) repositioning and alterations of tissue-restricted genomic neighborhoods and chromatin loops, effectively erasing the somatic-cell-specific genome structures while establishing an embryonic stem-cell-like 3D genome. Yet, early passage iPSCs carry topological hallmarks that enable recognition of their cell of origin. These hallmarks are not remnants of somatic chromosome topologies. Instead, the distinguishing topological features are acquired during reprogramming, as we also find for cell-of-origin-dependent gene expression patterns. PMID:26971819

  3. Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko

    2015-02-01

    We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis.

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Somatic Mutations and Candidate Genetic Risk Variants

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Katie M.; Orlow, Irene; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Ballman, Karla; McCall, Linda; DeMatteo, Ronald; Engel, Lawrence S.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare but treatable soft tissue sarcomas. Nearly all GISTs have somatic mutations in either the KIT or PDGFRA gene, but there are no known inherited genetic risk factors. We assessed the relationship between KIT/PDGFRA mutations and select deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 279 participants from a clinical trial of adjuvant imatinib mesylate. Given previous evidence that certain susceptibility loci and carcinogens are associated with characteristic mutations, or “signatures” in other cancers, we hypothesized that the characteristic somatic mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes in GIST tumors may similarly be mutational signatures that are causally linked to specific mutagens or susceptibility loci. As previous epidemiologic studies suggest environmental risk factors such as dioxin and radiation exposure may be linked to sarcomas, we chose 208 variants in 39 candidate genes related to DNA repair and dioxin metabolism or response. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each variant and 7 categories of tumor mutation using logistic regression. We also evaluated gene-level effects using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Although none of the association p-values were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, SNPs in CYP1B1 were strongly associated with KIT exon 11 codon 557-8 deletions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for rs2855658 and OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7 for rs1056836) and wild type GISTs (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8 for rs1800440 and OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 for rs1056836). CYP1B1 was also associated with these mutations categories in the SKAT analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Other potential risk variants included GSTM1, RAD23B and ERCC2. This preliminary analysis of inherited genetic risk factors for GIST offers some clues about the disease's genetic origins

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, somatic mutations and candidate genetic risk variants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katie M; Orlow, Irene; Antonescu, Cristina R; Ballman, Karla; McCall, Linda; DeMatteo, Ronald; Engel, Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare but treatable soft tissue sarcomas. Nearly all GISTs have somatic mutations in either the KIT or PDGFRA gene, but there are no known inherited genetic risk factors. We assessed the relationship between KIT/PDGFRA mutations and select deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 279 participants from a clinical trial of adjuvant imatinib mesylate. Given previous evidence that certain susceptibility loci and carcinogens are associated with characteristic mutations, or "signatures" in other cancers, we hypothesized that the characteristic somatic mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes in GIST tumors may similarly be mutational signatures that are causally linked to specific mutagens or susceptibility loci. As previous epidemiologic studies suggest environmental risk factors such as dioxin and radiation exposure may be linked to sarcomas, we chose 208 variants in 39 candidate genes related to DNA repair and dioxin metabolism or response. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each variant and 7 categories of tumor mutation using logistic regression. We also evaluated gene-level effects using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Although none of the association p-values were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, SNPs in CYP1B1 were strongly associated with KIT exon 11 codon 557-8 deletions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for rs2855658 and OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7 for rs1056836) and wild type GISTs (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8 for rs1800440 and OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 for rs1056836). CYP1B1 was also associated with these mutations categories in the SKAT analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Other potential risk variants included GSTM1, RAD23B and ERCC2. This preliminary analysis of inherited genetic risk factors for GIST offers some clues about the disease's genetic origins and

  6. Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linghua; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Burstein, Matthew D.; Terashima, Keita; Chang, Kyle; Ng, Ho-Keung; Nakamura, Hideo; He, Zongxiao; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lewis, Lora; Wang, Mark; Suzuki, Tomonari; Nishikawa, Ryo; Natsume, Atsushi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adekunle, Adesina; Sun, Jiayi; Qiao, Yi; Marth, Gábor; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Wheeler, David A.; Lau, Ching C.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCTs) are a group of rare heterogeneous brain tumors which are clinically and histologically similar to the more common gonadal GCTs. IGCTs show great variation in their geographic and gender distribution, histological composition and treatment outcomes. The incidence of IGCTs is historically 5–8 fold greater in Japan and other East Asian countries than in Western countries1 with peak incidence near the time of puberty2. About half of the tumors are located in the pineal region. The male-to-female incidence ratio is approximately 3–4:1 overall but even higher for tumors located in the pineal region3. Due to the scarcity of tumor specimens available for research, little is currently known about this rare disease. Here we report the analysis of 62 cases by next generation sequencing, SNP array and expression array. We find the KIT/RAS signaling pathway frequently mutated in over 50% of IGCTs including novel recurrent somatic mutations in KIT, its downstream mediators KRAS and NRAS, and its negative regulator CBL. Novel somatic alterations in the AKT/mTOR pathway included copy number gain of the AKT1 locus at 14q32.33 in 19% of patients, with corresponding upregulation of AKT1 expression. We identified loss-of-function mutations in BCORL1, a transcriptional corepressor and tumor suppressor. We report significant enrichment of novel and rare germline variants in JMJD1C, a histone demethylase and coactivator of the androgen receptor, among Japanese IGCT patients. This study establishes a molecular foundation for understanding the biology of IGCTs and suggests potentially promising therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway. PMID:24896186

  7. A Pathway-Centric Survey of Somatic Mutations in Chinese Patients with Colorectal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Luming; Sun, Lifang; Yang, Hui; Li, Wei-Dong; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Previous genetic studies on colorectal carcinomas (CRC) have identified multiple somatic mutations in four candidate pathways (TGF-β, Wnt, P53 and RTK-RAS pathways) on populations of European ancestry. However, it is under-studied whether other populations harbor different sets of hot-spot somatic mutations in these pathways and other oncogenes. In this study, to evaluate the mutational spectrum of novel somatic mutations, we assessed 41 pairs of tumor-stroma tissues from Chinese patients with CRC, including 29 colon carcinomas and 12 rectal carcinomas. We designed Illumina Custom Amplicon panel to target 43 genes, including genes in the four candidate pathways, as well as several known oncogenes for other cancers. Candidate mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing, and we further used SIFT and PolyPhen-2 to assess potentially functional mutations. We discovered 3 new somatic mutations in gene APC, TCF7L2, and PIK3CA that had never been reported in the COSMIC or NCI-60 databases. Additionally, we confirmed 6 known somatic mutations in gene SMAD4, APC, FBXW7, BRAF and PTEN in Chinese CRC patients. While most were previously reported in CRC, one mutation in PTEN was reported only in malignant endometrium cancer. Our study confirmed the existence of known somatic mutations in the four candidate pathways for CRC in Chinese patients. We also discovered a number of novel somatic mutations in these pathways, which may have implications for the pathogenesis of CRC. PMID:25617745

  8. BINNING SOMATIC MUTATIONS BASED ON BIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR PREDICTING SURVIVAL: AN APPLICATION IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyoon; Li, Ruowang; Dudek, Scott M.; Wallace, John R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2014-01-01

    Enormous efforts of whole exome and genome sequencing from hundreds to thousands of patients have provided the landscape of somatic genomic alterations in many cancer types to distinguish between driver mutations and passenger mutations. Driver mutations show strong associations with cancer clinical outcomes such as survival. However, due to the heterogeneity of tumors, somatic mutation profiles are exceptionally sparse whereas other types of genomic data such as miRNA or gene expression contain much more complete data for all genomic features with quantitative values measured in each patient. To overcome the extreme sparseness of somatic mutation profiles and allow for the discovery of combinations of somatic mutations that may predict cancer clinical outcomes, here we propose a new approach for binning somatic mutations based on existing biological knowledge. Through the analysis using renal cell carcinoma dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we identified combinations of somatic mutation burden based on pathways, protein families, evolutionary conversed regions, and regulatory regions associated with survival. Due to the nature of heterogeneity in cancer, using a binning strategy for somatic mutation profiles based on biological knowledge will be valuable for improved prognostic biomarkers and potentially for tailoring therapeutic strategies by identifying combinations of driver mutations. PMID:25592572

  9. Somatic Mutations in NEK9 Cause Nevus Comedonicus

    PubMed Central

    Levinsohn, Jonathan L.; Sugarman, Jeffrey L.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Antaya, Richard J.; Choate, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris (AV) affects most adolescents, and of those affected, moderate to severe disease occurs in 20%. Comedones, follicular plugs consisting of desquamated keratinocytes and sebum, are central to its pathogenesis. Despite high heritability in first-degree relatives, AV genetic determinants remain incompletely understood. We therefore employed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in nevus comedonicus (NC), a rare disorder that features comedones and inflammatory acne cysts in localized, linear configurations. WES identified somatic NEK9 mutations, each affecting highly conserved residues within its kinase or RCC1 domains, in affected tissue of three out of three NC-affected subjects. All mutations are gain of function, resulting in increased phosphorylation at Thr210, a hallmark of NEK9 kinase activation. We found that comedo formation in NC is marked by loss of follicular differentiation markers, expansion of keratin-15-positive cells from localization within the bulge to the entire sub-bulge follicle and cyst, and ectopic expression of keratin 10, a marker of interfollicular differentiation not present in normal follicles. These findings suggest that NEK9 mutations in NC disrupt normal follicular differentiation and identify NEK9 as a potential regulator of follicular homeostasis. PMID:27153399

  10. Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Davies, Helen; Staaf, Johan; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Glodzik, Dominik; Zou, Xueqing; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Martin, Sancha; Wedge, David C.; Van Loo, Peter; Ju, Young Seok; Smid, Marcel; Brinkman, Arie B.; Morganella, Sandro; Aure, Miriam R.; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Langerod, Anita; Ringner, Markus; Ahn, Sung -Min; Boyault, Sandrine; Brock, Jane E.; Broeks, Annegien; Butler, Adam; Desmedt, Christine; Dirix, Luc; Dronov, Serge; Fatima, Aquila; Foekens, John A.; Gerstung, Moritz; Hooijer, Gerrit K. J.; Jang, Se Jin; Jones, David R.; Kim, Hyung -Yong; King, Tari A.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Jeong -Yeon; Li, Yilong; McLaren, Stuart; Menzies, Andrew; Mustonen, Ville; O’Meara, Sarah; Pauporte, Iris; Pivot, Xavier; Purdie, Colin A.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishnan, Kamna; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, F. German; Romieu, Gilles; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Simpson, Peter T.; Shepherd, Rebecca; Stebbings, Lucy; Stefansson, Olafur A.; Teague, Jon; Tommasi, Stefania; Treilleux, Isabelle; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; Vermeulen, Peter; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Yates, Lucy; Caldas, Carlos; Veer, Laura van’t; Tutt, Andrew; Knappskog, Stian; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Jonkers, Jos; Borg, Ake; Ueno, Naoto T.; Sotiriou, Christos; Viari, Alain; Futreal, P. Andrew; Campbell, Peter J.; Span, Paul N.; Van Laere, Steven; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Eyfjord, Jorunn E.; Thompson, Alastair M.; Birney, Ewan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Martens, John W. M.; Borresen-Dale, Anne -Lise; Richardson, Andrea L.; Kong, Gu; Thomas, Gilles; Stratton, Michael R.

    2016-05-02

    Here, we analysed whole-genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. We found that 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried probable driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies, but most have distinctive structural features probably causing elevated mutation rates and do not contain driver mutations. Mutational signature analysis was extended to genome rearrangements and revealed twelve base substitution and six rearrangement signatures. Three rearrangement signatures, characterized by tandem duplications or deletions, appear associated with defective homologous-recombination-based DNA repair: one with deficient BRCA1 function, another with deficient BRCA1 or BRCA2 function, the cause of the third is unknown. This analysis of all classes of somatic mutation across exons, introns and intergenic regions highlights the repertoire of cancer genes and mutational processes operating, and progresses towards a comprehensive account of the somatic genetic basis of breast cancer.

  11. Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Davies, Helen; Staaf, Johan; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Glodzik, Dominik; Zou, Xueqing; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Martin, Sancha; Wedge, David C.; Van Loo, Peter; Ju, Young Seok; Smid, Marcel; Brinkman, Arie B.; Morganella, Sandro; Aure, Miriam R.; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Langerod, Anita; Ringner, Markus; Ahn, Sung -Min; Boyault, Sandrine; Brock, Jane E.; Broeks, Annegien; Butler, Adam; Desmedt, Christine; Dirix, Luc; Dronov, Serge; Fatima, Aquila; Foekens, John A.; Gerstung, Moritz; Hooijer, Gerrit K. J.; Jang, Se Jin; Jones, David R.; Kim, Hyung -Yong; King, Tari A.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Jeong -Yeon; Li, Yilong; McLaren, Stuart; Menzies, Andrew; Mustonen, Ville; O’Meara, Sarah; Pauporte, Iris; Pivot, Xavier; Purdie, Colin A.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishnan, Kamna; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, F. German; Romieu, Gilles; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Simpson, Peter T.; Shepherd, Rebecca; Stebbings, Lucy; Stefansson, Olafur A.; Teague, Jon; Tommasi, Stefania; Treilleux, Isabelle; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; Vermeulen, Peter; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Yates, Lucy; Caldas, Carlos; Veer, Laura van’t; Tutt, Andrew; Knappskog, Stian; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Jonkers, Jos; Borg, Ake; Ueno, Naoto T.; Sotiriou, Christos; Viari, Alain; Futreal, P. Andrew; Campbell, Peter J.; Span, Paul N.; Van Laere, Steven; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Eyfjord, Jorunn E.; Thompson, Alastair M.; Birney, Ewan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Martens, John W. M.; Borresen-Dale, Anne -Lise; Richardson, Andrea L.; Kong, Gu; Thomas, Gilles; Stratton, Michael R.

    2016-05-02

    Here, we analysed whole-genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. We found that 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried probable driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies, but most have distinctive structural features probably causing elevated mutation rates and do not contain driver mutations. Mutational signature analysis was extended to genome rearrangements and revealed twelve base substitution and six rearrangement signatures. Three rearrangement signatures, characterized by tandem duplications or deletions, appear associated with defective homologous-recombination-based DNA repair: one with deficient BRCA1 function, another with deficient BRCA1 or BRCA2 function, the cause of the third is unknown. This analysis of all classes of somatic mutation across exons, introns and intergenic regions highlights the repertoire of cancer genes and mutational processes operating, and progresses towards a comprehensive account of the somatic genetic basis of breast cancer.

  12. Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Davies, Helen; Staaf, Johan; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Glodzik, Dominik; Zou, Xueqing; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Martin, Sancha; Wedge, David C.; Van Loo, Peter; Ju, Young Seok; Smid, Marcel; Brinkman, Arie B; Morganella, Sandro; Aure, Miriam R.; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Langerød, Anita; Ringnér, Markus; Ahn, Sung-Min; Boyault, Sandrine; Brock, Jane E.; Broeks, Annegien; Butler, Adam; Desmedt, Christine; Dirix, Luc; Dronov, Serge; Fatima, Aquila; Foekens, John A.; Gerstung, Moritz; Hooijer, Gerrit KJ; Jang, Se Jin; Jones, David R.; Kim, Hyung-Yong; King, Tari A.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Li, Yilong; McLaren, Stuart; Menzies, Andrew; Mustonen, Ville; O’Meara, Sarah; Pauporté, Iris; Pivot, Xavier; Purdie, Colin A.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishnan, Kamna; Rodríguez-González, F. Germán; Romieu, Gilles; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Simpson, Peter T; Shepherd, Rebecca; Stebbings, Lucy; Stefansson, Olafur A; Teague, Jon; Tommasi, Stefania; Treilleux, Isabelle; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; Vermeulen, Peter; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Yates, Lucy; Caldas, Carlos; van’t Veer, Laura; Tutt, Andrew; Knappskog, Stian; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Jonkers, Jos; Borg, Åke; Ueno, Naoto T; Sotiriou, Christos; Viari, Alain; Futreal, P. Andrew; Campbell, Peter J; Span, Paul N.; Van Laere, Steven; Lakhani, Sunil R; Eyfjord, Jorunn E.; Thompson, Alastair M.; Birney, Ewan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van de Vijver, Marc J; Martens, John W.M.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Richardson, Andrea L.; Kong, Gu; Thomas, Gilles; Stratton, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed whole genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried likely driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies but most have distinctive structural features probably causing elevated mutation rates and do not harbour driver mutations. Mutational signature analysis was extended to genome rearrangements and revealed 12 base substitution and six rearrangement signatures. Three rearrangement signatures, characterised by tandem duplications or deletions, appear associated with defective homologous recombination based DNA repair: one with deficient BRCA1 function; another with deficient BRCA1 or BRCA2 function; the cause of the third is unknown. This analysis of all classes of somatic mutation across exons, introns and intergenic regions highlights the repertoire of cancer genes and mutational processes operative, and progresses towards a comprehensive account of the somatic genetic basis of breast cancer. PMID:27135926

  13. Somatic mutations of the ERBB4 kinase domain in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Su Young; Wang, Young Pil; Jo, Keon Hyun; Moon, Seok Whan; Park, Won Sang; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2006-03-15

    The EGFR family consists of 4 receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR (ERBB1), ERBB2 (HER2), ERBB3 (HER3) and ERBB4 (HER4). Recent reports revealed that the kinase domains of both EGFR (ERBB1) and ERBB2 gene were somatically mutated in human cancers, raising the possibility that the other ERBB members possess somatic mutations in human cancers. Here, we performed mutational analysis of the ERBB4 kinase domain by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism assay in 595 cancer tissues from stomach, lung, colon and breast. We detected the ERBB4 somatic mutations in 3 of 180 gastric carcinomas (1.7%), 3 of 104 colorectal carcinomas (2.9%), 5 of 217 nonsmall cell lung cancers (2.3%) and 1 of 94 breast carcinomas (1.1%). The 12 ERBB4 mutations consisted of 1 in-frame duplication mutation and 8 missense mutations in the exons, and 3 mutations in the introns. We simultaneously analyzed the somatic mutations of EGFR, ERBB2, K-RAS, PIK3CA and BRAF genes in the 12 samples with the ERBB4 mutations and found that 1 gastric carcinoma with ERBB4 mutation also harbored K-RAS gene mutation. Our study demonstrated that in addition to EGFR and ERBB2, somatic mutation of the kinase domain of ERBB4 occurs in the common human cancers, and suggested that alterations of ERBB4-mediated signaling pathway by ERBB4 mutations may contribute to the development of human cancers.

  14. Cancer-specific high-throughput annotation of somatic mutations: computational prediction of driver missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Carter, Hannah; Chen, Sining; Isik, Leyla; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Velculescu, Victor E; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Karchin, Rachel

    2009-08-15

    Large-scale sequencing of cancer genomes has uncovered thousands of DNA alterations, but the functional relevance of the majority of these mutations to tumorigenesis is unknown. We have developed a computational method, called Cancer-specific High-throughput Annotation of Somatic Mutations (CHASM), to identify and prioritize those missense mutations most likely to generate functional changes that enhance tumor cell proliferation. The method has high sensitivity and specificity when discriminating between known driver missense mutations and randomly generated missense mutations (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, >0.91; area under Precision-Recall curve, >0.79). CHASM substantially outperformed previously described missense mutation function prediction methods at discriminating known oncogenic mutations in P53 and the tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor. We applied the method to 607 missense mutations found in a recent glioblastoma multiforme sequencing study. Based on a model that assumed the glioblastoma multiforme mutations are a mixture of drivers and passengers, we estimate that 8% of these mutations are drivers, causally contributing to tumorigenesis.

  15. HER2 somatic mutations are associated with poor survival in HER2-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tonghui; Xu, Ye; Sheng, Shuyan; Yuan, Hua; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2017-02-06

    It is well documented that HER2 overexpression/amplification is associated with the poor survival in breast cancer patients. However, it is largely unknown whether HER2 somatic mutations are associated with the survival in HER2-negative breast cancer patients. Here, we identified HER2 somatic mutations in tumors from 1,348 unselected breast cancer patients by sequencing the entire HER2 coding region. All these mutations were tested for in corresponding blood samples to determine whether they were somatic or germline mutations. We further investigated the associations between the HER2 somatic mutations and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) in this cohort of patients. We found that 27 of 1,348 (2.0%) of these patients carried a HER2 somatic mutation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that some of novel mutations and those with unknown functions increased HER2 activity. HER2 status was available for 1,306 patients, and the HER2 somatic mutation rates in HER2-positive (n=353) and HER2-negative breast cancers (n=953) were 1.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Among the HER2-negative patients, those with a HER2 somatic mutation had a significantly worse recurrence-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] =2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-5.72, P=0.002) and distant recurrence-free survival (unadjusted HR=2.50; 95% CI: 1.10-5.68, P=0.004) than those with wild-type HER2. Taken together, our findings suggested that HER2 somatic mutations occur at a higher frequency in HER2-negative breast cancer, and HER2-negative breast cancer patients with these mutations have poor survival. Therefore, HER2-negative patients with a HER2 somatic mutation are potentially good candidates for HER2-targeted therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Novel Somatic Mutations in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Chun; Zheng, Wei; Long, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    Most breast cancer genomes harbor complex mutational landscapes. Somatic alterations have been predominantly discovered in breast cancer patients of European ancestry; however, little is known about somatic aberration in patients of other ethnic groups including Asians. In the present study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was conducted in DNA extracted from tumor and matched adjacent normal tissue samples from eleven early onset breast cancer patients who were included in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. We discovered 159 somatic missense and ten nonsense mutations distributed among 167 genes. The most frequent 50 somatic mutations identified by WES were selected for validation using Sequenom MassARRAY system in the eleven breast cancer patients and an additional 433 tumor and 921 normal tissue/blood samples from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Among these 50 mutations selected for validation, 32 were technically validated. Within the validated mutations, somatic mutations in the TRPM6, HYDIN, ENTHD1, and NDUFB10 genes were found in two or more tumor samples in the replication stage. Mutations in the ADRA1B, CBFB, KIAA2022, and RBM25 genes were observed once in the replication stage. To summarize, this study identified some novel somatic mutations for breast cancer. Future studies will need to be conducted to determine the function of these mutations/genes in the breast carcinogenesis. PMID:26870154

  17. A new ATRX mutation in a patient with acquired α-thalassemia myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Herbaux, Charles; Badens, Catherine; Guidez, Stéphanie; Lacoste, Caroline; Maboudou, Patrice; Rose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Acquired α-thalassemia (α-thal) myelodysplastic syndrome (ATMDS) is a rare acquired syndrome characterized by a somatic point mutation in the ATRX gene in patients with chronic myeloid disorders. We describe the case of a 78-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and striking microcytic, hypochromic anemia. Brilliant cresyl blue supravital stain of the peripheral blood and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis showed the presence of Hb H. Sequence analysis of unfractionated peripheral blood DNA identified a G>T transition at codon 524 in exon 7 of the ATRX gene. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first description of this point mutation of the ATRX gene in an ATMDS.

  18. Mutational History of a Human Cell Lineage from Somatic to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Foad J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wuster, Arthur; Li, Yilong; Conte, Nathalie; Koike-Yusa, Hiroko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Vallier, Ludovic; Yusa, Kosuke; Bradley, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of replicating the genetic code is fundamental. DNA repair mechanisms protect the fidelity of the genome ensuring a low error rate between generations. This sustains the similarity of individuals whilst providing a repertoire of variants for evolution. The mutation rate in the human genome has recently been measured to be 50–70 de novo single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between generations. During development mutations accumulate in somatic cells so that an organism is a mosaic. However, variation within a tissue and between tissues has not been analysed. By reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), their genomes and the associated mutational history are captured. By sequencing the genomes of polyclonal and monoclonal somatic cells and derived iPSCs we have determined the mutation rates and show how the patterns change from a somatic lineage in vivo through to iPSCs. Somatic cells have a mutation rate of 14 SNVs per cell per generation while iPSCs exhibited a ten-fold lower rate. Analyses of mutational signatures suggested that deamination of methylated cytosine may be the major mutagenic source in vivo, whilst oxidative DNA damage becomes dominant in vitro. Our results provide insights for better understanding of mutational processes and lineage relationships between human somatic cells. Furthermore it provides a foundation for interpretation of elevated mutation rates and patterns in cancer. PMID:27054363

  19. Somatic FAS mutations are common in patients with genetically undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dowdell, Kennichi C; Niemela, Julie E; Price, Susan; Davis, Joie; Hornung, Ronald L; Oliveira, João Bosco; Puck, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Fleisher, Thomas A; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-06-24

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias, elevated numbers of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline mutations of the FAS gene (type Ia), whereas some cases have been noted to have a somatic mutation of FAS primarily in their DNT cells. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with somatic FAS mutations among a group of our ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and to further characterize them. We found more than one-third (12 of 31) of the patients tested had somatic FAS mutations, primarily involving the intracellular domain of FAS resulting in loss of normal FAS signaling. Similar to ALPS type Ia patients, the somatic ALPS patients had increased DNT cell numbers and elevated levels of serum vitamin B(12), interleukin-10, and sFAS-L. These data support testing for somatic FAS mutations in DNT cells from ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and a similar clinical and laboratory phenotype to that of ALPS type Ia. These findings also highlight the potential role for somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of nonmalignant and/or autoimmune hematologic conditions in adults and children.

  20. Mutational History of a Human Cell Lineage from Somatic to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Foad J; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wuster, Arthur; Li, Yilong; Conte, Nathalie; Koike-Yusa, Hiroko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Vallier, Ludovic; Yusa, Kosuke; Bradley, Allan

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of replicating the genetic code is fundamental. DNA repair mechanisms protect the fidelity of the genome ensuring a low error rate between generations. This sustains the similarity of individuals whilst providing a repertoire of variants for evolution. The mutation rate in the human genome has recently been measured to be 50-70 de novo single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between generations. During development mutations accumulate in somatic cells so that an organism is a mosaic. However, variation within a tissue and between tissues has not been analysed. By reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), their genomes and the associated mutational history are captured. By sequencing the genomes of polyclonal and monoclonal somatic cells and derived iPSCs we have determined the mutation rates and show how the patterns change from a somatic lineage in vivo through to iPSCs. Somatic cells have a mutation rate of 14 SNVs per cell per generation while iPSCs exhibited a ten-fold lower rate. Analyses of mutational signatures suggested that deamination of methylated cytosine may be the major mutagenic source in vivo, whilst oxidative DNA damage becomes dominant in vitro. Our results provide insights for better understanding of mutational processes and lineage relationships between human somatic cells. Furthermore it provides a foundation for interpretation of elevated mutation rates and patterns in cancer.

  1. Germline BAP1 mutations misreported as somatic based on tumor-only testing.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Rai, Karan; Pilarski, Robert; Davidorf, Frederick H; Cebulla, Colleen M

    2016-04-01

    We present three unrelated patients with germline mutations in BAP1 misreported as somatic mutations. All had strong family histories of cancer. One of these patients presented with an invasive breast cancer with the tumor tissue showing partial loss of the mutant rather than the wild type allele, suggesting that the germline BAP1 mutation didn't contribute to breast cancer development in this patient. This data highlights the importance of sequencing matching germline and tumor DNA for proper assessment of somatic versus germline mutation status. In patients with somatic mutations reported from laboratories carrying out tumor-only genomic testing, the possibility that a variant may be a germline mutation should be considered, especially if the personal and/or family history suggests hereditary cancer predisposition. Since tumor-only testing can reveal germline mutations, ethical issues for patients being tested should be considered including proper consent and genetic counseling.

  2. Somatic HLA Mutations Expose the Role of Class I-Mediated Autoimmunity in Aplastic Anemia and its Clonal Complications.

    PubMed

    Babushok, Daria V; Duke, Jamie L; Xie, Hongbo M; Stanley, Natasha; Atienza, Jamie; Perdigones, Nieves; Nicholas, Peter; Ferriola, Deborah; Li, Yimei; Huang, Hugh; Ye, Wenda; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Kearns, Jane; Porter, David L; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Eisenlohr, Laurence C; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Chou, Stella T; Monos, Dimitrios S; Bessler, Monica; Olson, Timothy S

    2017-10-10

    Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is an acquired deficiency of early hematopoietic cells, characterized by inadequate blood production, and a predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia. Although its exact pathogenesis is unknown, aAA is thought to be driven by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restricted T cell immunity, with earlier studies favoring HLA class II-mediated pathways. Using whole exome sequencing (WES), we recently identified two aAA patients with somatic mutations in HLA class I genes. We hypothesized that HLA class I mutations are pathognomonic for autoimmunity in aAA, but were previously underappreciated because the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region is notoriously difficult to analyze by WES. Using a combination of targeted deep sequencing of HLA class I genes and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) genotyping we screened 66 aAA patients for somatic HLA class I loss. We found somatic HLA loss in eleven patients (17%), with thirteen loss-of-function mutations in HLA-A*33:03, HLA-A*68:01, HLA-B*14:02 and HLA-B*40:02 alleles. Three patients had more than one mutation targeting the same HLA allele. Interestingly, HLA-B*14:02 and HLA-B*40:02 were significantly overrepresented in aAA patients, compared to ethnicity-matched controls. Patients who inherited the targeted HLA alleles, regardless of HLA mutation status, had a more severe disease course with more frequent clonal complications as assessed by WES, SNP-A, and metaphase cytogenetics, and more frequent secondary MDS. The finding of recurrent HLA class I mutations provides compelling evidence for a predominant HLA class I-driven autoimmunity in aAA, and establishes a novel link between aAA patients' immunogenetics and clonal evolution.

  3. Frequent somatic TERT promoter mutations and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Wook Youn; Lim, So Dug; Kim, Wan Seop; Hwang, Tea Sook; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Genetic alterations of TERT and CTNNB1 have been documented in hepatocellular carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations are the earliest genetic events in the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis related to cirrhosis. However, analyses of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma tumor samples have not been performed in the Korean population, where hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is prevalent. In order to identify the role of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in the hepatocarcinogenesis and pathogenesis of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, we performed the sequence analyses in 140 hepatocellular nodules (including 107 hepatocellular carcinomas), and 8 pairs of matched primary and relapsed hepatocellular carcinomas. TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations were only observed in hepatocellular carcinomas but not in precursor lesions. Of 109 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 41 (39.0%) and 15 (14.6%) harbored TERT and CTNNB1 mutations, respectively. TERT promotermutations were significantly more frequent in hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C virus infection (5/6; 83.3%) compared to tumors of other etiologies (P = 0.001). In two cases, discordance in TERT promoter mutation status was observed between the primary and the corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. The two patients with discordant cases had early relapses. In conclusion, we identified TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations as the most frequent somatic genetic alterations observed in hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating its pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest the possibility of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity of TERT promoter mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma as indicated by the discordance in TERT promoter mutations between primary and corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27661004

  4. Frequent somatic TERT promoter mutations and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Wook Youn; Lim, So Dug; Kim, Wan Seop; Hwang, Tea Sook; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-10-25

    Genetic alterations of TERT and CTNNB1 have been documented in hepatocellular carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations are the earliest genetic events in the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis related to cirrhosis. However, analyses of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma tumor samples have not been performed in the Korean population, where hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is prevalent. In order to identify the role of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in the hepatocarcinogenesis and pathogenesis of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, we performed the sequence analyses in 140 hepatocellular nodules (including 107 hepatocellular carcinomas), and 8 pairs of matched primary and relapsed hepatocellular carcinomas. TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations were only observed in hepatocellular carcinomas but not in precursor lesions. Of 109 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 41 (39.0%) and 15 (14.6%) harbored TERT and CTNNB1 mutations, respectively. TERT promotermutations were significantly more frequent in hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C virus infection (5/6; 83.3%) compared to tumors of other etiologies (P = 0.001). In two cases, discordance in TERT promoter mutation status was observed between the primary and the corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. The two patients with discordant cases had early relapses. In conclusion, we identified TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations as the most frequent somatic genetic alterations observed in hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating its pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest the possibility of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity of TERT promoter mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma as indicated by the discordance in TERT promoter mutations between primary and corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Somatic ERCC2 Mutations Are Associated with a Distinct Genomic Signature in Urothelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Braunstein, Lior Z; Kamburov, Atanas; Kwiatkowski, David J; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Van Allen, Eliezer M; D'Andrea, Alan; Getz, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in DNA repair pathways are common in tumors and can result in characteristic mutational signatures; however, a specific mutational signature associated with somatic alterations in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway has not yet been identified. Here, we examine the mutational processes operating in urothelial cancer, a tumor type in which the core NER gene ERCC2 is significantly mutated. Analysis of three independent urothelial tumor cohorts reveals a strong association between somatic ERCC2 mutations and activity of a mutational signature characterized by a broad spectrum of base changes. In addition, we note an association between activity of this signature and smoking that is independent of ERCC2 mutation status, providing genomic evidence of tobacco-related mutagenesis in urothelial cancer. Together, these analyses identify the first NER-related mutational signature and highlight the related roles of DNA damage and subsequent DNA repair in shaping the tumor mutational landscape. PMID:27111033

  6. A comprehensive catalogue of somatic mutations from a human cancer genome

    PubMed Central

    Pleasance, Erin D.; Cheetham, R. Keira; Stephens, Philip J.; McBride, David J.; Humphray, Sean J.; Greenman, Chris D.; Varela, Ignacio; Lin, Meng-Lay; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Bignell, Graham R.; Ye, Kai; Alipaz, Julie; Bauer, Markus J.; Beare, David; Butler, Adam; Carter, Richard J.; Chen, Lina; Cox, Anthony J.; Edkins, Sarah; Kokko-Gonzales, Paula I.; Gormley, Niall A.; Grocock, Russell J.; Haudenschild, Christian D.; Hims, Matthew M.; James, Terena; Jia, Mingming; Kingsbury, Zoya; Leroy, Catherine; Marshall, John; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura J.; Ning, Zemin; Royce, Tom; Schulz-Trieglaff, Ole B.; Spiridou, Anastassia; Stebbings, Lucy A.; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Teague, Jon; Williamson, David; Chin, Lynda; Ross, Mark T.; Campbell, Peter J.; Bentley, David R.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    All cancers carry somatic mutations. A subset of these somatic alterations, termed driver mutations, confer selective growth advantage and are implicated in cancer development, whereas the remainder are passengers. Here we have sequenced the genomes of a malignant melanoma and a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same person, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of somatic mutations from an individual cancer. The catalogue provides remarkable insights into the forces that have shaped this cancer genome. The dominant mutational signature reflects DNA damage due to ultraviolet light exposure, a known risk factor for malignant melanoma, whereas the uneven distribution of mutations across the genome, with a lower prevalence in gene footprints, indicates that DNA repair has been preferentially deployed towards transcribed regions. The results illustrate the power of a cancer genome sequence to reveal traces of the DNA damage, repair, mutation and selection processes that were operative years before the cancer became symptomatic. PMID:20016485

  7. Somatic USP8 Gene Mutations Are a Common Cause of Pediatric Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Faucz, Fabio R; Tirosh, Amit; Tatsi, Christina; Berthon, Annabel; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Settas, Nikolaos; Angelousi, Anna; Correa, Ricardo; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Chittiboina, Prashant; Quezado, Martha; Pankratz, Nathan; Lane, John; Dimopoulos, Aggeliki; Mills, James L; Lodish, Maya; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-08-01

    Somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) gene have been recently identified as the most common genetic alteration in patients with Cushing disease (CD). However, the frequency of these mutations in the pediatric population has not been extensively assessed. We investigated the status of the USP8 gene at the somatic level in a cohort of pediatric patients with corticotroph adenomas. The USP8 gene was fully sequenced in both germline and tumor DNA samples from 42 pediatric patients with CD. Clinical, biochemical, and imaging data were compared between patients with and without somatic USP8 mutations. Five different USP8 mutations (three missense, one frameshift, and one in-frame deletion) were identified in 13 patients (31%), all of them located in exon 14 at the previously described mutational hotspot, affecting the 14-3-3 binding motif of the protein. Patients with somatic mutations were older at disease presentation [mean 5.1 ± 2.1 standard deviation (SD) vs 13.1 ± 3.6 years, P = 0.03]. Levels of urinary free cortisol, midnight serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone, as well as tumor size and frequency of invasion of the cavernous sinus, were not significantly different between the two groups. However, patients harboring somatic USP8 mutations had a higher likelihood of recurrence compared with patients without mutations (46.2% vs 10.3%, P = 0.009). Somatic USP8 gene mutations are a common cause of pediatric CD. Patients harboring a somatic mutation had a higher likelihood of tumor recurrence, highlighting the potential importance of this molecular defect for the disease prognosis and the development of targeted therapeutic options.

  8. Coronary atherosclerosis and somatic mutations: an overview of the contributive factors for oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2003-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial process that appears to be caused by the interaction of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. Genetic research on CAD has traditionally focused on investigation aimed at identifying disease-susceptibility genes. Recent evidence suggests that somatically acquired DNA mutations may also contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of the disease, underlining the similarity between atherosclerotic and carcinogenic processes. The generation of oxidative stress has been emphasized as an important cause of DNA damage in atherosclerosis. This review highlights some of the major atherogenic risk factors as likely mediators in the oxidative modification of DNA. It also examines the hypothesis that an increase in oxidative stress may derive from "oxidatively" damaged mitochondria. Accordingly, further research in this field should be given high priority, since increased somatic DNA damage could be an important pathogenic factor and an additional prognostic predictor, as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies in coronary artery disease. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Whole-exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in peritoneal metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu; Li, Tingting; Huang, Haipeng; Lin, Tian; Hu, Yanfeng; Qi, Xiaolong; Yu, Jiang; Li, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis occurs in more than half of patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer and is associated with the worst prognosis. The associated genomic events and pathogenesis remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to characterize the mutation spectrum of gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis and provide a basis for the identification of new biomarkers and treatment targets. Matched pairs of normal gastric mucosa and peritoneal tissue and matched pairs of primary tumor and peritoneal metastasis were collected from one patient for whole-exome sequencing (WES); Sanger sequencing was employed to confirm the somatic mutations. G>A and C>T mutations were the two most frequent transversions among the somatic mutations. We confirmed 48somatic mutations in the primary site and 49 in the peritoneal site. Additionally, 25 non-synonymous somatic variations (single-nucleotide variants, SNVs) and 2 somatic insertions/deletions (INDELs) were confirmed in the primary tumor, and 30 SNVs and 5 INDELs were verified in the peritoneal metastasis. Approximately 59% of the somatic mutations were shared between the primary and metastatic site. Five genes (TP53, BAI1, THSD1, ARID2, and KIAA2022) verified in our study were also mutated at a frequency greater than 5%in the COSMIC database. We also identified 9genes (ERBB4, ZNF721, NT5E, PDE10A, CA1, NUMB, NBN, ZFYVE16, and NCAM1) that were only mutated in metastasis and are expected to become treatment targets. In conclusion, we observed that the majority of the somatic mutations in the primary site persisted in metastasis, whereas several single-nucleotide polymorphisms occurred de novo at the second site. PMID:27270314

  10. Neoplasms Associated with Germline and Somatic NF1 Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Neurofibromatosis 1 is a tumor predisposition genetic syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance and virtually 100% penetrance by the age of 5 years. NF1 results from a loss-of-function mutation in the NF1 gene, resulting in decreased levels of neurofibromin in the cell. Neurofibromin is a negative regulator of various intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cellular proliferation. Although the loss of heterozygosity in the NF1 gene may predispose NF1 patients to certain malignancies, additional genetic alterations are a prerequisite for their development. The precise nature of these additional genetic alterations is not well defined, and genetic testing of all malignancies in NF1 patients becomes an essential component of future research in this subset of patients. In addition to germline NF1 mutations, alteration of the somatic NF1 gene is associated with sporadic malignancies such as adenocarcinoma of the colon, myelodysplastic syndrome, and anaplastic astrocytoma. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive English and non-English language search for all articles pertinent to malignancies associated with NF1 was conducted using PubMed, a search engine provided by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Key words searched included the following: “malignancies associated with NF1”, “tumors associated with NF1”, and “NF1 and malignancies”. A comprehensive analysis in terms age and mode of presentation, investigation and therapeutic modalities, and outcome of the published data was performed and compared with similar information on the sporadic cases. Results. Malignancies in NF1 patients typically occur at an earlier age and, with an exception of optic pathway gliomas, certain types of malignancies carry a poor prognosis compared with their sporadic counterparts. Malignancies are the leading cause of death in NF1 patients, resulting in a 10- to 15-year decreased life expectancy compared with the

  11. Clinical significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma of pathogenic somatic mitochondrial mutations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, I-How; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsieh, Ling-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations affecting the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been frequently observed in human cancers and proposed as important oncological biomarkers. However, the clinical significance of mtDNA mutations in cancer remains unclear. This study was therefore performed to explore the possible clinical use in assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of pathogenic mtDNA mutations. The entire mitochondrial genome of 300 OSCC with their matched control DNAs was screened by direct sequencing and criteria were set to define a pathogenic somatic mutation. The patients' TP53 R72P genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationships between pathogenic somatic mutations, clinicopathogical features, TP53 R72P genotype and clinical prognosis were analyzed. Overall, 645 somatic mtDNA mutations were identified and 91 of these mutations were defined as pathogenic. About one quarter (74/300) of the OSCC tumor samples contained pathogenic mutations. Individuals with the TP53 R allele had a higher frequency of pathogenic somatic mutation than those with the PP genotype. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that TP53 R allele patients with pathogenic somatic mutations demonstrated a significant association with a poorer disease-free survival than other individuals (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15-2.57; p = 0.009) and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for mtDNA haplogroup, tumor stage with treatment regimens, differentiation and age at diagnosis (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.40; p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that this phenomenon was limited to patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy after surgery. The results strongly indicated that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a potential prognostic marker for OSCCs. Furthermore, functional mitochondria may play an active role in cancer development and the patient's response to radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy.

  12. Somatically acquired LINE-1 insertions in normal esophagus undergo clonal expansion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Doucet-O’Hare, Tara T.; Sharmad, Reema; Rodić, Nemanja; Anders, Robert A.; Burns, Kathleen H.; Kazazian, Haig H.

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC) is the most common form of esophageal cancer in the world and is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage when successful treatment is challenging. Understanding the mutational profile of this cancer may identify new treatment strategies. Because somatic retrotransposition has been shown in tumors of the gastrointestinal system, we focused on LINE-1 (L1) mobilization as a source of genetic instability in this cancer. We hypothesized that retrotransposition is ongoing in SCC patients. The expression of L1 encoded proteins is necessary for retrotransposition to occur; therefore, we evaluated the expression of L1 open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p). Using immunohistochemistry, we detected ORF1p expression in all four SCC cases evaluated. Using L1-seq, we identified and validated 74 somatic insertions in eight tumors of the nine evaluated. Of these, 12 insertions appeared to be somatic, not genetically inherited, and sub-clonal (i.e., present in less than one copy per genome equivalent) in the adjacent normal esophagus while clonal in the tumor. Our results indicate that L1 retrotransposition is active in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and that insertion events are present in histologically normal esophagus that expand clonally in the subsequent tumor. PMID:27319353

  13. Genetic spectrum and clinical correlates of somatic mutations in aldosterone-producing adenoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Rosa, Fabio Luiz; Williams, Tracy Ann; Riester, Anna; Steichen, Olivier; Beuschlein, Felix; Boulkroun, Sheerazed; Strom, Tim M; Monticone, Silvia; Amar, Laurence; Meatchi, Tchao; Mantero, Franco; Cicala, Maria-Verena; Quinkler, Marcus; Fallo, Francesco; Allolio, Bruno; Bernini, Giampaolo; Maccario, Mauro; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Mulatero, Paolo; Reincke, Martin; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2014-08-01

    Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Somatic mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D have been described in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of somatic mutations in these genes in unselected patients with APA (n=474), collected through the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors. Correlations with clinical and biochemical parameters were first analyzed in a subset of 199 patients from a single center and then replicated in 2 additional centers. Somatic heterozygous KCNJ5 mutations were present in 38% (180/474) of APAs, whereas ATP1A1 mutations were found in 5.3% (25/474) and ATP2B3 mutations in 1.7% (8/474) of APAs. Previously reported somatic CACNA1D mutations as well as 10 novel CACNA1D mutations were identified in 44 of 474 (9.3%) APAs. There was no difference in the cellular composition of APAs or in CYP11B2, CYP11B1, KCNJ5, CACNA1D, or ATP1A1 gene expression in APAs across genotypes. Patients with KCNJ5 mutations were more frequently female, diagnosed younger, and with higher minimal plasma potassium concentrations compared with CACNA1D mutation carriers or noncarriers. CACNA1D mutations were associated with smaller adenomas. These associations were largely dependent on the population structure of the different centers. In conclusion, recurrent somatic mutations were identified in 54% of APAs. Young women with APAs are more likely to be KCNJ5 mutation carriers; identification of specific characteristics or surrogate biomarkers of mutation status may lead to targeted treatment options.

  14. BRCA somatic mutations and epigenetic BRCA modifications in serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Moschetta, M; George, A; Kaye, S B; Banerjee, S

    2016-08-01

    The significant activity of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the treatment of germline BRCA mutation-associated ovarian cancer, which represents ∼15% of HGS cases, has recently led to European Medicines Agency and food and drug administration approval of olaparib. Accumulating evidence suggests that PARP inhibitors may have a wider application in the treatment of sporadic ovarian cancers. Up to 50% of HGS ovarian cancer patients may exhibit homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) through mechanisms including germline BRCA mutations, somatic BRCA mutations, and BRCA promoter methylation. In this review, we discuss the role of somatic BRCA mutations and BRCA methylation in ovarian cancer. There is accumulating evidence for routine somatic BRCA mutation testing, but the relevance of BRCA epigenetic modifications is less clear. We explore the challenges that need to be addressed if the full potential of these markers of HRD is to be utilised in clinical practice.

  15. Somatic mutations in the BRCA1 gene in Chinese sporadic breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Khoo, U S; Ozcelik, H; Cheung, A N; Chow, L W; Ngan, H Y; Done, S J; Liang, A C; Chan, V W; Au, G K; Ng, W F; Poon, C S; Leung, Y F; Loong, F; Ip, P; Chan, G S; Andrulis, I L; Lu, J; Ho, F C

    1999-08-12

    Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 gene confer increased susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. Its role in sporadic carcinogenesis is not well defined. Somatic mutations in breast cancers have not been reported and to date there are only three reports of somatic mutations in sporadic ovarian cancers. To investigate the contribution of BRCA1 mutations to sporadic breast and ovarian cancer in the Chinese population, we analysed 62 samples from Chinese women using the protein truncation test. There were 40 cases of breast cancer under age 50 and 22 cases of ovarian cancer, all unselected for family history. There was no age selection for the ovarian cancers. We found two somatic BRCA1 mutations in exon 11, one in a breast cancer and the other in an ovarian cancer, both of which result in truncated proteins. Our results indicate that somatic BRCA1 mutations, like somatic mutations in the BRCA2 gene, though very rare, can be found in both breast and ovarian cancers and support a tumor suppressor function for BRCA1 in sporadic tumors.

  16. Somatic deleterious mutation rate in a woody plant: estimation from phenotypic data.

    PubMed

    Bobiwash, K; Schultz, S T; Schoen, D J

    2013-10-01

    We conducted controlled crosses in populations of the long-lived clonal shrub, Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) to estimate inbreeding depression and mutation parameters associated with somatic deleterious mutation. Inbreeding depression level was high, with many plants failing to set fruit after self-pollination. We also compared fruit set from autogamous pollinations (pollen collected from within the same inflorescence) with fruit set from geitonogamous pollinations (pollen collected from the same plant but from inflorescences separated by several meters of branch growth). The difference between geitonogamous versus autogamous fitness within single plants is referred to as 'autogamy depression' (AD). AD can be caused by somatic deleterious mutation. AD was significantly different from zero for fruit set. We developed a maximum-likelihood procedure to estimate somatic mutation parameters from AD, and applied it to geitonogamous and autogamous fruit set data from this experiment. We infer that, on average, approximately three sublethal, partially dominant somatic mutations exist within the crowns of the plants studied. We conclude that somatic mutation in this woody plant results in an overall genomic deleterious mutation rate that exceeds the rate measured to date for annual plants. Some implications of this result for evolutionary biology and agriculture are discussed.

  17. Somatic deleterious mutation rate in a woody plant: estimation from phenotypic data

    PubMed Central

    Bobiwash, K; Schultz, S T; Schoen, D J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted controlled crosses in populations of the long-lived clonal shrub, Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) to estimate inbreeding depression and mutation parameters associated with somatic deleterious mutation. Inbreeding depression level was high, with many plants failing to set fruit after self-pollination. We also compared fruit set from autogamous pollinations (pollen collected from within the same inflorescence) with fruit set from geitonogamous pollinations (pollen collected from the same plant but from inflorescences separated by several meters of branch growth). The difference between geitonogamous versus autogamous fitness within single plants is referred to as ‘autogamy depression' (AD). AD can be caused by somatic deleterious mutation. AD was significantly different from zero for fruit set. We developed a maximum-likelihood procedure to estimate somatic mutation parameters from AD, and applied it to geitonogamous and autogamous fruit set data from this experiment. We infer that, on average, approximately three sublethal, partially dominant somatic mutations exist within the crowns of the plants studied. We conclude that somatic mutation in this woody plant results in an overall genomic deleterious mutation rate that exceeds the rate measured to date for annual plants. Some implications of this result for evolutionary biology and agriculture are discussed. PMID:23778990

  18. Combined hereditary and somatic mutations of replication error repair genes result in rapid onset of ultra-hypermutated cancers.

    PubMed

    Shlien, Adam; Campbell, Brittany B; de Borja, Richard; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Merico, Daniele; Wedge, David; Van Loo, Peter; Tarpey, Patrick S; Coupland, Paul; Behjati, Sam; Pollett, Aaron; Lipman, Tatiana; Heidari, Abolfazl; Deshmukh, Shriya; Avitzur, Na'ama; Meier, Bettina; Gerstung, Moritz; Hong, Ye; Merino, Diana M; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Remke, Marc; Arnold, Roland; Panigrahi, Gagan B; Thakkar, Neha P; Hodel, Karl P; Henninger, Erin E; Göksenin, A Yasemin; Bakry, Doua; Charames, George S; Druker, Harriet; Lerner-Ellis, Jordan; Mistry, Matthew; Dvir, Rina; Grant, Ronald; Elhasid, Ronit; Farah, Roula; Taylor, Glenn P; Nathan, Paul C; Alexander, Sarah; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Ling, Simon C; Gallinger, Steven; Constantini, Shlomi; Dirks, Peter; Huang, Annie; Scherer, Stephen W; Grundy, Richard G; Durno, Carol; Aronson, Melyssa; Gartner, Anton; Meyn, M Stephen; Taylor, Michael D; Pursell, Zachary F; Pearson, Christopher E; Malkin, David; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia; Campbell, Peter J; Tabori, Uri

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication-associated mutations are repaired by two components: polymerase proofreading and mismatch repair. The mutation consequences of disruption to both repair components in humans are not well studied. We sequenced cancer genomes from children with inherited biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (bMMRD). High-grade bMMRD brain tumors exhibited massive numbers of substitution mutations (>250/Mb), which was greater than all childhood and most cancers (>7,000 analyzed). All ultra-hypermutated bMMRD cancers acquired early somatic driver mutations in DNA polymerase ɛ or δ. The ensuing mutation signatures and numbers are unique and diagnostic of childhood germ-line bMMRD (P < 10(-13)). Sequential tumor biopsy analysis revealed that bMMRD/polymerase-mutant cancers rapidly amass an excess of simultaneous mutations (∼600 mutations/cell division), reaching but not exceeding ∼20,000 exonic mutations in <6 months. This implies a threshold compatible with cancer-cell survival. We suggest a new mechanism of cancer progression in which mutations develop in a rapid burst after ablation of replication repair.

  19. Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental and transcriptional history

    PubMed Central

    Evrony, Gilad D.; Mehta, Bhaven K.; Karger, Amir; Lee, Soohyun; Chittenden, Thomas W.; D’Gama, Alissa M.; Cai, Xuyu; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Lee, Eunjung; Park, Peter J.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons live for decades in a postmitotic state, their genomes susceptible to DNA damage. Here we survey the landscape of somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the human brain. We identified thousands of somatic SNVs by single-cell sequencing of 36 neurons from the cerebral cortex of three normal individuals. Unlike germline and cancer SNVs, which are often caused by errors in DNA replication, neuronal mutations appear to reflect damage during active transcription. Somatic mutations create nested lineage trees, allowing them to be dated relative to developmental landmarks and revealing a polyclonal architecture of the human cerebral cortex. Thus, somatic mutations in the brain represent a durable and ongoing record of neuronal life history, from development through postmitotic function. PMID:26430121

  20. Whole-exome sequencing identifies somatic ATRX mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Lauren; Khare, Sanika; Wubbenhorst, Bradley; DeSloover, Daniel; D'Andrea, Kurt; Merrill, Shana; Cho, Nam Woo; Greenberg, Roger A; Else, Tobias; Montone, Kathleen; LiVolsi, Virginia; Fraker, Douglas; Daber, Robert; Cohen, Debbie L; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2015-01-21

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) are the solid tumour type most commonly associated with an inherited susceptibility syndrome. However, very little is known about the somatic genetic changes leading to tumorigenesis or malignant transformation. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing on a discovery set of 21 PCC/PGL and identify somatic ATRX mutations in two SDHB-associated tumours. Targeted sequencing of a separate validation set of 103 PCC/PGL identifies somatic ATRX mutations in 12.6% of PCC/PGL. PCC/PGL with somatic ATRX mutations are associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and clinically aggressive behaviour. This finding suggests that loss of ATRX, an SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling protein, is important in the development of clinically aggressive PCC/PGL.

  1. Novel deletion mutation of HLA-B*40:02 gene in acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Jeong, T-D; Mun, Y-C; Chung, H-S; Seo, D; Im, J; Huh, J

    2017-01-01

    Despite prevalence of clonal evolution in patients with aplastic anemia (AA), somatic mutation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene is rarely reported. Herein, we reported a case of acquired AA (aAA) harboring a new four-base-pair deletion mutation within exon 4 of HLA-B*40:02 leading to frameshift and premature stop codon. The HLA-B*40:02 mutant allele was detected in the patient's peripheral blood sample not in patient's buccal epithelial cells. The patient received allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-matched sibling donor. On day 30 after HSCT, the mutant HLA allele was not detected by high-resolution sequence-based HLA typing. Serial chimerism analyses showed mixed chimeric status indicative of coexisting donor and recipient hematopoietic cells. Our data could provide additional support in view of pathophysiology of aAA that somatic mutation of HLA-B*40:02 allele is one of the possible origin of clonal escape to evade immune attack in patient with aAA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Classification of Cancer Primary Sites Using Machine Learning and Somatic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukun; Sun, Jingchun; Huang, Liang-Chin; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    An accurate classification of human cancer, including its primary site, is important for better understanding of cancer and effective therapeutic strategies development. The available big data of somatic mutations provides us a great opportunity to investigate cancer classification using machine learning. Here, we explored the patterns of 1,760,846 somatic mutations identified from 230,255 cancer patients along with gene function information using support vector machine. Specifically, we performed a multiclass classification experiment over the 17 tumor sites using the gene symbol, somatic mutation, chromosome, and gene functional pathway as predictors for 6,751 subjects. The performance of the baseline using only gene features is 0.57 in accuracy. It was improved to 0.62 when adding the information of mutation and chromosome. Among the predictable primary tumor sites, the prediction of five primary sites (large intestine, liver, skin, pancreas, and lung) could achieve the performance with more than 0.70 in F-measure. The model of the large intestine ranked the first with 0.87 in F-measure. The results demonstrate that the somatic mutation information is useful for prediction of primary tumor sites with machine learning modeling. To our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of the primary sites classification using machine learning and somatic mutation data.

  3. Parental Age Affects Somatic Mutation Rates in the Progeny of Flowering Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  4. 40 CFR 798.5300 - Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cells in culture. 798.5300 Section 798.5300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5300 Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture. (a) Purpose. Mammalian cell culture systems may be used to detect mutations induced by chemical substances. Widely used cell lines...

  5. 40 CFR 798.5300 - Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cells in culture. 798.5300 Section 798.5300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5300 Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture. (a) Purpose. Mammalian cell culture systems may be used to detect mutations induced by chemical substances. Widely used cell lines...

  6. Precise Classification of Cervical Carcinomas Combined with Somatic Mutation Profiling Contributes to Predicting Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Spaans, Vivian M.; Trietsch, Marjolijn D.; Peters, Alexander A. W.; Osse, Michelle; ter Haar, Natalja; Fleuren, Gert J.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) are the most common histological subtypes of cervical cancer. Differences in the somatic mutation profiles of these subtypes have been suggested. We investigated the prevalence of somatic hot-spot mutations in three well-defined cohorts of SCC, AC, and ASC and determined the additional value of mutation profiling in predicting disease outcome relative to well-established prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods Clinicopathological data were collected for 301 cervical tumors classified as SCC (n=166), AC (n=55), or ASC (n=80). Mass spectrometry was used to analyze 171 somatic hot-spot mutations in 13 relevant genes. Results In 103 (34%) tumors, 123 mutations were detected (36% in SCC, 38% in AC, and 28% in ASC), mostly in PIK3CA (20%) and KRAS (7%). PIK3CA mutations occurred more frequently in SCC than AC (25% vs. 11%, P=0.025), whereas KRAS mutations occurred more frequently in AC than SCC (24% vs. 3%, P<0.001) and ASC (24% vs. 3%, P<0.001). A positive mutation status correlated with worse disease-free survival (HR 1.57, P=0.043). In multivariate analysis, tumor diameter, parametrial infiltration, and lymph node metastasis, but not the presence of a somatic mutation, were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion Potentially targetable somatic mutations occurred in 34% of cervical tumors with different distributions among histological subtypes. Precise classification of cervical carcinomas in combination with mutation profiling is valuable for predicting disease outcome and may guide the development and selection of tumor-specific treatment approaches. PMID:26197069

  7. Somatic mosaicism of EPAS1 mutations in the syndrome of paraganglioma and somatostatinoma associated with polycythemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunzhang; Hong, Christopher S; Prchal, Josef T; Balint, Melina T; Pacak, Karel; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    We recently described a novel, non-inherited syndrome of tumor-specific mutations of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α, encoded by EPAS1, leading to formation of multiple paragangliomas and somatostatinomas in the setting of congenital polycythemia. Although we had suspected that somatic mosaicism of EPAS1 mutations was the underlying cause of tumorigenesis, we could not validate this theory in our initial findings. In this report, we developed a sensitive, peptide nucleic acid sequencing assay to uncover the presence of EPAS1 mutations in blood and other somatic tissues of the two patients who were described in the initial characterization of this syndrome. As such, the current study demonstrates that the underlying pathogenesis of the syndrome of multiple paraganglioma and somatostatinoma formation with congenital polycythemia is somatic mosaicism of EPAS1 mutations. PMID:27081557

  8. Data mining using the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer BioMart

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Rebecca; Forbes, Simon A.; Beare, David; Bamford, S.; Cole, Charlotte G.; Ward, Sari; Bindal, Nidhi; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Jia, Mingming; Kok, Chai Yin; Leung, Kenric; Menzies, Andrew; Butler, Adam P.; Teague, Jon W.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.; Futreal, P. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic) is a publicly available resource providing information on somatic mutations implicated in human cancer. Release v51 (January 2011) includes data from just over 19 000 genes, 161 787 coding mutations and 5573 gene fusions, described in more than 577 000 tumour samples. COSMICMart (COSMIC BioMart) provides a flexible way to mine these data and combine somatic mutations with other biological relevant data sets. This article describes the data available in COSMIC along with examples of how to successfully mine and integrate data sets using COSMICMart. Database URL: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/biomart/martview/ PMID:21609966

  9. Data mining using the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer BioMart.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Rebecca; Forbes, Simon A; Beare, David; Bamford, S; Cole, Charlotte G; Ward, Sari; Bindal, Nidhi; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Jia, Mingming; Kok, Chai Yin; Leung, Kenric; Menzies, Andrew; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic) is a publicly available resource providing information on somatic mutations implicated in human cancer. Release v51 (January 2011) includes data from just over 19,000 genes, 161,787 coding mutations and 5573 gene fusions, described in more than 577,000 tumour samples. COSMICMart (COSMIC BioMart) provides a flexible way to mine these data and combine somatic mutations with other biological relevant data sets. This article describes the data available in COSMIC along with examples of how to successfully mine and integrate data sets using COSMICMart. DATABASE URL: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/biomart/martview/.

  10. Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences

    DOE PAGES

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Davies, Helen; Staaf, Johan; ...

    2016-05-02

    Here, we analysed whole-genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. We found that 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried probable driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies, but most have distinctive structural features probably causing elevated mutation rates and do not contain driver mutations. Mutational signature analysis was extended to genome rearrangements and revealed twelve base substitution and six rearrangement signatures. Three rearrangement signatures, characterized by tandem duplications or deletions, appear associated with defective homologous-recombination-based DNA repair: one with deficient BRCA1 function, anothermore » with deficient BRCA1 or BRCA2 function, the cause of the third is unknown. This analysis of all classes of somatic mutation across exons, introns and intergenic regions highlights the repertoire of cancer genes and mutational processes operating, and progresses towards a comprehensive account of the somatic genetic basis of breast cancer.« less

  11. Feature-based classifiers for somatic mutation detection in tumour-normal paired sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiarui; Bashashati, Ali; Roth, Andrew; Oloumi, Arusha; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Haffari, Gholamreza; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Condon, Anne; Aparicio, Samuel; Shah, Sohrab P

    2012-01-15

    The study of cancer genomes now routinely involves using next-generation sequencing technology (NGS) to profile tumours for single nucleotide variant (SNV) somatic mutations. However, surprisingly few published bioinformatics methods exist for the specific purpose of identifying somatic mutations from NGS data and existing tools are often inaccurate, yielding intolerably high false prediction rates. As such, the computational problem of accurately inferring somatic mutations from paired tumour/normal NGS data remains an unsolved challenge. We present the comparison of four standard supervised machine learning algorithms for the purpose of somatic SNV prediction in tumour/normal NGS experiments. To evaluate these approaches (random forest, Bayesian additive regression tree, support vector machine and logistic regression), we constructed 106 features representing 3369 candidate somatic SNVs from 48 breast cancer genomes, originally predicted with naive methods and subsequently revalidated to establish ground truth labels. We trained the classifiers on this data (consisting of 1015 true somatic mutations and 2354 non-somatic mutation positions) and conducted a rigorous evaluation of these methods using a cross-validation framework and hold-out test NGS data from both exome capture and whole genome shotgun platforms. All learning algorithms employing predictive discriminative approaches with feature selection improved the predictive accuracy over standard approaches by statistically significant margins. In addition, using unsupervised clustering of the ground truth 'false positive' predictions, we noted several distinct classes and present evidence suggesting non-overlapping sources of technical artefacts illuminating important directions for future study. Software called MutationSeq and datasets are available from http://compbio.bccrc.ca.

  12. Feature-based classifiers for somatic mutation detection in tumour–normal paired sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jiarui; Bashashati, Ali; Roth, Andrew; Oloumi, Arusha; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Haffari, Gholamreza; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A.; Condon, Anne; Aparicio, Samuel; Shah, Sohrab P.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The study of cancer genomes now routinely involves using next-generation sequencing technology (NGS) to profile tumours for single nucleotide variant (SNV) somatic mutations. However, surprisingly few published bioinformatics methods exist for the specific purpose of identifying somatic mutations from NGS data and existing tools are often inaccurate, yielding intolerably high false prediction rates. As such, the computational problem of accurately inferring somatic mutations from paired tumour/normal NGS data remains an unsolved challenge. Results: We present the comparison of four standard supervised machine learning algorithms for the purpose of somatic SNV prediction in tumour/normal NGS experiments. To evaluate these approaches (random forest, Bayesian additive regression tree, support vector machine and logistic regression), we constructed 106 features representing 3369 candidate somatic SNVs from 48 breast cancer genomes, originally predicted with naive methods and subsequently revalidated to establish ground truth labels. We trained the classifiers on this data (consisting of 1015 true somatic mutations and 2354 non-somatic mutation positions) and conducted a rigorous evaluation of these methods using a cross-validation framework and hold-out test NGS data from both exome capture and whole genome shotgun platforms. All learning algorithms employing predictive discriminative approaches with feature selection improved the predictive accuracy over standard approaches by statistically significant margins. In addition, using unsupervised clustering of the ground truth ‘false positive’ predictions, we noted several distinct classes and present evidence suggesting non-overlapping sources of technical artefacts illuminating important directions for future study. Availability: Software called MutationSeq and datasets are available from http://compbio.bccrc.ca. Contact: saparicio@bccrc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at

  13. Somatic mutation in constant regions of mouse lambda 1 light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, N; Okada, H; Azuma, T

    1991-01-01

    To study the distribution of somatic mutation, we determined nucleotide sequences of rearranged lambda 1-chain genomic DNA from four hybridomas obtained from C57BL/6 mice that had been immunized with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-conjugated chicken gamma globulin. In total, 114 nucleotide substitutions were observed, with neither insertion nor deletion. Sixty-one mutations occurred in the variable-joining region genes (V lambda 1-J lambda 1) and 49 in joining-constant (J lambda 1-C lambda 1) introns. Although frequency decreased with distance from the V lambda 1-J lambda 1 coding region, somatic mutations occurred in the entire J lambda 1-C lambda 1 intron and even in the C lambda 1 region. We found four nucleotide substitutions in C lambda 1 genes, all of which were replacement mutations. Therefore, the mechanism responsible for somatic mutation is operative into the C lambda 1 exons. Nucleotide sequences of rearranged but inactive lambda 2-chain genes from two hybridomas were also examined and compared with those of lambda 1-chain genes. The clustering of replacement mutations in complementarity-determining regions in the inactive lambda 2-chain genes similar to the active lambda 1-chain genes suggested a mechanism that induces somatic mutation preferentially in this region even in the absence of antigenic selection. PMID:1910169

  14. Novel Somatic Mutations to PI3K Pathway Genes in Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Poornema; Leskoske, Kristin; Oroian, Dora; Birtwistle, Marc R.; Buckhaults, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    Background BRAFV600 inhibitors have offered a new gateway for better treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, the overall efficacy of BRAFV600 inhibitors has been lower than expected in clinical trials, and many patients have shown resistance to the drug’s effect. We hypothesized that somatic mutations in the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) pathway, which promotes proliferation and survival, may coincide with BRAFV600 mutations and contribute to chemotherapeutic resistance. Methods We performed a somatic mutation profiling study using the 454 FLX pyrosequencing platform in order to identify candidate cancer genes within the MAPK and PI3K pathways of melanoma patients. Somatic mutations of theses candidate cancer genes were then confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Results As expected, BRAFV600 mutations were seen in 51% of the melanomas, whereas NRAS mutations were seen in 19% of the melanomas. However, PI3K pathway mutations, though more heterogeneous, were present in 41% of the melanoma, with PTEN being the highest mutated PI3K gene in melanomas (22%). Interestingly, several novel PI3K pathway mutations were discovered in MTOR, IRS4, PIK3R1, PIK3R4, PIK3R5, and NFKB1. PI3K pathway mutations co-occurred with BRAFV600 mutations in 17% of the tumors and co-occurred with 9% of NRAS mutant tumors, implying cooperativity between these pathways in terms of melanoma progression. Conclusions These novel PI3K pathway somatic mutations could provide alternative survival and proliferative pathways for metastatic melanoma cells. They therefore may be potential chemotherapeutic targets for melanoma patients who exhibit resistance to BRAFV600 inhibitors. PMID:22912864

  15. Direct mutation analysis by high-throughput sequencing: from germline to low-abundant, somatic variants.

    PubMed

    Gundry, Michael; Vijg, Jan

    2012-01-03

    DNA mutations are the source of genetic variation within populations. The majority of mutations with observable effects are deleterious. In humans mutations in the germ line can cause genetic disease. In somatic cells multiple rounds of mutations and selection lead to cancer. The study of genetic variation has progressed rapidly since the completion of the draft sequence of the human genome. Recent advances in sequencing technology, most importantly the introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), have resulted in more than a hundred-fold reduction in the time and cost required for sequencing nucleic acids. These improvements have greatly expanded the use of sequencing as a practical tool for mutation analysis. While in the past the high cost of sequencing limited mutation analysis to selectable markers or small forward mutation targets assumed to be representative for the genome overall, current platforms allow whole genome sequencing for less than $5000. This has already given rise to direct estimates of germline mutation rates in multiple organisms including humans by comparing whole genome sequences between parents and offspring. Here we present a brief history of the field of mutation research, with a focus on classical tools for the measurement of mutation rates. We then review MPS, how it is currently applied and the new insight into human and animal mutation frequencies and spectra that has been obtained from whole genome sequencing. While great progress has been made, we note that the single most important limitation of current MPS approaches for mutation analysis is the inability to address low-abundance mutations that turn somatic tissues into mosaics of cells. Such mutations are at the basis of intra-tumor heterogeneity, with important implications for clinical diagnosis, and could also contribute to somatic diseases other than cancer, including aging. Some possible approaches to gain access to low-abundance mutations are discussed, with a brief

  16. Direct mutation analysis by high-throughput sequencing: from germline to low-abundant, somatic variants

    PubMed Central

    Gundry, Michael; Vijg, Jan

    2011-01-01

    DNA mutations are the source of genetic variation within populations. The majority of mutations with observable effects are deleterious. In humans mutations in the germ line can cause genetic disease. In somatic cells multiple rounds of mutations and selection lead to cancer. The study of genetic variation has progressed rapidly since the completion of the draft sequence of the human genome. Recent advances in sequencing technology, most importantly the introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), have resulted in more than a hundred-fold reduction in the time and cost required for sequencing nucleic acids. These improvements have greatly expanded the use of sequencing as a practical tool for mutation analysis. While in the past the high cost of sequencing limited mutation analysis to selectable markers or small forward mutation targets assumed to be representative for the genome overall, current platforms allow whole genome sequencing for less than $5,000. This has already given rise to direct estimates of germline mutation rates in multiple organisms including humans by comparing whole genome sequences between parents and offspring. Here we present a brief history of the field of mutation research, with a focus on classical tools for the measurement of mutation rates. We then review MPS, how it is currently applied and the new insight into human and animal mutation frequencies and spectra that has been obtained from whole genome sequencing. While great progress has been made, we note that the single most important limitation of current MPS approaches for mutation analysis is the inability to address low-abundance mutations that turn somatic tissues into mosaics of cells. Such mutations are at the basis of intra-tumor heterogeneity, with important implications for clinical diagnosis, and could also contribute to somatic diseases other than cancer, including aging. Some possible approaches to gain access to low-abundance mutations are discussed, with a

  17. Discordance of Somatic Mutations Between Asian and Caucasian Patient Populations with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feifei; Teer, Jamie K; Knepper, Todd C; Lee, Jae K; Zhou, Hong-Hao; He, Yi-Jing; McLeod, Howard L

    2017-04-01

    Differences in response to cancer treatments have been observed among racially and ethnically diverse gastric cancer (GC) patient populations. In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. Mapping driver gene mutations for the GC patient population as a whole has significant potential to advance precision therapy. GC patients with sequencing data (N = 473) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 295), Moffitt Cancer Center Total Cancer Care™ (TCC; n = 33), and three published studies (n = 145). In addition, relevant somatic mutation frequency data were obtained from cBioPortal, the TCC database, and an in-house analysis tool, as well as relevant publications. We found that the somatic mutation rates of several driver genes vary significantly between GC patients of Asian and Caucasian descent, with substantial variation across different geographic regions. Non-parametric statistical tests were performed to examine the significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutations between Asian and Caucasian GC patient groups. The frequencies of somatic mutations of five genes were: APC (Asian: Caucasian 6.06 vs. 14.40%, p = 0.0076), ARIDIA (20.7 vs. 32.1%, p = 0.01), KMT2A (4.04 vs. 12.35%, p = 0.003), PIK3CA (9.6 vs. 18.52%, p = 0.01), and PTEN (2.52 vs. 9.05%, p = 0.008), showing significant differences between Asian and Caucasian GC patients. Our study found significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutation frequencies in diverse geographic populations. In particular, we found that the somatic patterns may offer better insight and important opportunities for both targeted drug development and precision therapeutic strategies between Asian and Caucasian GC patients.

  18. ISOWN: accurate somatic mutation identification in the absence of normal tissue controls.

    PubMed

    Kalatskaya, Irina; Trinh, Quang M; Spears, Melanie; McPherson, John D; Bartlett, John M S; Stein, Lincoln

    2017-06-29

    A key step in cancer genome analysis is the identification of somatic mutations in the tumor. This is typically done by comparing the genome of the tumor to the reference genome sequence derived from a normal tissue taken from the same donor. However, there are a variety of common scenarios in which matched normal tissue is not available for comparison. In this work, we describe an algorithm to distinguish somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in next-generation sequencing data from germline polymorphisms in the absence of normal samples using a machine learning approach. Our algorithm was evaluated using a family of supervised learning classifications across six different cancer types and ~1600 samples, including cell lines, fresh frozen tissues, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues; we tested our algorithm with both deep targeted and whole-exome sequencing data. Our algorithm correctly classified between 95 and 98% of somatic mutations with F1-measure ranges from 75.9 to 98.6% depending on the tumor type. We have released the algorithm as a software package called ISOWN (Identification of SOmatic mutations Without matching Normal tissues). In this work, we describe the development, implementation, and validation of ISOWN, an accurate algorithm for predicting somatic mutations in cancer tissues in the absence of matching normal tissues. ISOWN is available as Open Source under Apache License 2.0 from https://github.com/ikalatskaya/ISOWN .

  19. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA somatic mutations in OXYS and Wistar strain rats.

    PubMed

    Rotskaya, U N; Rogozin, I B; Vasyunina, E A; Kolosova, N G; Malyarchuk, B A; Nevinsky, G A; Sinitsyna, O I

    2009-04-01

    Rats of the OXYS strain are sensitive to oxidative stress and serve as a biological model of premature aging. We have compared spectra of somatic mutations in a control region of mtDNA from the liver of the OXYS rat strain and of Wistar rats as a control. The majority of nucleotide substitutions in the mutation spectra were represented by transitions: 94 and 97% in the OXYS and Wistar rats, respectively. It was shown that 40% of somatic mutations in the control region of mtDNA from Wistar rats were significantly consistent with the model of dislocation mutagenesis. No statistical support for this model was found for mutations in the control region of mtDNA from OXYS rats. The mutation frequency in the ETAS section was higher in the OXYS strain rats than in Wistar rats. These results suggest different mechanisms of mutagenesis in the two rat strains under study.

  20. Genome-wide quantification of rare somatic mutations in normal human tissues using massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Margaret L.; Kinde, Isaac; Tomasetti, Cristian; McMahon, K. Wyatt; Rosenquist, Thomas A.; Grollman, Arthur P.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2016-01-01

    We present the bottleneck sequencing system (BotSeqS), a next-generation sequencing method that simultaneously quantifies rare somatic point mutations across the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. BotSeqS combines molecular barcoding with a simple dilution step immediately before library amplification. We use BotSeqS to show age- and tissue-dependent accumulations of rare mutations and demonstrate that somatic mutational burden in normal human tissues can vary by several orders of magnitude, depending on biologic and environmental factors. We further show major differences between the mutational patterns of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in normal tissues. Lastly, the mutation spectra of normal tissues were different from each other, but similar to those of the cancers that arose in them. This technology can provide insights into the number and nature of genetic alterations in normal tissues and can be used to address a variety of fundamental questions about the genomes of diseased tissues. PMID:27528664

  1. High throughput interrogation of somatic mutations in high grade serous cancer of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Hirsch, Michelle; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Kim, Eejung; Liu, Joyce; van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura; Drapkin, Ronny; Hahn, William C

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies, and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common subtype of ovarian cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of point somatic mutations in HGSC using a mutation detection protocol called OncoMap that employs mass spectrometric-based genotyping technology. The Center for Cancer Genome Discovery (CCGD) Program at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has adapted a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of a large panel of known cancer genes. The mutation detection protocol, termed OncoMap has been expanded to detect more than 1000 mutations in 112 oncogenes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. We performed OncoMap on a set of 203 FFPE advanced staged HGSC specimens. We isolated genomic DNA from these samples, and after a battery of quality assurance tests, ran each of these samples on the OncoMap v3 platform. 56% (113/203) tumor samples harbored candidate mutations. Sixty-five samples had single mutations (32%) while the remaining samples had ≥ 2 mutations (24%). 196 candidate mutation calls were made in 50 genes. The most common somatic oncogene mutations were found in EGFR, KRAS, PDGRFα, KIT, and PIK3CA. Other mutations found in additional genes were found at lower frequencies (<3%). Sequenom analysis using OncoMap on DNA extracted from FFPE ovarian cancer samples is feasible and leads to the detection of potentially druggable mutations. Screening HGSC for somatic mutations in oncogenes may lead to additional therapies for this patient population.

  2. Burkitt's lymphoma is a malignancy of mature B cells expressing somatically mutated V region genes.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, U.; Klein, G.; Ehlin-Henriksson, B.; Rajewsky, K.; Küppers, R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The developmental stage from which stems the malignant B cell population in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is unclear. An approach to answering this question is provided by the sequence analysis of rear-ranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region (V) genes from BL for evidence of somatic mutations, together with a phenotypic characterization. As somatic hypermutation of Ig V region genes occurs in germinal center B cells, somatically mutated Ig genes are found in germinal center B cells and their descendents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rearranged V kappa region genes from 10 kappa-expressing sporadic and endemic BL-derived cell lines (9 IgM and 1 IgG positive) and three kappa-expressing endemic BL biopsy specimens were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. In addition, VH region gene sequences from these cell lines were determined. RESULTS: All BL cell lines and the three biopsy specimens carried somatically mutated V region genes. The average mutation frequency of rearranged V kappa genes from eight BL cell lines established from sporadic BL was 1.8%. A higher frequency (6%) was found in five endemic cases (three biopsy specimens and two BL cell lines). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of somatic mutations in the rearranged V region genes suggests that both sporadic and endemic BL represent a B-cell malignancy originating from germinal center B cells or their descendants. Interestingly, the mutation frequency detected in sporadic BL is in a range similar to that characteristic for IgM-expressing B cells in the human peripheral blood and for mu chain-expressing germinal center B cells, whereas the mutation frequency found in endemic BL is significantly higher. PMID:8529116

  3. Germline and somatic mutations in the MTOR gene in focal cortical dysplasia and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Rikke S.; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Chipaux, Mathilde; Marsan, Elise; Taly, Valerie; Bebin, E. Martina; Hiatt, Susan M.; Prokop, Jeremy W.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Mei, Davide; Conti, Valerio; de la Grange, Pierre; Ferrand-Sorbets, Sarah; Dorfmüller, Georg; Lambrecq, Virginie; Larsen, Line H.G.; Leguern, Eric; Guerrini, Renzo; Rubboli, Guido; Cooper, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of somatic MTOR mutations in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and of germline MTOR mutations in a broad range of epilepsies. Methods: We collected 20 blood-brain paired samples from patients with FCD and searched for somatic variants using deep-targeted gene panel sequencing. Germline mutations in MTOR were assessed in a French research cohort of 93 probands with focal epilepsies and in a diagnostic Danish cohort of 245 patients with a broad range of epilepsies. Data sharing among collaborators allowed us to ascertain additional germline variants in MTOR. Results: We detected recurrent somatic variants (p.Ser2215Phe, p.Ser2215Tyr, and p.Leu1460Pro) in the MTOR gene in 37% of participants with FCD II and showed histologic evidence for activation of the mTORC1 signaling cascade in brain tissue. We further identified 5 novel de novo germline missense MTOR variants in 6 individuals with a variable phenotype from focal, and less frequently generalized, epilepsies without brain malformations, to macrocephaly, with or without moderate intellectual disability. In addition, an inherited variant was found in a mother–daughter pair with nonlesional autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Conclusions: Our data illustrate the increasingly important role of somatic mutations of the MTOR gene in FCD and germline mutations in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy syndromes with and without brain malformation or macrocephaly. PMID:27830187

  4. Antigen-binding site anatomy and somatic mutations in antibodies that recognize different types of antigens.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Gopalan; Smart, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Almagro, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The number of antibody structures co-crystallized with their respective antigens has increased rapidly in the last few years, thus offering a formidable source of information to gain insight into the structure-function relationships of this family of proteins. We have analyzed here 140 unique middle-resolution to high-resolution (<3 Å) antibody structures, including 55 in complex with proteins, 39 with peptides, and 46 with haptens. We determined (i) length variations of the hypervariable loops, (ii) number of contacts with antigen, (iii) solvent accessible area buried upon binding, (iv) location and frequency of antigen contacting residues, (v) type of residues interacting with antigens, and (vi) putative somatic mutations. Except for somatic mutations, distinctive profiles were identified for all the variables analyzed. Compared with contacts, somatic mutations occurred with less abundance at any given position and extended beyond the regions in contact, with no clear difference among antibodies that recognize different types of antigens. This observation is consistent with the fact that although antigen recognition accomplished by shape and physicochemical complementarity is selective in nature, the somatic mutation process is stochastic and selection for mutations leading to improved affinity is not directly related to contact residues. Thus, the knowledge emerging from this study enhances our understanding of the structure-function relationship in antibodies while providing valuable guidance to design libraries for antibody discovery and optimization. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Germline and somatic mutations in the MTOR gene in focal cortical dysplasia and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Møller, Rikke S; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Chipaux, Mathilde; Marsan, Elise; Taly, Valerie; Bebin, E Martina; Hiatt, Susan M; Prokop, Jeremy W; Bowling, Kevin M; Mei, Davide; Conti, Valerio; de la Grange, Pierre; Ferrand-Sorbets, Sarah; Dorfmüller, Georg; Lambrecq, Virginie; Larsen, Line H G; Leguern, Eric; Guerrini, Renzo; Rubboli, Guido; Cooper, Gregory M; Baulac, Stéphanie

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of somatic MTOR mutations in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and of germline MTOR mutations in a broad range of epilepsies. We collected 20 blood-brain paired samples from patients with FCD and searched for somatic variants using deep-targeted gene panel sequencing. Germline mutations in MTOR were assessed in a French research cohort of 93 probands with focal epilepsies and in a diagnostic Danish cohort of 245 patients with a broad range of epilepsies. Data sharing among collaborators allowed us to ascertain additional germline variants in MTOR. We detected recurrent somatic variants (p.Ser2215Phe, p.Ser2215Tyr, and p.Leu1460Pro) in the MTOR gene in 37% of participants with FCD II and showed histologic evidence for activation of the mTORC1 signaling cascade in brain tissue. We further identified 5 novel de novo germline missense MTOR variants in 6 individuals with a variable phenotype from focal, and less frequently generalized, epilepsies without brain malformations, to macrocephaly, with or without moderate intellectual disability. In addition, an inherited variant was found in a mother-daughter pair with nonlesional autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Our data illustrate the increasingly important role of somatic mutations of the MTOR gene in FCD and germline mutations in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy syndromes with and without brain malformation or macrocephaly.

  6. Somatic mutations of the HER2 in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xue; Gao, Yinqi; Wang, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) in lung cancers predict for sensitivity to EGFR kinase inhibitors. HER2 (also known as NEU, EGFR2, or ERBB2) is a member of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases and plays important roles in the pathogenesis of certain human cancers, and mutations have recently been reported in lung cancers. We sequenced the full length of HER2 in 198 metastatic breast cancers (MBC) as well as 34 other epithelial cancers (bladder, prostate, and colorectal cancers) and compared the mutational status with clinic pathologic features and the presence of EGFR or KRAS mutations. HER2 mutations were present in 11.6 % (23 of 198) of MBC and were absent in other types of cancers. HER2 mutations were located in exon 15 and the in-frame insertions in exon 20 with corresponding region as did EGFR insertions. HER2 mutations were significantly more frequent in patient after the administration of trastuzumab (34.8 %, 8 of 23; P = 0.02). Mutations in exon 15 and 20 were more potent than wild-type HER2 in associating with activating signal transducers and inducing survival, invasiveness, and tumorigenicity.

  7. Identification of somatic TERT promoter mutations in familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Marques, Inês J; Moura, Margarida M; Cabrera, Rafael; Pinto, António E; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Santos, Catarina; Menezes, Francisco D; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Rodrigues Teixeira, Manuel; Leite, Valeriano; Cavaco, Branca M

    2017-10-01

    The genes causing familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) identified to date are only involved in a small fraction of the families. Recently, somatic mutations in TERT promoter region and in EIF1AX gene were reported in thyroid tumours of undefined familial status. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TERT and EIF1AX mutations in familial thyroid tumours. The promoter region of TERT was sequenced in leucocyte DNA of the probands from 75 FNMTC families. In thyroid tumours from 54 familial cases, we assessed somatic TERT promoter, RAS and BRAF hotspot mutations, and the whole EIF1AX gene. No potentially pathogenic germline variants were identified in TERT in the 75 FNMTC families' probands. In the 54 carcinomas, we identified five cases (9%) with hotspot somatic TERT promoter mutations. BRAF mutations were found in 41% of the tumours. All TERT-positive samples were also positive for BRAF p.Val600Glu, and this co-occurrence was found to be statistically significant (P=.008). RAS mutations were detected in four tumours wild-type for TERT (7%). Evaluation of tumour mutation data together with the patients' clinicopathological features revealed a significant correlation between TERT plus BRAF mutations and advanced tumour stage (T4) (P=.020). No mutations were identified in EIF1AX. The results of this study suggest that TERT promoter and EIF1AX mutations are not frequently involved in FNMTC aetiology. However, we show for the first time that TERT alterations are associated with familial thyroid tumour progression. Our data also suggest that TERT mutations are more often found in concomitance with BRAF mutations in advanced stages of FNMTC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Simultaneous DNA and RNA Mapping of Somatic Mitochondrial Mutations across Diverse Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, James B.; Alaei-Mahabadi, Babak; Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Samuelsson, Tore; Gorodkin, Jan; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Larsson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the nuclear genome are required for tumor formation, but the functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are less understood. Here we identify somatic mtDNA mutations across 527 tumors and 14 cancer types, using an approach that takes advantage of evidence from both genomic and transcriptomic sequencing. We find that there is selective pressure against deleterious coding mutations, supporting that functional mitochondria are required in tumor cells, and also observe a strong mutational strand bias, compatible with endogenous replication-coupled errors as the major source of mutations. Interestingly, while allelic ratios in general were consistent in RNA compared to DNA, some mutations in tRNAs displayed strong allelic imbalances caused by accumulation of unprocessed tRNA precursors. The effect was explained by altered secondary structure, demonstrating that correct tRNA folding is a major determinant for processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts. Additionally, the data suggest that tRNA clusters are preferably processed in the 3′ to 5′ direction. Our study gives insights into mtDNA function in cancer and answers questions regarding mitochondrial tRNA biogenesis that are difficult to address in controlled experimental systems. PMID:26125550

  9. Simultaneous DNA and RNA Mapping of Somatic Mitochondrial Mutations across Diverse Human Cancers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James B; Alaei-Mahabadi, Babak; Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Samuelsson, Tore; Gorodkin, Jan; Gustafsson, Claes M; Larsson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Somatic mutations in the nuclear genome are required for tumor formation, but the functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are less understood. Here we identify somatic mtDNA mutations across 527 tumors and 14 cancer types, using an approach that takes advantage of evidence from both genomic and transcriptomic sequencing. We find that there is selective pressure against deleterious coding mutations, supporting that functional mitochondria are required in tumor cells, and also observe a strong mutational strand bias, compatible with endogenous replication-coupled errors as the major source of mutations. Interestingly, while allelic ratios in general were consistent in RNA compared to DNA, some mutations in tRNAs displayed strong allelic imbalances caused by accumulation of unprocessed tRNA precursors. The effect was explained by altered secondary structure, demonstrating that correct tRNA folding is a major determinant for processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts. Additionally, the data suggest that tRNA clusters are preferably processed in the 3' to 5' direction. Our study gives insights into mtDNA function in cancer and answers questions regarding mitochondrial tRNA biogenesis that are difficult to address in controlled experimental systems.

  10. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-12

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue.

  11. Variable Somatic TIE2 Mutations in Half of Sporadic Venous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Soblet, J.; Limaye, N.; Uebelhoer, M.; Boon, L.M.; Vikkula, M.

    2013-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are the most frequent vascular malformations referred to specialized vascular anomaly centers. A rare (1-2%) familial form, termed cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), is caused by gain-of-function mutations in TIE2. More recently, sporadic VMs, characterized by the presence of large unifocal lesions, were shown to be caused by somatic mutations in TIE2. These include a frequent L914F change, and a series of double mutations in cis. All of which cause ligand-independent receptor hyperphosphorylation in vitro. Here, we expanded our study to assess the range of mutations that cause sporadic VM. To test for somatic changes, we screened the entire coding region of TIE2 in cDNA from resected VMs by direct sequencing. We detected TIE2 mutations in 17/30 (56.7%) of the samples. In addition to previously detected mutations, we identified 7 novel somatic intracellular TIE2 mutations in sporadic VMs, including 3 that cause premature protein truncation. PMID:23801934

  12. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T.; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue. PMID:26745875

  13. Correlation of RET somatic mutations with clinicopathological features in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Moura, M M; Cavaco, B M; Pinto, A E; Domingues, R; Santos, J R; Cid, M O; Bugalho, M J; Leite, V

    2009-01-01

    Screening of REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene mutations has been carried out in different series of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). RET-positive tumours seem to be associated to a worse clinical outcome. However, the correlation between the type of RET mutation and the patients' clinicopathological data has not been evaluated yet. We analysed RET exons 5, 8, 10–16 in fifty-one sporadic MTC, and found somatic mutations in thirty-three (64.7%) tumours. Among the RET-positive cases, exon 16 was the most frequently affected (60.6%). Two novel somatic mutations (Cys630Gly, c.1881del18) were identified. MTC patients were divided into three groups: group 1, with mutations in RET exons 15 and 16; group 2, with other RET mutations; group 3, having no RET mutations. Group 1 had higher prevalence (P=0.0051) and number of lymph node metastases (P=0.0017), and presented more often multifocal tumours (P=0.037) and persistent disease at last control (P=0.0242) than group 2. Detectable serum calcitonin levels at last screening (P=0.0119) and stage IV disease (P=0.0145) were more frequent in group 1, than in the other groups. Our results suggest that, among the sporadic MTC, cases with RET mutations in exons 15 and 16 are associated with the worst prognosis. Cases with other RET mutations have the most indolent course, and those with no RET mutations have an intermediate risk. PMID:19401695

  14. Somatic mutational analysis of MED12 exon 2 in uterine leiomyomas of Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Fatahi, Neda; Amini-Moghaddam, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are steroid-hormone dependent tumors of myometrial smooth muscle cells that affect numerous women throughout the world. Based on previous studies, we evaluated the mutations of MED12 gene which encodes a co-activator protein involved in transcription regulation of the vast majority of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Exon 2 of MED12 gene was genotyped by PCR-sequencing method. To determine the proportion of mutation-containing transcripts, RNA was extracted from the tissue samples and the corresponding amplified cDNA was sequenced. We observed 11 mutation positive lesions, 7 of them were located in codon 44. The c.131G>A was found to be the most common somatic mutation in this study. Our investigation also demonstrated two unreported mutations , one large deletion and one insertion. cDNA analyzing revealed that the mutated transcripts were predominantly expressed in almost all changes including the new insertion mutation c.122-123ins15. Our study provides further evidence that the MED12 somatic mutations occur in a heterozygous manner and are mostly missense mutations in codon 44. The results displayed 47.8% mutation positive lesions in Iranian patients confirming the diversity between the populations. PMID:26396919

  15. An Oncogenic Super-Enhancer Formed Through Somatic Mutation of a Noncoding Intergenic Element

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Marc R.; Abraham, Brian J; Anders, Lars; Berezovskaya, Alla; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Durbin, Adam D; Etchin, Julia; Lawton, Lee; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Loh, Mignon L.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Sanda, Takaomi; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In certain human cancers, the expression of critical oncogenes is driven from large regulatory elements, called super-enhancers, which recruit much of the cell’s transcriptional apparatus and are defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac). In a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, we found that heterozygous somatic mutations are acquired that introduce binding motifs for the MYB transcription factor in a precise noncoding site, which creates a super-enhancer upstream of the TAL1 oncogene. MYB binds to this new site and recruits it’s H3K27 acetylase binding partner CBP, as well as core components of a major leukemogenic transcriptional complex that contains RUNX1, GATA-3, and TAL1 itself. Additionally, most endogenous super-enhancers found in T-ALL cells are occupied by MYB and CBP, suggesting a general role for MYB in super-enhancer initiation. Thus, this study identifies a genetic mechanism responsible for the generation of oncogenic super-enhancers in malignant cells. PMID:25394790

  16. Somatic mosaicism and the phenotypic expression of COL2A1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, Sonali; Richards, Allan J; McNinch, Annie; Sandford, Richard N; Snead, Martin P

    2012-05-01

    Mutations in COL2A1, the gene for type II-collagen, can result in a wide variety of phenotypes depending upon the nature of the mutation. Dominant negative mutations tend to result in severe and often lethal skeletal dysplasias such as achondrogenesis type 2, Kniest dysplasia, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. Stickler syndrome, a condition characterized by ophthalmological and orofacial features, deafness and arthritis, usually, but not exclusively, results from haploinsufficiency. Overlapping features of all these disorders can also be seen in the same family. Rare reports have demonstrated that phenotypic variability can be explained in some families by somatic mosaicism. Here, we describe five further examples of somatic mosaicism of COL2A1 mutations illustrating the importance of detailed clinical evaluation and molecular testing even in clinically normal parents of affected individuals.

  17. Likelihood models of somatic mutation and codon substitution in cancer genes.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ziheng; Ro, Simon; Rannala, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The role of somatic mutation in cancer is well established and several genes have been identified that are frequent targets. This has enabled large-scale screening studies of the spectrum of somatic mutations in cancers of particular organs. Cancer gene mutation databases compile the results of many studies and can provide insight into the importance of specific amino acid sequences and functional domains in cancer, as well as elucidate aspects of the mutation process. Past studies of the spectrum of cancer mutations (in particular genes) have examined overall frequencies of mutation (at specific nucleotides) and of missense, nonsense, and silent substitution (at specific codons) both in the sequence as a whole and in a specific functional domain. Existing methods ignore features of the genetic code that allow some codons to mutate to missense, or stop, codons more readily than others (i.e., by one nucleotide change, vs. two or three). A new codon-based method to estimate the relative rate of substitution (fixation of a somatic mutation in a cancer cell lineage) of nonsense vs. missense mutations in different functional domains and in different tumor tissues is presented. Models that account for several potential influences on rates of somatic mutation and substitution in cancer progenitor cells and allow biases of mutation rates for particular dinucleotide sequences (CGs and dipyrimidines), transition vs. transversion bias, and variable rates of silent substitution across functional domains (useful in detecting investigator sampling bias) are considered. Likelihood-ratio tests are used to choose among models, using cancer gene mutation data. The method is applied to analyze published data on the spectrum of p53 mutations in cancers. A novel finding is that the ratio of the probability of nonsense to missense substitution is much lower in the DNA-binding and transactivation domains (ratios near 1) than in structural domains such as the linker, tetramerization

  18. Low Prevalence of Somatic TERT Promoter Mutations in Classic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Sim, Soyoung; Lim, Seonhee; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-03-01

    Transcriptional activating mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are associated with more aggressive thyroid cancer. We evaluated the significance of TERT promoter mutations in Korean patients with classic papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Genomic DNA was isolated from four thyroid cancer cell lines and 35 fresh-frozen PTC tissues. TERT promoter mutations (C228T and C250T) and the BRAF V600E mutation were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. The CC228229TT mutation in the TERT promoter was detected in BCPAP cells and the C250T mutation was found in 8505C cells. No TERT promoter mutation was observed in Cal-62 or ML-1 cells. The C228T mutation was found in only 1 of 35 (2.8%) PTCs and no C250T mutations were detected in any of the study subjects. The BRAF V600E mutation was found in 20 of 35 (57.1%) PTCs. One patient with the C228T TERT mutation also harbored the BRAF V600E mutation and developed a recurrence. The prevalence of somatic TERT promoter mutations was low in Korean patients with classic PTC. Therefore, the prognostic role of TERT promoter mutations might be limited in this patient cohort.

  19. A somatic GNA11 mutation is associated with extremity capillary malformation and overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Couto, Javier A; Ayturk, Ugur M; Konczyk, Dennis J; Goss, Jeremy A; Huang, August Y; Hann, Steve; Reeve, Jennifer L; Liang, Marilyn G; Bischoff, Joyce; Warman, Matthew L; Greene, Arin K

    2017-08-01

    Capillary malformation is a cutaneous vascular anomaly that is present at birth, darkens over time, and can cause overgrowth of tissues beneath the stain. The lesion is caused by a somatic activating mutation in GNAQ. In a previous study, we were unable to identify a GNAQ mutation in patients with a capillary malformation involving an overgrown lower extremity. We hypothesized that mutations in GNA11 or GNA14, genes closely related to GNAQ, also may cause capillary malformations. Human capillary malformation tissue obtained from 8 patients that had tested negative for GNAQ mutations were studied. Lesions involved an extremity (n = 7) or trunk (n = 1). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to detect GNA11 or GNA14 mutant cells (p.Arg183) in the specimens. Single molecule molecular inversion probe sequencing (smMIP-seq) was performed to search for other mutations in GNA11. Mutations were validated by subcloning and sequencing amplimers. We found a somatic GNA11 missense mutation (c.547C > T; p.Arg183Cys) in 3 patients with a diffuse capillary malformation of an extremity. Mutant allelic frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 5.0%. GNA11 or GNA14 mutations were not found in 5 affected tissues or in unaffected tissues (white blood cell DNA). GNA11 mutations are associated with extremity capillary malformations causing overgrowth. Pharmacotherapy that affects GNA11 signaling may prevent the progression of capillary malformations.

  20. Somatic mutations of caspase-2 gene in gastric and colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Ho Shik; Jeong, Eun Goo; Soung, Young Hwa; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2011-10-15

    There is mounting evidence that evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Caspase-2, which plays roles in both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, is considered a candidate tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that genetic alterations of caspase-2 gene are present in human cancers. In this study, we analyzed the entire coding sequences of human caspase-2 gene for the detection of somatic point mutations in 90 gastric carcinomas and 100 colorectal carcinomas by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Of the cancers analyzed, two gastric cancers (2/90; 2.2%) and two colorectal cancers (2/100; 2.0%) harbored somatic missense mutations of caspase-2. The mutations consisted of p.V46M (at prodomain), p.S157L (at prodomain), p.R357K (at p13 subunit), and p.R397L (at p13 subunit). We expressed these tumor-derived mutants in 293 T cells and found that three of the mutants decreased cell death activity of caspase-2. Our data indicate that somatic mutation of caspase-2 is rare in gastric and colorectal carcinomas. However, functional data of the caspase-2 mutations also suggest that caspase-2 gene mutation might affect the pathogenesis of some gastric and colorectal cancers by inactivating cell death function of caspase-2. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Profiling of Somatic Mutations in Phaeochromocytoma and Paraganglioma by Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Diana; Irving, Richard; Sanna, Mario; Yao, Masahiro; Robledo, Mercedes; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.; Woodward, Emma R.; Latif, Farida; Abbs, Stephen; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2015-01-01

    At least 12 genes (FH, HIF2A, MAX, NF1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL) have been implicated in inherited predisposition to phaeochromocytoma (PCC), paraganglioma (PGL), or head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) and a germline mutation may be detected in more than 30% of cases. Knowledge of somatic mutations contributing to PCC/PGL/HNPGL pathogenesis has received less attention though mutations in HRAS, HIF2A, NF1, RET, and VHL have been reported. To further elucidate the role of somatic mutation in PCC/PGL/HNPGL tumourigenesis, we employed a next generation sequencing strategy to analyse “mutation hotspots” in 50 human cancer genes. Mutations were identified for HRAS (c.37G>C; p.G13R and c.182A>G; p.Q61R) in 7.1% (6/85); for BRAF (c.1799T>A; p.V600E) in 1.2% (1/85) of tumours; and for TP53 (c.1010G>A; p.R337H) in 2.35% (2/85) of cases. Twenty-one tumours harboured mutations in inherited PCC/PGL/HNPGL genes and no HRAS, BRAF, or TP53 mutations occurred in this group. Combining our data with previous reports of HRAS mutations in PCC/PGL we find that the mean frequency of HRAS/BRAF mutations in sporadic PCC/PGL is 8.9% (24/269) and in PCC/PGL with an inherited gene mutation 0% (0/148) suggesting that HRAS/BRAF mutations and inherited PCC/PGL genes mutations might be mutually exclusive. We report the first evidence for BRAF mutations in the pathogenesis of PCC/PGL/HNPGL. PMID:25883647

  2. MDS-associated somatic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis are common in idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Brian; Hall, Jeff M; Witte, John S; Xu, Yin; Reddy, Prashanti; Lin, Keming; Flamholz, Rachel; Dabbas, Bashar; Yung, Aine; Al-Hafidh, Jenan; Balmert, Emily; Vaupel, Christine; El Hader, Carlos; McGinniss, Matthew J; Nahas, Shareef A; Kines, Julie; Bejar, Rafael

    2015-11-19

    Establishing a diagnosis in patients suspected of having a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be challenging and could be informed by the identification of somatic mutations. We performed a prospective study to examine the frequency and types of mutations encountered in 144 patients with unexplained cytopenias. Based on bone marrow findings, 17% were diagnosed with MDS, 15% with idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS) and some evidence of dysplasia, and 69% with ICUS and no dysplasia. Bone marrow DNA was sequenced for mutations in 22 frequently mutated myeloid malignancy genes. Somatic mutations were identified in 71% of MDS patients, 62% of patients with ICUS and some dysplasia, and 20% of ICUS patients and no dysplasia. In total, 35% of ICUS patients carried a somatic mutation or chromosomal abnormality indicative of clonal hematopoiesis. We validated these results in a cohort of 91 lower-risk MDS and 249 ICUS cases identified over a 6-month interval. Mutations were found in 79% of those with MDS, in 45% of those with ICUS with dysplasia, and in 17% of those with ICUS without dysplasia. The spectrum of mutated genes was similar with the exception of SF3B1 which was rarely mutated in patients without dysplasia. Variant allele fractions were comparable between clonal ICUS (CCUS) and MDS as were mean age and blood counts. We demonstrate that CCUS is a more frequent diagnosis than MDS in cytopenic patients. Clinical and mutational features are similar in these groups and may have diagnostic utility once outcomes in CCUS patients are better understood.

  3. MDS-associated somatic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis are common in idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Brian; Hall, Jeff M.; Witte, John S.; Xu, Yin; Reddy, Prashanti; Lin, Keming; Flamholz, Rachel; Dabbas, Bashar; Yung, Aine; Al-Hafidh, Jenan; Balmert, Emily; Vaupel, Christine; El Hader, Carlos; McGinniss, Matthew J.; Nahas, Shareef A.; Kines, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a diagnosis in patients suspected of having a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be challenging and could be informed by the identification of somatic mutations. We performed a prospective study to examine the frequency and types of mutations encountered in 144 patients with unexplained cytopenias. Based on bone marrow findings, 17% were diagnosed with MDS, 15% with idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS) and some evidence of dysplasia, and 69% with ICUS and no dysplasia. Bone marrow DNA was sequenced for mutations in 22 frequently mutated myeloid malignancy genes. Somatic mutations were identified in 71% of MDS patients, 62% of patients with ICUS and some dysplasia, and 20% of ICUS patients and no dysplasia. In total, 35% of ICUS patients carried a somatic mutation or chromosomal abnormality indicative of clonal hematopoiesis. We validated these results in a cohort of 91 lower-risk MDS and 249 ICUS cases identified over a 6-month interval. Mutations were found in 79% of those with MDS, in 45% of those with ICUS with dysplasia, and in 17% of those with ICUS without dysplasia. The spectrum of mutated genes was similar with the exception of SF3B1 which was rarely mutated in patients without dysplasia. Variant allele fractions were comparable between clonal ICUS (CCUS) and MDS as were mean age and blood counts. We demonstrate that CCUS is a more frequent diagnosis than MDS in cytopenic patients. Clinical and mutational features are similar in these groups and may have diagnostic utility once outcomes in CCUS patients are better understood. PMID:26429975

  4. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale. PMID:26288819

  5. Exome sequencing identifies highly recurrent MED12 somatic mutations in breast fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Weng Khong; Ong, Choon Kiat; Tan, Jing; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Ooi, Wei Siong; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

    2014-08-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common breast tumors in women under 30 (refs. 1,2). Exome sequencing of eight fibroadenomas with matching whole-blood samples revealed recurrent somatic mutations solely in MED12, which encodes a Mediator complex subunit. Targeted sequencing of an additional 90 fibroadenomas confirmed highly frequent MED12 exon 2 mutations (58/98, 59%) that are probably somatic, with 71% of mutations occurring in codon 44. Using laser capture microdissection, we show that MED12 fibroadenoma mutations are present in stromal but not epithelial mammary cells. Expression profiling of MED12-mutated and wild-type fibroadenomas revealed that MED12 mutations are associated with dysregulated estrogen signaling and extracellular matrix organization. The fibroadenoma MED12 mutation spectrum is nearly identical to that of previously reported MED12 lesions in uterine leiomyoma but not those of other tumors. Benign tumors of the breast and uterus, both of which are key target tissues of estrogen, may thus share a common genetic basis underpinned by highly frequent and specific MED12 mutations.

  6. A novel somatic mutation achieves partial rescue in a child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Daniel Z; Arlt, Martin F; Brazier, Joan F; Norris, Wendy E; Campbell, Susan E; Chines, Peter; Larrieu, Delphine; Jackson, Stephen P; Collins, Francis S; Glover, Thomas W; Gordon, Leslie B

    2017-01-01

    Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a fatal sporadic autosomal dominant premature ageing disease caused by single base mutations that optimise a cryptic splice site within exon 11 of the LMNA gene. The resultant disease-causing protein, progerin, acts as a dominant negative. Disease severity relies partly on progerin levels. Methods and results We report a novel form of somatic mosaicism, where a child possessed two cell populations with different HGPS disease-producing mutations of the same nucleotide—one producing severe HGPS and one mild HGPS. The proband possessed an intermediate phenotype. The mosaicism was initially discovered when Sanger sequencing showed a c.1968+2T>A mutation in blood DNA and a c.1968+2T>C in DNA from cultured fibroblasts. Deep sequencing of DNA from the proband's blood revealed 4.7% c.1968+2T>C mutation, and 41.3% c.1968+2T>A mutation. Conclusions We hypothesise that the germline mutation was c.1968+2T>A, but a rescue event occurred during early development, where the somatic mutation from A to C at 1968+2 provided a selective advantage. This type of mosaicism where a partial phenotypic rescue event results from a second but milder disease-causing mutation in the same nucleotide has not been previously characterised for any disease. PMID:27920058

  7. Somatic FGFR and TWIST mutations are not a common cause of isolated nonsyndromic single suture craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Cox, Timothy C; Roscioli, Tony; Elakis, George; Smithers, Lisa; David, David J; Powell, Barry

    2007-03-01

    Pathogenic mutations in FGFR2 and TWIST genes are detected in the majority of individuals with Crouzon, Pfeiffer, Apert, and Saethre-Chotzen syndromes. In contrast, mutations have been identified rarely in cases of nonsyndromic, single suture craniosynostosis. Recently, two studies confirming somatic mosaicism with local expression of an FGFR mutation have been reported. This study investigates whether somatic mosaicism could account for nonsyndromic, single suture craniosynostosis. Eight individuals with single suture craniosynostosis who were negative for known mutations in FGFR1-3 and TWIST after screening in their leucocyte DNA were tested for the presence of pathogenic mutations in suture cell-derived DNA. Five had sagittal synostosis, two had metopic synostosis, and the other unicoronal synostosis. Osteoprogenitor cells from surgically excised fusing sutures and an adjacent open suture were cultured. DNA from the cultured cells grown to passage 3 was then examined for underlying FGFR and TWIST mutations. No mutations within the exons of the FGFR or TWIST genes studied were identified in any suture cells. This study found no evidence to support the notion that mosaicism for FGFR or TWIST mutations, normally associated with syndromal forms of craniosynostosis, occur in single suture craniosynostosis. Thus, any underlying genetic defects must occur in regions outside those normally implicated in syndromal craniosynostosis, or this disorder could arise as a consequence of some other epigenetic modification.

  8. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-06-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure-genomic mutation relationship at a large scale.

  9. Quantitative analysis of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations by single-cell single-molecule PCR.

    PubMed

    Kraytsberg, Yevgenya; Bodyak, Natalya; Myerow, Susan; Nicholas, Alexander; Ebralidze, Konstantin; Khrapko, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome integrity is an important issue in somatic mitochondrial genetics. Development of quantitative methods is indispensable to somatic mitochondrial genetics as quantitative studies are required to characterize heteroplasmy and mutation processes, as well as their effects on phenotypic developments. Quantitative studies include the identification and measurement of the load of pathogenic and non-pathogenic clonal mutations, screening mitochondrial genomes for mutations in order to determine the mutation spectra and characterize an ongoing mutation process. Single-molecule PCR (smPCR) has been shown to be an effective method that can be applied to all areas of quantitative studies. It has distinct advantages over conventional vector-based cloning techniques avoiding the well-known PCR-related artifacts such as the introduction of artificial mutations, preferential allelic amplifications, and "jumping" PCR. smPCR is a straightforward and robust method, which can be effectively used for molecule-by-molecule mutational analysis, even when mitochondrial whole genome (mtWG) analysis is involved. This chapter describes the key features of the smPCR method and provides three examples of its applications in single-cell analysis: di-plex smPCR for deletion quantification, smPCR cloning for clonal point mutation quantification, and smPCR cloning for whole genome sequencing (mtWGS).

  10. Polycythemia and paraganglioma with a novel somatic HIF2A mutation in a male.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hidemi; Hirayama, Jyunya; Sugimoto, Yuka; Uchida, Keiichi; Ohishi, Kohshi; Hirayama, Masahiro; Komada, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-01

    Recently, a new syndrome of paraganglioma, somatostatinoma, and polycythemia has been discovered (known as Pacak-Zhuang syndrome). This new syndrome, with somatic HIF2A gain-of-function mutations, has never been reported in male patients. We describe a male patient with Pacak-Zhuang syndrome who carries a newly discovered HIF2A mutation. Congenital polycythemias have diverse etiologies, including germline mutations in the oxygen-sensing pathway. These include von Hippel-Lindau (Chuvash polycythemia), prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein-2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α). Somatic gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding HIF-2α were reported in patients with paraganglioma and polycythemia and have been found exclusively in female patients. Through sequencing of the HIF2A using DNA from paraganglioma in 15-year-old male patient, we identified a novel mutation of HIF2A: a heterozygous C to A substitution at base 1589 in exon 12 of HIF2A. The mutation was not found in germline DNA from leukocytes. The C1589A mutations resulted in substitution of alanine 530 in the HIF-2α protein with glutamic acid. This mutation is undoubtedly associated with increased HIF-2α activity and increased protein half-life, because it affects the vicinity of the prolyl hydroxylase target residue, proline 531. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing Pacak-Zhuang syndrome with somatic gain-of-function mutation in HIF2A in a male patient. Congenital polycythemia of unknown origin should raise suspicion for the novel disorder Pacak-Zhuang syndrome, even in male patients.

  11. Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication.

  12. Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Provenzano, Elena; Malcovati, Luca; Cooper, Colin; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02935.001 PMID:25271376

  13. Pinot blanc and Pinot gris arose as independent somatic mutations of Pinot noir

    PubMed Central

    Vezzulli, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Somatic mutation is a natural mechanism which allows plant growers to develop new cultivars. As a source of variation within a uniform genetic background, it also represents an ideal tool for studying the genetic make-up of important traits and for establishing gene functions. Layer-specific molecular characterization of the Pinot family of grape cultivars was conducted to provide an evolutionary explanation for the somatic mutations that have affected the locus of berry colour. Through the study of the structural dynamics along chromosome 2, a very large deletion present in a single Pinot gris cell layer was identified and characterized. This mutation reveals that Pinot gris and Pinot blanc arose independently from the ancestral Pinot noir, suggesting a novel parallel evolutionary model. This proposed ‘Pinot-model’ represents a breakthrough towards the full understanding of the mechanisms behind the formation of white, grey, red, and pink grape cultivars, and eventually of their specific enological aptitude. PMID:23095995

  14. EZH2 is required for germinal center formation and somatic EZH2 mutations promote lymphoid transformation

    PubMed Central

    Béguelin, Wendy; Popovic, Relja; Teater, Matt; Jiang, Yanwen; Bunting, Karen L.; Rosen, Monica; Shen, Hao; Yang, Shao Ning; Wang, Ling; Ezponda, Teresa; Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Zhang, Haikuo; Zhang, Yupeng; Verma, Sharad K.; McCabe, Michael T.; Ott, Heidi M.; Van Aller, Glenn S.; Kruger, Ryan G.; Liu, Yan; McHugh, Charles F.; Scott, David W.; Chung, Young Rock; Kelleher, Neil; Shaknovich, Rita; Creasy, Caretha L.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Cerchietti, Leandro C.; Levine, Ross L.; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Licht, Jonathan D.; Elemento, Olivier; Melnick, Ari M.

    2013-01-01

    The EZH2 histone methyltransferase is highly expressed in germinal center (GC) B-cells and targeted by somatic mutations in B-cell lymphomas. Here we find that EZH2 deletion or pharmacologic inhibition suppresses GC formation and functions in mice. EZH2 represses proliferation checkpoint genes and helps establish bivalent chromatin domains at key regulatory loci to transiently suppress GC B-cell differentiation. Somatic mutations reinforce these physiological effects through enhanced silencing of EZH2 targets in B-cells, and in human B-cell lymphomas. Conditional expression of mutant EZH2 in mice induces GC hyperplasia and accelerated lymphomagenesis in cooperation with BCL2. GCB-type DLBCLs are mostly addicted to EZH2, regardless of mutation status, but not the more differentiated ABC-type DLBCLs, thus clarifying the therapeutic scope of EZH2 targeting. PMID:23680150

  15. Identification of Mutations that Delay Somatic or Reproductive Aging of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Stacie E.; Huang, Cheng; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Aging is an important feature of animal biology characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in somatic and reproductive tissues. The rate of age-related degeneration is genetically controlled, since genes that influence lifespan have been identified. However, little is known about genes that affect reproductive aging or aging of specific somatic tissues. To identify genes that are important for controlling these degenerative changes, we used chemical mutagenesis to perform forward genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans. By conducting a screen focused on somatic aging, we identified mutant hermaphrodites that displayed extended periods of pharyngeal pumping, body movement, or survival. One of these mutations is a novel allele of the age-1 gene. age-1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) that functions in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. age-1(am88) creates a missense change in the conserved PIK domain and causes dramatic extensions of the pharyngeal pumping and body movement spans, as well as a twofold extension of the lifespan. By conducting screens focused on reproductive aging in mated hermaphrodites, we identified mutants that displayed increased progeny production late in life. To characterize these mutations, we developed quantitative measurements of age-related morphological changes in the gonad. The am117 mutation delayed age-related declines in progeny production and morphological changes in the gonad. These studies provide new insights into the genetic regulation of age-related degenerative changes in somatic and reproductive tissues. PMID:21750263

  16. Germline and somatic mutations in homologous recombination genes predict platinum response and survival in ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Kathryn P; Walsh, Tom; Harrell, Maria I; Lee, Ming K; Pennil, Christopher C; Rendi, Mara H; Thornton, Anne; Norquist, Barbara M; Casadei, Silvia; Nord, Alexander S; Agnew, Kathy J; Pritchard, Colin C; Scroggins, Sheena; Garcia, Rochelle L; King, Mary-Claire; Swisher, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Hallmarks of germline BRCA1/2-associated ovarian carcinomas include chemosensitivity and improved survival. The therapeutic impact of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination DNA repair genes is uncertain. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we assessed 390 ovarian carcinomas for germline and somatic loss-of-function mutations in 30 genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and 11 other genes in the homologous recombination pathway. Thirty-one percent of ovarian carcinomas had a deleterious germline (24%) and/or somatic (9%) mutation in one or more of the 13 homologous recombination genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK1, CHEK2, FAM175A, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D. Nonserous ovarian carcinomas had similar rates of homologous recombination mutations to serous carcinomas (28% vs. 31%, P = 0.6), including clear cell, endometrioid, and carcinosarcoma. The presence of germline and somatic homologous recombination mutations was highly predictive of primary platinum sensitivity (P = 0.0002) and improved overall survival (P = 0.0006), with a median overall survival of 66 months in germline homologous recombination mutation carriers, 59 months in cases with a somatic homologous recombination mutation, and 41 months for cases without a homologous recombination mutation. Germline or somatic mutations in homologous recombination genes are present in almost one third of ovarian carcinomas, including both serous and nonserous histologies. Somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination genes have a similar positive impact on overall survival and platinum responsiveness as germline BRCA1/2 mutations. The similar rate of homologous recombination mutations in nonserous carcinomas supports their inclusion in PARP inhibitor clinical trials. ©2013 AACR.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of bladder cancers reveals somatic CDKN1A mutations and clinicopathological associations with mutation burden.

    PubMed

    Cazier, J-B; Rao, S R; McLean, C M; Walker, A K; Walker, A L; Wright, B J; Jaeger, E E M; Kartsonaki, C; Marsden, L; Yau, C; Camps, C; Kaisaki, P; Taylor, J; Catto, J W; Tomlinson, I P M; Kiltie, A E; Hamdy, F C

    2014-04-29

    Bladder cancers are a leading cause of death from malignancy. Molecular markers might predict disease progression and behaviour more accurately than the available prognostic factors. Here we use whole-genome sequencing to identify somatic mutations and chromosomal changes in 14 bladder cancers of different grades and stages. As well as detecting the known bladder cancer driver mutations, we report the identification of recurrent protein-inactivating mutations in CDKN1A and FAT1. The former are not mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations or MDM2 amplification, showing that CDKN1A dysfunction is not simply an alternative mechanism for p53 pathway inactivation. We find strong positive associations between higher tumour stage/grade and greater clonal diversity, the number of somatic mutations and the burden of copy number changes. In principle, the identification of sub-clones with greater diversity and/or mutation burden within early-stage or low-grade tumours could identify lesions with a high risk of invasive progression.

  18. A comprehensive catalogue of somatic mutations in cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2010-04-04

    This Hot Topics contribution considers two recently published papers that demonstrate the utility of advanced DNA sequencing technologies for identifying classes of mutations other than base substitutions. Data are presented from genome analyses of immortalized cell lines derived from a malignant melanoma and a small cell carcinoma of the lung. Among other observations the studies suggest the operation of novel DNA repair mechanisms or modes. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute myeloid leukemia ontogeny is defined by distinct somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, R. Coleman; Mar, Brenton G.; Mazzola, Emanuele; Grauman, Peter V.; Shareef, Sarah; Allen, Steven L.; Pigneux, Arnaud; Wetzler, Meir; Stuart, Robert K.; Erba, Harry P.; Damon, Lloyd E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Lindeman, Neal; Steensma, David P.; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Neuberg, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can develop after an antecedent myeloid malignancy (secondary AML [s-AML]), after leukemogenic therapy (therapy-related AML [t-AML]), or without an identifiable prodrome or known exposure (de novo AML). The genetic basis of these distinct pathways of AML development has not been determined. We performed targeted mutational analysis of 194 patients with rigorously defined s-AML or t-AML and 105 unselected AML patients. The presence of a mutation in SRSF2, SF3B1, U2AF1, ZRSR2, ASXL1, EZH2, BCOR, or STAG2 was >95% specific for the diagnosis of s-AML. Analysis of serial samples from individual patients revealed that these mutations occur early in leukemogenesis and often persist in clonal remissions. In t-AML and elderly de novo AML populations, these alterations define a distinct genetic subtype that shares clinicopathologic properties with clinically confirmed s-AML and highlights a subset of patients with worse clinical outcomes, including a lower complete remission rate, more frequent reinduction, and decreased event-free survival. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00715637. PMID:25550361

  20. Somatic mutation profiles of clear cell endometrial tumors revealed by whole exome and targeted gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Le Gallo, Matthieu; Rudd, Meghan L; Urick, Mary Ellen; Hansen, Nancy F; Zhang, Suiyuan; Lozy, Fred; Sgroi, Dennis C; Vidal Bel, August; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Broaddus, Russell R; Lu, Karen H; Levine, Douglas A; Mutch, David G; Goodfellow, Paul J; Salvesen, Helga B; Mullikin, James C; Bell, Daphne W

    2017-09-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of clear cell endometrial cancer (CCEC), a tumor type with a relatively unfavorable prognosis, is not well defined. We searched exome-wide for novel somatically mutated genes in CCEC and assessed the mutational spectrum of known and candidate driver genes in a large cohort of cases. We conducted whole exome sequencing of paired tumor-normal DNAs from 16 cases of CCEC (12 CCECs and the CCEC components of 4 mixed histology tumors). Twenty-two genes-of-interest were Sanger-sequenced from another 47 cases of CCEC. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and microsatellite stability (MSS) were determined by genotyping 5 mononucleotide repeats. Two tumor exomes had relatively high mutational loads and MSI. The other 14 tumor exomes were MSS and had 236 validated nonsynonymous or splice junction somatic mutations among 222 protein-encoding genes. Among the 63 cases of CCEC in this study, we identified frequent somatic mutations in TP53 (39.7%), PIK3CA (23.8%), PIK3R1 (15.9%), ARID1A (15.9%), PPP2R1A (15.9%), SPOP (14.3%), and TAF1 (9.5%), as well as MSI (11.3%). Five of 8 mutations in TAF1, a gene with no known role in CCEC, localized to the putative histone acetyltransferase domain and included 2 recurrently mutated residues. Based on patterns of MSI and mutations in 7 genes, CCEC subsets molecularly resembled serous endometrial cancer (SEC) or endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC). Our findings demonstrate molecular similarities between CCEC and SEC and EEC and implicate TAF1 as a novel candidate CCEC driver gene. Cancer 2017;123:3261-8. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. A spatial simulation approach to account for protein structure when identifying non-random somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current research suggests that a small set of “driver” mutations are responsible for tumorigenesis while a larger body of “passenger” mutations occur in the tumor but do not progress the disease. Due to recent pharmacological successes in treating cancers caused by driver mutations, a variety of methodologies that attempt to identify such mutations have been developed. Based on the hypothesis that driver mutations tend to cluster in key regions of the protein, the development of cluster identification algorithms has become critical. Results We have developed a novel methodology, SpacePAC (Spatial Protein Amino acid Clustering), that identifies mutational clustering by considering the protein tertiary structure directly in 3D space. By combining the mutational data in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and the spatial information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), SpacePAC is able to identify novel mutation clusters in many proteins such as FGFR3 and CHRM2. In addition, SpacePAC is better able to localize the most significant mutational hotspots as demonstrated in the cases of BRAF and ALK. The R package is available on Bioconductor at: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/SpacePAC.html. Conclusion SpacePAC adds a valuable tool to the identification of mutational clusters while considering protein tertiary structure. PMID:24990767

  2. Protein Domain-Level Landscape of Cancer-Type-Specific Somatic Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Rolland, Thomas; Hill, David E.; Vidal, Marc; Roth, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying driver mutations and their functional consequences is critical to our understanding of cancer. Towards this goal, and because domains are the functional units of a protein, we explored the protein domain-level landscape of cancer-type-specific somatic mutations. Specifically, we systematically examined tumor genomes from 21 cancer types to identify domains with high mutational density in specific tissues, the positions of mutational hotspots within these domains, and the functional and structural context where possible. While hotspots corresponding to specific gain-of-function mutations are expected for oncoproteins, we found that tumor suppressor proteins also exhibit strong biases toward being mutated in particular domains. Within domains, however, we observed the expected patterns of mutation, with recurrently mutated positions for oncogenes and evenly distributed mutations for tumor suppressors. For example, we identified both known and new endometrial cancer hotspots in the tyrosine kinase domain of the FGFR2 protein, one of which is also a hotspot in breast cancer, and found new two hotspots in the Immunoglobulin I-set domain in colon cancer. Thus, to prioritize cancer mutations for further functional studies aimed at more precise cancer treatments, we have systematically correlated mutations and cancer types at the protein domain level. PMID:25794154

  3. Suppression of different classes of somatic mutations in Arabidopsis by vir gene-expressing Agrobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jasmine M; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Singh, Amit Kumar; Ramachandran, Subalakshmi; Unniyampurath, Unnikrishnan; Jayshankar, Ajitha; Balasundaram, Nithya; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Hyde, Geoff; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-08-26

    Agrobacterium infection, which is widely used to generate transgenic plants, is often accompanied by T-DNA-linked mutations and transpositions in flowering plants. It is not known if Agrobacterium infection also affects the rates of point mutations, somatic homologous recombinations (SHR) and frame-shift mutations (FSM). We examined the effects of Agrobacterium infection on five types of somatic mutations using a set of mutation detector lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. To verify the effect of secreted factors, we exposed the plants to different Agrobacterium strains, including wild type (Ach5), its derivatives lacking vir genes, oncogenes or T-DNA, and the heat-killed form for 48 h post-infection; also, for a smaller set of strains, we examined the rates of three types of mutations at multiple time-points. The mutation detector lines carried a non-functional β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and a reversion of mutated GUS to its functional form resulted in blue spots. Based on the number of blue spots visible in plants grown for a further two weeks, we estimated the mutation frequencies. For plants co-cultivated for 48 h with Agrobacterium, if the strain contained vir genes, then the rates of transversions, SHRs and FSMs (measured 2 weeks later) were lower than those of uninfected controls. In contrast, co-cultivation for 48 h with any of the Agrobacterium strains raised the transposition rates above control levels. The multiple time-point study showed that in seedlings co-cultivated with wild type Ach5, the reduced rates of transversions and SHRs after 48 h co-cultivation represent an apparent suppression of an earlier short-lived increase in mutation rates (peaking for plants co-cultivated for 3 h). An increase after 3 h co-cultivation was also seen for rates of transversions (but not SHR) in seedlings exposed to the strain lacking vir genes, oncogenes and T-DNA. However, the mutation rates in plants co-cultivated for longer times with this strain subsequently

  4. Age-associated alterations in the somatic mutation and DNA methylation levels in plants.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, A S; Kiselev, K V

    2016-03-01

    Somatic mutations of the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and alterations in DNA methylation levels in mammals are well known to play important roles in ageing and various diseases, yet their specific contributions await further investigation. For plants, it has also been proposed that unrepaired DNA damage and DNA polymerase errors accumulate in plant cells and lead to increased somatic mutation rate and alterations in transcription, which eventually contribute to plant ageing. A number of studies also show that DNA methylation levels vary depending on the age of plant tissue and chronological age of a whole plant. Recent studies reveal that prolonged cultivation of plant cells in vitro induces single nucleotide substitutions and increases global DNA methylation level in a time-dependent fashion. Changes in DNA methylation are known to influence DNA repair and can lead to altered mutation rates, and, therefore, it is interesting to investigate both the genetic and epigenetic integrity in relationship to ageing in plants. This review will summarise and discuss the current studies investigating somatic DNA mutation and DNA methylation levels in relation to plant ageing and senescence. The analysis has shown that there still remains a lack of clarity concerning plant biological ageing and the role of the genetic and epigenetic instabilities in this process.

  5. Utilizing somatic mutation data from numerous studies for cancer research: proof of concept and applications.

    PubMed

    Amar, D; Izraeli, S; Shamir, R

    2017-06-15

    Large cancer projects measure somatic mutations in thousands of samples, gradually assembling a catalog of recurring mutations in cancer. Many methods analyze these data jointly with auxiliary information with the aim of identifying subtype-specific results. Here, we show that somatic gene mutations alone can reliably and specifically predict cancer subtypes. Interpretation of the classifiers provides useful insights for several biomedical applications. We analyze the COSMIC database, which collects somatic mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as well as from many smaller scale studies. We use multi-label classification techniques and the Disease Ontology hierarchy in order to identify cancer subtype-specific biomarkers. Cancer subtype classifiers based on TCGA and the smaller studies have comparable performance, and the smaller studies add a substantial value in terms of validation, coverage of additional subtypes, and improved classification. The gene sets of the classifiers are used for threefold contribution. First, we refine the associations of genes to cancer subtypes and identify novel compelling candidate driver genes. Second, using our classifiers we successfully predict the primary site of metastatic samples. Third, we provide novel hypotheses regarding detection of subtype-specific synthetic lethality interactions. From the cancer research community perspective, our results suggest that curation efforts, such as COSMIC, have great added and complementary value even in the era of large international cancer projects.

  6. A hypermutation phenotype and somatic MSH6 mutations in recurrent human malignant gliomas after alkylator chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chris; Smith, Raffaella; Cahill, Daniel P; Stephens, Philip; Stevens, Claire; Teague, Jon; Greenman, Chris; Edkins, Sarah; Bignell, Graham; Davies, Helen; O'Meara, Sarah; Parker, Adrian; Avis, Tim; Barthorpe, Syd; Brackenbury, Lisa; Buck, Gemma; Butler, Adam; Clements, Jody; Cole, Jennifer; Dicks, Ed; Forbes, Simon; Gorton, Matthew; Gray, Kristian; Halliday, Kelly; Harrison, Rachel; Hills, Katy; Hinton, Jonathon; Jenkinson, Andy; Jones, David; Kosmidou, Vivienne; Laman, Ross; Lugg, Richard; Menzies, Andrew; Perry, Janet; Petty, Robert; Raine, Keiran; Richardson, David; Shepherd, Rebecca; Small, Alexandra; Solomon, Helen; Tofts, Calli; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Yates, Andy; Easton, Douglas F; Riggins, Gregory; Roy, Jennifer E; Levine, Kymberly K; Mueller, Wolf; Batchelor, Tracy T; Louis, David N; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Wooster, Richard

    2006-04-15

    Malignant gliomas have a very poor prognosis. The current standard of care for these cancers consists of extended adjuvant treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Although a statistically significant increase in survival has been reported with this regimen, nearly all gliomas recur and become insensitive to further treatment with this class of agents. We sequenced 500 kb of genomic DNA corresponding to the kinase domains of 518 protein kinases in each of nine gliomas. Large numbers of somatic mutations were observed in two gliomas recurrent after alkylating agent treatment. The pattern of mutations in these cases showed strong similarity to that induced by alkylating agents in experimental systems. Further investigation revealed inactivating somatic mutations of the mismatch repair gene MSH6 in each case. We propose that inactivating somatic mutations of MSH6 confer resistance to alkylating agents in gliomas in vivo and concurrently unleash accelerated mutagenesis in resistant clones as a consequence of continued exposure to alkylating agents in the presence of defective mismatch repair. The evidence therefore suggests that when MSH6 is inactivated in gliomas, alkylating agents convert from induction of tumor cell death to promotion of neoplastic progression. These observations highlight the potential of large scale sequencing for revealing and elucidating mutagenic processes operative in individual human cancers.

  7. Somatic mutation/neodifferentiation/selection and the origins of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Lower, G M

    1981-09-01

    For some time, there has been a confusing and often frustrating difference of opinion amongst molecular pathologists and biologists regarding the relative involvement of somatic mutation vs. altered differentiation (neodifferentiation) in human carcinogenesis. This distinction, however, has led to opposing biological viewpoints which have a found alignment with opposing political viewpoints. While this distinction may have historical rationale, it has little biological basis, and it is possible to construct an integrative viewpoint which reconciles the "very different points of view and styles of argument" resulting from its use. The general evidence available suggests that most human epithelial cancers are caused by chemicals and radiations capable of inducing local mutations in regulatory sequences of genomic DNA, leading, perhaps through genetic transposition, to a mis-programming of natural genomic information expression. In this viewpoint, somatic mutation and altered differentiation are not mutually exclusive mechanisms as often implied, but, in all likelihood, are temporally related mechanisms; and human cancer thus becomes fundamentally a disease of cellular differentiation caused by somatic mutations.

  8. Somatic mutations and progressive monosomy modify SAMD9-related phenotypes in humans

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Federica; Kühnen, Peter; Suntharalingham, Jenifer P.; Del Valle, Ignacio; Digweed, Martin; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Didi, Mohammed; Brady, Angela F.; Procter, Annie M.; Dimitri, Paul; Wales, Jerry K.H.; Ghirri, Paolo; Knöbl, Dieter; Strahm, Brigitte; Erlacher, Miriam; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Chen, Wei; Kokai, George K.; Anderson, Glenn; Morrogh, Deborah; Moulding, Dale A.; McKee, Shane A.; Niemeyer, Charlotte M.; Grüters, Annette; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that somatic genomic changes can influence phenotypes in cancer, but the role of adaptive changes in developmental disorders is less well understood. Here we have used next-generation sequencing approaches to identify de novo heterozygous mutations in sterile α motif domain–containing protein 9 (SAMD9, located on chromosome 7q21.2) in 8 children with a multisystem disorder termed MIRAGE syndrome that is characterized by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with gonadal, adrenal, and bone marrow failure, predisposition to infections, and high mortality. These mutations result in gain of function of the growth repressor product SAMD9. Progressive loss of mutated SAMD9 through the development of monosomy 7 (–7), deletions of 7q (7q–), and secondary somatic loss-of-function (nonsense and frameshift) mutations in SAMD9 rescued the growth-restricting effects of mutant SAMD9 proteins in bone marrow and was associated with increased length of survival. However, 2 patients with –7 and 7q– developed myelodysplastic syndrome, most likely due to haploinsufficiency of related 7q21.2 genes. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that progressive somatic changes can occur in specific tissues and can subsequently modify disease phenotype and influence survival. Such tissue-specific adaptability may be a more common mechanism modifying the expression of human genetic conditions than is currently recognized. PMID:28346228

  9. Multiple endpoints for somatic mutations in humans provide complementary views for biodosimetry, genotoxicity, and health risks

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Langlois, R.G.

    1989-07-24

    There are now four somatic cell mutation assays that are being used to determine in vivo mutagenesis in humans. Each assay is identified by an acronym that specifies the protein in which mutations are determined: HPRT assay, GPA assay, HLA assay, and Hb assay. Potentially, each assay can be used for either of two important applications; biodosimetry or cancer risk estimation. Biodosimetry is a means for determining the amount of exposure of an individual to a toxic agent by measuring the biological effect on the individual who was exposed. Based on the observation that many toxic chemicals and ionizing radiation are mutagenic to cells in culture and also to animals, the somatic mutation assays also should serve as biodosimeters for exposure of humans to these genotoxic phenomena. These four somatic mutation assays should contribute to the possibility of estimating each individual's risk of developing cancer by monitoring for the presence of genotoxicity events similar to cancer initiation events or cancer promotion events on suppressor genes. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Therapeutic potential of somatic cell nuclear transfer for degenerative disease caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Greggains, Gareth D.; Lister, Lisa M.; Tuppen, Helen A. L.; Zhang, Qi; Needham, Louise H.; Prathalingam, Nilendran; Hyslop, Louise A.; Craven, Lyndsey; Polanski, Zbigniew; Murdoch, Alison P.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Herbert, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold much promise in the quest for personalised cell therapies. However, the persistence of founder cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations limits the potential of iPSCs in the development of treatments for mtDNA disease. This problem may be overcome by using oocytes containing healthy mtDNA, to induce somatic cell nuclear reprogramming. However, the extent to which somatic cell mtDNA persists following fusion with human oocytes is unknown. Here we show that human nuclear transfer (NT) embryos contain very low levels of somatic cell mtDNA. In light of a recent report that embryonic stem cells can be derived from human NT embryos, our results highlight the therapeutic potential of NT for mtDNA disease, and underscore the importance of using human oocytes to pursue this goal. PMID:24457623

  11. DeepGene: an advanced cancer type classifier based on deep learning and somatic point mutations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuchen; Shi, Yi; Li, Changyang; Kim, Jinman; Cai, Weidong; Han, Zeguang; Feng, David Dagan

    2016-12-23

    With the developments of DNA sequencing technology, large amounts of sequencing data have become available in recent years and provide unprecedented opportunities for advanced association studies between somatic point mutations and cancer types/subtypes, which may contribute to more accurate somatic point mutation based cancer classification (SMCC). However in existing SMCC methods, issues like high data sparsity, small volume of sample size, and the application of simple linear classifiers, are major obstacles in improving the classification performance. To address the obstacles in existing SMCC studies, we propose DeepGene, an advanced deep neural network (DNN) based classifier, that consists of three steps: firstly, the clustered gene filtering (CGF) concentrates the gene data by mutation occurrence frequency, filtering out the majority of irrelevant genes; secondly, the indexed sparsity reduction (ISR) converts the gene data into indexes of its non-zero elements, thereby significantly suppressing the impact of data sparsity; finally, the data after CGF and ISR is fed into a DNN classifier, which extracts high-level features for accurate classification. Experimental results on our curated TCGA-DeepGene dataset, which is a reformulated subset of the TCGA dataset containing 12 selected types of cancer, show that CGF, ISR and DNN all contribute in improving the overall classification performance. We further compare DeepGene with three widely adopted classifiers and demonstrate that DeepGene has at least 24% performance improvement in terms of testing accuracy. Based on deep learning and somatic point mutation data, we devise DeepGene, an advanced cancer type classifier, which addresses the obstacles in existing SMCC studies. Experiments indicate that DeepGene outperforms three widely adopted existing classifiers, which is mainly attributed to its deep learning module that is able to extract the high level features between combinatorial somatic point mutations and

  12. Identification of somatically acquired rearrangements in cancer using genome-wide massively parallel paired-end sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Peter J; Stephens, Philip J; Pleasance, Erin D; O’Meara, Sarah; Li, Heng; Santarius, Thomas; Stebbings, Lucy A; Leroy, Catherine; Edkins, Sarah; Hardy, Claire; Teague, Jon W; Menzies, Andrew; Goodhead, Ian; Turner, Daniel J; Clee, Christopher M; Quail, Michael A; Cox, Antony; Brown, Clive; Durbin, Richard; Hurles, Matthew E; Edwards, Paul A W; Bignell, Graham R; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Human cancers often carry many somatically acquired genomic rearrangements, some of which may be implicated in cancer development. However, conventional strategies for characterizing rearrangements are laborious and low-throughput and have low sensitivity or poor resolution. We used massively parallel sequencing to generate sequence reads from both ends of short DNA fragments derived from the genomes of two individuals with lung cancer. By investigating read pairs that did not align correctly with respect to each other on the reference human genome, we characterized 306 germline structural variants and 103 somatic rearrangements to the base-pair level of resolution. The patterns of germline and somatic rearrangement were markedly different. Many somatic rearrangements were from amplicons, although rearrangements outside these regions, notably including tandem duplications, were also observed. Some somatic rearrangements led to abnormal transcripts, including two from internal tandem duplications and two fusion transcripts created by interchromosomal rearrangements. Germline variants were predominantly mediated by retrotransposition, often involving AluY and LINE elements. The results demonstrate the feasibility of systematic, genome-wide characterization of rearrangements in complex human cancer genomes, raising the prospect of a new harvest of genes associated with cancer using this strategy. PMID:18438408

  13. Somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, U.; Wuergler, F.E.; Katz, A.J.; Frei, H.; Juon, H.; Hall, C.B.; Kale, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    A novel test system for the detection of mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of chemicals is described in detail. Drosophila melanogaster larvae trans-heterozygous for the mutations multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr) are exposed to the test compounds for various periods of time ranging from 96 hr to 1 hr. Induced mutations are detected as single mosaic spots on the wing blade of surviving adults that show either the multiple wing hairs or flare phenotype. Induced recombination leads to mwh and flr twin spots and also to a certain extent, to mwh single spots. Recording of the frequency and the size of the different spots allows for a quantitative determination of the mutagenic and recombinogenic effects. This and earlier studies with a small set of well-known mutagens indicate that the test detects monofunctional and polyfunctional alkylating agents (ethyl methanesulfonate, diepoxybutane, mitomycin C, Trenimon), mutagens forming large adducts (aflatoxin B/sub 1/), DNA breaking agents (bleomycin), intercalating agents (5-aminoacridine, ICR-170), spindle poisons (vinblastine), and antimetabolites (methotrexate). In addition, the test detects mutagens unstable in aqueous solution (..beta..-propiolactone), gaseous mutagens (1,2-dibromoethane), as well as promutagens needing various pathways of metabolic activation (aflatoxin B/sub 1/, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, mitomycin C, and procarbazine). The rapidity and ease of performance as well as the low costs of the test necessitate a high priority for validation of this promising Drosophila short-term test.

  14. A unique spectrum of somatic PIK3CA (p110alpha) mutations within primary endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Meghan L; Price, Jessica C; Fogoros, Sarah; Godwin, Andrew K; Sgroi, Dennis C; Merino, Maria J; Bell, Daphne W

    2011-03-15

    The goal of this study was to comprehensively define the incidence of mutations in all exons of PIK3CA in both endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) and nonendometrioid endometrial cancer (NEEC). We resequenced all coding exons of PIK3CA and PTEN, and exons 1 and 2 of KRAS, from 108 primary endometrial tumors. Somatic mutations were confirmed by sequencing matched normal DNAs. The biochemical properties of a subset of novel PIK3CA mutations were determined by exogenously expressing wild type and mutant constructs in U2OS cells and measuring levels of AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. Somatic PIK3CA mutations were detected in 52.4% of 42 EECs and 33.3% of 66 NEECs. Half (29 of 58) of all nonsynonymous PIK3CA mutations were in exons 1-7 and half were in exons 9 and 20. The exons 1-7 mutations localized to the ABD, ABD-RBD linker and C2 domains of p110α. Within these regions, Arg88, Arg93, Gly106, Lys111, Glu365, and Glu453, were recurrently mutated; Arg88, Arg93, and Lys111 formed mutation hotspots. The p110α-R93W, -G106R, -G106V, -K111E, -delP449-L455, and -E453K mutants led to increased levels of phospho-AKT(Ser473) compared to wild-type p110α. Overall, 62% of exons 1-7 PIK3CA mutants and 64% of exons 9-20 PIK3CA mutants were activating; 72% of exon 1-7 mutations have not previously been reported in endometrial cancer. Our study identified a new subgroup of endometrial cancer patients with activating mutations in the amino-terminal domains of p110α; these patients might be appropriate for consideration in clinical trials of targeted therapies directed against the PI3K pathway. ©2011 AACR.

  15. A unique spectrum of somatic PIK3CA (p110α) mutations within primary endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Meghan L.; Price, Jessica C.; Fogoros, Sarah; Godwin, Andrew K.; Sgroi, Dennis C.; Merino, Maria J.; Bell, Daphne W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to comprehensively define the incidence of mutations in all exons of PIK3CA in both endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) and non-endometrioid endometrial cancer (NEEC). Experimental design We resequenced all coding exons of PIK3CA and PTEN, and exons 1 and 2 of KRAS, from 108 primary endometrial tumors. Somatic mutations were confirmed by sequencing matched normal DNAs. The biochemical properties of a subset of novel PIK3CA mutations were determined by exogenously expressing wildtype and mutant constructs in U2OS cells and measuring levels of AKTSer473 phosphorylation. Results Somatic PIK3CA mutations were detected in 52.4% of 42 EECs and 33.3% of 66 NEECs. Half (29 of 58) of all nonsynonymous PIK3CA mutations were in exons 1–7 and half were in exons 9 and 20. The exons 1–7 mutations localized to the ABD, ABD-RBD linker and C2 domains of p110α. Within these regions, Arg88, Arg93, Gly106, Lys111, Glu365, and Glu453, were recurrently mutated; Arg88, Arg93 and Lys111 formed mutation hotspots. The p110α-R93W, -G106R, -G106V, -K111E, -delP449-L455, and -E453K mutants led to increased levels of phospho-AKTSer473 compared to wild-type p110α. Overall, 62% of exons 1–7 PIK3CA mutants and 64% of exon 9–20 PIK3CA mutants were activating; 72% of exon 1–7 mutations have not previously been reported in endometrial cancer. Conclusions Our study identified a new subgroup of endometrial cancer patients with activating mutations in the amino-terminal domains of p110α; these patients might be appropriate for consideration in clinical trials of targeted therapies directed against the PI3K pathway. PMID:21266528

  16. E2F1 somatic mutation within miRNA target site impairs gene regulation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Ramos, Camila M; Barros, Bruna P; Koyama, Fernanda C; Carpinetti, Paola A; Pezuk, Julia; Doimo, Nayara T S; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Perez, Rodrigo O; Parmigiani, Raphael B

    2017-01-01

    Genetic studies have largely concentrated on the impact of somatic mutations found in coding regions, and have neglected mutations outside of these. However, 3' untranslated regions (3' UTR) mutations can also disrupt or create miRNA target sites, and trigger oncogene activation or tumor suppressor inactivation. We used next-generation sequencing to widely screen for genetic alterations within predicted miRNA target sites of oncogenes associated with colorectal cancer, and evaluated the functional impact of a new somatic mutation. Target sequencing of 47 genes was performed for 29 primary colorectal tumor samples. For 71 independent samples, Sanger methodology was used to screen for E2F1 mutations in miRNA predicted target sites, and the functional impact of these mutations was evaluated by luciferase reporter assays. We identified germline and somatic alterations in E2F1. Of the 100 samples evaluated, 3 had germline alterations at the MIR205-5p target site, while one had a somatic mutation at MIR136-5p target site. E2F1 gene expression was similar between normal and tumor tissues bearing the germline alteration; however, expression was increased 4-fold in tumor tissue that harbored a somatic mutation compared to that in normal tissue. Luciferase reporter assays revealed both germline and somatic alterations increased E2F1 activity relative to wild-type E2F1. We demonstrated that somatic mutation within E2F1:MIR136-5p target site impairs miRNA-mediated regulation and leads to increased gene activity. We conclude that somatic mutations that disrupt miRNA target sites have the potential to impact gene regulation, highlighting an important mechanism of oncogene activation.

  17. Differences in somatic mutation landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian American and European American populations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Liu, Biao; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song

    2016-01-01

    The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in populations of Asian ancestry than European ancestry (EA). We sought to investigate HCC mutational differences between the two populations, which may reflect differences in the prevalence of etiological factors. We compared HCC somatic mutations in patients of self-reported Asian American and EA from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and assessed associations of tumor mutations with established HCC risk factors. Although the average mutation burden was similar, TP53 and RB1 were mutated at a much higher frequency in Asian Americans than in EAs (TP53: 43% vs. 21%; RB1: 19% vs. 2%). Three putative oncogenic genes, including TRPM3, SAGE1, and ADAMTS7, were mutated exclusively in Asians. In addition, VEGF binding pathway, a druggable target by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib, was mutated at a higher frequency among Asians (13% vs. 2%); while the negative regulation of IL17 production, involved in inflammation and autoimmunity, was mutated only in EAs (12% vs. 0). Accounting for HCC risk factors had little impact on any of the mutational differences. In conclusion, we demonstrated here mutational differences in important cancer genes and pathways between Asian and European ancestries. These differences may have implications for the prevention and treatment of HCC. PMID:27246981

  18. CASPASE-8 gene is inactivated by somatic mutations in gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Su Young; Jang, Jin; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Won Sang; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2005-02-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that deregulation of apoptosis is involved in the mechanisms of cancer development. Caspase-8 activation plays a central role in the initiation phase of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that genetic alteration of CASPASE-8 gene is involved in the development of human cancers, including gastric cancers. We have analyzed the entire coding region of human CASPASE-8 gene for the detection of somatic mutations in 162 gastric carcinomas (40 early and 122 advanced cancers), 185 non-small cell lung cancers, 93 breast carcinomas, and 88 acute leukemias by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism. Of the cancers analyzed, 13 cancers harbored CASPASE-8 somatic mutations. Interestingly, all of the mutations were detected in the advanced gastric cancers (10.7% of the 122 samples). We expressed the tumor-derived caspase-8 mutants in 293T, 293, and HT1080 cells and found that most of the mutants (9 of the 10 mutations tested) markedly decreased the cell death activity of caspase-8. In addition, in the cells with the inactivating caspase-8 mutants, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was markedly reduced compared with that of wild-type caspase-8. The occurrence of CASPASE-8 mutation and the inactivation of cell death activity by the mutants suggest that CASPASE-8 gene mutation may affect the pathogenesis of gastric cancers, especially at the late stage of gastric carcinogenesis.

  19. Moderate malnutrition in rats induces somatic gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Martínez, M Monserrat; Cortés-Barberena, Edith; Cervantes-Ríos, Elsa; Del Carmen García-Rodríguez, María; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor; Ortiz-Muñiz, Rocío

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between malnutrition and genetic damage has been widely studied in human and animal models, leading to the observation that interactions between genotoxic exposure and micronutrient status appear to affect genomic stability. A new assay has been developed that uses the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (Pig-a) as a reporter for measuring in vivo gene mutation. The Pig-a assay can be employed to evaluate mutant frequencies (MFs) in peripheral blood reticulocytes (RETs) and erythrocytes (RBCs) using flow cytometry. In the present study, we assessed the effects of malnutrition on mutagenic susceptibility by exposing undernourished (UN) and well-nourished (WN) rats to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and measuring Pig-a MFs. Two week-old UN and WN male Han-Wistar rats were treated daily with 0, 20, or 40mg/kg ENU for 3 consecutive days. Blood was collected from the tail vein one day before ENU treatment (Day-1) and after ENU administration on Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63. Pig-a MFs were measured in RETs and RBCs as the RET(CD59-) and RBC(CD59-) frequencies. In the vehicle control groups, the frequencies of mutant RETs and RBCs were significantly higher in UN rats compared with WN rats at all sampling times. The ENU treatments increased RET and RBC MFs starting at Day 7. Although ENU-induced Pig-a MFs were consistently lower in UN rats than in WN rats, these differences were not significant. To understand these responses, further studies should use other mutagens and nucleated surrogate cells and examine the types of mutations induced in UN and WN rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and clinical significance of BRCA1/2 germline and somatic mutations in Taiwanese patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chao, Angel; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lapke, Nina; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chi, Peter; Chen, Chien-Hung; Yang, Lan-Yan; Lin, Cheng-Tao; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Liou, Jui-Der; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2016-12-20

    Germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations define a subset of patients with ovarian cancer who may benefit from treatment with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. Unfortunately, data on the frequency of BRCA1/2 germline mutations in Taiwanese patients with ovarian cancer are scarce, with the prevalence of somatic mutations being unknown. We aim to investigate the occurrence of BRCA1/2 mutations in 99 Taiwanese patients with ovarian cancer which included serous (n = 46), endometrioid (n = 24), and clear cell (n = 29) carcinomas. BRCA1/2 mutations were identified using next-generation sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. Pathogenic variants (BRCA1: n = 7; BRCA2: n = 6) were detected in 12.1% (12/99) of the study patients. Somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutation rates in serous ovarian cancer are 4/46 (8.7%) and 8/46 (17%), respectively. All of the pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in serous carcinoma samples (12/46; 26.1%). One-third (4/12) of the deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations occurred in tumor tissues only (somatic mutations). All of them coexisted with loss of heterozygosity, resulting in biallelic BRCA inactivation. Five novel pathogenic mutations were identified, including four somatic variants (BRCA1 p.S242fs, BRCA1 p.F989fs, BRCA1 p.G1738fs, and BRCA2 p.D1451fs) and a germline variant (BRCA2 p.E260fs). We also detected additional six novel mutations (three in BRCA1 and three in BRCA2) with pathogenic potentials. We conclude that BRCA1/2 mutations are common in Taiwanese patients with serous ovarian carcinoma and similar to mutation rates in other ethnic groups. The analysis of BRCA1/2 somatic mutations is crucial for guiding therapeutic decisions in ovarian cancer.

  1. Somatic mutations of gucy2f, epha3, and ntrk3 in humancancers

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Laura D.; Calhoun, Eric S.; Silliman, Natalie; Ptak,Janine; Szabo, Steve; Powell, Steve M.; Riggins, Gregory J.; Wang,Tian-Li; Yan, Hai; Gazdar, Adi; Kern, Scott E.; Pennacchio, Len; Kinzler,Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Velculescu, Victor E.

    2006-05-23

    Tyrosine kinases are major regulators of signal transduction cascades involved in cellular proliferation and have important roles in tumorigenesis. We have recently analyzed the tyrosine kinase gene family for alterations in human colorectal cancers and identified somatic mutations in seven members of this gene family. In this study we have used high throughput sequencing approaches to further evaluate this subset of genes for genetic alterations in other human tumors. We identified somatic mutations in GUCY2F, EPHA3, and NTRK3 in breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Our results implicate these tyrosine kinase genes in the pathogenesis of other tumor types and suggest that they may be useful targets for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in selected patients.

  2. KRAS and BRAF somatic mutations in colonic polyps and the risk of metachronous neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Miriam; Egoavil, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Soler, María; Hernández-Illán, Eva; Guarinos, Carla; García-Martínez, Araceli; Alenda, Cristina; Giner-Calabuig, Mar; Murcia, Oscar; Mangas, Carolina; Payá, Artemio; Aparicio, José R; Ruiz, Francisco A; Martínez, Juan; Casellas, Juan A; Soto, José L; Zapater, Pedro; Jover, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    High-risk features of colonic polyps are based on size, number, and pathologic characteristics. Surveillance colonoscopy is often recommended according to these findings. This study aimed to determine whether the molecular characteristics of polyps might provide information about the risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia. We retrospectively included 308 patients with colonic polyps. A total of 995 polyps were collected and tested for somatic BRAF and KRAS mutations. Patients were classified into 3 subgroups, based on the polyp mutational profile at baseline, as follows: non-mutated polyps (Wild-type), at least one BRAF-mutated polyp, or at least one KRAS-mutated polyp. At surveillance, advanced adenomas were defined as adenomas ≥ 10 mm and/or with high grade dysplasia or a villous component. In contrast, advanced serrated polyps were defined as serrated polyps ≥ 10 mm in any location, located proximal to the splenic flexure with any size or with dysplasia. At baseline, 289 patients could be classified as wild-type (62.3%), BRAF mutated (14.9%), or KRAS mutated (22.8%). In the univariate analysis, KRAS mutations were associated with the development of metachronous advanced polyps (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.22-4.58; P = 0.011), and specifically, advanced adenomas (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.13-5.21; P = 0.023). The multivariate analysis, adjusted for age and sex, also showed associations with the development of metachronous advanced polyps (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.15-4.46) and advanced adenomas (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.02-4.85). Our results suggested that somatic KRAS mutations in polyps represent a potential molecular marker for the risk of developing advanced neoplasia.

  3. A somatic mutation in erythro-myeloid progenitors causes neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Mass, Elvira; Jacome-Galarza, Christian E; Blank, Thomas; Lazarov, Tomi; Durham, Benjamin H; Ozkaya, Neval; Pastore, Alessandro; Schwabenland, Marius; Chung, Young Rock; Rosenblum, Marc K; Prinz, Marco; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Geissmann, Frederic

    2017-09-21

    The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases is poorly understood and there are few therapeutic options. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction and loss, and chronic glial activation. Whether microglial activation, which is generally viewed as a secondary process, is harmful or protective in neurodegeneration remains unclear. Late-onset neurodegenerative disease observed in patients with histiocytoses, which are clonal myeloid diseases associated with somatic mutations in the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway such as BRAF(V600E), suggests a possible role of somatic mutations in myeloid cells in neurodegeneration. Yet the expression of BRAF(V600E) in the haematopoietic stem cell lineage causes leukaemic and tumoural diseases but not neurodegenerative disease. Microglia belong to a lineage of adult tissue-resident myeloid cells that develop during organogenesis from yolk-sac erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) distinct from haematopoietic stem cells. We therefore hypothesized that a somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation in the EMP lineage may cause neurodegeneration. Here we show that mosaic expression of BRAF(V600E) in mouse EMPs results in clonal expansion of tissue-resident macrophages and a severe late-onset neurodegenerative disorder. This is associated with accumulation of ERK-activated amoeboid microglia in mice, and is also observed in human patients with histiocytoses. In the mouse model, neurobehavioural signs, astrogliosis, deposition of amyloid precursor protein, synaptic loss and neuronal death were driven by ERK-activated microglia and were preventable by BRAF inhibition. These results identify the fetal precursors of tissue-resident macrophages as a potential cell-of-origin for histiocytoses and demonstrate that a somatic mutation in the EMP lineage in mice can drive late-onset neurodegeneration. Moreover, these data identify activation of the MAP kinase pathway in microglia as a cause of neurodegeneration and this offers

  4. Analytical evaluation for somatic mutation detection in circulating tumor cells isolated using a lateral magnetophoretic microseparator.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyungseok; Kim, Jinho; Han, Song-I; Han, Ki-Ho

    2016-10-01

    CTCs are currently in the spotlight because provide comprehensive genetic information that enables monitoring of the evolution of cancer and selection of appropriate therapeutic strategies that cannot be obtained from a single-site tumor biopsy. Despite their importance, current techniques for isolating CTCs are limited in terms of their ability to yield high-quality CTCs from peripheral blood for use in profiling cancer genetic mutations by DNA sequencing technologies. This paper introduces a lateral magnetophoretic microseparator (the 'CTC-μChip') for isolating highly pure CTCs from blood, which facilitates the detection of somatic mutations in isolated CTCs. To isolate CTCs from peripheral blood, nucleated cells were first prepared by red blood cell lysis. Then, CTCs were isolated from nucleated cells within 30 min using the CTC-μChip. Analytical evaluation using 5 mL blood samples spiked with 5-50 MCF7 breast cancer cells demonstrated that the average recovery rate of the CTC-μChip was 99.08 %. The average number of residual white blood cells (WBCs) in isolated samples was 53, meaning that the WBC depletion rate is 472,000-fold (5.67 log), assuming that blood contains 5 × 10(6) WBCs per milliliter. The isolated MCF7 cells had a purity of 6.9 - 67.9 %, depending on the spiked MCF7 concentration. Using next-generation sequencing technology, heterozygous somatic mutations (PIK3CA and APC) of MCF7 cells were evaluated in the isolated samples. The results showed that somatic mutations could be detected in as few as two MCF7 cells per milliliter of blood, indicating that the CTC-μChip facilitates the detection of somatic variants in CTCs.

  5. Somatic Mutations Favorable to Patient Survival Are Predominant in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Flemington, Erik; Zhang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutation accumulation is a major cause of abnormal cell growth. However, some mutations in cancer cells may be deleterious to the survival and proliferation of the cancer cells, thus offering a protective effect to the patients. We investigated this hypothesis via a unique analysis of the clinical and somatic mutation datasets of ovarian carcinomas published by the Cancer Genome Atlas. We defined and screened 562 macro mutation signatures (MMSs) for their associations with the overall survival of 320 ovarian cancer patients. Each MMS measures the number of mutations present on the member genes (except for TP53) covered by a specific Gene Ontology (GO) term in each tumor. We found that somatic mutations favorable to the patient survival are predominant in ovarian carcinomas compared to those indicating poor clinical outcomes. Specially, we identified 19 (3) predictive MMSs that are, usually by a nonlinear dose-dependent effect, associated with good (poor) patient survival. The false discovery rate for the 19 “positive” predictors is at the level of 0.15. The GO terms corresponding to these MMSs include “lysosomal membrane” and “response to hypoxia”, each of which is relevant to the progression and therapy of cancer. Using these MMSs as features, we established a classification tree model which can effectively partition the training samples into three prognosis groups regarding the survival time. We validated this model on an independent dataset of the same disease (Log-rank p-value <2.3×10-4) and a dataset of breast cancer (Log-rank p-value <9.3×10−3). We compared the GO terms corresponding to these MMSs and those enriched with expression-based predictive genes. The analysis showed that the GO term pairs with large similarity are mainly pertinent to the proteins located on the cell organelles responsible for material transport and waste disposal, suggesting the crucial role of these proteins in cancer mortality. PMID:25390899

  6. Analysis of in vivo somatic mutations in normal human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, P.K.; Sahota, A.; Boyadjiev, S.A.

    1994-09-01

    We have used the APRT locus located at 16q24.3 to study the nature of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in human T lymphocytes in vivo. T lymphocytes were isolated from blood from APRT (+/{minus}) obligated heterozygotes with known germline mutations. The cells were immediatley placed in culture medium containing 100 {mu}M 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) to select for drug-resistant clones ({minus}/{minus}) already present. These clones were first examined using polymorphic CA microsatellite repeat markers D16S303 and D16S305 that are distal and proximal to APRT, respectively. The retention of heterozygosity of these markers is suggestive of minor changes in the APRT gene, the exact nature of which were determined by DNA sequencing. Nineteen out of 70 DAP-resistant clones from one heterozygote showed APRT sequence changes. The loss of heterozygosity of markers D16S303 and D16S305 in the remaining clones suggests LOH involving multilocus chromosomal events. These clones were then sequentially typed using additional CA repeat markers proximal and distal to APRT. The extent of LOH in these clones was found to vary from <5 cM to almost the entire 16q arm. Preliminary results suggest that there are multiple sites along the chromosome from which LOH proceeds distally in these clones. Cytogenetic analysis of 10 clones suggested mitotic recombination in 9 and deletion in one. Studies are in progress to further characterize the molecular mechanisms of LOH.

  7. Determination of somatic oncogenic mutations linked to target-based therapies using MassARRAY technology

    PubMed Central

    Llorca-Cardeñosa, Marta J.; Mongort, Cristina; Alonso, Elisa; Navarro, Samuel; Burgues, Octavio; Vivancos, Ana; Cejalvo, Juan Miguel; Perez-Fidalgo, José Alejandro; Roselló, Susana; Ribas, Gloria; Cervantes, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutation analysis represents a useful tool in selecting personalized therapy. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of common genetic events affecting actionable oncogenes using a MassARRAY technology in patients with advanced solid tumors who were potential candidates for target-based therapies. The analysis of 238 mutations across 19 oncogenes was performed in 197 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of different tumors using the OncoCarta Panel v1.0 (Sequenom Hamburg, Germany). Of the 197 specimens, 97 (49.2%) presented at least one mutation. Forty-nine different oncogenic mutations in 16 genes were detected. Mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA were detected in 40/97 (41.2%) and 30/97 (30.9%) patients respectively. Thirty-one patients (32.0%) had mutations in two genes, 20 of them (64.5%) initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The co-occurrence of mutation involved mainly KRAS, PIK3CA, KIT and RET. Mutation profiles were validated using a customized panel and the Junior Next-Generation Sequencing technology (GS-Junior 454, Roche). Twenty-eight patients participated in early clinical trials or received specific treatments according to the molecular characterization (28.0%). MassARRAY technology is a rapid and effective method for identifying key cancer-driving mutations across a large number of samples, which allows for a more appropriate selection for personalized therapies. PMID:26968814

  8. Genotoxicity of neutrons in Drosophila melanogaster. Somatic mutation and recombination induced by reactor neutrons.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rincón, J; Delfín-Loya, A; Ureña-Núñez, F; Paredes, L C; Zambrano-Achirica, F; Graf, U

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes the observation of a direct relationship between the absorbed doses of neutrons and the frequencies of somatic mutation and recombination using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster. This test was used for evaluating the biological effects induced by neutrons from the Triga Mark III reactor of Mexico. Two different reactor power levels were used, 300 and 1000 kW, and two absorbed doses were tested for each power level: 1.6 and 3.2 Gy for 300 kW and 0.84 and 1.7 Gy for 1000 kW. A linear relationship was observed between the absorbed dose and the somatic mutation and recombination frequencies. Furthermore, these frequencies were dependent on larval age: In 96-h-old larvae, the frequencies were increased considerably but the sizes of the spots were smaller than in 72-h-old larvae. The analysis of the balancer-heterozygous progeny showed a linear absorbed dose- response relationship, although the responses were clearly lower than found in the marker-trans-heterozygous flies. Approximately 65% of the genotoxicity observed is due to recombinational events. The results of the study indicate that thermal and fast neutrons are both mutagenic and recombinagenic in the D. melanogaster wing SMART, and that the frequencies are dependent on neutron dose, reactor power, and the age of the treated larvae.

  9. Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of five food dyes using the somatic mutation and recombination test.

    PubMed

    Sarıkaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoç, Figen

    2012-08-01

    In this study, different concentrations of five food dyes (amaranth, patent blue, carminic acid, indigotine and erythrosine) have been evaluated for genotoxicity in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster. Standard cross was used in the experiment. Larvae including two linked recessive wing hair mutations were chronically fed at different concentrations of the test compounds in standard Drosophila Instant Medium. Feeding ended with pupation of the surviving larvae. Wings of the emerging adult flies were scored for the presence of spots of mutant cells which can result from either somatic mutation or somatic recombination. For the evaluation of genotoxic effects, the frequencies of spots per wing in the treated series were compared to the control group, which was distilled water. The present study shows that carminic acid and indigotine demonstrated negative results while erythrosine demonstrated inconclusive results. In addition 25 mg mL(-1) concentration of patent blue and 12.5, 25 and 50 mg mL(-1) concentrations of amaranth demonstrated positive results in the SMART.

  10. Distinct cellular pathways select germline-encoded and somatically mutated antibodies into immunological memory

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Tomohiro; Ishige, Akiko; Hikida, Masaki; Taka, Junko; Hijikata, Atsushi; Kubo, Masato; Nagashima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Okada, Mariko; Ohara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    One component of memory in the antibody system is long-lived memory B cells selected for the expression of somatically mutated, high-affinity antibodies in the T cell–dependent germinal center (GC) reaction. A puzzling observation has been that the memory B cell compartment also contains cells expressing unmutated, low-affinity antibodies. Using conditional Bcl6 ablation, we demonstrate that these cells are generated through proliferative expansion early after immunization in a T cell–dependent but GC-independent manner. They soon become resting and long-lived and display a novel distinct gene expression signature which distinguishes memory B cells from other classes of B cells. GC-independent memory B cells are later joined by somatically mutated GC descendants at roughly equal proportions and these two types of memory cells efficiently generate adoptive secondary antibody responses. Deletion of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells significantly reduces the generation of mutated, but not unmutated, memory cells early on in the response. Thus, B cell memory is generated along two fundamentally distinct cellular differentiation pathways. One pathway is dedicated to the generation of high-affinity somatic antibody mutants, whereas the other preserves germ line antibody specificities and may prepare the organism for rapid responses to antigenic variants of the invading pathogen. PMID:23027924

  11. Somatic mutations in PI3K[alpha]: Structural basis for enzyme activation and drug design

    SciTech Connect

    Gabelli, Sandra B.; Mandelker, Diana; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Vogelstein, Bert; Amzel, L. Mario

    2011-09-06

    The PI3K pathway is a communication hub coordinating critical cell functions including cell survival, cell growth, proliferation, motility and metabolism. Because PI3K{alpha} harbors recurrent somatic mutations resulting in gains of function in human cancers, it has emerged as an important drug target for many types of solid tumors. Various PI3K isoforms are also being evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for inflammation, heart disease, and hematological malignancies. Structural biology is providing insights into the flexibility of the PI3Ks, and providing basis for understanding the effects of mutations, drug resistance and specificity.

  12. Somatic Mutations in PI3Kalpha: Structural Basis for Enzyme Activation and Drug Design

    SciTech Connect

    S Gabelli; D Mandelker; O Schmidt-Kittler; B Vogelstein; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    The PI3K pathway is a communication hub coordinating critical cell functions including cell survival, cell growth, proliferation, motility and metabolism. Because PI3K{alpha} harbors recurrent somatic mutations resulting in gains of function in human cancers, it has emerged as an important drug target for many types of solid tumors. Various PI3K isoforms are also being evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for inflammation, heart disease, and hematological malignancies. Structural biology is providing insights into the flexibility of the PI3Ks, and providing basis for understanding the effects of mutations, drug resistance and specificity.

  13. A series of 38 novel germline and somatic mutations of NIPBL in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nizon, M; Henry, M; Michot, C; Baumann, C; Bazin, A; Bessières, B; Blesson, S; Cordier-Alex, M-P; David, A; Delahaye-Duriez, A; Delezoïde, A-L; Dieux-Coeslier, A; Doco-Fenzy, M; Faivre, L; Goldenberg, A; Layet, V; Loget, P; Marlin, S; Martinovic, J; Odent, S; Pasquier, L; Plessis, G; Prieur, F; Putoux, A; Rio, M; Testard, H; Bonnefont, J-P; Cormier-Daire, V

    2016-05-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a multisystemic developmental disorder mainly related to de novo heterozygous NIPBL mutation. Recently, NIPBL somatic mosaicism has been highlighted through buccal cell DNA study in some patients with a negative molecular analysis on leukocyte DNA. Here, we present a series of 38 patients with a Cornelia de Lange syndrome related to a heterozygous NIPBL mutation identified by Sanger sequencing. The diagnosis was based on the following criteria: (i) intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal short stature, (ii) feeding difficulties and/or gastro-oesophageal reflux, (iii) microcephaly, (iv) intellectual disability, and (v) characteristic facial features. We identified 37 novel NIPBL mutations including 34 in leukocytes and 3 in buccal cells only. All mutations shown to have arisen de novo when parent blood samples were available. The present series confirms the difficulty in predicting the phenotype according to the NIPBL mutation. Until now, somatic mosaicism has been observed for 20 cases which do not seem to be consistently associated with a milder phenotype. Besides, several reports support a postzygotic event for those cases. Considering these elements, we recommend a first-line buccal cell DNA analysis in order to improve gene testing sensitivity in Cornelia de Lange syndrome and genetic counselling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High burden and pervasive positive selection of somatic mutations in normal human skin

    PubMed Central

    Martincorena, Iñigo; Roshan, Amit; Gerstung, Moritz; Ellis, Peter; Van Loo, Peter; McLaren, Stuart; Wedge, David C.; Fullam, Anthony; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Tubio, Jose M.; Stebbings, Lucy; Menzies, Andrew; Widaa, Sara; Stratton, Michael R.; Jones, Philip H.; Campbell, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    How somatic mutations accumulate in normal cells is central to understanding cancer development, but is poorly understood. We performed ultra-deep sequencing of 74 cancer genes in small (0.8-4.7mm2) biopsies of normal skin. Across 234 biopsies of sun-exposed eyelid epidermis from four individuals, the burden of somatic mutations averaged 2-6 mutations/megabase/cell, similar to many cancers, and exhibited characteristic signatures of ultraviolet light exposure. Remarkably, multiple cancer genes are under strong positive selection even in physiologically normal skin, including most of the key drivers of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. Positively selected ‘driver’ mutations were found in 18-32% of normal skin cells at a density of ~140/cm2. We observed variability in the driver landscape among individuals and variability in sizes of clonal expansions across genes. Thus, aged, sun-exposed skin is a patchwork of thousands of evolving clones, with over a quarter of cells carrying cancer-causing mutations while maintaining the physiological functions of epidermis. PMID:25999502

  15. A Somatic MAP3K3 Mutation Is Associated with Verrucous Venous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Javier A.; Vivero, Matthew P.; Kozakewich, Harry P.W.; Taghinia, Amir H.; Mulliken, John B.; Warman, Matthew L.; Greene, Arin K.

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous venous malformation (VVM), also called “verrucous hemangioma,” is a non-hereditary, congenital, vascular anomaly comprised of aberrant clusters of malformed dermal venule-like channels underlying hyperkeratotic skin. We tested the hypothesis that VVM lesions arise as a consequence of a somatic mutation. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on VVM tissue from six unrelated individuals and looked for somatic mutations affecting the same gene in specimens from multiple persons. We observed mosaicism for a missense mutation (NM_002401.3, c.1323C>G; NP_002392, p.Iso441Met) in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) in three of six individuals. We confirmed the presence of this mutation via droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in the three subjects and found the mutation in three additional specimens from another four participants. Mutant allele frequencies ranged from 6% to 19% in affected tissue. We did not observe this mutant allele in unaffected tissue or in affected tissue from individuals with other types of vascular anomalies. Studies using global and conditional Map3k3 knockout mice have previously implicated MAP3K3 in vascular development. MAP3K3 dysfunction probably causes VVM in humans. PMID:25728774

  16. Germline and somatic SMARCA4 mutations characterize small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Leora; Carrot-Zhang, Jian; Albrecht, Steffen; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Hamel, Nancy; Tomiak, Eva; Grynspan, David; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Nadaf, Javad; Rivera, Barbara; Gilpin, Catherine; Castellsagué, Ester; Silva-Smith, Rachel; Plourde, François; Wu, Mona; Saskin, Avi; Arseneault, Madeleine; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Reilly, Elizabeth A; Ueland, Frederick R; Margiolaki, Anna; Pavlakis, Kitty; Castellino, Sharon M; Lamovec, Janez; Mackay, Helen J; Roth, Lawrence M; Ulbright, Thomas M; Bender, Tracey A; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Longy, Michel; Berchuck, Andrew; Tischkowitz, Marc; Nagel, Inga; Siebert, Reiner; Stewart, Colin J R; Arseneau, Jocelyne; McCluggage, W Glenn; Clarke, Blaise A; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Hasselblatt, Martin; Majewski, Jacek; Foulkes, William D

    2014-05-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is the most common undifferentiated ovarian malignancy in women under 40 years of age. We sequenced the exomes of six individuals from three families with SCCOHT. After discovering segregating deleterious germline mutations in SMARCA4 in all three families, we tested DNA from a fourth affected family, which also carried a segregating SMARCA4 germline mutation. All the familial tumors sequenced harbored either a somatic mutation or loss of the wild-type allele. Immunohistochemical analysis of these cases and additional familial and non-familial cases showed loss of SMARCA4 (BRG1) protein in 38 of 40 tumors overall. Sequencing of cases with available DNA identified at least one germline or somatic deleterious SMARCA4 mutation in 30 of 32 cases. Additionally, the SCCOHT cell line BIN-67 had biallelic deleterious mutations in SMARCA4. Our findings identify alterations in SMARCA4 as the major cause of SCCOHT, which could lead to improvements in genetic counseling and new treatment approaches.

  17. A novel somatic MAPK1 mutation in primary ovarian mixed germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Fa-Ying; Yang, Bi-Cheng; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Guo, Jiu-Bai; Xie, Qiu-Hua; He, Ming; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-02-01

    A recent exome-sequencing study revealed prevalent mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) p.E322K mutation in cervical carcinoma. It remains largely unknown whether ovarian carcinomas also harbor MAPK1 mutations. As paralogous gene mutations co‑occur frequently in human malignancies, we analyzed here a total of 263 ovarian carcinomas for the presence of MAPK1 and paralogous MAPK3 mutations by DNA sequencing. A previously unreported MAPK1 p.D321N somatic mutation was identified in 2 out of 18 (11.1%) ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, while no other MAPK1 or MAPK3 mutation was detected in our samples. Of note, OCC‑115, the MAPK1‑mutated sample with bilateral cancerous ovaries affected, harbored MAPK1 mutation in the right ovary while retained the left ovary intact, implicating that the genetic alterations underlying ovarian mixed germ cell tumor may be different, even in patients with similar genetic backgrounds and tumor microenvironments. The results of evolutionary conservation and protein structure modeling analysis implicated that MAPK1 p.D321N mutation may be pathogenic. Additionally, mutations in protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit α (PPP2R1A), ring finger protein 43 (RNF43), DNA directed polymerase ε (POLE1), ribonuclease type III (DICER1), CCCTC‑binding factor (CTCF), ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22), DNA methyltransferase 3α (DNMT3A), transformation/transcription domain‑associated protein (TRRAP), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 were not detected in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, implicating these genetic alterations may be not associated with MAPK1 mutation in the development of this malignancy. The present study identified a previously unreported MAPK1 mutation in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors for the first time, and this mutation may be actively involved in the tumorigenesis of this disease.

  18. Frequent somatic TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer: higher prevalence in advanced forms of the disease.

    PubMed

    Landa, Iñigo; Ganly, Ian; Chan, Timothy A; Mitsutake, Norisato; Matsuse, Michiko; Ibrahimpasic, Tihana; Ghossein, Ronald A; Fagin, James A

    2013-09-01

    TERT encodes the reverse transcriptase component of telomerase, which adds telomere repeats to chromosome ends, thus enabling cell replication. Telomerase activity is required for cell immortalization. Somatic TERT promoter mutations modifying key transcriptional response elements were recently reported in several cancers, such as melanomas and gliomas. The objectives of the study were: 1) to determine the prevalence of TERT promoter mutations C228T and C250T in different thyroid cancer histological types and cell lines; and 2) to establish the possible association of TERT mutations with mutations of BRAF, RAS, or RET/PTC. TERT promoter was PCR-amplified and sequenced in 42 thyroid cancer cell lines and 183 tumors: 80 papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs), 58 poorly differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTCs), 20 anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATCs), and 25 Hurthle cell cancers (HCCs). TERT promoter mutations were found in 98 of 225 (44%) specimens. TERT promoters C228T and C250T were mutually exclusive. Mutations were present in 18 of 80 PTCs (22.5%), in 40 of 78 (51%) advanced thyroid cancers (ATC + PDTC) (P = 3 × 10(-4) vs PTC), and in widely invasive HCCs (4 of 17), but not in minimally invasive HCCs (0 of 8). TERT promoter mutations were seen more frequently in advanced cancers with BRAF/RAS mutations compared to those that were BRAF/RAS wild-type (ATC + PDTC, 67.3 vs 24.1%; P < 10(-4)), whereas BRAF-mutant PTCs were less likely to have TERT promoter mutations than BRAF wild-type tumors (11.8 vs 50.0%; P = .04). TERT promoter mutations are highly prevalent in advanced thyroid cancers, particularly those harboring BRAF or RAS mutations, whereas PTCs with BRAF or RAS mutations are most often TERT promoter wild type. Acquisition of a TERT promoter mutation could extend survival of BRAF- or RAS-driven clones and enable accumulation of additional genetic defects leading to disease progression.

  19. GNA14 Somatic Mutation Causes Congenital and Sporadic Vascular Tumors by MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young H; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Qiu, Jingyao; Straub, Robert; Bruckner, Anna; Bercovitch, Lionel; Narayan, Deepak; McNiff, Jennifer; Ko, Christine; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Antaya, Richard; Halaban, Ruth; Choate, Keith A

    2016-08-04

    Vascular tumors are among the most common neoplasms in infants and children; 5%-10% of newborns present with or develop lesions within the first 3 months of life. Most are benign infantile hemangiomas that typically regress by 5 years of age; other vascular tumors include congenital tufted angiomas (TAs), kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas (KHEs), and childhood lobular capillary hemangiomas (LCHs). Some of these lesions can become locally invasive and unresponsive to pharmacologic intervention, leading to significant complications. Recent investigation has revealed that activating mutations in HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, GNAQ, and GNA11 can cause certain types of rare childhood vascular tumors, and we have now identified causal recurrent somatic activating mutations in GNA14 by whole-exome and targeted sequencing. We found somatic activating GNA14 c.614A>T (p.Gln205Leu) mutations in one KHE, one TA, and one LCH and a GNA11 c.547C>T (p.Arg183Cys) mutation in two LCH lesions. We examined mutation pathobiology via expression of mutant GNA14 or GNA11 in primary human endothelial cells and melanocytes. GNA14 and GNA11 mutations induced changes in cellular morphology and rendered cells growth-factor independent by upregulating the MAPK pathway. Our findings identify GNA14 mutations as a cause of childhood vascular tumors, offer insight into mechanisms of oncogenic transformation by mutations affecting Gaq family members, and identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A.; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R.; Edwards, Michael A.; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA. PMID:26240369

  1. Somatic mutation spectrum of non-small cell lung cancer in African Americans: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Luiz H.; Lammers, Philip E.; Matthews-Smith, Velmalia; Eisenberg, Rosana; Gonzalez, Adriana; Schwartz, Ann G.; Timmers, Cynthia; Shilo, Konstantin; Zhao, Weiqiang; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G.; Zhang, Jianying; Yilmaz, Ayse Selen; Liu, Tom; Coombes, Kevin; Carbone, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mutational profile of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become an important tool in tailoring therapy to patients, with clear differences according to the population of origin. African Americans have higher lung cancer incidence and mortality than Caucasians, yet discrepant results have been reported regarding the frequency of somatic driver mutations. We hypothesized that NSCLC has a distinct mutational profile in this group. Methods We collected NSCLC samples resected from self-reported African Americans in five sites from Tennessee, Michigan, and Ohio. Gene mutations were assessed by either SNaPshot or next generation sequencing, and ALK translocations were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results Two hundred sixty patients were included, mostly males (62.3%) and smokers (86.6%). Eighty-one samples (31.2%) were squamous cell carcinomas. The most frequently mutated genes were KRAS (15.4%), EGFR (5.0%), PIK3CA (0.8%), BRAF, NRAS, ERBB2, and AKT1 (0.4% each). ALK translocations were detected in 2 non-squamous tumors (1.7%), totaling 61 cases (23.5%) with driver oncogenic alterations. Among 179 non-squamous samples, 54 (30.2%) presented a driver alteration. The frequency of driver alterations altogether was lower than that reported in Caucasians, while no difference was detected in either EGFR or KRAS mutations. Overall survival was longer among patients with EGFR mutations. Conclusions We demonstrated that NSCLC from African Americans has a different pattern of somatic driver mutations than from Caucasians. The majority of driver alterations in this group are yet to be described, which will require more comprehensive panels and assessment of non-canonical alterations. PMID:26301800

  2. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K; Giordano, Thomas J; Hovelson, Daniel H; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R; Edwards, Michael A; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E

    2015-08-18

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na(+)/(K+) transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA.

  3. Somatic POLE mutations cause an ultramutated giant cell high-grade glioma subtype with better prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Erson-Omay, E. Zeynep; Çağlayan, Ahmet Okay; Schultz, Nikolaus; Weinhold, Nils; Omay, S. Bülent; Özduman, Koray; Köksal, Yavuz; Li, Jie; Serin Harmancı, Akdes; Clark, Victoria; Carrión-Grant, Geneive; Baranoski, Jacob; Çağlar, Caner; Barak, Tanyeri; Coşkun, Süleyman; Baran, Burçin; Köse, Doğan; Sun, Jia; Bakırcıoğlu, Mehmet; Moliterno Günel, Jennifer; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Mishra-Gorur, Ketu; Bilguvar, Kaya; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Huttner, Anita J.; Sander, Chris; Günel, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant high-grade gliomas (HGGs), including the most aggressive form, glioblastoma multiforme, show significant clinical and genomic heterogeneity. Despite recent advances, the overall survival of HGGs and their response to treatment remain poor. In order to gain further insight into disease pathophysiology by correlating genomic landscape with clinical behavior, thereby identifying distinct HGG molecular subgroups associated with improved prognosis, we performed a comprehensive genomic analysis. Methods We analyzed and compared 720 exome-sequenced gliomas (136 from Yale, 584 from The Cancer Genome Atlas) based on their genomic, histological, and clinical features. Results We identified a subgroup of HGGs (6 total, 4 adults and 2 children) that harbored a statistically significantly increased number of somatic mutations (mean = 9257.3 vs 76.2, P = .002). All of these “ultramutated” tumors harbored somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of the polymerase epsilon gene (POLE), displaying a distinctive genetic profile, characterized by genomic stability and increased C-to-A transversions. Histologically, they all harbored multinucleated giant or bizarre cells, some with predominant infiltrating immune cells. One adult and both pediatric patients carried homozygous germline mutations in the mutS homolog 6 (MSH6) gene. In adults, POLE mutations were observed in patients younger than 40 years and were associated with a longer progression-free survival. Conclusions We identified a genomically, histologically, and clinically distinct subgroup of HGGs that harbored somatic POLE mutations and carried an improved prognosis. Identification of distinctive molecular and pathological HGG phenotypes has implications not only for improved classification but also for potential targeted treatments. PMID:25740784

  4. PREDICTIVE VALUE OF SOMATIC MUTATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MALIGNANCY IN THYROID NODULES BY CYTOPATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Halászlaki, Csaba; Tóbiás, Bálint; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Horányi, János; Bölöny, Eszter; Nagy, Zsolt; Speer, Gábor; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Istók, Roland; Székely, Tamás; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of our prospective longitudinal study was to evaluate the predictive efficacy of genetic testing for malignancies in fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples that are cytologically benign at the time of biopsy. A total of 779 aspirated cytological samples collected from thyroid nodules of 626 patients were included in a 3-year follow-up study. Consecutive patients with cytologically benign thyroid nodules by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology were enrolled in the study. At enrollment, somatic 1-point nucleotide polymorphisms of BRAF and RAS family genes were tested by melting-point analysis, while RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR-gamma rearrangements were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The genetic test was considered to be positive if a somatic mutation was found. Malignant cytopathologic diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology. In samples collected from 779 thyroid nodules, there were 39 BRAF, 33 RAS mutations, and 1 RET/PTC rearrangements found at the beginning of the study. No PAX8/PPAR-gamma rearrangement was identified. There were 52 malignant thyroid tumors removed during follow-up, out of which 24 contained a somatic mutation. The specificity of the presence of somatic mutations for malignancies was as high as 93.3%, and sensitivity was 46.2%. The negative predictive value of genetic testing reached 96.0%. Our results show that our set of genetic tests can predict the appearance of malignancy in benign thyroid nodules (at the beginning of follow-up) with high specificity and strong negative predictive value. BRAF = v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 FLUS = follicular lesion of undetermined significance FNAB = fine-needle aspiration biopsy FTC = follicular thyroid carcinoma HRAS = homologous to the oncogene from the Harvey rat sarcoma virus KRAS = homologous to the oncogene from the Kirsten rat sarcoma virus NRAS = first isolated from a human neuroblastoma/neuroblastoma RAS = viral oncogene homolog PAX8

  5. Somatic mutation of immunoglobulin V(H)6 genes in human infants.

    PubMed

    Ridings, J; Dinan, L; Williams, R; Roberton, D; Zola, H

    1998-10-01

    Infants respond to antigen by making antibody that is generally of low affinity for antigen. Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes, and selection of cells expressing mutations with improved affinity for antigen, are the molecular and cellular processes underlying the maturation of antibody affinity. We have reported previously that neonates and infants up to 2 months of age, including individuals undergoing strong immunological challenge, show very few mutated V(H)6 sequences, with low mutation frequencies in mutated sequences, and little evidence of selection. We have now examined immunoglobulin genes from healthy infants between 2 and 10 months old for mutation and evidence of selection. In this age group, the proportion of V(H)6 sequences which are mutated and the mutation frequency in mutated sequences increase with age. There is evidence of selection from 6 months old. These results indicate that the process of affinity maturation, which depends on cognate T-B cell interaction and functional germinal centres, is approaching maturity from 6 months old.

  6. A comparison of somatic mutational spectra in healthy study populations from Russia, Sweden and USA

    SciTech Connect

    Noori, P; Hou, S; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Lambert, B

    2004-10-27

    Comparison of mutation spectra at the hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene of peripheral blood T lymphocytes may provide insight into the aetiology of somatic mutation contributing to carcinogenesis and other diseases. To increase knowledge of mutation spectra in healthy people, we have analyzed HPRT mutant T-cells of 50 healthy Russians originally recruited as controls for a study of Chernobyl clean-up workers (Jones et al. Radiation Res. 158, 2002, 424). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing identified 161 independent mutations among 176 thioguanine resistant mutants. Forty (40) mutations affected splicing mechanisms and 27 deletions or insertions of 1 to 60 nucleotides were identified. Ninety four (94) single base substitutions were identified, including 62 different mutations at 55 different nucleotide positions, of which 19 had not previously been reported in human T-cells. Comparison of this base substitution spectrum with mutation spectra in a USA (Burkhart-Schultz et al. Carcinogenesis 17, 1996, 1871) and two Swedish populations (Podlutsky et al, Carcinogenesis 19, 1998, 557, Podlutsky et al. Mutation Res. 431, 1999, 325) revealed similarity in the type, frequency and distribution of mutations in the four spectra, consistent with aetiologies inherent in human metabolism. There were 15-19 identical mutations in the three pair-wise comparisons of Russian with USA and Swedish spectra. Intriguingly, there were 21 mutations unique to the Russian spectrum, and comparison by the Monte Carlo method of Adams and Skopek (J. Mol. Biol. 194, 1987, 391) indicated that the Russian spectrum was different from both Swedish spectra (P=0.007, 0.002) but not different from the USA spectrum (P=0.07), when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was made (p < 0.008 required for significance). Age and smoking did not account for these differences. Other factors causing mutational differences need to be explored.

  7. Prevalent somatic BRCA1 mutations shape clinically relevant genomic patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Southeast Europe.

    PubMed

    Fountzilas, George; Psyrri, Amanda; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Tikas, Ioannis; Manousou, Kyriaki; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Ciuleanu, Elisabeta; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Resiga, Liliana; Zaramboukas, Thomas; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Bobos, Mattheos; Chrisafi, Sofia; Tsolaki, Eleftheria; Markou, Konstantinos; Giotakis, Evangelos; Koutras, Angelos; Psoma, Elsa; Kalogera-Fountzila, Anna; Skondra, Maria; Bamia, Christina; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Kotoula, Vassiliki

    2017-08-31

    Genomic patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) have as yet been studied in Southeast Asian (SEA) patients. Here, we investigated genomic patterns of locally advanced NPC Southeast European (SEE) patients treated with chemo-radiotherapy. We examined 126 tumors (89% EBV positive) from Greek and Romanian NPC patients with massively parallel sequencing. Paired tumor-cell-rich (TC) and infiltrating-lymphocyte-rich (TILs) samples were available in 19, and paired tumor - germline samples in 68 cases. Top mutated genes were BRCA1 (54% of all tumors); BRCA2 (29%); TP53 (22%); KRAS (18%). Based on the presence and number of mutations and mutated genes, NPC were classified as stable (no mutations, n=27); unstable (>7 genes with multiple mutations, all BRCA1 positive, n=21); and of intermediate stability (1-7 singly mutated genes, n=78). BRCA1 p.Q563* was present in 59 tumors (48%), more frequently from Romanian patients (p<0.001). No pathogenic germline mutations were identified. NPC exhibited APOBEC3A/B and nucleotide-excision-repair-related mutational signatures. As compared to TC, TILs demonstrated few shared and a higher number of low frequency private mutations (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis models for progression-free survival, EBV positivity was a favorable prognosticator in stable tumors; BRCA1 mutations were unfavorable only in tumors of intermediate stability. In conclusion, other than described for SEA NPC, somatic BRCA1 mutations were common in SEE NPC; these were shared between TC and TILs, and appeared to affect patient outcome according to tumor genomic stability status. Along with the identified mutational signatures, these novel data may be helpful for designing new treatments for locally advanced NPC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Somatic mosaicism of a novel IKBKG mutation in a male patient with incontinentia pigmenti.

    PubMed

    Hull, Sarah; Arno, Gavin; Thomson, Penelope; Mutch, Stacey; Webster, Andrew R; Rai, Harjeet; Hill, Virginia; Moore, Anthony T

    2015-07-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked, dominant genodermatosis usually fatal in utero in males. In rare circumstances, survival is possible due to abnormal karyotype or somatic mosaicism. In this report, the mechanism and significance of loss of detectable mutation in peripheral blood leukocytes of a somatic mosaic male is discussed and an alternative approach to achieving molecular diagnosis presented. A male patient is reported, who initially presented at 2 days of age with a rash and seizure. Clinical assessment and histology of a skin biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of IP. He was subsequently found to have bilateral retinal detachments. Screening for the common deletion in IKBKG was negative. A novel nonsense variant, c.937C>T (p.Gln313*) in IKBKG was identified at an approximate level of 15% in a blood sample taken at 10 days of age, but was undetectable in a sample taken at 3 years most likely due to selective apoptosis of mutant cells. Samples taken from the patient when he was 5-6 years of age identified the mutation at a low level in hair root and urine but not in blood or buccal cells. The detection of the mutation in cells derived from all germ layers indicates a de novo event at an early stage of embryogenesis. This is the first report of a nonsense mutation in a male IP patient. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Are the Somatic Mutation and Tissue Organization Field Theories of Carcinogenesis Incompatible?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Two drastically different approaches to understanding the forces driving carcinogenesis have crystallized through years of research. These are the somatic mutation theory (SMT) and the tissue organization field theory (TOFT). The essence of SMT is that cancer is derived from a single somatic cell that has successively accumulated multiple DNA mutations, and that those mutations occur on genes which control cell proliferation and cell cycle. Thus, according to SMT, neoplastic lesions are the results of DNA-level events. Conversely, according to TOFT, carcinogenesis is primarily a problem of tissue organization: carcinogenic agents destroy the normal tissue architecture thus disrupting cell-to-cell signaling and compromising genomic integrity. Hence, in TOFT the DNA mutations are the effect, and not the cause, of the tissue-level events. Cardinal importance of successful resolution of the TOFT versus SMT controversy dwells in the fact that, according to SMT, cancer is a unidirectional and mostly irreversible disease; whereas, according to TOFT, it is curable and reversible. In this paper, our goal is to outline a plausible scenario in which TOFT and SMT can be reconciled using the framework and concepts of the self-organized criticality (SOC), the principle proven to be extremely fruitful in a wide range of disciplines pertaining to natural phenomena, to biological communities, to large-scale social developments, to technological networks, and to many other subjects of research. PMID:24324325

  10. Targeted disruption of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene in miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young June; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Sang-Min; Ryu, Junghyun; Ahn, Jin Seop; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Choi, You Jung; Choi, Seong-Jun; Shim, Hosup

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM gene-targeted pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. • A novel large animal model for ataxia telangiectasia was developed. • The new model may provide an alternative to the mouse model. - Abstract: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive autosomal disorder associated with pleiotropic phenotypes, including progressive cerebellar degeneration, gonad atrophy, and growth retardation. Even though A-T is known to be caused by the mutations in the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, the correlation between abnormal cellular physiology caused by ATM mutations and the multiple symptoms of A-T disease has not been clearly determined. None of the existing ATM mouse models properly reflects the extent to which neurological degeneration occurs in human. In an attempt to provide a large animal model for A-T, we produced gene-targeted pigs with mutations in the ATM gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The disrupted allele in the ATM gene of cloned piglets was confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis. The ATM gene-targeted pigs generated in the present study may provide an alternative to the current mouse model for the study of mechanisms underlying A-T disorder and for the development of new therapies.

  11. Recurrent somatic mutations in POLR2A define a distinct subset of meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Clark, Victoria E; Harmancı, Akdes Serin; Bai, Hanwen; Youngblood, Mark W; Lee, Tong Ihn; Baranoski, Jacob F; Ercan-Sencicek, A Gulhan; Abraham, Brian J; Weintraub, Abraham S; Hnisz, Denes; Simon, Matthias; Krischek, Boris; Erson-Omay, E Zeynep; Henegariu, Octavian; Carrión-Grant, Geneive; Mishra-Gorur, Ketu; Durán, Daniel; Goldmann, Johanna E; Schramm, Johannes; Goldbrunner, Roland; Piepmeier, Joseph M; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Günel, Jennifer Moliterno; Bilgüvar, Kaya; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Young, Richard A; Günel, Murat

    2016-10-01

    RNA polymerase II mediates the transcription of all protein-coding genes in eukaryotic cells, a process that is fundamental to life. Genomic mutations altering this enzyme have not previously been linked to any pathology in humans, which is a testament to its indispensable role in cell biology. On the basis of a combination of next-generation genomic analyses of 775 meningiomas, we report that recurrent somatic p.Gln403Lys or p.Leu438_His439del mutations in POLR2A, which encodes the catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II (ref. 1), hijack this essential enzyme and drive neoplasia. POLR2A mutant tumors show dysregulation of key meningeal identity genes, including WNT6 and ZIC1/ZIC4. In addition to mutations in POLR2A, NF2, SMARCB1, TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, PIK3CA, and SMO, we also report somatic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R1, PRKAR1A, and SUFU in meningiomas. Our results identify a role for essential transcriptional machinery in driving tumorigenesis and define mutually exclusive meningioma subgroups with distinct clinical and pathological features.

  12. Recurrent somatic mutations in POLR2A define a distinct subset of meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Victoria E; Harmancı, Akdes Serin; Bai, Hanwen; Youngblood, Mark W; Lee, Tong Ihn; Baranoski, Jacob F; Ercan-Sencicek, A Gulhan; Abraham, Brian J; Weintraub, Abraham S; Hnisz, Denes; Simon, Matthias; Krischek, Boris; Erson-Omay, E Zeynep; Henegariu, Octavian; Carrión-Grant, Geneive; Mishra-Gorur, Ketu; Durán, Daniel; Goldmann, Johanna E; Schramm, Johannes; Goldbrunner, Roland; Piepmeier, Joseph M; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Günel, Jennifer Moliterno; Bilgüvar, Kaya; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Young, Richard A; Günel, Murat

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase II mediates the transcription of all protein-coding genes in eukaryotic cells, a process that is fundamental to life. Genomic mutations altering this enzyme have not previously been linked to any pathology in humans, which is a testament to its indispensable role in cell biology. On the basis of a combination of next-generation genomic analyses of 775 meningiomas, we report that recurrent somatic p.Gln403Lys or p.Leu438_His439del mutations in POLR2A, which encodes the catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II (ref. 1), hijack this essential enzyme and drive neoplasia. POLR2A mutant tumors show dysregulation of key meningeal identity genes2, 3, including WNT6 and ZIC1/ZIC4. In addition to mutations in POLR2A, NF2, SMARCB1, TRAF7, KLF4, AKT1, PIK3CA, and SMO4, 5, 6, 7, 8, we also report somatic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R1, PRKAR1A, and SUFU in meningiomas. Our results identify a role for essential transcriptional machinery in driving tumorigenesis and define mutually exclusive meningioma subgroups with distinct clinical and pathological features. PMID:27548314

  13. Are the somatic mutation and tissue organization field theories of carcinogenesis incompatible?

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Two drastically different approaches to understanding the forces driving carcinogenesis have crystallized through years of research. These are the somatic mutation theory (SMT) and the tissue organization field theory (TOFT). The essence of SMT is that cancer is derived from a single somatic cell that has successively accumulated multiple DNA mutations, and that those mutations occur on genes which control cell proliferation and cell cycle. Thus, according to SMT, neoplastic lesions are the results of DNA-level events. Conversely, according to TOFT, carcinogenesis is primarily a problem of tissue organization: carcinogenic agents destroy the normal tissue architecture thus disrupting cell-to-cell signaling and compromising genomic integrity. Hence, in TOFT the DNA mutations are the effect, and not the cause, of the tissue-level events. Cardinal importance of successful resolution of the TOFT versus SMT controversy dwells in the fact that, according to SMT, cancer is a unidirectional and mostly irreversible disease; whereas, according to TOFT, it is curable and reversible. In this paper, our goal is to outline a plausible scenario in which TOFT and SMT can be reconciled using the framework and concepts of the self-organized criticality (SOC), the principle proven to be extremely fruitful in a wide range of disciplines pertaining to natural phenomena, to biological communities, to large-scale social developments, to technological networks, and to many other subjects of research.

  14. Single-Neuron Sequencing Analysis of L1 Retrotransposition and Somatic Mutation in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Lee, Eunjung; Hills, L. Benjamin; Elhosary, P. Christina; Lehmann, Hillel S.; Parker, J.J.; Atabay, Kutay D.; Gilmore, Edward C.; Poduri, Annapurna; Park, Peter J.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A major unanswered question in neuroscience is whether there exists genomic variability between individual neurons of the brain, contributing to functional diversity or to an unexplained burden of neurological disease. To address this question, we developed a method to amplify genomes of single neurons from human brains. Since recent reports suggest frequent LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition in human brains, we performed genome-wide L1 insertion profiling of 300 single neurons from cerebral cortex and caudate nucleus of 3 normal individuals, recovering >80% of germline insertions from single neurons. While we find somatic L1 insertions, we estimate <0.6 unique somatic insertions per neuron and most neurons lack detectable somatic insertions, suggesting that L1 is not a major generator of neuronal diversity in cortex and caudate. We then genotyped single cortical cells to characterize the mosaicism of a somatic AKT3 mutation identified in a child with hemimegalencephaly. Single-neuron sequencing allows systematic assessment of genomic diversity in the human brain. PMID:23101622

  15. Analysis of somatic mutation in five B cell subsets of human tonsil.

    PubMed

    Pascual, V; Liu, Y J; Magalski, A; de Bouteiller, O; Banchereau, J; Capra, J D

    1994-07-01

    Using a series of phenotypic markers that include immunoglobulin (Ig)D, IgM, IgG, CD23, CD44, Bcl-2, CD38, CD10, CD77, and Ki67, human tonsillar B cells were separated into five fractions representing different stages of B cell differentiation that included sIgD+ (Bm1 and Bm2), germinal center (Bm3 and Bm4), and memory (Bm5) B cells. To establish whether the initiation of somatic mutation correlated with this phenotypic characterization, we performed polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequence analysis of the Ig heavy chain variable region genes from each of the B cell subsets. We studied the genes from the smallest VH families (VH4, VH5, and VH6) in order to facilitate the mutational analysis. In agreement with previous reports, we found that the somatic mutation machinery is activated only after B cells reach the germinal center and become centroblasts (Bm3). Whereas 47 independently rearranged IgM transcripts from the Bm1 and Bm2 subsets were nearly germline encoded, 57 Bm3-, and Bm4-, and Bm5-derived IgM transcripts had accumulated an average of 5.7 point mutations within the VH gene segment. gamma transcripts corresponding to the same VH gene families were isolated from subsets Bm3, Bm4, and Bm5, and had accumulated an average of 9.5 somatic mutations. We conclude that the molecular events underlying the process of somatic mutation takes place during the transition from IgD+, CD23+ B cells (Bm2) to the IgD-, CD23-, germinal center centroblast (Bm3). Furthermore, the analysis of Ig variable region transcripts from the different subpopulations confirms that the pathway of B cell differentiation from virgin B cell throughout the germinal center up to the memory compartment can be traced with phenotypic markers. The availability of these subpopulations should permit the identification of the functional molecules relevant to each stage of B cell differentiation.

  16. Germline and somatic mutations in cortical malformations: Molecular defects in Argentinean patients with neuronal migration disorders.

    PubMed

    González-Morón, Dolores; Vishnopolska, Sebastián; Consalvo, Damián; Medina, Nancy; Marti, Marcelo; Córdoba, Marta; Vazquez-Dusefante, Cecilia; Claverie, Santiago; Rodríguez-Quiroga, Sergio Alejandro; Vega, Patricia; Silva, Walter; Kochen, Silvia; Kauffman, Marcelo Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal migration disorders are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of malformations of cortical development, frequently responsible for severe disability. Despite the increasing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this group of diseases, their genetic diagnosis remains unattainable in a high proportion of cases. Here, we present the results of 38 patients with lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia and subcortical band heterotopia from Argentina. We performed Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of DCX, FLNA and ARX and searched for copy number variations by MLPA in PAFAH1B1, DCX, POMT1, and POMGNT1. Additionally, somatic mosaicism at 5% or higher was investigated by means of targeted high coverage NGS of DCX, ARX, and PAFAH1B1. Our approach had a diagnostic yield of 36%. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified in 14 patients, including 10 germline (five novel) and 4 somatic mutations in FLNA, DCX, ARX and PAFAH1B1 genes. This study represents the largest series of patients comprehensively characterized in our population. Our findings reinforce the importance of somatic mutations in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of neuronal migration disorders and contribute to expand their phenotype-genotype correlations.

  17. Germline and somatic DICER1 mutations in a pituitary blastoma causing infantile-onset Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Pornkunwilai, Sopon; Amornfa, Jiraporn; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Kulawonganunchai, Supasak; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2014-08-01

    Pituitary blastoma causing Cushing's syndrome in infancy is very rare, and its molecular pathomechanism is not well understood. Our objective was to identify genetic changes of a pituitary blastoma causing infantile-onset Cushing's syndrome in a Thai girl without a family history of cancers. Genomic DNA from both leukocytes and tumor tissues was used for whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing of DICER1. The cDNA reverse-transcribed from RNA extracted from both leukocytes and tumor tissues was used for Sanger sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and pyrosequencing of DICER1. WES of leukocytes identified a novel heterozygous c.3046delA (p.S1016VfsX1065) mutation in the DICER1 gene. WES of the tumor tissues detected the same frameshift germline mutation and another novel somatic missense c.5438A→T (p.E1813V) mutation. Both mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the DICER1 mRNA levels of the tumor tissues were 54% compared with those of her leukocytes. Pyrosequencing showed that the deletion allele constituted 12% and 0% of the DICER1 cDNA of the proband's leukocytes and tumor tissues, respectively. Our study extends the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of DICER1 mutations to include infantile-onset Cushing's disease and 2 novel mutations. Loss of function of both DICER1 alleles appears to be crucial to initiate tumor development.

  18. Somatic mutations in p85α promote tumorigenesis through class IA PI3K activation

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Bijay S.; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Kljavin, Noelyn M.; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Stern, Howard M.; Wang, Weiru; Kan, Zhengyan; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Peters, Brock A.; Waring, Paul; Vega, Trisha Dela; Kenski, Denise M.; Bowman, Krista; Lorenzo, Maria; Li, Hong; Wu, Jiansheng; Modrusan, Zora; Stinson, Jeremy; Eby, Michael; Yue, Peng; Kaminker, Josh; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Backer, Jonathan M.; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Members of the mammalian phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K) family of proteins are critical regulators of various cellular process including cell survival, growth, proliferation and motility. Oncogenic activating mutations in the p110α catalytic subunit of the heterodimeric p110/p85 PI3K enzyme are frequent in human cancers. Here we show the presence of frequent mutations in p85α in colon cancer, a majority of which occurs in the inter-Src homology-2 (iSH2) domain. These mutations uncouple and retain p85α's p110-stabilizing activity, while abrogating its p110-inhibitory activity. The p85α mutants promote cell survival, Akt activation, anchorage independent cell growth, and oncogenesis in a p110-dependent manner. SIGNIFICANCE Somatic mutations in the catalytic p110α subunit of PI3K are common in cancers. In this study, we show the occurrence of frequent mutations in the regulatory p85α subunit of PI3K in human cancers. Our data demonstrate an alternate mechanism for PI3K-pathway activation and oncogenesis resulting from the impaired regulation of p110 activity by mutant p85α. Further, p85α mutations are likely to be useful as diagnostic markers for identification of p110-dependent tumors that may not carry an activating p110α mutation, but are candidates for targeted treatment with PI3K pathway inhibitors that are in development. PMID:19962665

  19. A search for evidence of somatic mutations in the NF1 gene

    PubMed Central

    John, A.; Ruggieri, M.; Ferner, R.; Upadhyaya, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting 1 in 3000 people. The NF1 gene is located on chromosome 17q11.2, spans 350 kb of genomic DNA, and contains 60 exons. A major phenotypic feature of the disease is the widespread occurrence of benign dermal and plexiform neurofibromas. Genetic and biochemical data support the hypothesis that NF1 acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Molecular analysis of a number of NF1 specific tumours has shown the inactivation of both NF1 alleles during tumourigenesis, in accordance with Knudson's "two hit" hypothesis. We have studied 82 tumours from 45 NF1 patients. Two separate strategies were used in this study to search for the somatic changes involved in the formation of NF1 tumours. First, evidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the NF1 gene region was investigated, and, second, a screen for the presence of sequence alterations was conducted on a large panel of DNA derived from matched blood/tumour pairs. In this study, the largest of its kind to date, we found that 12% of the tumours (10/82) exhibited LOH; previous studies have detected LOH in 3-36% of the neurofibromas examined. In addition, an SSCP/HA mutation screen identified five novel NF1 germline and two somatic mutations. In a plexiform neurofibroma from an NF1 patient, mutations in both NF1 alleles have been characterised.


Keywords: neurofibromatosis; NF1 gene; somatic mutations PMID:10633134

  20. Low somatic K-ras mutation frequency in colorectal cancer diagnosed under the age of 45 years.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Kathryn; Mead, Leeanne; Smith, Letitia D; Royce, Simon G; Tesoriero, Andrea A; Young, Joanne P; Haydon, Andrew; Grubb, Garry; Giles, Graham G; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C

    2006-07-01

    Somatic mutation of K-ras is known to be a common event in colorectal cancer tumourigenesis however its association with age at onset has not been widely explored. In this study, we have analyzed tumours from a population-based study of colorectal cancer diagnosed before the age of 45 years, in which cases had been previously screened for germ-line mismatch repair gene mutations and for microsatellite instability. We used a micro-dissection and sequencing approach to search for somatic K-ras mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 in 101 early-onset colorectal cancers. Six (6%) somatic K-ras mutations were detected; five in codon 12 (4 G>T transitions and 1 G>A) and one in codon 13 (G>A transition). All codon 12 mutations were identified in microsatellite stable tumours and the codon 13 mutation was identified in a MSI-high tumour. Four cases with K-ras mutations had no reported family history of colorectal cancer and two had some family history of colorectal cancer. None were known to carry a germ-line mutation in hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6 or hPMS2. The role of somatic K-ras mutations in early-onset colorectal cancer carcinogenesis appears to be minor, in contrast to its significant role in colorectal cancer of later age of onset.

  1. Germline MC1R status influences somatic mutation burden in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Roberts, Nicola D.; Chen, Shuyang; Leacy, Finbarr P.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Pornputtapong, Natapol; Halaban, Ruth; Krauthammer, Michael; Cui, Rutao; Timothy Bishop, D.; Adams, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The major genetic determinants of cutaneous melanoma risk in the general population are disruptive variants (R alleles) in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene. These alleles are also linked to red hair, freckling, and sun sensitivity, all of which are known melanoma phenotypic risk factors. Here we report that in melanomas and for somatic C>T mutations, a signature linked to sun exposure, the expected single-nucleotide variant count associated with the presence of an R allele is estimated to be 42% (95% CI, 15–76%) higher than that among persons without an R allele. This figure is comparable to the expected mutational burden associated with an additional 21 years of age. We also find significant and similar enrichment of non-C>T mutation classes supporting a role for additional mutagenic processes in melanoma development in individuals carrying R alleles. PMID:27403562

  2. Germline MC1R status influences somatic mutation burden in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Roberts, Nicola D; Chen, Shuyang; Leacy, Finbarr P; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Pornputtapong, Natapol; Halaban, Ruth; Krauthammer, Michael; Cui, Rutao; Timothy Bishop, D; Adams, David J

    2016-07-12

    The major genetic determinants of cutaneous melanoma risk in the general population are disruptive variants (R alleles) in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene. These alleles are also linked to red hair, freckling, and sun sensitivity, all of which are known melanoma phenotypic risk factors. Here we report that in melanomas and for somatic C>T mutations, a signature linked to sun exposure, the expected single-nucleotide variant count associated with the presence of an R allele is estimated to be 42% (95% CI, 15-76%) higher than that among persons without an R allele. This figure is comparable to the expected mutational burden associated with an additional 21 years of age. We also find significant and similar enrichment of non-C>T mutation classes supporting a role for additional mutagenic processes in melanoma development in individuals carrying R alleles.

  3. Activation of the LMO2 oncogene through a somatically acquired neomorphic promoter in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sunniyat; Magnussen, Michael; León, Theresa E; Farah, Nadine; Li, Zhaodong; Abraham, Brian J; Alapi, Krisztina Z; Mitchell, Rachel J; Naughton, Tom; Fielding, Adele K; Pizzey, Arnold; Bustraan, Sophia; Allen, Christopher; Popa, Teodora; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Garcia-Perez, Laura; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Staal, Frank J T; Young, Richard A; Look, A Thomas; Mansour, Marc R

    2017-03-07

    Somatic mutations within non-coding genomic regions that aberrantly activate oncogenes have remained poorly characterized. Here we describe recurrent activating intronic mutations of LMO2, a prominent oncogene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Heterozygous mutations were identified in PF-382 and DU.528 T-ALL cell lines, in addition to 3.7% (6/160) of pediatric and 5.5% (9/163) of adult T-ALL patient samples. The majority of indels harbour putative de novo MYB, ETS1 or RUNX1 consensus binding sites. Analysis of 5'-capped RNA transcripts in mutant cell lines identified the usage of an intermediate promoter site, with consequential monoallelic LMO2 overexpression. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the mutant allele in PF-382 cells markedly downregulated LMO2 expression, establishing clear causality between the mutation and oncogene dysregulation. Furthermore, the spectrum of CRISPR/Cas9-derived mutations provide important insights into the interconnected contributions of functional transcription factor binding. Finally, these mutations occur in the same intron as retroviral integration sites in gene therapy induced T-ALL, suggesting that such events occur at preferential sites in the non-coding genome.

  4. Somatic mutations of the MET oncogene are selected during metastatic spread of human HNSC carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, M F; Olivero, M; Martone, T; Maffe, A; Maggiora, P; Stefani, A D; Valente, G; Giordano, S; Cortesina, G; Comoglio, P M

    2000-03-16

    A metastatic cancer develops by accumulation of mutations in genes that control growth, survival and spreading. The latter genes have not yet been identified. In lymph node metastases of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), we found mutations in the MET oncogene, which encodes the tyrosine kinase receptor for Scatter Factor, a cytokine that stimulates epithelial cell motility and invasiveness during embryogenesis and tissue remodeling. We identified two somatic mutations: the Y1230C, known as a MET germline mutation which predisposes to hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and the Y1235D that is novel and changes a critical tyrosine, known to regulate MET kinase activity. The mutated MET receptors are constitutively active and confer an invasive phenotype to transfected cells. Interestingly, cells carrying the MET mutations are selected during metastatic spread: transcripts of the mutant alleles are highly represented in metastases, but barely detectable in primary tumors. These data indicate that cells expressing mutant MET undergo clonal expansion during HNSCC progression and suggest that MET might be one of the long sought oncogenes controlling progression of primary cancers to metastasis.

  5. Recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1 in pediatric midline high-grade astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Fontebasso, Adam M.; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Nikbakht, Hamid; Gerges, Noha; Fiset, Pierre-Olivier; Bechet, Denise; Faury, Damien; De Jay, Nicolas; Ramkissoon, Lori; Corcoran, Aoife; Jones, David T W; Sturm, Dominik; Johann, Pascal; Tomita, Tadanori; Goldman, Stewart; Nagib, Mahmoud; Bendel, Anne; Goumnerova, Liliana; Bowers, Daniel C.; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Alden, Tord; Browd, Samuel; Geyer, J. Russell; Leary, Sarah; Jallo, George; Cohen, Kenneth; Gupta, Nalin; Prados, Michael D.; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Ellezam, Benjamin; Crevier, Louis; Klekner, Almos; Bognar, Laszlo; Hauser, Peter; Garami, Miklos; Myseros, John; Dong, Zhifeng; Siegel, Peter M.; Malkin, Hayley; Ligon, Azra; Albrecht, Steffen; Pfister, Stefan M.; Ligon, Keith L.; Majewski, Jacek; Jabado, Nada; Kieran, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Midline pediatric high-grade astrocytomas (pHGAs) are incurable with few treatment targets identified. Most tumors harbor K27M mutations on histone 3 variants. In 40 treatment-naïve midline pHGAs, 39 analyzed by whole-exome sequencing, we find additional somatic mutations specific to tumor location. Gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1 occur in tumors of the pons in conjunction with H3.1 K27M, while FGFR1 mutations/fusions occur in thalamic tumors associated with H3.3 K27M. Hyper-activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/ACVR1 developmental pathway in pHGAs harbouring ACVR1 mutations led to increased phospho-SMAD1/5/8 expression and up-regulation of BMP downstream early response genes in tumour cells. Global DNA methylation profiles were significantly associated with the K27M mutation regardless of the mutant H3 variant and irrespective of tumor location, supporting its role in driving the epigenetic phenotype. This significantly expands the potential treatment targets and further justifies pre-treatment biopsy in pHGA as a means to orient therapeutic efforts in this disease. PMID:24705250

  6. Prevalent Accumulation of Non-Optimal Codons through Somatic Mutations in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xudong; Li, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth, and the cause of different cancers is generally attributed to checkpoint dysregulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that non-optimal codons were preferentially adopted by genes to generate cell cycle-dependent oscillations in protein levels. This raises the intriguing question of how dynamic changes of codon usage modulate the cancer genome to cope with a non-controlled proliferative cell cycle. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the somatic mutations of codons in human cancers, and found that non-optimal codons tended to be accumulated through both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations compared with other types of genomic substitution. We further demonstrated that non-optimal codons were prevalently accumulated across different types of cancers, amino acids, and chromosomes, and genes with accumulation of non-optimal codons tended to be involved in protein interaction/signaling networks and encoded important enzymes in metabolic networks that played roles in cancer-related pathways. This study provides insights into the dynamics of codons in the cancer genome and demonstrates that accumulation of non-optimal codons may be an adaptive strategy for cancerous cells to win the competition with normal cells. This deeper interpretation of the patterns and the functional characterization of somatic mutations of codons will help to broaden the current understanding of the molecular basis of cancers. PMID:27513638

  7. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Natalie; Chan, Kin; Grimm, Sara A.; Dai, Shuangshuang; Fargo, David C.; Kaufmann, William K.; Taylor, Jack A.; Lee, Eunjung; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Park, Peter J.; Schurman, Shepherd H.; Malc, Ewa P.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307 PMID:27788131

  8. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Saini, Natalie; Roberts, Steven A; Klimczak, Leszek J; Chan, Kin; Grimm, Sara A; Dai, Shuangshuang; Fargo, David C; Boyer, Jayne C; Kaufmann, William K; Taylor, Jack A; Lee, Eunjung; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Park, Peter J; Schurman, Shepherd H; Malc, Ewa P; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Gordenin, Dmitry A

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307.

  9. SY 03-3 OVERVIEW OF SOMATIC MUTATIONS AND EPIGENETIC REGULATION OF ALDOSTERONE PRODUCING ADENOMA (APA).

    PubMed

    Umemura, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. A unilateral APA is the most common curable cause of hypertension. Early detection of an APA is important both to cure of hypertension by means of adenoma removal and to prevent the onset of resistant hypertension and the risk of long-term cardiovascular complications, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. (Hypertens 2013; 62: 331)(1) Novel somatic mutations in APARecent advances in genome technology have allowed researchers to unravel part of the genetic abnormalities underlying the development of APA. Pathogenic mechanisms of APA by the somatic mutation are as follows.The majority of the GIRK4 APA mutations (KCNJ5) lie in or within the close proximity of the ion selectivity filter of the K+ channel and result in the indiscriminate conductance of Na+ that causes membrane depolarization, Ca2+ influx, and increased aldosterone biosynthesis.Mutations in the Na+/K+- ATPase 1 (ATP1A1) produce a decrease in K+ binding that results in the reduced import of K+ and export of Na+ and also causes cell depolarization. This in turn results in the opening of voltage- gated Ca2+-channels.In contrast, the Ca2+-ATPase mutations (ATP2B3) were proposed to affect the clearance of cytoplasmic calcium ions. The net result of mutations in both ATPases is therefore likely to cause

  10. Association of CDK4 germline and BRAF somatic mutations in a patient with multiple primary melanomas and BRAF inhibitor resistance.

    PubMed

    Governa, Maurizio; Caprarella, Evelina; Dalla Pozza, Edoardo; Vigato, Enrico; Maritan, Monia; Caputo, Glenda G; Zannoni, Marina; Rosina, Paolo; Elefanti, Lisa; Stagni, Camilla; Menin, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Many genetic alterations, including predisposing or somatic mutations, may contribute toward the development of melanoma. Although CDKN2A and CDK4 are high-penetrance genes for melanoma, MC1R is a low-penetrance gene that has been associated most consistently with the disease. Moreover, BRAF is the most frequently somatically altered oncogene and is a validated therapeutic target in melanoma. This paper reports a case of multiple primary melanoma with germline CDK4 mutation, MC1R variant, and somatic BRAF mutation in nine out of 10 melanomas, indicating that a common pathogenesis, because of a predisposing genetic background, may be shared among distinct subsequent melanomas of probable clonal origin. After 3 months of targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitor, our patient developed resistance with rapid progression of the disease leading to death. This is the first case in which early resistance to BRAF inhibitor has been reported in a patient with CDK4 germline mutation.

  11. Novel MED12 gene somatic mutations in women from the Southern United States with symptomatic uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Laknaur, Archana; Miller, Jessica; Layman, Lawrence C.; Diamond, Michael; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    Although somatic mutations in exon 2 of the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) gene have been reported previously in uterine fibroids in women from Finland, South Africa, and North America, the status of these mutations was not reported in the Southern United States women. The aim of this study is to determine the MED12 somatic mutations in uterine fibroids of women from Southern Unites States, which will help to better understand the contribution of MED12 mutations in fibroid tumor biology. Herein, we determined the frequency of MED12 gene exon 2 somatic mutations in 143 fibroid tumors from a total of 135 women from the Southern United States and in 50 samples of the adjacent myometrium using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. We observed that the MED12 gene is mutated in 64.33 % (92/143) of uterine fibroid cases in the exon 2 (including deletion mutations). These mutations include 107T > G (4.3 %), 130G > C (2.8 %), 130G > A (7.0 %), 130G > T (2.8 %), 131G > C (2.1 %), 131G > A (20.2 %), and 131G > T (2.1 %). Interestingly, we identified four novel mutations in these patients: 107 T > C (12.8 %), 105A > T (2.1 %), 122T > A (2.1 %), and 92T > A (2.1 %). As expected, we did not observe any mutations in the normal myometrium. Moreover, we found a higher rate of deletion mutations (17.5 %, 25/143) in the above fibroid tumors. Our results clearly demonstrate that the MED12 gene exon 2 is frequently mutated in human uterine fibroids in Southern United States women. These results highlight the molecular pathogenesis of human uterine fibroids with the central role of MED12 somatic mutations. PMID:25325994

  12. Somatic gene mutations in African Americans may predict worse outcomes in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Melissa; Shen, Xiang J; Kim, Sangmi; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Chris F; Sandler, Robert S; Keku, Temitope O

    2013-01-01

    African Americans have worse outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) than Caucasians. We sought to determine if KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations might contribute to the racial differences in CRC outcome. DNA was extracted from tissue microarrays made from CRC samples from 67 African Americans and 237 Caucasians. Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA were evaluated by PCR sequencing. We also examined microsatellite instability (MSI) status. Associations of mutation status with tumor stage and grade were examined using a logistic regression model. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the all-cause mortality associated with mutational status, race and other clinicopathologic features. KRAS mutations were more common in African Americans than among Caucasians (37% vs 21%, p=0.01) and were associated with advanced stage (unadjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-10.61) and grade (unadjusted OR=5.60, 95% CI 1.01-31.95) among African Americans. Presence of BRAF mutations was also positively associated with advanced tumor stage (adjusted OR=3.99, 95%CI 1.43-11.12) and grade (adjusted OR=3.93, 95%CI 1.05-14.69). PIK3CA mutations showed a trend toward an association with an increased risk of death compared to absence of those mutations (adjusted for age, sex and CRC site HR=1.89, 95% CI 0.98-3.65). Among African Americans, the association was more evident (adjusted for age, sex and CRC site HR=3.92, 95% CI 1.03-14.93) and remained significant after adjustment for MSI-H status and combined education-income level, with HR of 12.22 (95%CI 1.32-121.38). Our results suggest that African Americans may have different frequencies of somatic genetic alterations that may partially explain the worse prognosis among African Americans with CRC compared to whites.

  13. Pancancer modelling predicts the context-specific impact of somatic mutations on transcriptional programs

    PubMed Central

    Osmanbeyoglu, Hatice U.; Toska, Eneda; Chan, Carmen; Baselga, José; Leslie, Christina S.

    2017-01-01

    Pancancer studies have identified many genes that are frequently somatically altered across multiple tumour types, suggesting that pathway-targeted therapies can be deployed across diverse cancers. However, the same ‘actionable mutation' impacts distinct context-specific gene regulatory programs and signalling networks—and interacts with different genetic backgrounds of co-occurring alterations—in different cancers. Here we apply a computational strategy for integrating parallel (phospho)proteomic and mRNA sequencing data across 12 TCGA tumour data sets to interpret the context-specific impact of somatic alterations in terms of functional signatures such as (phospho)protein and transcription factor (TF) activities. Our analysis predicts distinct dysregulated transcriptional regulators downstream of somatic alterations in different cancers, and we validate the context-specific differential activity of TFs associated to mutant PIK3CA in isogenic cancer cell line models. These results have implications for the pancancer use of targeted drugs and potentially for the design of combination therapies. PMID:28139702

  14. Recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1 in pediatric midline high-grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Fontebasso, Adam M; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Nikbakht, Hamid; Gerges, Noha; Fiset, Pierre-Olivier; Bechet, Denise; Faury, Damien; De Jay, Nicolas; Ramkissoon, Lori A; Corcoran, Aoife; Jones, David T W; Sturm, Dominik; Johann, Pascal; Tomita, Tadanori; Goldman, Stewart; Nagib, Mahmoud; Bendel, Anne; Goumnerova, Liliana; Bowers, Daniel C; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Rubin, Joshua B; Alden, Tord; Browd, Samuel; Geyer, J Russell; Leary, Sarah; Jallo, George; Cohen, Kenneth; Gupta, Nalin; Prados, Michael D; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Ellezam, Benjamin; Crevier, Louis; Klekner, Almos; Bognar, Laszlo; Hauser, Peter; Garami, Miklos; Myseros, John; Dong, Zhifeng; Siegel, Peter M; Malkin, Hayley; Ligon, Azra H; Albrecht, Steffen; Pfister, Stefan M; Ligon, Keith L; Majewski, Jacek; Jabado, Nada; Kieran, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Pediatric midline high-grade astrocytomas (mHGAs) are incurable with few treatment targets identified. Most tumors harbor mutations encoding p.Lys27Met in histone H3 variants. In 40 treatment-naive mHGAs, 39 analyzed by whole-exome sequencing, we find additional somatic mutations specific to tumor location. Gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1 occur in tumors of the pons in conjunction with histone H3.1 p.Lys27Met substitution, whereas FGFR1 mutations or fusions occur in thalamic tumors associated with histone H3.3 p.Lys27Met substitution. Hyperactivation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-ACVR1 developmental pathway in mHGAs harboring ACVR1 mutations led to increased levels of phosphorylated SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD8 and upregulation of BMP downstream early-response genes in tumor cells. Global DNA methylation profiles were significantly associated with the p.Lys27Met alteration, regardless of the mutant histone H3 variant and irrespective of tumor location, supporting the role of this substitution in driving the epigenetic phenotype. This work considerably expands the number of potential treatment targets and further justifies pretreatment biopsy in pediatric mHGA as a means to orient therapeutic efforts in this disease.

  15. Endometrial cancer and somatic G>T KRAS transversion in patients with constitutional MUTYH biallelic mutations.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Rossella; Bet, Paola; Ciambotti, Benedetta; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Gismondi, Viviana; Toschi, Benedetta; Tonelli, Francesco; Varesco, Liliana; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2009-02-18

    MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is an autosomal recessive condition predisposing to colorectal cancer, caused by constitutional biallelic mutations in the base excision repair (BER) gene MUTYH. Colorectal tumours from MAP patients display an excess of somatic G>T mutations in the APC and KRAS genes due to defective BER function. To date, few extracolonic manifestations have been observed in MAP patients, and the clinical spectrum of this condition is not yet fully established. Recently, one patient with a diagnosis of endometrial cancer and biallelic MUTYH mutations has been described. We here report on two additional unrelated MAP patients with biallelic MUTYH germline mutations who developed endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. The endometrial tumours were evaluated for PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, BRAF and CTNNB1 mutations. A G>T transversion at codon 12 of the KRAS gene was observed in one tumour. A single 1bp frameshift deletion of PTEN was observed in the same sample. Overall, these findings suggest that endometrial carcinoma is a phenotypic manifestations of MAP and that inefficient repair of oxidative damage can be involved in its pathogenesis.

  16. From germline towards somatic mutations in the pathophysiology of vascular anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Nisha; Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-01-01

    The localized structural abnormalities that arise during vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, the developmental processes which give rise to the adult vasculature, are collectively termed vascular anomalies. The last 2 years have seen an explosion of studies that underscore paradominant inheritance, the combination of inherited changes with somatic second-hits to the same genes, as underlying rare familial forms. Moreover, local, somatic genetic defects that cause some of the common sporadic forms of these malformations have been unraveled. This highlights the importance of assessing for tissue-based genetic changes, especially acquired genetic changes, as possible pathophysiological causes, which have been largely overlooked except in the area of cancer research. Large-scale somatic screens will therefore be essential in uncovering the nature and prevalence of such changes, and their downstream effects. The identification of disease genes combined with exhaustive, precise clinical delineations of the entire spectra of associated phenotypes guides better management and genetic counseling. Such a synthesis of information on functional and phenotypic effects will enable us to make and use animal models to test less invasive, targeted, perhaps locally administered, biological therapies. PMID:19297403

  17. Non-invasive detection of somatic mutations using next-generation sequencing in primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fontanilles, Maxime; Marguet, Florent; Bohers, Élodie; Viailly, Pierre-Julien; Dubois, Sydney; Bertrand, Philippe; Camus, Vincent; Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Lepretre, Stéphane; Veresezan, Elena-Liana; Derrey, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Laquerrière, Annie; Jardin, Fabrice

    2017-07-18

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) have recurrent genomic alterations. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate that targeted sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released by PCNSL at the time of diagnosis could identify somatic mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS). PlasmacfDNA and matched tumor DNA (tDNA) from 25 PCNSL patients were sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies®). First, patient-specific targeted sequencing of identified somatic mutations in tDNA was performed. Then, a second sequencing targeting MYD88 c.T778C was performed and compared to plasma samples from 25 age-matched control patients suffering from other types of cancer. According to the patient-specific targeted sequencing, eight patients (32% [95% CI 15-54%]) had detectable somatic mutations in cfDNA. Considering MYD88 sequencing, six patients had the specific c.T778C alteration detected in plasma. Using a control group, the sensitivity was 24% [9-45%] and the specificity was 100%. Tumor volume or deep brain structure involvement did not influence the detection of somatic mutations in plasma. This pilot study provided evidence that somatic mutations can be detected by NGS in the cfDNA of a subset of patients suffering from PCNSL.

  18. Non-invasive detection of somatic mutations using next-generation sequencing in primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Fontanilles, Maxime; Marguet, Florent; Bohers, Élodie; Viailly, Pierre-Julien; Dubois, Sydney; Bertrand, Philippe; Camus, Vincent; Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Lepretre, Stéphane; Veresezan, Elena-Liana; Derrey, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Laquerrière, Annie; Jardin, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) have recurrent genomic alterations. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate that targeted sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released by PCNSL at the time of diagnosis could identify somatic mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Patients and Methods PlasmacfDNA and matched tumor DNA (tDNA) from 25 PCNSL patients were sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies®). First, patient-specific targeted sequencing of identified somatic mutations in tDNA was performed. Then, a second sequencing targeting MYD88 c.T778C was performed and compared to plasma samples from 25 age-matched control patients suffering from other types of cancer. Results According to the patient-specific targeted sequencing, eight patients (32% [95% CI 15-54%]) had detectable somatic mutations in cfDNA. Considering MYD88 sequencing, six patients had the specific c.T778C alteration detected in plasma. Using a control group, the sensitivity was 24% [9-45%] and the specificity was 100%. Tumor volume or deep brain structure involvement did not influence the detection of somatic mutations in plasma. Conclusion This pilot study provided evidence that somatic mutations can be detected by NGS in the cfDNA of a subset of patients suffering from PCNSL. PMID:28636991

  19. Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p as a molecular event associated with marrow fibrosis in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bordoni, Roberta; Casetti, Ilaria; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Rotunno, Giada; Severgnini, Marco; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Astori, Cesare; Fugazza, Elena; Pascutto, Cristiana; Boveri, Emanuela; Passamonti, Francesco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-05-23

    We studied mutations of MPL exon 10 in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF), first investigating a cohort of 892 consecutive patients. MPL mutation scanning was performed on granulocyte genomic DNA by using a high-resolution melt assay, and the mutant allele burden was evaluated by using deep sequencing. Somatic mutations of MPL, all but one involving codon W515, were detected in 26/661 (4%) patients with ET, 10/187 (5%) with PMF, and 7/44 (16%) patients with post-ET myelofibrosis. Comparison of JAK2 (V617F)-mutated and MPL-mutated patients showed only minor phenotypic differences. In an extended group of 62 MPL-mutated patients, the granulocyte mutant allele burden ranged from 1% to 95% and was significantly higher in patients with PMF or post-ET myelofibrosis compared with those with ET. Patients with higher mutation burdens had evidence of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chromosome 1p in granulocytes, consistent with a transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity for the MPL mutation in clonal cells. A significant association was found between MPL-mutant allele burden greater than 50% and marrow fibrosis. These observations suggest that acquired CN-LOH of chromosome 1p involving the MPL location may represent a molecular mechanism of fibrotic transformation in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  20. Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p as a molecular event associated with marrow fibrosis in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Pietra, Daniela; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bordoni, Roberta; Casetti, Ilaria; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant’Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Rotunno, Giada; Severgnini, Marco; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Astori, Cesare; Fugazza, Elena; Pascutto, Cristiana; Boveri, Emanuela; Passamonti, Francesco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We studied mutations of MPL exon 10 in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF), first investigating a cohort of 892 consecutive patients. MPL mutation scanning was performed on granulocyte genomic DNA by using a high-resolution melt assay, and the mutant allele burden was evaluated by using deep sequencing. Somatic mutations of MPL, all but one involving codon W515, were detected in 26/661 (4%) patients with ET, 10/187 (5%) with PMF, and 7/44 (16%) patients with post-ET myelofibrosis. Comparison of JAK2 (V617F)–mutated and MPL-mutated patients showed only minor phenotypic differences. In an extended group of 62 MPL-mutated patients, the granulocyte mutant allele burden ranged from 1% to 95% and was significantly higher in patients with PMF or post-ET myelofibrosis compared with those with ET. Patients with higher mutation burdens had evidence of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chromosome 1p in granulocytes, consistent with a transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity for the MPL mutation in clonal cells. A significant association was found between MPL-mutant allele burden greater than 50% and marrow fibrosis. These observations suggest that acquired CN-LOH of chromosome 1p involving the MPL location may represent a molecular mechanism of fibrotic transformation in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:23575445

  1. Comparison of mitochondrial mutation spectra in ageing human colonic epithelium and disease: absence of evidence for purifying selection in somatic mitochondrial DNA point mutations.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Laura C; Elson, Joanna L; Nooteboom, Marco; Grady, John P; Taylor, Geoffrey A; Taylor, Robert W; Mathers, John C; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Turnbull, Doug M

    2012-01-01

    Human ageing has been predicted to be caused by the accumulation of molecular damage in cells and tissues. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been documented in a number of ageing tissues and have been shown to be associated with cellular mitochondrial dysfunction. It is unknown whether there are selective constraints, which have been shown to occur in the germline, on the occurrence and expansion of these mtDNA mutations within individual somatic cells. Here we compared the pattern and spectrum of mutations observed in ageing human colon to those observed in the general population (germline variants) and those associated with primary mtDNA disease. The pathogenicity of the protein encoding mutations was predicted using a computational programme, MutPred, and the scores obtained for the three groups compared. We show that the mutations associated with ageing are randomly distributed throughout the genome, are more frequently non-synonymous or frameshift mutations than the general population, and are significantly more pathogenic than population variants. Mutations associated with primary mtDNA disease were significantly more pathogenic than ageing or population mutations. These data provide little evidence for any selective constraints on the occurrence and expansion of mtDNA mutations in somatic cells of the human colon during human ageing in contrast to germline mutations seen in the general population.

  2. Germline and somatic JAK2 mutations and susceptibility to chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of closely related stem-cell-derived clonal proliferative diseases. Most cases are sporadic but first-degree relatives of MPN patients have a five- to seven-fold increased risk for developing an MPN. The tumors of most patients carry a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2V617F). Recently, three groups have described a strong association of JAK2 germline polymorphisms with MPN in patients positive for JAK2V617F. The somatic mutation occurs primarily on one particular germline JAK2 haplotype, which may account for as much as 50% of the risk to first-degree relatives. This finding provides new directions for unraveling the pathogenesis of MPN. PMID:19490586

  3. Profiling of somatic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3-ITD at diagnosis and relapse.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manoj; Nagata, Yasunobu; Kanojia, Deepika; Mayakonda, Anand; Yoshida, Kenichi; Haridas Keloth, Sreya; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ding, Ling-Wen; Alpermann, Tamara; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Lin, De-Chen; Chien, Wenwen; Madan, Vikas; Liu, Li-Zhen; Tan, Kar-Tong; Sampath, Abhishek; Venkatesan, Subhashree; Inokuchi, Koiti; Wakita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Chng, Wee Joo; Kham, Shirley-Kow Yin; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh; Sanada, Masashi; Schiller, Joanna; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Kornblau, Steven M; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Haferlach, Torsten; Lill, Michael; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Shih, Lee-Yung; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Blau, Olga; Yang, Henry; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2015-11-26

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a grave prognosis. To identify the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, whole-exome sequencing was performed on 13 matched diagnosis, relapse, and remission trios followed by targeted sequencing of 299 genes in 67 FLT3-ITD patients. The FLT3-ITD genome has an average of 13 mutations per sample, similar to other AML subtypes, which is a low mutation rate compared with that in solid tumors. Recurrent mutations occur in genes related to DNA methylation, chromatin, histone methylation, myeloid transcription factors, signaling, adhesion, cohesin complex, and the spliceosome. Their pattern of mutual exclusivity and cooperation among mutated genes suggests that these genes have a strong biological relationship. In addition, we identified mutations in previously unappreciated genes such as MLL3, NSD1, FAT1, FAT4, and IDH3B. Mutations in 9 genes were observed in the relapse-specific phase. DNMT3A mutations are the most stable mutations, and this DNMT3A-transformed clone can be present even in morphologic complete remissions. Of note, all AML matched trio samples shared at least 1 genomic alteration at diagnosis and relapse, suggesting common ancestral clones. Two types of clonal evolution occur at relapse: either the founder clone recurs or a subclone of the founder clone escapes from induction chemotherapy and expands at relapse by acquiring new mutations. Relapse-specific mutations displayed an increase in transversions. Functional assays demonstrated that both MLL3 and FAT1 exert tumor-suppressor activity in the FLT3-ITD subtype. An inhibitor of XPO1 synergized with standard AML induction chemotherapy to inhibit FLT3-ITD growth. This study clearly shows that FLT3-ITD AML requires additional driver genetic alterations in addition to FLT3-ITD alone. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Profiling of somatic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3-ITD at diagnosis and relapse

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yasunobu; Kanojia, Deepika; Mayakonda, Anand; Yoshida, Kenichi; Haridas Keloth, Sreya; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ding, Ling-Wen; Alpermann, Tamara; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Lin, De-Chen; Chien, Wenwen; Madan, Vikas; Liu, Li-Zhen; Tan, Kar-Tong; Sampath, Abhishek; Venkatesan, Subhashree; Inokuchi, Koiti; Wakita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Chng, Wee Joo; Kham, Shirley-Kow Yin; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh; Sanada, Masashi; Schiller, Joanna; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Kornblau, Steven M.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Haferlach, Torsten; Lill, Michael; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Shih, Lee-Yung; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Blau, Olga; Yang, Henry; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a grave prognosis. To identify the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, whole-exome sequencing was performed on 13 matched diagnosis, relapse, and remission trios followed by targeted sequencing of 299 genes in 67 FLT3-ITD patients. The FLT3-ITD genome has an average of 13 mutations per sample, similar to other AML subtypes, which is a low mutation rate compared with that in solid tumors. Recurrent mutations occur in genes related to DNA methylation, chromatin, histone methylation, myeloid transcription factors, signaling, adhesion, cohesin complex, and the spliceosome. Their pattern of mutual exclusivity and cooperation among mutated genes suggests that these genes have a strong biological relationship. In addition, we identified mutations in previously unappreciated genes such as MLL3, NSD1, FAT1, FAT4, and IDH3B. Mutations in 9 genes were observed in the relapse-specific phase. DNMT3A mutations are the most stable mutations, and this DNMT3A-transformed clone can be present even in morphologic complete remissions. Of note, all AML matched trio samples shared at least 1 genomic alteration at diagnosis and relapse, suggesting common ancestral clones. Two types of clonal evolution occur at relapse: either the founder clone recurs or a subclone of the founder clone escapes from induction chemotherapy and expands at relapse by acquiring new mutations. Relapse-specific mutations displayed an increase in transversions. Functional assays demonstrated that both MLL3 and FAT1 exert tumor-suppressor activity in the FLT3-ITD subtype. An inhibitor of XPO1 synergized with standard AML induction chemotherapy to inhibit FLT3-ITD growth. This study clearly shows that FLT3-ITD AML requires additional driver genetic alterations in addition to FLT3-ITD alone. PMID:26438511

  5. A comparison of somatic mutational spectra in healthy study populations from Russia, Sweden and USA.

    PubMed

    Noori, Peri; Hou, Saimei; Jones, Irene M; Thomas, Cynthia B; Lambert, Bo

    2005-06-01

    A comparison of mutation spectra at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes may provide an insight into the aetiology of somatic mutation contributing to carcinogenesis and other diseases. To increase the knowledge of mutation spectra in healthy people, we have analysed HPRT mutant T-cells of 50 healthy Russians originally recruited as controls in a study involving Chernobyl clean-up workers [I.M. Jones, H.Galick, P.Kato et al. (2002) Radiat. Res., 158, 424-442]. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing identified 161 independent mutations among 176 thioguanine-resistant mutants. Forty mutations affected splicing mechanisms and 27 deletions or insertions of 1-60 nt were identified. Ninety-four single base substitutions were identified, including 62 different mutations at 55 different nucleotide positions, of which 19 had not been reported previously in human T-cells. Comparison of this base substitution spectrum with mutation spectra in a USA [K.J.Burkhart-Schultz, C.L. Thompson and I.M. Jones (1996) Carcinogenesis, 17, 1871-1883] and two Swedish populations [A.Podlutsky, A.-M.Osterholm, S.-M.Hou, A. Hofmaier and B. Lambert (1998) Carcinogenesis, 19, 557-566; A.Podlutsky, S.M.Hou, F.Nyberg, G. Pershagen and B. Lambert (1999) Mutat. Res., 431, 325-39] revealed similarity in the type, frequency and distribution of mutations in the four spectra, consistent with aetiologies inherent in human metabolism. There were 15-19 identical mutations in the three pairwise comparisons of Russian with USA and Swedish spectra. Intriguingly, there were 21 mutations unique to the Russian spectrum, and comparison by the Monte Carlo method of W.T. Adams and T.R. Skopek [(1987) J. Mol. Biol., 194, 391-396] indicated that the Russian spectrum was different from both Swedish spectra (P = 0.007, 0.002), but not different from the USA spectrum (P = 0.07) when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons

  6. Nelson`s syndrome associated with a somatic frame shift mutation in the glucocorticoid recepter gene

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, M.; Stratakis, C.A.; Chrousos, G.P.; Katz, D.A.; Ali, I.U.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Nelson`s syndrome is the appearance and/or progression of ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas in patients who had previously undergone bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing`s disease. Extremely high plasma ACTH levels and aggressive neoplastic growth might be explained by the lack of appropriate glucocorticoid negative feedback due to defective glucocorticoid signal transduction. To study the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in Nelson`s syndrome, DNA was extracted from pituitary adenomas and leukocytes of four patients with this condition and amplified by PCR for direct sequence analysis. In one of the tumors, a heterozygous mutation, consisting of an insertion of a thymine between complementary DNA nucleotides 1188 and 1189, was found in exon 2. This frame-shift mutation led to premature termination at amino acid residue 366 of the world-type coding sequence, excluding the expression of a functioning receptor protein from the defective allele. The mutation was not detected in the sequence of the GR gene in the patient`s leukocyte DNA, indicating a somatic origin. By lowering the receptor number in tumorous cells, this defect might have caused local resistance to negative glucocorticoid feedback similar to that caused by the presence of a null allele in a kindred with the generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. P53 protein accumulation, previously reported in 60% of corticotropinomas, could not be detected in any of the four pituitary tumors examined by immunohistochemistry. We suggest that a somatic GR defect might have played a pathophysiological role in the tumorigenesis of the corticotropinoma bearing this mutation. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Diphtheria toxin resistance in human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the in vivo somatic cell mutation test

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, D.J.; Wei, L.; Laurie, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used for the enumeration of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells that presumably arise by mutation in vivo. This somatic cell mutation test has been studied in lymphocytes from human populations exposed to known mutagens and/or carcinogens. The sensitivity of the test could be further enhanced by including other gene markers, since there is evidence for locus-specific differences in response to mutagens. Resistance to diphtheria toxin (Dip/sup r/) seemed like a potential marker to incorporate into the test because the mutation acts codominantly, can readily be selected in human diploid fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cells with no evidence for cell density or cross-feeding effects, and can be assayed for in nondividing cells by measuring protein synthesis inhibition. Blood samples were collected from seven individuals, and fresh, cryopreserved, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes were tested for continued DNA synthesis (TH-thymidine, autoradiography) or protein synthesis (TVS-methionine, scintillation counting). Both fresh and cryopreserved lymphocytes, stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), continued to synthesize DNA in the presence of high doses of diphtheria toxin (DT). Similarly, both dividing (PHA-stimulated) and nondividing fresh lymphocytes carried on significant levels of protein synthesis even 68 hr after exposure to 100 flocculating units (LF)/ml DT. The results suggest that human T and B lymphocytes may not be as sensitive to DT protein synthesis inhibition as human fibroblast and Chinese hamster cells. For this reason, Dip/sup r/ may not be a suitable marker for the somatic cell mutation test.

  8. Somatic gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CA in patients with macrodactyly

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Jonathan J.; Paria, Nandina; Burns, Dennis K.; Israel, Bonnie A.; Cornelia, Reuel; Wise, Carol A.; Ezaki, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Macrodactyly is a discrete congenital anomaly consisting of enlargement of all tissues localized to the terminal portions of a limb, typically within a ‘nerve territory’. The classic terminology for this condition is ‘lipofibromatous hamartoma of nerve’ or Type I macrodactyly. The peripheral nerve, itself, is enlarged both in circumference and in length. It is not related to neurofibromatosis (NF1), nor is it associated with vascular malformations, such as in the recently reported CLOVES syndrome. The specific nerve pathophysiology in this form of macrodactyly has not been well described and a genetic etiology for this specific form of enlargement is unknown. To identify the genetic cause of macrodactyly, we used whole-exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations present in the affected nerve of a single patient. We confirmed a novel mutation in PIK3CA (R115P) present in the patient's affected nerve tissue but not in blood DNA. Sequencing PIK3CA exons identified gain-of-function mutations (E542K, H1047L or H1047R) in the affected tissue of five additional unrelated patients; mutations were absent in blood DNA available from three patients. Immunocytochemistry confirmed AKT activation in cultured cells from the nerve of a macrodactyly patient. Additionally, we found that the most abnormal structure within the involved nerve in a macrodactylous digit is the perineurium, with additional secondary effects on the axon number and size. Thus, isolated congenital macrodactyly is caused by somatic activation of the PI3K/AKT cell-signaling pathway and is genetically and biochemically related to other overgrowth syndromes. PMID:23100325

  9. Symptomatic Congenital Hemangioma and Congenital Hemangiomatosis Associated With a Somatic Activating Mutation in GNA11.

    PubMed

    Funk, Tracy; Lim, Young; Kulungowski, Ann M; Prok, Lori; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Choate, Keith; Bruckner, Anna L

    2016-09-01

    Congenital hemangiomas are uncommon benign vascular tumors that present fully formed at birth. They are rarely associated with transient hematologic abnormalities, which are typically less severe than the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon associated with kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas. Congenital hemangiomas are typically solitary and have not been reported to occur in a multifocal, generalized pattern. To describe a male infant born with an unusual, large vascular mass complicated by anemia, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, as well as innumerable small vascular papules in a generalized cutaneous distribution. This case report is a descriptive observation of the results of clinical, pathologic, and genetic studies performed in a single male infant observed for 2 years (May 2013 to June 2015) for vascular anomalies at a tertiary care referral center. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic study results of tumor specimens and saliva. Careful pathologic study of 3 tumor specimens revealed similar lobular proliferations of bland endothelial cells. Lesional vessels did not express GLUT1 or the lymphatic marker D2-40, whereas WT1 was expressed. A somatic c.A626C, p.Q209P mutation in the GNA11 gene was identified in tumoral tissue. These findings support a unifying diagnosis of congenital hemangioma for these vascular tumors. To date, this is the first-reported case of a hemangiomatosis presentation of congenital hemangioma. In addition to highlighting this novel phenotype, this case indicates the rare association of congenital hemangioma with hematologic abnormalities and verifies somatic activating mutations as the underlying cause of congenital hemangioma.

  10. Tissue-specific signaling networks rewired by major somatic mutations in human cancer revealed by proteome-wide discovery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfei; Cheng, Feixiong; Zhao, Zhongming

    2017-03-31

    Massive somatic mutations discovered by large cancer genome sequencing projects provide unprecedented opportunities in the development of precision oncology. However, deep understanding of functional consequences of somatic mutations and identifying actionable mutations and the related drug responses currently remain formidable challenges. Dysfunction of protein post-translational modification plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and drug responses. In this study, we proposed a novel computational oncoproteomics approach, named kinome-wide network module for cancer pharmacogenomics (KNMPx), for identifying actionable mutations that rewired signaling networks and further characterized tumorigenesis and anticancer drug responses. Specifically, we integrated 746,631 missense mutations in 4,997 tumor samples across 16 major cancer types/subtypes from The Cancer Genome Atlas into over 170,000 carefully curated non-redundant phosphorylation sites covering 18,610 proteins. We found 47 mutated proteins (e.g., ERBB2, TP53, and CTNNB1) that had enriched missense mutations at their phosphorylation sites in pan-cancer analysis. In addition, tissue-specific kinase-substrate interaction modules altered by somatic mutations identified by KNMPx were significantly associated with patient survival. We further reported a kinome-wide landscape of pharmacogenomic interactions by incorporating somatic mutation-rewired signaling networks in 1,001 cancer cell lines via KNMPx. Interestingly, we found that cell lines could highly reproduce oncogenic phosphorylation site mutations identified in primary tumors, supporting the confidence in their associations with sensitivity/resistance of inhibitors targeting EGF, MAPK, PI3K, mTOR, and Wnt signaling pathways. In summary, this systematic oncoproteomics analysis of kinome phosphorylation site mutations illustrates new capabilities to speed the development of precision oncology.

  11. A somatic T15091C mutation in the Cytb gene of mouse mitochondrial DNA dominantly induces respiration defects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chisato; Takibuchi, Gaku; Shimizu, Akinori; Mito, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Kaori; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-08-07

    Our previous studies provided evidence that mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations that cause mitochondrial respiration defects behave in a recessive manner, because the induction of respiration defects could be prevented with the help of a small proportion (10%-20%) of mtDNA without the mutations. However, subsequent studies found the induction of respiration defects by the accelerated accumulation of a small proportion of mtDNA with various somatic mutations, indicating the presence of mtDNA mutations that behave in a dominant manner. Here, to provide the evidence for the presence of dominant mutations in mtDNA, we used mouse lung carcinoma P29 cells and examined whether some mtDNA molecules possess somatic mutations that dominantly induce respiration defects. Cloning and sequence analysis of 40-48 mtDNA molecules from P29 cells was carried out to screen for somatic mutations in protein-coding genes, because mutations in these genes could dominantly regulate respiration defects by formation of abnormal polypeptides. We found 108 missense mutations existing in one or more of 40-48 mtDNA molecules. Of these missense mutations, a T15091C mutation in the Cytb gene was expected to be pathogenic due to the presence of its orthologous mutation in mtDNA from a patient with cardiomyopathy. After isolation of many subclones from parental P29 cells, we obtained subclones with various proportions of T15091C mtDNA, and showed that the respiration defects were induced in a subclone with only 49% T15091C mtDNA. Because the induction of respiration defects could not be prevented with the help of the remaining 51% mtDNA without the T15091C mutation, the results indicate that the T15091C mutation in mtDNA dominantly induced the respiration defects.

  12. Somatic Activating Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 Are Associated with Congenital Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Ayturk, Ugur M.; Couto, Javier A.; Hann, Steven; Mulliken, John B.; Williams, Kaitlin L.; Huang, August Yue; Fishman, Steven J.; Boyd, Theonia K.; Kozakewich, Harry P.W.; Bischoff, Joyce; Greene, Arin K.; Warman, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor that forms in utero. Postnatally, the tumor either involutes quickly (i.e., rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma [RICH]) or partially regresses and stabilizes (i.e., non-involuting congenital hemangioma [NICH]). We hypothesized that congenital hemangiomas arise due to somatic mutation and performed massively parallel mRNA sequencing on affected tissue from eight participants. We identified mutually exclusive, mosaic missense mutations that alter glutamine at amino acid 209 (Glu209) in GNAQ or GNA11 in all tested samples, at variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 3% to 33%. We verified the presence of the mutations in genomic DNA using a combination of molecular inversion probe sequencing (MIP-seq) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). The Glu209 GNAQ and GNA11 missense variants we identified are common in uveal melanoma and have been shown to constitutively activate MAPK and/or YAP signaling. When we screened additional archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) congenital cutaneous and hepatic hemangiomas, 4/8 had GNAQ or GNA11 Glu209 variants. The same GNAQ or GNA11 mutation is found in both NICH and RICH, so other factors must account for these tumors’ different postnatal behaviors. PMID:27058448

  13. Somatic Activating Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 Are Associated with Congenital Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Ayturk, Ugur M; Couto, Javier A; Hann, Steven; Mulliken, John B; Williams, Kaitlin L; Huang, August Yue; Fishman, Steven J; Boyd, Theonia K; Kozakewich, Harry P W; Bischoff, Joyce; Greene, Arin K; Warman, Matthew L

    2016-04-07

    Congenital hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor that forms in utero. Postnatally, the tumor either involutes quickly (i.e., rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma [RICH]) or partially regresses and stabilizes (i.e., non-involuting congenital hemangioma [NICH]). We hypothesized that congenital hemangiomas arise due to somatic mutation and performed massively parallel mRNA sequencing on affected tissue from eight participants. We identified mutually exclusive, mosaic missense mutations that alter glutamine at amino acid 209 (Glu209) in GNAQ or GNA11 in all tested samples, at variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 3% to 33%. We verified the presence of the mutations in genomic DNA using a combination of molecular inversion probe sequencing (MIP-seq) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). The Glu209 GNAQ and GNA11 missense variants we identified are common in uveal melanoma and have been shown to constitutively activate MAPK and/or YAP signaling. When we screened additional archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) congenital cutaneous and hepatic hemangiomas, 4/8 had GNAQ or GNA11 Glu209 variants. The same GNAQ or GNA11 mutation is found in both NICH and RICH, so other factors must account for these tumors' different postnatal behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Somatic Mosaicism for a Lethal TRPV4 Mutation Results in Non-Lethal Metatropic Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Michael M.; Kang, Taekyu; Lachman, Ralph S.; Bamshad, Michael; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in TRPV4, which encodes the Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 4 calcium channel, result in a series of musculoskeletal disorders that include a set of peripheral neuropathies and a broad phenotypic spectrum of skeletal dysplasias. The skeletal pheno-types range from brachyolmia, in which there is scoliosis with mild short stature, through perinatal lethal metatropic dysplasia. We describe a case with phenotypic findings consistent with metatropic dysplasia, but in whom no TRPV4 mutation was detected by Sanger sequence analysis. Exome sequence analysis identified a known lethal metatropic dysplasia mutation, TRPV4L618P, which was present at lower frequency than would be expected for a heterozygous change. The affected individual was shown to be a somatic mosaic for the mutation, providing an explanation for the milder than expected phenotype. The data illustrate that high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA can facilitate detection of mosaicism with higher sensitivity than Sanger sequence analysis and identify a new genetic mechanism for metatropic dysplasia. PMID:27530454

  15. Targeted disruption of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene in miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young June; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Sang-Min; Ryu, Junghyun; Ahn, Jin Seop; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Choi, You Jung; Choi, Seong-Jun; Shim, Hosup

    2014-10-03

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive autosomal disorder associated with pleiotropic phenotypes, including progressive cerebellar degeneration, gonad atrophy, and growth retardation. Even though A-T is known to be caused by the mutations in the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, the correlation between abnormal cellular physiology caused by ATM mutations and the multiple symptoms of A-T disease has not been clearly determined. None of the existing ATM mouse models properly reflects the extent to which neurological degeneration occurs in human. In an attempt to provide a large animal model for A-T, we produced gene-targeted pigs with mutations in the ATM gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The disrupted allele in the ATM gene of cloned piglets was confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis. The ATM gene-targeted pigs generated in the present study may provide an alternative to the current mouse model for the study of mechanisms underlying A-T disorder and for the development of new therapies.

  16. Evidence for increased somatic cell mutations at the glycophorin A locus in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Langlois, R G; Bigbee, W L; Kyoizumi, S; Nakamura, N; Bean, M A; Akiyama, M; Jensen, R H

    1987-04-24

    A recently developed assay for somatic cell mutations was used to study survivors of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. This assay measures the frequency of variant erythrocytes produced by erythroid precursor cells with mutations that result in a loss of gene expression at the polymorphic glycophorin A (GPA) locus. Significant linear relations between variant frequency (VF) and radiation exposure were observed for three different variant cell phenotypes. The spontaneous and induced VFs agree with previous measurements of radiation-induced mutagenesis in other systems; this evidence supports a mutational origin for variant cells characterized by a loss of GPA expression and suggests that the GPA assay system may provide a cumulative dosimeter of past radiation exposures. VFs for some survivors differ dramatically from the calculated dose response, and these deviations appear to result primarily from statistical fluctuations in the number of mutations in the stem-cell pool. These fluctuations allow one to estimate the number of long-lived hemopoietic stem cells in humans.

  17. SomamiR 2.0: a database of cancer somatic mutations altering microRNA-ceRNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Cui, Yan

    2016-01-04

    SomamiR 2.0 (http://compbio.uthsc.edu/SomamiR) is a database of cancer somatic mutations in microRNAs (miRNA) and their target sites that potentially alter the interactions between miRNAs and competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) including mRNAs, circular RNAs (circRNA) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). Here, we describe the recent major updates to the SomamiR database. We expanded the scope of the database by including somatic mutations that impact the interactions between miRNAs and two classes of non-coding RNAs, circRNAs and lncRNAs. Recently, a large number of miRNA target sites have been discovered by newly emerged high-throughput technologies for mapping the miRNA interactome. We have mapped 388 247 somatic mutations to the experimentally identified miRNA target sites. The updated database also includes a list of somatic mutations in the miRNA seed regions, which contain the most important guiding information for miRNA target recognition. A recently developed webserver, miR2GO, was integrated with the database to provide a seamless pipeline for assessing functional impacts of somatic mutations in miRNA seed regions. Data and functions from multiple sources including biological pathways and genome-wide association studies were updated and integrated with SomamiR 2.0 to make it a better platform for functional analysis of somatic mutations altering miRNA-ceRNA interactions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Somatic mosaicism in families with hemophilia B: 11% of germline mutations originate within a few cell divisions post-fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Knoell, A.; Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.

    1994-09-01

    Previous molecular estimates of mosaicism in the dystrophin and other genes generally have focused on the transmission of the mutated allele to two or more children by an individual without the mutation in leukocyte DNA. We have analyzed 414 families with hemophilia B by direct genomic sequencing and haplotype analysis, and have deduced the origin of mutation in 56 families. There was no origin individual who transmitted a mutant allele to more than one child. However, somatic mosaicism was detected by sequence analysis of four origin individuals (3{female} and 1{male}). The sensitivity of this analysis is typically one part in ten. In one additional female who had close to a 50:50 ratio of mutant to normal alleles, three of four noncarrier daughters inherited the haplotype associated with the mutant allele. This highlights a caveat in molecular analysis: a presumptive carrier in a family with sporadic disease does not necessarily have a 50% probability of transmitting the mutant allele to her offspring. After eliminating those families in which mosaicism could not be detected because of a total gene deletion or absence of DNA from a deduced origin individual, 5 of 43 origin individuals exhibited somatic mosaicism at a level that reflects a mutation within the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In one patient, analysis of cervical scrapings and buccal mucosa confirm the generalized distribution of somatic mutation. Are the first few cell divisions post-fertilization highly mutagenic, or do mutations at later divisions also give rise to somatic mosaicism? To address this question, DNA from origin individuals are being analyzed to detect somatic mosaicism at a sensitivity of 1:1000. Single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) has been utilized in eight families to date and no mosaicism has been detected. When the remaining 30 samples are analyzed, it will be possible to compare the frequency of somatic mosaicism at 0.1-10% with that of {ge}10%.

  19. CDKN2A exon-wise deletion status and novel somatic mutations in Indian glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Sibin, M K; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Lavanya, Ch; Manoj, M Jeru; Aakershita, S; Chetan, G K

    2014-02-01

    Over the years, deletions of CDKN2A (p16) tumor suppressor gene has been studied using FISH and multiplex PCR, with major focus on exon 2 in various cancers, and the frequency of mutation is found to be varied in different studies. In this study, we analyzed the deletion status of all three exons of p16 and frequency of exon 2 somatic point mutations in glioma from the Indian population and its clinical implications. Multiplex PCR was carried out in order to check deletion of all 3 exons in 50 glioma samples. Nonconventional PCR-SSCP analysis and sequencing was done to identify mutations in 48 cases. Deletion of at least one of the three exons of p16 INK4A was observed in ten cases (20 %). The frequencies of exon-wise deletions were 10 % for exon 1, 4 % for exon 2, and 8 % for exon 3. Two out of 48 samples were positive for mutations in p16 exon 2. One sample had a transition of G to C on position 147 with a codon change TGG to TGC which does not contribute to the protein structure. Another sample had a transversion of A to G on the position 154 with a codon change ATG to GTG with change in amino acid methionine to valine in 52nd position. Deletion pattern was found to be varied in three exons. Frequency of p16 gene mutation was less in the Indian population (4.2 %), and this mutation does not contribute to any remarkable change in protein structure.

  20. Identical mitochondrial somatic mutations unique to chronic periodontitis and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Pallavi, Tokala; Chandra, Rampalli Viswa; Reddy, Aileni Amarender; Reddy, Bavigadda Harish; Naveen, Anumala

    2016-01-01

    Context: The inflammatory processes involved in chronic periodontitis and coronary artery diseases (CADs) are similar and produce reactive oxygen species that may result in similar somatic mutations in mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA). Aims: The aims of the present study were to identify somatic mtDNA mutations in periodontal and cardiac tissues from subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery and determine what fraction was identical and unique to these tissues. Settings and Design: The study population consisted of 30 chronic periodontitis subjects who underwent coronary artery surgery after an angiogram had indicated CAD. Materials and Methods: Gingival tissue samples were taken from the site with deepest probing depth; coronary artery tissue samples were taken during the coronary artery bypass grafting procedures, and blood samples were drawn during this surgical procedure. These samples were stored under aseptic conditions and later transported for mtDNA analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Complete mtDNA sequences were obtained and aligned with the revised Cambridge reference sequence (NC_012920) using sequence analysis and auto assembler tools. Results: Among the complete mtDNA sequences, a total of 162 variations were spread across the whole mitochondrial genome and present only in the coronary artery and the gingival tissue samples but not in the blood samples. Among the 162 variations, 12 were novel and four of the 12 novel variations were found in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 complex I gene (33.3%). Conclusions: Analysis of mtDNA mutations indicated 162 variants unique to periodontitis and CAD. Of these, 12 were novel and may have resulted from destructive oxidative forces common to these two diseases. PMID:27041832

  1. Aneuploidy, the somatic mutation that makes cancer a species of its own.

    PubMed

    Duesberg, P; Rasnick, D

    2000-10-01

    The many complex phenotypes of cancer have all been attributed to "somatic mutation." These phenotypes include anaplasia, autonomous growth, metastasis, abnormal cell morphology, DNA indices ranging from 0.5 to over 2, clonal origin but unstable and non-clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, abnormal centrosome numbers, immortality in vitro and in transplantation, spontaneous progression of malignancy, as well as the exceedingly slow kinetics from carcinogen to carcinogenesis of many months to decades. However, it has yet to be determined whether this mutation is aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, or gene mutation. A century ago, Boveri proposed cancer is caused by aneuploidy, because it correlates with cancer and because it generates "pathological" phenotypes in sea urchins. But half a century later, when cancers were found to be non-clonal for aneuploidy, but clonal for somatic gene mutations, this hypothesis was abandoned. As a result aneuploidy is now generally viewed as a consequence, and mutated genes as a cause of cancer although, (1) many carcinogens do not mutate genes, (2) there is no functional proof that mutant genes cause cancer, and (3) mutation is fast but carcinogenesis is exceedingly slow. Intrigued by the enormous mutagenic potential of aneuploidy, we undertook biochemical and biological analyses of aneuploidy and gene mutation, which show that aneuploidy is probably the only mutation that can explain all aspects of carcinogenesis. On this basis we can now offer a coherent two-stage mechanism of carcinogenesis. In stage one, carcinogens cause aneuploidy, either by fragmenting chromosomes or by damaging the spindle apparatus. In stage two, ever new and eventually tumorigenic karyotypes evolve autocatalytically because aneuploidy destabilizes the karyotype, ie. causes genetic instability. Thus, cancer cells derive their unique and complex phenotypes from random chromosome number mutation, a process that is similar to regrouping assembly lines

  2. Somatic mutation analysis of p53 and ST7 tumor suppressor genes in gastric carcinoma by DHPLC.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chong; Xu, Hui-Mian; Ren, Qun; Ao, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Ao, Xue; Jiang, Li; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Xue

    2003-12-01

    To verify the effectiveness of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) in detecting somatic mutation of p53 gene in gastric carcinoma tissues. The superiority of this method has been proved in the detection of germline mutations, but it was not very affirmative with respect to somatic mutations in tumor specimens. ST7 gene, a candidate tumor suppressor gene identified recently at human chromosome 7q31.1, was also detected because LOH at this site has also been widely reported in stomach cancer. DNA was extracted from 39 cases of surgical gastric carcinoma specimen and their correspondent normal mucosa. Seven fragments spanning the 11 exons were used to detect the mutation of p53 gene and the four exons reported to have mutations in ST7 gene were amplified by PCR and directly analyzed by DHPLC without mixing with wild-type allele. In the analysis of p53 gene mutation, 9 aberrant DHPLC chromatographies were found in tumor tissues, while their normal-adjacent counterparts running in parallel showed a normal shape. Subsequent sequencing revealed nine sequence variations, 1 polymorphism and 8 mutations including 3 mutations not reported before. The mutation rate of p53 gene (21%) was consistent with that previously reported. Furthermore, no additional aberrant chromatography was found when wild-type DNA was added into the DNA of other 30 tumor samples that showed normal shapes previously. The positivity of p53 mutations was significantly higher in intestinal-type carcinomas (40%) than that in diffuse-type (8.33%) carcinomas of the stomach. No mutation of ST7 gene was found. DHPLC is a very convenient method for the detection of somatic mutations in gastric carcinoma. The amount of wild type alleles supplied by the non-tumorous cells in gastric tumor specimens is enough to form heteroduplex with mutant alleles for DHPLC detection. ST7 gene may not be the target gene of inactivation at 7q31 site in gastric carcinoma.

  3. Somatic mutations contribute to genotypic diversity in sterile and fertile populations of the threatened shrub, Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, C. L.; Nelson, Penelope A.; Haddadchi, Azadeh; Fatemi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Grevillea rhizomatosa is a spreading shrub which exhibits multiple breeding strategies within a narrow area in the fire-prone heathlands of eastern Australia. Reproductive strategies include self-compatibility, self-incompatibility and clonality (with and without sterility). The close proximity of contrasting breeding systems provides an opportunity to explore the evolution of sterility and to compare and contrast the origins of genotypic diversity (recombinant or somatic) against degrees of sexual expression. Methods ISSR markers for 120 band positions (putative loci) were used to compare genetic diversity among five populations at a macro-scale of 5 m between samples (n = 244 shrubs), and at a micro-scale of nearest neighbours for all plants in five 25-m2 quadrats with contrasting fertilities (n = 162 shrubs). Nearest-neighbour sampling included several clusters of connected ramets. Matrix incompatibility (MIC) analyses were used to evaluate the relative contribution of recombination and somatic mutation to genotype diversity. Key Results High levels of genotypic diversity were found in all populations regardless of fertilities (fertile populations, G/N ≥ 0·94; sterile populations, G/N ≥ 0·97) and most sterile populations had a unique genetic profile. Somatic mutations were detected along connected ramets in ten out of 42 ramet clusters. MIC analyses showed that somatic mutations have contributed to diversity in all populations and particularly so in sterile populations. Conclusions Somatic mutations contribute significantly to gene diversity in sterile populations of Grevillea rhizomatosa, the accumulation of which is the likely cause of male and female sterility. High levels of genetic diversity therefore may not always be synonymous with sexual fitness and genetic health. We hypothesize that frequent fires drive selection for clonal reproduction, at the cost of flowering such that sexual functions are not maintained through selection

  4. Clustered somatic mutations are frequent in transcription factor binding motifs within proximal promoter regions in melanoma and other cutaneous malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Colebatch, Andrew J.; Di Stefano, Leon; Wong, Stephen Q.; Hannan, Ross D.; Waring, Paul M.; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most cancer DNA sequencing studies have prioritized recurrent non-synonymous coding mutations in order to identify novel cancer-related mutations. Although attention is increasingly being paid to mutations in non-coding regions, standard approaches to identifying significant mutations may not be appropriate and there has been limited analysis of mutational clusters in functionally annotated non-coding regions. We sought to identify clustered somatic mutations (hotspot regions across samples) in functionally annotated regions in melanoma and other cutaneous malignancies (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma). Sliding window analyses revealed numerous recurrent clustered hotspot mutations in proximal promoters, with some specific clusters present in up to 25% of cases. Mutations in melanoma were clustered within ETS and Sp1 transcription factor binding motifs, had a UV signature and were identified in other cutaneous malignancies. Clinicopathologic correlation and mutation analysis support a causal role for chronic UV irradiation generating somatic mutations in transcription factor binding motifs of proximal promoters. PMID:27611953

  5. Somatic Mutations and Genetic Variants of NOTCH1 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Occurrence and Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Fan; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Chung, Chia-Min; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Lin, You-Zhe; Lee, Chien-Hung; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Yuan-Chien; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A number of genetic variants have been associated with cancer occurrence, however it may be the acquired somatic mutations (SMs) that drive cancer development. This study investigates the potential SMs and related genetic variants associated with the occurrence and development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We identified several SMs in NOTCH1 from whole-exome sequencing and validated them in a 13-year cohort of 128 HNSCC patients using a high-resolution melting analysis and resequencing. Patients who have NOTCH1 SMs show higher 5-year relapse-free recurrence (P = 0.0013) and lower survival proportion (P = 0.0447) when the risk-associated SMs were analysed by Cox proportional hazard models. Interestingly, the NOTCH1 gene rs139994842 that shares linkage with SMs is associated with HNSCC risk (OR = 3.46), increasing when SMs in NOTCH1 are involved (OR = 7.74), and furthermore when there are SMs in conjunction to betel quid chewing (OR = 32.11), which is a related independent environmental risk factor after adjusting for substances use (alcohol, betel quid, cigarettes) and age. The findings indicate that betel quid chewing is highly associated with NOTCH1 SMs (especially with changes in EGF-like domains), and that rs139994842 may potentially serve as an early predictive and prognostic biomarker for the occurrence and development of HNSCC. PMID:27035284

  6. Hierarchical tissue organization as a general mechanism to limit the accumulation of somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Derényi, Imre; Szöllősi, Gergely J.

    2017-01-01

    How can tissues generate large numbers of cells, yet keep the divisional load (the number of divisions along cell lineages) low in order to curtail the accumulation of somatic mutations and reduce the risk of cancer? To answer the question we consider a general model of hierarchically organized self-renewing tissues and show that the lifetime divisional load of such a tissue is independent of the details of the cell differentiation processes, and depends only on two structural and two dynamical parameters. Our results demonstrate that a strict analytical relationship exists between two seemingly disparate characteristics of self-renewing tissues: divisional load and tissue organization. Most remarkably, we find that a sufficient number of progressively slower dividing cell types can be almost as efficient in minimizing the divisional load, as non-renewing tissues. We argue that one of the main functions of tissue-specific stem cells and differentiation hierarchies is the prevention of cancer. PMID:28230094

  7. The tissue organization field theory of cancer: A testable replacement for the somatic mutation theory

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The somatic mutation theory (SMT) of cancer has been and remains the prevalent theory attempting to explain how neoplasms arise and progress. This theory proposes that cancer is a clonal, cell-based disease, and implicitly assumes that quiescence is the default state of cells in multicellular organisms. The SMT has not been rigorously tested, and several lines of evidence raise questions that are not addressed by this theory. Herein, we propose experimental strategies that may validate the SMT. We also call attention to an alternative theory of carcinogenesis, the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), which posits that cancer is a tissue-based disease and that proliferation is the default state of all cells. Based on epistemological and experimental evidence, we argue that the TOFT compellingly explains carcinogenesis, while placing it within an evolutionarily relevant context. PMID:21503935

  8. Correlation of telomere length shortening with TP53 somatic mutations, polymorphisms and allelic loss in breast tumors and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Dan; Yang, Yue; Song, Xin; Zhao, Xue-Ke; Wang, Li-Dong; He, Jun-Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Genomic instability caused by telomere erosion is an important mechanism of tumorigenesis. p53 plays a key role in cellular senescence and/or apoptosis associated with telomere erosion which positions p53 as a guard against tumorigenesis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential interactions between p53 functional mutations, polymorphisms, allelic loss and telomere erosion in 126 breast tumor patients and 68 esophageal cancer patients. Telomere length (TL) was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Somatic mutations, polymorphisms and allelic loss in the TP53 gene were detected by direct sequencing of both tumor and normal tissue samples. Our results showed that telomeres were significantly shorter in tumors with somatic p53 mutations compared with tumors with wild-type p53 in both breast tumors (P=0.007) and esophageal cancer (P=0.001). Telomeres of patients with minor genotype CC of rs12951053 and GG of rs1042522 were significantly shorter compared to patients with other genotypes of this single nucleotide polymorphism in esophageal cancer tissue. Furthermore, TP53 allelic loss was detected and significantly associated with somatic mutations in both types of tumor tissues. These findings suggest that somatic p53 mutations, rs12951053 genotype CC and rs1042522 genotype GG contribute to erosion of telomeres, and TP53 allelic loss may be one of the representations of chromosomal instability caused by telomere erosion combined with somatic p53 mutations. These results support that the TP53 gene has a strong interaction with TL erosion in tumorigenesis.

  9. Mutation of the doublecortin gene in male patients with double cortex syndrome: somatic mosaicism detected by hair root analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Kanai, M; Soma, O; Takusa, Y; Kimura, T; Numakura, C; Matsuki, T; Nakamura, S; Hayasaka, K

    2001-10-01

    The molecular basis of double cortex syndrome was investigated in 2 male patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the patients' heads showed diffuse subcortical band heterotopia, as is seen in female patients. We found a heterozygous mutation for Asp50Lys or Arg39Stop in both patients. Microsatellite polymorphism analysis revealed that both patients had inherited a single X chromosome from their mothers. Restriction enzyme analysis using DNA extracted from the hair roots of each patient showed four different patterns in the combination of cells carrying wild and mutant alleles, which strongly suggest somatic mosaicism. We conclude that somatic mosaic mutations in the doublecortin gene in male patients can cause subcortical band heterotopia, and that molecular analysis using hair roots is a useful method for detecting somatic mosaicism.

  10. Somatic mutations throughout the entire mitochondrial genome are associated with elevated PSA levels in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Schäfer, Georg; Erhart, Gertraud; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Coassin, Stefan; Seifarth, Christof; Summerer, Monika; Bektic, Jasmin; Klocker, Helmut; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-12-10

    The genetic etiology of prostate cancer, the most common form of male cancer in western countries, is complex and the interplay of disease genes with environmental factors is far from being understood. Studies on somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have become an important aspect of cancer research because these mutations might have functional consequences and/or might serve as biosensors for tumor detection and progression. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (16,569 bp) from 30 prospectively collected pairs of macrodissected cancerous and benign cells from prostate cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. Given recent concerns regarding the authenticity of newly discovered mtDNA mutations, we implemented a high-quality procedure for mtDNA whole-genome sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2, MT-CO3, MT-ATP6, and MT-ND6 were sequenced in further 35 paired samples from prostate cancer patients. We identified a total of 41 somatic mutations in 22 out of 30 patients: the majority of these mutations have not previously been observed in the human phylogeny. The presence of somatic mutations in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) was found to be associated with elevated PSA levels (14.25 ± 5.44 versus 7.15 ± 4.32 ng/ml; p = 0.004). The level and degree of heteroplasmy increased with increasing tumor activity. In summary, somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are frequent events in prostate cancer. Mutations mapping to mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and protein coding genes might impair processes that occur within the mitochondrial compartment (e.g., transcription, RNA processing, and translation) and might finally affect oxidative phosphorylation.

  11. Somatic Mutations throughout the Entire Mitochondrial Genome Are Associated with Elevated PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Schäfer, Georg; Erhart, Gertraud; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Coassin, Stefan; Seifarth, Christof; Summerer, Monika; Bektic, Jasmin; Klocker, Helmut; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The genetic etiology of prostate cancer, the most common form of male cancer in western countries, is complex and the interplay of disease genes with environmental factors is far from being understood. Studies on somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have become an important aspect of cancer research because these mutations might have functional consequences and/or might serve as biosensors for tumor detection and progression. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (16,569 bp) from 30 prospectively collected pairs of macrodissected cancerous and benign cells from prostate cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. Given recent concerns regarding the authenticity of newly discovered mtDNA mutations, we implemented a high-quality procedure for mtDNA whole-genome sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2, MT-CO3, MT-ATP6, and MT-ND6 were sequenced in further 35 paired samples from prostate cancer patients. We identified a total of 41 somatic mutations in 22 out of 30 patients: the majority of these mutations have not previously been observed in the human phylogeny. The presence of somatic mutations in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) was found to be associated with elevated PSA levels (14.25 ± 5.44 versus 7.15 ± 4.32 ng/ml; p = 0.004). The level and degree of heteroplasmy increased with increasing tumor activity. In summary, somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are frequent events in prostate cancer. Mutations mapping to mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and protein coding genes might impair processes that occur within the mitochondrial compartment (e.g., transcription, RNA processing, and translation) and might finally affect oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:21129724

  12. Somatic Mutations in the Angiopoietin-Receptor TIE2 Can Cause Both Solitary and Multiple Sporadic Venous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Nisha; Wouters, Vinciane; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Tuominen, Marjut; Wirkkala, Riikka; Mulliken, John B.; Eklund, Lauri; Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-01-01

    Germline substitutions in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2/TEK cause a rare inherited form of venous anomalies, mucocutaneous venous malformations (VMCM)1-4. We now identified a somatic 2nd hit causing loss-of-function of the receptor in a resected VMCM. We assessed for whether such localized, tissue-specific events play a role in the etiology of the far more common sporadic VM. Eight somatic TIE2 mutations were identified in lesions from 28 out of 57 patients (49.1%), not detected in their blood or in control tissues. The somatic mutations included a frequent L914F change, and a series of double-mutations that occurred in cis, all of which show ligand-independent hyperphosphorylation in vitro. When overexpressed in HUVECs, L914F showed abnormal localization and response to ligand, differing from wild-type and the common inherited R849W mutant, suggesting they may have distinct effects. The presence of the same mutations in multifocal VMs in two patients, suggests a common origin for the abnormal endothelial cells in the distant sites. In conclusion, these data illustrate that a sporadic disease may be explained by somatic changes in a gene causing rare, inherited forms, and pinpoint TIE2 pathways as potential therapeutic targets for VM. PMID:19079259

  13. Somatic alterations of targetable oncogenes are frequently observed in BRCA1/2 mutation negative male breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rizzolo, Piera; Navazio, Anna Sara; Silvestri, Valentina; Valentini, Virginia; Zelli, Veronica; Zanna, Ines; Masala, Giovanna; Bianchi, Simonetta; Scarnò, Marco; Tommasi, Stefania; Palli, Domenico; Ottini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. Due to its rarity, MBC research and clinical approach are mostly based upon data derived from its largely known female counterpart. We aimed at investigating whether MBC cases harbor somatic alterations of genes known as prognostic biomarkers and molecular therapeutic targets in female breast cancer. We examined 103 MBC cases, all characterized for germ-line BRCA1/2 mutations, for somatic alterations in PIK3CA, EGFR, ESR1 and CCND1 genes. Pathogenic mutations of PIK3CA were detected in 2% of MBCs. No pathogenic mutations were identified in ESR1 and EGFR. Gene copy number variations (CNVs) analysis showed amplification of PIK3CA in 8.1%, EGFR in 6.8% and CCND1 in 16% of MBCs, whereas deletion of ESR1 was detected in 15% of MBCs. Somatic mutations and gene amplification were found only in BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBCs. Significant associations emerged between EGFR amplification and large tumor size (T4), ER-negative and HER2-positive status, between CCND1 amplification and HER2-positive and MIB1-positive status, and between ESR1 deletion and ER-negative status. Our results show that amplification of targetable oncogenes is frequent in BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBCs and may identify MBC subsets characterized by aggressive phenotype that may benefit from potential targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:27765917

  14. Somatic mutation of TRbeta can cause a defect in negative regulation of TSH in a TSH-secreting pituitary tumor.

    PubMed

    Ando, S; Sarlis, N J; Oldfield, E H; Yen, P M

    2001-11-01

    In patients with TSH-secreting tumors (TSHomas), serum TSH is poorly suppressed by thyroid hormone. The mechanism for this defect in negative regulation of TSH secretion is not known. To investigate the possibility of a somatic mutation of TR causing this defect, we performed mutational analysis of TRbeta by RT-PCR using RNA obtained from five surgically resected TSHomas. In one TSHoma, we identified a somatic mutation in the ligand-binding domain of TRbeta that caused a His to Tyr substitution at codon 435 of TRbeta1 corresponding to codon 450 of TRbeta2. Interestingly, this mutation occurred in the same codon as two mutations (TRbetaH435L and H435Q) previously identified in patients with the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone. This mutant TRbeta had impaired T3 binding and T3-mediated negative regulation. It also blocked the negative regulation by wild-type TRbeta2 on glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit and TSHbeta reporter genes in cotransfection studies. Our results demonstrate that somatic mutation of TRbeta occurred in a TSHoma and was probably responsible for the defect in negative regulation of TSH by thyroid hormone in the tumor.

  15. Coexistence of EGFR with KRAS, or BRAF, or PIK3CA somatic mutations in lung cancer: a comprehensive mutation profiling from 5125 Chinese cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Li, L; Zhu, Y; Huang, C; Qin, Y; Liu, H; Ren-Heidenreich, L; Shi, B; Ren, H; Chu, X; Kang, J; Wang, W; Xu, J; Tang, K; Yang, H; Zheng, Y; He, J; Yu, G; Liang, N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Determining the somatic mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-pathway networks is the key to effective treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).The somatic mutation frequencies and their association with gender, smoking history and histology was analysed and reported in this study. Methods: Five thousand one hundred and twenty-five NSCLC patients' pathology samples were collected, and EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were detected by multiplex testing. The mutation status of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA and their association with gender, age, smoking history and histological type were evaluated by appropriate statistical analysis. Results: EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutation rates revealed 36.2%, 8.4%, 0.5% and 3.3%, respectively, across the 5125 pathology samples. For the first time, evidence of KRAS mutations were detected in two female, non-smoking patients, age 5 and 14, with NSCLC. Furthermore, we identified 153 double and coexisting mutations and 7 triple mutations. Interestingly, the second drug-resistant mutations, T790M or E545K, were found in 44 samples from patients who had never received TKI treatments. Conclusions: EGFR exons 19, 20 and 21, and BRAF mutations tend to happen in females and non-smokers, whereas KRAS mutations were more inclined to males and smokers. Activating and resistant mutations to EGFR-TKI drugs can coexist and ‘second drug-resistant mutations', T790M or E545K, may be primary mutations in some patients. These results will help oncologists to decide candidates for mutation testing and EGFR-TKI treatment. PMID:24743704

  16. BAP1 mutation is a frequent somatic event in peritoneal malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Alakus, Hakan; Yost, Shawn E; Woo, Brian; French, Randall; Lin, Grace Y; Jepsen, Kristen; Frazer, Kelly A; Lowy, Andrew M; Harismendy, Olivier

    2015-04-16

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) arises from mesothelial cells that line the pleural, peritoneal and pericardial surfaces. The majority of MMs are pleural and have been associated with asbestos exposure. Previously, pleural MMs have been genetically characterized by the loss of BAP1 (40-60%) as well as loss of NF2 (75%) and CDKN2A (60%). The rare peritoneal form of MM occurs in ~10% cases. With only ~300 cases diagnosed in the US per year, its link to asbestos exposure is not clear and its mutational landscape unknown. We analyzed the somatic mutational landscape of 12 peritoneal MM of epitheloid subtype using copy number analysis (N = 9), whole exome sequencing (N = 7) and targeted sequencing (N = 12). Peritoneal MM display few copy number alterations, with most samples having less than 10 Mbp total changes, mostly through deletions and no high copy number amplification. Chromosome band 3p21 encoding BAP1 is the most recurrently deleted region (5/9), while, in contrast to pleural MM, NF2 and CDKN2A are not affected. We further identified 87 non-silent mutations across 7 sequenced tumors, with a median of 8 mutated genes per tumor, resulting in a very low mutation rate (median 1.3 10(-6)). BAP1 was the only recurrently mutated gene (N = 3/7). In one additional case, loss of the entire chromosome 3 leaves a non-functional copy of BAP1 carrying a rare nonsense germline variant, thus suggesting a potential genetic predisposition in this patient. Finally, with targeted sequencing of BAP1 in 3 additional cases, we conclude that BAP1 is frequently altered through copy number losses (N = 3/12), mutations (N = 3/12) or both (N = 2/12) sometimes at a sub-clonal level. Our findings suggest a major role for BAP1 in peritoneal MM susceptibility and oncogenesis and indicate important molecular differences to pleural MM as well as potential strategies for therapy and prevention.

  17. Implications of somatic mutations in the AML1 gene in radiation-associated and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hironori; Harada, Yuka; Tanaka, Hideo; Kimura, Akiro; Inaba, Toshiya

    2003-01-15

    Somatically acquired point mutations of AML1/RUNX1 gene have been recently identified in rare cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Moreover, germ line mutations of AML1 were found in an autosomal dominant disease, familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML (FPD/AML), suggesting that AML1 mutants, as well as AML1 chimeras, contribute to the transformation of hematopoietic progenitors. In this report, we showed that AML1 point mutations were found in 6 (46%) of 13 MDS patients among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Hiroshima. Unlike acute or chronic leukemia patients among A-bomb survivors, MDS patients exposed relatively low-dose radiation and developed the disease after a long latency period. AML1 mutations also were found in 5 (38%) of 13 therapy-related AML/MDS patients who were treated with alkylating agents with or without local radiation therapy. In contrast, frequency of AML1 mutation in sporadic MDS patients was 2.7% (2 of 74). Among AML1 mutations identified in this study, truncated-type mutants lost DNA binding potential and trans-activation activity. All missense mutations with one exception (Gly42Arg) lacked DNA binding ability and down-regulated the trans-activation potential of wild-type AML1 in a dominant-negative fashion. The Gly42Arg mutation that was shared by 2 patients bound DNA even more avidly than wild-type AML1 and enhanced the trans-activation potential of normal AML1. These results suggest that AML1 point mutations are related to low-dose radiation or alkylating agents and play a role distinct from that of leukemogenic chimeras as a result of chromosomal translocations caused by sublethal radiation or topoisomerase II inhibitors.

  18. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is caused by somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bessler, M; Mason, P J; Hillmen, P; Miyata, T; Yamada, N; Takeda, J; Luzzatto, L; Kinoshita, T

    1994-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired clonal blood disorder, is caused by the absence of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface proteins due to a defect in a specific step of GPI-anchor synthesis. The cDNA of the X-linked gene, PIG-A, which encodes a protein required for this step has recently been isolated. We have carried out a molecular and functional analysis of the PIG-A gene in four cell lines deficient in GPI-linked proteins, obtained by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation of affected B-lymphocytes from PNH patients. In all four cell lines transfection with PIG-A cDNA restored normal expression of GPI-linked proteins. In three of the four cell lines the primary lesion is a frameshift mutation. In two of these there is a reduction in the amount of full-length mRNA. The fourth cell line contains a missense mutation in PIG-A. In each case the mutation was present in the affected granulocytes from peripheral blood of the patients, but not in normal sister cell lines from the same patient. These data prove that PNH is caused in most patients by a single mutation in the PIG-A gene. The nature of the mutation can vary and most likely occurs on the active X-chromosome in an early haematopoietic stem cell. Images PMID:8306954

  19. Germline hereditary, somatic mutations and microRNAs targeting-SNPs in congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Saverio; Pulignani, Silvia; Rizzo, Milena; Cresci, Monica; Vecoli, Cecilia; Foffa, Ilenia; Ait-Ali, Lamia; Pitto, Letizia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2013-07-01

    Somatic mutations and dysregulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) may have a pivotal role in the Congenital Heart Defects (CHDs). The purpose of the study was to assess both somatic and germline mutations in the GATA4 and NKX2.5 genes as well as to identify 3'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the miRNA target sites. We enrolled 30 patients (13 males; 13.4±8.3 years) with non-syndromic CHD. GATA4 and NKX2.5 genes were screened in cardiac tissue of sporadic and in blood samples of familial cases. Computational methods were used to detect putative miRNAs in the 3'UTR region and to assess the Minimum Free Energy of hybridization (MFE, kcal/mol). Difference of MFEs (ΔMFE) ≥4 kcal/mol between alleles was considered biologically relevant on miRNA binding. The sum of all ΔMFEs (|ΔMFEtot|=∑|ΔMFE|) was calculated in order to predict the biological importance of SNPs binding more miRNAs. No evidence of novel GATA4 and NKX2.5 mutations was found both in sporadic and familial patients. Bioinformatic analysis revealed 27 putative miRNAs binding to identified SNPs in the 3'UTR of GATA4. ΔMFE ≥4 kcal/mol between alleles was obtained for the +354A>C (miR-4299), +587A>G (miR-604), +1355G>A (miR-548v, miR-139-5p) and +1521C>G (miR-583, miR-3125, miR-3928) SNPs. The +1521C>G SNP showed the highest ΔMFEtot (21.66 kcal/mol). Luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-583 was dose-dependently effective in regulating +1521 C allele compared with +1521 G allele. Based on the analysis of 100 CHD cases and 204 healthy newborns, the +1521 G allele was also associated with a lower risk of CHD (OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, p=0.03), likely due to the relatively low binding of the miRNA and high levels of protein. These results suggest that common SNPs in the 3'UTR of GATA4 alter miRNA gene regulation contributing to the pathogenesis of CHDs.

  20. Recurrent somatic JAK-STAT pathway variants within a RUNX1-mutated pedigree.

    PubMed

    Tawana, Kiran; Wang, Jun; Király, Péter A; Kállay, Krisztián; Benyó, Gábor; Zombori, Marianna; Csomor, Judit; Al Seraihi, Ahad; Rio-Machin, Ana; Matolcsy, András; Chelala, Claude; Cavenagh, Jamie; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Bödör, Csaba

    2017-08-01

    Germline variants within the transcription factor RUNX1 are associated with familial platelet disorder and acute leukemia in over 40% of carriers. At present, the somatic events triggering leukemic transformation appear heterogeneous and profiles of leukemia initiation across family members are poorly defined. We report a new RUNX1 family where three sisters harboring a germline nonsense RUNX1 variant, c.601C>T (p.(Arg201*)), developed acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML) at 5 years of age. Whole-exome sequencing of tumor samples revealed all three siblings independently acquired variants within the JAK-STAT pathway, specifically targeting JAK2 and SH2B3 (a negative regulator of JAK2), while also sharing the 46/1 haplotype linked with sporadic JAK2-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms. In-depth chromosomal characterization of tumors revealed acquired copy number gains and uniparental disomy amplifying RUNX1, JAK2 and SH2B3 variants, highlighting the significance of co-operation between these disrupted pathways. One sibling, presenting with myelodysplasia at 14 years, had no evidence of clonal or subclonal JAK2 or SH2B3 variants, suggesting the latter were specifically associated with leukemic transformation in her sisters. Collectively, the clinical and molecular homogeneity across these three young siblings provides the first notable example of convergent AML evolution in a RUNX1 pedigree, with the recurrent acquisition of JAK-STAT pathway variants giving rise to high-risk AML, characterized by chemotherapy resistance and relapse.

  1. Glycophorin A somatic cell mutation frequencies in Finnish reinforced plastics workers exposed to styrene.

    PubMed

    Bigbee, W L; Grant, S G; Langlois, R G; Jensen, R H; Anttila, A; Pfäffli, P; Pekari, K; Norppa, H

    1996-10-01

    We have used the glycophorin A (GPA) in vivo somatic cell mutation assay to assess the genotoxic potential of styrene exposure in 47 reinforced plastics workers occupationally exposed to styrene and 47 unexposed controls matched for age, gender, and active smoking status. GPA variant erythrocyte frequencies (Vf), reflecting GPA allele loss (phi/N) and allele loss and duplication (N/N) somatic mutations arising in vivo in the erythroid progenitor cells of individuals of GPA M/N heterozygous genotype, were flow cytometrically determined in peripheral blood samples from these subjects. Measurements of styrene exposure of the workers at the time of blood sampling showed a mean 8-h time-weighted average (TWA8-h) styrene concentration of 155 mg/m3 (37 ppm) in the breathing zone. Mean urinary concentrations of the styrene metabolites mandelic acid (MA) and mandelic acid plus phenyl glyoxylic acid (MA+PGA) were 4.4 mmol/liter (after workshift) and 2.1 mmol/liter (next morning), respectively. Multivariate analysis of covariance on log-transformed GPA Vf data with models allowing adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, and styrene exposure showed that N/N Vf were nearly significantly increased among all of the exposed workers (adjusted geometric mean, 6.3 per million versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.058) and were statistically significantly elevated (adjusted geometric mean, 6.8 versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.036) among workers classified into a high-exposure group according to personal TWA8-h concentration of styrene in the breathing zone of > or = 85 mg/m3 (20 ppm; Finnish threshold limit value). Women in this high exposure group showed especially elevated N/N Vf (adjusted geometric mean 8.5 versus 5.3 in control women; P = 0.020); this elevation was also significant if urinary MA+PGA of > or = 1.2 mmol/liter was used as the basis of classification (adjusted geometric mean, 8.3; P = 0.030). The occupational exposure could not be shown to influence phi/N Vf

  2. Late-Onset Combined Immunodeficiency with a Novel IL2RG Mutation and Probable Revertant Somatic Mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yusuke; Hoshino, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Hideki; Kawashima, Nozomu; Wang, Xinan; Yoshida, Kenichi; Wada, Taizo; Gunji, Masaharu; Toma, Tomoko; Kato, Tamaki; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Iwata, Atsuko; Hori, Toshinori; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Sanada, Masashi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ito, Masafumi; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Kojima, Seiji; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) is caused by mutations of more than two hundred immunity-related genes. In addition to the heterogeneity of the diseases, the atypical presentation of each disease caused by hypomorphic mutations or somatic mosaicism makes genetic diagnosis challenging. Next-generation sequencing tests all genes simultaneously and has proven its innovative efficacy in genomics. We describe a male PID patient without any family history of immunodeficiency. This patient suffered from recurrent infections from 1 year of age. Laboratory analysis showed hypogammaglobulinemia. T, B, and NK cells were present, but the T cell proliferative response decreased. Whole-exome sequencing analysis identified an IL2RG p.P58T missense mutation. CD8(+) and CD56(+) cells showed revertant somatic mosaicism to the wild-type allele. A late-onset and atypical presentation of the X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) phenotype might be associated with revertant somatic mosaicism in T and NK cells. This patient is the seventh reported case of X-SCID with revertant somatic mosaicism. His classical clinical management did not result in a molecular diagnosis because of the atypical presentation. The coverage that is provided by whole-exome sequencing of most PID genes effectively excluded differential diagnoses other than X-SCID. As next-generation sequencing becomes available in clinical practice, it will enhance our knowledge of PID and rescue currently undiagnosed patients.

  3. Burden and profile of somatic mutation in duodenal adenomas from patients with familial adenomatous- and MUTYH-associated polyposis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura Elizabeth; Hurley, Joanna J; Meuser, Elena; Jose, Sian; Ashelford, Kevin E; Mort, Matthew; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maynard, Julie; Leon Brito, Helena; Harry, Manon; Walters, Angharad; Raja, Meera; Walton, Sarah Jane; Dolwani, Sunil; Williams, Geraint T; Morgan, Meleri; Moorghen, Morgan; Clark, Susan K; Sampson, Julian R

    2017-08-08

    Duodenal polyposis and cancer are important causes of morbidity and mortality in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). This study aimed to comprehensively characterize somatic genetic changes in FAP and MAP duodenal adenomas to better understand duodenal tumorigenesis in these disorders.

    Experimental Design: Sixty-nine adenomas were biopsied during endoscopy in 16 FAP and 10 MAP patients with duodenal polyposis. Ten FAP and 10 MAP adenomas and matched blood DNA samples were exome sequenced, 42 further adenomas underwent targeted sequencing and 47 were studied by array comparative genomic hybridization. Findings in FAP and MAP duodenal adenomas were compared to each other and to the reported mutational landscape in FAP and MAP colorectal adenomas.

    Results: MAP duodenal adenomas had significantly more protein-changing somatic mutations (P = 0.018), truncating mutations (P = 0.006) and copy number variants (P = 0.005) than FAP duodenal adenomas, even though MAP patients had lower Spigelman stage duodenal polyposis. Fifteen genes were significantly recurrently mutated. Targeted sequencing of APC, KRAS, PTCHD2 and PLCL1 identified further mutations in each of these genes in additional duodenal adenomas. In contrast to MAP and FAP colorectal adenomas, neither exome nor targeted sequencing identified WTX mutations (P=0.0017).

    Conclusions: The mutational landscapes in FAP and MAP duodenal adenomas overlapped with, but had significant differences to those reported in colorectal adenomas. The significantly higher burden of somatic mutations in MAP than FAP duodenal adenomas despite lower Spigelman stage disease could increase cancer risk in the context of apparently less severe benign disease. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Somatic mutations in arachidonic acid metabolism pathway genes enhance oral cancer post-treatment disease-free survival.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nidhan K; Das, Subrata; Maitra, Arindam; Sarin, Rajiv; Majumder, Partha P

    2014-12-17

    The arachidonic acid metabolism (AAM) pathway promotes tumour progression. Chemical inhibitors of AAM pathway prolong post-treatment survival of cancer patients. Here we test whether non-synonymous somatic mutations in genes of this pathway, acting as natural inhibitors, increase post-treatment survival. We identify loss-of-function somatic mutations in 15 (18%) of 84 treatment-naïve oral cancer patients by whole-exome sequencing, which we map to genes of AAM pathway. Patients (n = 53) who survived ≥ 12 months after surgery without recurrence have significantly (P = 0.007) higher proportion (26% versus 3%) of mutations than those who did not (n = 31). Patients with mutations have a significantly (P = 0.003) longer median disease-free survival (24 months) than those without (13 months). Compared with the presence of a mutation, absence of any mutation increases the hazard ratio for death (11.3) significantly (P = 0.018). The inferences are strengthened when we pool our data with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. In patients with AAM pathway mutations, some downstream pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt pathway, are downregulated.

  5. Somatic mutations of the Parkinson's disease–associated gene PARK2 in glioblastoma and other human malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Veeriah, Selvaraju; Taylor, Barry S; Meng, Shasha; Fang, Fang; Yilmaz, Emrullah; Vivanco, Igor; Janakiraman, Manickam; Schultz, Nikolaus; Hanrahan, Aphrothiti J; Pao, William; Ladanyi, Marc; Sander, Chris; Heguy, Adriana; Holland, Eric C; Paty, Philip B; Mischel, Paul S; Liau, Linda; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Solit, David B; Chan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Mutation of the gene PARK2, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most common cause of early-onset Parkinson's disease1, 2, 3. In a search for multisite tumor suppressors, we identified PARK2 as a frequently targeted gene on chromosome 6q25.2–q27 in cancer. Here we describe inactivating somatic mutations and frequent intragenic deletions of PARK2 in human malignancies. The PARK2 mutations in cancer occur in the same domains, and sometimes at the same residues, as the germline mutations causing familial Parkinson's disease. Cancer-specific mutations abrogate the growth-suppressive effects of the PARK2 protein. PARK2 mutations in cancer decrease PARK2's E3 ligase activity, compromising its ability to ubiquitinate cyclin E and resulting in mitotic instability. These data strongly point to PARK2 as a tumor suppressor on 6q25.2–q27. Thus, PARK2, a gene that causes neuronal dysfunction when mutated in the germline, may instead contribute to oncogenesis when altered in non-neuronal somatic cells. PMID:19946270

  6. Acquired RAS or EGFR mutations and duration of response to EGFR blockade in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Van Emburgh, Beth O.; Arena, Sabrina; Siravegna, Giulia; Lazzari, Luca; Crisafulli, Giovanni; Corti, Giorgio; Mussolin, Benedetta; Baldi, Federica; Buscarino, Michela; Bartolini, Alice; Valtorta, Emanuele; Vidal, Joana; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Germano, Giovanni; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Ponzetti, Agostino; Albanell, Joan; Siena, Salvatore; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Montagut, Clara; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab or panitumumab is effective in a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the emergence of resistance limits the efficacy of these therapeutic agents. At relapse, the majority of patients develop RAS mutations, while a subset acquires EGFR extracellular domain (ECD) mutations. Here we find that patients who experience greater and longer responses to EGFR blockade preferentially develop EGFR ECD mutations, while RAS mutations emerge more frequently in patients with smaller tumour shrinkage and shorter progression-free survival. In circulating cell-free tumour DNA of patients treated with anti-EGFR antibodies, RAS mutations emerge earlier than EGFR ECD variants. Subclonal RAS but not EGFR ECD mutations are present in CRC samples obtained before exposure to EGFR blockade. These data indicate that clonal evolution of drug-resistant cells is associated with the clinical outcome of CRC patients treated with anti-EGFR antibodies. PMID:27929064

  7. Identification of two poorly prognosed ovarian carcinoma subtypes associated with CHEK2 germ-line mutation and non-CHEK2 somatic mutation gene signatures.

    PubMed

    Ow, Ghim Siong; Ivshina, Anna V; Fuentes, Gloria; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC), a major histologic type of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), is a poorly-characterized, heterogeneous and lethal disease where somatic mutations of TP53 are common and inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1/2 predispose to cancer in 9.5-13% of EOC patients. However, the overall burden of disease due to either inherited or sporadic mutations is not known. We performed bioinformatics analyses of mutational and clinical data of 334 HG-SOC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify novel tumor-driving mutations, survival-significant patient subgroups and tumor subtypes potentially driven by either hereditary or sporadic factors. We identified a sub-cluster of high-frequency mutations in 22 patients and 58 genes associated with DNA damage repair, apoptosis and cell cycle. Mutations of CHEK2, observed with the highest intensity, were associated with poor therapy response and overall survival (OS) of these patients (P = 8.00e-05), possibly due to detrimental effect of mutations at the nuclear localization signal. A 21-gene mutational prognostic signature significantly stratifies patients into relatively low or high-risk subgroups with 5-y OS of 37% or 6%, respectively (P = 7.31e-08). Further analysis of these genes and high-risk subgroup revealed 2 distinct classes of tumors characterized by either germline mutations of genes such as CHEK2, RPS6KA2 and MLL4, or somatic mutations of other genes in the signature. Our results could provide improvement in prediction and clinical management of HG-SOC, facilitate our understanding of this complex disease, guide the design of targeted therapeutics and improve screening efforts to identify women at high-risk of hereditary ovarian cancers distinct from those associated with BRCA1/2 mutations.

  8. The chronological sequence of somatic mutations in early gastric carcinogenesis inferred from multiregion sequencing of gastric adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Rhee, Je-Keun; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Min

    2016-01-01

    Mutation profiles and intratumoral heterogeneity are not well understood for benign gastric adenomas, some of which progress into malignant gastric adenocarcinomas. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of three microsatellite stable (MSS) and two microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) gastric adenomas with three regional tumor biopsies per case. We observed that the mutation abundance of benign gastric adenomas was comparable to those of gastric adenocarcinomas, suggesting that the mutational makeup for gastric carcinogenesis may already be achieved in benign adenomas. The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity was more substantial for MSS genomes in that only 1% - 14% of somatic mutations were common across the regional biopsies or ‘public’, while 50% - 94% of mutations were public in MSI-H gastric adenomas. We observed biallelic, loss-of-functional events of APC with truncating mutations and/or 5q losses for all cases, mostly as public events. All MSS gastric adenomas also harbored ARID2 truncating mutations, often as multiple, region-specific ones indicative of convergent evolution. Hotspot missense mutations on known cancer genes such as ERBB2 and KRAS were largely observed as region-specific aberrations. These findings suggest that biallelic functional APC inactivation initiates the gastric carcinogenesis and is followed by mutations of histone modifiers and then activation of known cancer-related genes. As the first exome-wide multi-region mutational profiling of gastric adenomas, our study provides clues on the chronological sequence of somatic mutations and their clonal architectures in early gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27175599

  9. Toward a Survey of Somatic Mutation of the NF1 Gene in Benign Neurofibromas of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Ingrid; Beyer, Kim; Krone, Winfrid; Assum, Günter

    2000-01-01

    Summary Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the NF1 gene, is characterized by multiple neurofibromas, pigmentation anomalies, and a variety of other possible complications, including an increased risk of malignant neoplasias. Tumorigenesis in NF1 is believed to follow the two-hit hypothesis postulated for tumor-suppressor genes. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been shown to occur in NF1-associated malignancies and in benign neurofibromas, but only few of the latter yielded a positive result. Here we describe a systematic approach of searching for somatic inactivation of the NF1 gene in neurofibromas. In the course of these studies, two new intragenic polymorphisms of the NF1 gene, a tetranucleotide repeat and a 21-bp duplication, could be identified. Three tumor-specific point mutations and two LOH events were detected among seven neurofibromas from four different NF1 patients. Our results suggest that small subtle mutations occur with similar frequency to that of LOH in benign neurofibromas and that somatic inactivation of the NF1 gene is a general event in these tumors. The spectrum of somatic mutations occurring in various tumors from individual NF1 patients may contribute to the understanding of variable expressivity of the NF1 phenotype. PMID:10677298

  10. Somatic mutations and germline sequence variants in the expressed tyrosine kinase genes of patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Zhifu; Walgren, Richard; Zhao, Yu; Kasai, Yumi; Miner, Tracie; Ries, Rhonda E.; Lubman, Olga; Fremont, Daved H.; McLellan, Michael D.; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F.; Link, Daniel C.; Walter, Matthew J.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Watson, Mark; Baty, Jack; Heath, Sharon; Shannon, William D.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ley, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Activating mutations in tyrosine kinase (TK) genes (eg, FLT3 and KIT) are found in more than 30% of patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML); many groups have speculated that mutations in other TK genes may be present in the remaining 70%. We performed high-throughput resequencing of the kinase domains of 26 TK genes (11 receptor TK; 15 cytoplasmic TK) expressed in most AML patients using genomic DNA from the bone marrow (tumor) and matched skin biopsy samples (“germline”) from 94 patients with de novo AML; sequence variants were validated in an additional 94 AML tumor samples (14.3 million base pairs of sequence were obtained and analyzed). We identified known somatic mutations in FLT3, KIT, and JAK2 TK genes at the expected frequencies and found 4 novel somatic mutations, JAK1V623A, JAK1T478S, DDR1A803V, and NTRK1S677N, once each in 4 respective patients of 188 tested. We also identified novel germline sequence changes encoding amino acid substitutions (ie, nonsynonymous changes) in 14 TK genes, including TYK2, which had the largest number of nonsynonymous sequence variants (11 total detected). Additional studies will be required to define the roles that these somatic and germline TK gene variants play in AML pathogenesis. PMID:18270328

  11. Biallelic somatic and germline mutations in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs): evidence for a two-hit mechanism of CCM pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Amy L.; Johnson, Eric; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zabramski, Joseph M.; Marchuk, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular anomalies of the central nervous system, comprising dilated blood-filled capillaries lacking structural support. The lesions are prone to rupture, resulting in seizures or hemorrhagic stroke. CCM can occur sporadically, manifesting as solitary lesions, but also in families, where multiple lesions generally occur. Familial cases follow autosomal-dominant inheritance due to mutations in one of three genes, CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/malcavernin or CCM3/PDCD10. The difference in lesion burden between familial and sporadic CCM, combined with limited molecular data, suggests that CCM pathogenesis may follow a two-hit molecular mechanism, similar to that seen for tumor suppressor genes. In this study, we investigate the two-hit hypothesis for CCM pathogenesis. Through repeated cycles of amplification, subcloning and sequencing of multiple clones per amplicon, we identify somatic mutations that are otherwise invisible by direct sequencing of the bulk amplicon. Biallelic germline and somatic mutations were identified in CCM lesions from all three forms of inherited CCMs. The somatic mutations are found only in a subset of the endothelial cells lining the cavernous vessels and not in interstitial lesion cells. These data suggest that CCM lesion genesis requires complete loss of function for one of the CCM genes. Although widely expressed in the different cell types of the brain, these data also suggest a unique role for the CCM proteins in endothelial cell biology. PMID:19088123

  12. Biallelic somatic and germline mutations in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs): evidence for a two-hit mechanism of CCM pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Akers, Amy L; Johnson, Eric; Steinberg, Gary K; Zabramski, Joseph M; Marchuk, Douglas A

    2009-03-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular anomalies of the central nervous system, comprising dilated blood-filled capillaries lacking structural support. The lesions are prone to rupture, resulting in seizures or hemorrhagic stroke. CCM can occur sporadically, manifesting as solitary lesions, but also in families, where multiple lesions generally occur. Familial cases follow autosomal-dominant inheritance due to mutations in one of three genes, CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/malcavernin or CCM3/PDCD10. The difference in lesion burden between familial and sporadic CCM, combined with limited molecular data, suggests that CCM pathogenesis may follow a two-hit molecular mechanism, similar to that seen for tumor suppressor genes. In this study, we investigate the two-hit hypothesis for CCM pathogenesis. Through repeated cycles of amplification, subcloning and sequencing of multiple clones per amplicon, we identify somatic mutations that are otherwise invisible by direct sequencing of the bulk amplicon. Biallelic germline and somatic mutations were identified in CCM lesions from all three forms of inherited CCMs. The somatic mutations are found only in a subset of the endothelial cells lining the cavernous vessels and not in interstitial lesion cells. These data suggest that CCM lesion genesis requires complete loss of function for one of the CCM genes. Although widely expressed in the different cell types of the brain, these data also suggest a unique role for the CCM proteins in endothelial cell biology.

  13. Analysis of clinically relevant somatic mutations in high-risk head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zilberg, Catherine; Lee, Matthew Weicai; Yu, Bing; Ashford, Bruce; Kraitsek, Spiridoula; Ranson, Marie; Shannon, Kerwin; Cowley, Mark; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Palme, Carsten E; Ch'ng, Sydney; Low, Tsu-Hui Hubert; O'Toole, Sandra; Clark, Jonathan R; Gupta, Ruta

    2017-10-06

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most prevalent malignancy, most frequently occurring in the head and neck (head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma). Treatment of locally advanced or metastatic disease is associated with functional morbidity and disfigurement. Underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Targeted sequencing of 48 clinically relevant genes was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded high-risk primary head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas that remained non-metastatic at minimum follow-up of 24 months. Associations of somatic mutations with clinicopathologic characteristics were evaluated and compared with those described in the literature for metastatic disease. Alterations in 44 cancer-associated genes were identified. TP53 was mutated in 100% of cases; APC, ATM, ERBB4, GNAQ, KIT, RB1 and ABL1 were altered in 60% of cases. FGFR2 mutations (40%) were exclusively seen in patients with perineural invasion. MLH1 mutations were exclusively seen in the two younger patients (<45 years). Lower incidences of NOTCH1 mutations were observed compared with that described in metastatic head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the literature. Somatic mutations susceptible to EGFR inhibitors, and other small molecular targeted therapeutics were seen in 60% of cases. This study provides insights into somatic mutations in non-metastatic, high-risk head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and identifies potential therapeutic targets. Alterations in FGFR2 and NOTCH1 may have roles in local and distant disease progression.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.128.

  14. Caspase-8 gene is frequently inactivated by the frameshift somatic mutation 1225_1226delTG in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Su Young; Sung, Yong Jik; Park, Won Sang; Nam, Suk Woo; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jung Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2005-01-06

    Evidence exists that alterations of the genes encoding apoptosis-related proteins contribute to either development or progression of human cancers. Caspase-8 plays a crucial role in the initiation phase of apoptosis. To explore the possibility that the genetic alteration of caspase-8 gene is involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), we have analysed the entire coding region of human caspase-8 gene for the detection of somatic mutations by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism in 69 HCCs with low-grade dysplastic nodule (LGDN, n=2) or high-grade dysplastic nodule (HGDN, n=2) or without any dysplastic nodules (n=65). Overall, we detected a total of nine somatic mutations in 69 HCCs (13.0%). Interestingly, all of the nine mutations were an identical frameshift mutation with two base-pair deletion (1225_1226delTG), which would result in a premature termination of amino-acid synthesis in the p10 protease subunit. In a patient sample, we detected the 1225_1226delTG mutation both in HCC and LDGN lesions, suggesting that caspase-8 mutation could be involved in the early stage of HCC carcinogenesis. We expressed the tumor-derived caspase-8 mutant in the cells and found that the mutant abolished cell death activity of caspase-8. Our data indicate that caspase-8 gene is frequently mutated in HCC and the majority of the mutations may be the frameshift mutation 1225_1226delTG. Also, the data suggest that caspase-8 gene mutation might lead to the loss of its cell death function and contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC.

  15. Exome sequencing of serous endometrial tumors identifies recurrent somatic mutations in chromatin-remodeling and ubiquitin ligase complex genes.

    PubMed

    Le Gallo, Matthieu; O'Hara, Andrea J; Rudd, Meghan L; Urick, Mary Ellen; Hansen, Nancy F; O'Neil, Nigel J; Price, Jessica C; Zhang, Suiyuan; England, Bryant M; Godwin, Andrew K; Sgroi, Dennis C; Hieter, Philip; Mullikin, James C; Merino, Maria J; Bell, Daphne W

    2012-12-01

    Endometrial cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, causing ~74,000 deaths annually. Serous endometrial cancers are a clinically aggressive subtype with a poorly defined genetic etiology. We used whole-exome sequencing to comprehensively search for somatic mutations within ~22,000 protein-encoding genes in 13 primary serous endometrial tumors. We subsequently resequenced 18 genes, which were mutated in more than 1 tumor and/or were components of an enriched functional grouping, from 40 additional serous tumors. We identified high frequencies of somatic mutations in CHD4 (17%), EP300 (8%), ARID1A (6%), TSPYL2 (6%), FBXW7 (29%), SPOP (8%), MAP3K4 (6%) and ABCC9 (6%). Overall, 36.5% of serous tumors had a mutated chromatin-remodeling gene, and 35% had a mutated ubiquitin ligase complex gene, implicating frequent mutational disruption of these processes in the molecular pathogenesis of one of the deadliest forms of endometrial cancer.

  16. Urinary bladder paragangliomas: How Immunohistochemistry can assist to identify patients with SDHB germ line and somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Giubellino, Alessio; Lara, Karlena; Martucci, Victoria; Huynh, T; Agarwal, Piyush; Pacak, Karel; Merino, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder paraganglioma (paraganglioma) is a rare tumor of chromaffin cells of the sympathetic system of the urinary bladder wall. We studied 14 cases of this entity and investigated the usefulness of SDHB protein staining by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a diagnostic tool to identify patients with bladder paragangliomas that could be associated with SDHB gene mutations, since these patient have a more aggressive disease. Eleven tumors from these patients were stained by IHC. Six out of 11 tumors were negative for SDHB staining by IHC with no cytoplasmic staining in tumor cells when compared with normal tissues. Five out of these 6 negative cases were confirmed to be positive for germline SDHB mutations. One case showed negative staining and no germline SDHB mutation, however, further investigation of the tumor revealed a somatic SDHB gene deletion. The remaining 5 cases showed strong cytoplasmic staining but they were negative for the presence of SDHB mutation. They were found to be either sporadic tumors or part of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Staining for SDH-A was positive in all cases. Our study confirms that there is very good correlation between the presence of an SDHB mutation, whether germline or sporadic, and negative SDHB IHC staining in urinary bladder paragangliomas, and represents the first study to demonstrate that somatic mutations can be recognized by IHC staining. PMID:26457353

  17. Somatic-cell mutation induced by short exposures to cigarette smoke in urate-null, oxidative stress-sensitive Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tomoyo; Koike, Ryota; Yuma, Yoko; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Suzuki, Toshinori; Negishi, Tomoe

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that a urate-null strain of Drosophila is hypersensitive to cigarette smoke (CS), and we suggested that CS induces oxidative stress in Drosophila because uric acid is a potent antioxidant. Although the carcinogenic risk of CS exposure is widely recognized; documentation of in vivo genotoxic activity of environmental CS, especially gaseous-phase CS, remains inconclusive. To date, somatic-cell mutations in Drosophila resulting from exposure to CS have not been detected via the somatic mutation and recombination test (wing spot test) with wild-type flies, a widely used Drosophila assay for the detection of somatic-cell mutation; moreover, genotoxicity has not been documented via a DNA repair test that involves DNA repair-deficient Drosophila. In this study, we used a new Drosophila strain (y v ma-l; mwh) to examine the mutagenicity induced by gaseous-phase CS; these flies are urate-null due to a mutation in ma-l, and they are heterozygous for multiple wing hair (mwh), a mutation that functions as a marker for somatic-cell mutation. In an assay with this newly developed strain, a superoxide anion-producing weed-killer, paraquat, exhibited significant mutagenicity; in contrast, paraquat was hardly mutagenic with a wild-type strain. Drosophila larvae were exposed to CS for 2, 4 or 6h, and then kept at 25°C on instant medium until adulthood. After eclosion, mutant spots, which consisted of mutant hairs on wings, were scored. The number of mutant spots increased significantly in an exposure time-dependent manner in the urate-null females (ma-l (-/-)), but not in the urate-positive females (ma-l (+/-)). In this study, we showed that short-term exposure to CS was mutagenic in this in vivo system. In addition, we obtained suggestive data regarding reactive oxygen species production in larva after CS exposure using the fluorescence probe H2DCFDA. These results suggest that oxidative damage, which might be countered by uric acid, was partly responsible

  18. Screening for somatic mutations of the neurofibromatosis genes in nervous system and other solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaratnam, S.; Narod, S.; Ruttledge, M.

    1994-09-01

    Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF1) and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are autosomal dominant inherited disorders which predispose carriers to various benign and malignant tumors. Both genes are thought to act as tumor suppressors with inactivation of both alleles resulting in abnormal cell growth. By inference from other hereditary cancer syndromes, it has been hypothesized that somatic mutation at the NF1 and NF2 loci is involved in the development of sporadic tumors of the types found with increased prevalence in these disorders. In addition to other malignancies, individuals with NF1 are at increased risk to develop astrocytomas and rhabdomyosarcomas. We have therefore screened 40 astrocytomas for LOH using three NF1-derived cDNA probes, and have found no abnormalities. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons of the NF1 GAP-related domain has also failed to show any variants in a total of 70 astrocytomas and 14 rhabdomyosarcomas (7 each of embryonal and alveolar types). LOH of chromosome 22 markers is known to occur in meningioma, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and ependymoma. SSCP of all 17 exons of the NF2 gene in 27 melanoma cell lines, 42 breast cancers, and 27 pendymomas revealed no alterations. In a screen of 151 menigiomas, 26 new variants have been found, bringing our total to 50 variants in this sample. These represent inactivating mutations (frameshift, splice-site, and nonsense), determined by direct sequencing. Since the majority of these changes occur in tumors previously shown to have LOH at chromosome 22 markers flanking NF2, our results support a tumor sequence role for this gene in meningiomas. In addition, given that 40% of our tumors do not show LOH over this region, we propose that other genes are involved in the development of this latter subset of meningiomas.

  19. H7N9 influenza virus neutralizing antibodies that possess few somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Thornburg, Natalie J.; Zhang, Heng; Bangaru, Sandhya; Kose, Nurgun; Lampley, Rebecca M.; Bombardi, Robin G.; Yu, Yingchun; Graham, Stephen; Branchizio, Andre; Yoder, Sandra M.; Rock, Michael T.; Creech, C. Buddy; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy A.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Avian H7N9 influenza viruses are group 2 influenza A viruses that have been identified as the etiologic agent for a current major outbreak that began in China in 2013 and may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we examined the human H7-reactive antibody response in 75 recipients of a monovalent inactivated A/Shanghai/02/2013 H7N9 vaccine. After 2 doses of vaccine, the majority of donors had memory B cells that secreted IgGs specific for H7 HA, with dominant responses against single HA subtypes, although frequencies of H7-reactive B cells ranged widely between donors. We isolated 12 naturally occurring mAbs with low half-maximal effective concentrations for binding, 5 of which possessed neutralizing and HA-inhibiting activities. The 5 neutralizing mAbs exhibited narrow breadth of reactivity with influenza H7 strains. Epitope-mapping studies using neutralization escape mutant analysis, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography revealed that these neutralizing mAbs bind near the receptor-binding pocket on HA. All 5 neutralizing mAbs possessed low numbers of somatic mutations, suggesting the clones arose from naive B cells. The most potent mAb, H7.167, was tested as a prophylactic treatment in a mouse intranasal virus challenge study, and systemic administration of the mAb markedly reduced viral lung titers. PMID:26950424

  20. Somatic mutation analysis of p53 and ST7 tumor suppressor genes in gastric carcinoma by DHPLC

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chong; Xu, Hui-Mian; Ren, Qun; Ao, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Ao, Xue; Jiang, Li; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Xue

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To verify the effectiveness of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) in detecting somatic mutation of p53 gene in gastric carcinoma tissues. The superiority of this method has been proved in the detection of germline mutations, but it was not very affirmative with respect to somatic mutations in tumor specimens. ST7 gene, a candidate tumor suppressor gene identified recently at human chromosome 7q31.1, was also detected because LOH at this site has also been widely reported in stomach cancer. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 39 cases of surgical gastric carcinoma specimen and their correspondent normal mucosa. Seven fragments spanning the 11 exons were used to detect the mutation of p53 gene and the four exons reported to have mutations in ST7 gene were amplified by PCR and directly analyzed by DHPLC without mixing with wild-type allele. RESULTS: In the analysis of p53 gene mutation, 9 aberrant DHPLC chromatographies were found in tumor tissues, while their normal-adjacent counterparts running in parallel showed a normal shape. Subsequent sequencing revealed nine sequence variations, 1 polymorphism and 8 mutations including 3 mutations not reported before. The mutation rate of p53 gene (21%) was consistent with that previously reported. Furthermore, no additional aberrant chromatography was found when wild-type DNA was added into the DNA of other 30 tumor samples that showed normal shapes previously. The positivity of p53 mutations was significantly higher in intestinal-type carcinomas (40%) than that in diffuse-type (8.33%) carcinomas of the stomach. No mutation of ST7 gene was found. CONCLUSION: DHPLC is a very convenient method for the detection of somatic mutations in gastric carcinoma. The amount of wild type alleles supplied by the non-tumorous cells in gastric tumor specimens is enough to form heteroduplex with mutant alleles for DHPLC detection. ST7 gene may not be the target gene of inactivation at 7q31 site in gastric carcinoma

  1. A somatic-mutational process recurrently duplicates germline susceptibility loci and tissue-specific super-enhancers in breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Glodzik, Dominik; Morganella, Sandro; Davies, Helen; Simpson, Peter T; Li, Yilong; Zou, Xueqing; Diez-Perez, Javier; Staaf, Johan; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Smid, Marcel; Brinkman, Arie B; Rye, Inga Hansine; Russnes, Hege; Raine, Keiran; Purdie, Colin A; Lakhani, Sunil R; Thompson, Alastair M; Birney, Ewan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van de Vijver, Marc J; Martens, John W M; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Richardson, Andrea L; Kong, Gu; Viari, Alain; Easton, Douglas; Evan, Gerard; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R; Nik-Zainal, Serena

    2017-03-01

    Somatic rearrangements contribute to the mutagenized landscape of cancer genomes. Here, we systematically interrogated rearrangements in 560 breast cancers by using a piecewise constant fitting approach. We identified 33 hotspots of large (>100 kb) tandem duplications, a mutational signature associated with homologous-recombination-repair deficiency. Notably, these tandem-duplication hotspots were enriched in breast cancer germline susceptibility loci (odds ratio (OR) = 4.28) and breast-specific 'super-enhancer' regulatory elements (OR = 3.54). These hotspots may be sites of selective susceptibility to double-strand-break damage due to high transcriptional activity or, through incrementally increasing copy number, may be sites of secondary selective pressure. The transcriptomic consequences ranged from strong individual oncogene effects to weak but quantifiable multigene expression effects. We thus present a somatic-rearrangement mutational process affecting coding sequences and noncoding regulatory elements and contributing a continuum of driver consequences, from modest to strong effects, thereby supporting a polygenic model of cancer development.

  2. Kallmann syndrome: somatic and germline mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in a mother and the son.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoko; Ohyama, Kenji; Fukami, Maki; Okada, Michiyo; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2006-04-01

    Although Kallmann syndrome (KS) caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene (FGFR1) is occasionally associated with characteristic features, such as dental agenesis and cleft palate, FGFR1 mutations remain unidentified in several KS patients with such characteristic features. We examined a 14-yr-old Japanese boy with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, olfactory dysfunction, and dental agenesis and his fertile mother with olfactory dysfunction and dental agenesis. Direct sequencing was performed for FGFR1 using leukocyte genomic DNA from the proband and leukocyte and nail genomic DNA from the mother. To examine a possible somatic mutation, a specific forward primer was designed to introduce a BstXI site into the normal allele only, and nested PCR amplification, followed by BstXI digestion, was carried out three times with different reverse primers. After standard PCR amplifications, a heterozygous 2-bp deletion at exon 10 (1317_1318delTG), which is predicted to cause a frameshift at the 439th codon for serine and resultant termination at the 461st codon (S439fsX461), was identified in the proband, but was not found in the mother. After selective amplification of the mutant allele, this deletion was detected in nail DNA, but not in leukocyte DNA, from the mother. The results suggest that the 2-bp deletion took place as a somatic mutation in the mother and was transmitted to the boy because of germline mosaicism. Such a somatic mutation occurs in some apparently FGFR1 mutation-negative KS patients with dental agenesis.

  3. Somatic Mutation of the SNP rs11614913 and Its Association with Increased MIR 196A2 Expression in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Xu, Jingman; Zhao, Dan; Geng, Meijuan; Ge, Haize; Fu, Li; Zhu, Zhengmao

    2016-02-01

    Common genetic variants (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) in microRNA genes may alter their maturation or expression, resulting in varied functional consequences. Several studies have evaluated the association between the SNP rs11614913 and cancer risk in diverse populations and in a range of cancers, with contradictory outcomes. In this study, we examined 114 paired samples (tumor and normal tissues) from breast cancer patients to study the genotype distribution and somatic mutation of the SNP in MIR 196A2 (rs11614913 C-T). In addition, we evaluated their influence on the mature MIR 196A2 expression. We found that 14% (16/114) of tumors underwent somatic mutation of the SNP rs11614913. Moreover, the CT heterozygous and the CC homozygous states of SNP rs11614913 were more prone to mutation, while the TT homozygous state appeared to be resistant. We further detected a significant increase (p = 0.002) in mature MIR 196A2 expression in breast cancer. In particular, we found a significant association between the occurrence of SNP rs11614913 mutation and high expression (p = 0.0002). In addition, the mature MIR 196A2 expression level was significantly associated with the higher tumor grade (p = 0.004). Taken together, our results seem to demonstrate that somatic mutation of SNP rs11614913 in MIR 196A2 can have an influence on its expression. In addition, it indicated that an unknown mechanism is responsible for both the mutation of SNP rs11614913 and the dysregulation of mature MIR 196A2 expression.

  4. Germline and somatic polymerase ε and δ mutations define a new class of hypermutated colorectal and endometrial cancers

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Sarah; Tomlinson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Polymerases ϵ and δ are the main enzymes that replicate eukaryotic DNA. Accurate replication occurs through Watson–Crick base pairing and also through the action of the polymerases' exonuclease (proofreading) domains. We have recently shown that germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) of POLE and POLD1 confer a high risk of multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma (CRC). POLD1 mutations also predispose to endometrial cancer (EC). These mutations are associated with high penetrance and dominant inheritance, although the phenotype can be variable. We have named the condition polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). Somatic POLE EDMs have also been found in sporadic CRCs and ECs, although very few somatic POLD1 EDMs have been detected. Both the germline and the somatic DNA polymerase EDMs cause an ‘ultramutated’, apparently microsatellite-stable, type of cancer, sometimes leading to over a million base substitutions per tumour. Here, we present the evidence for POLE and POLD1 as important contributors to the pathogenesis of CRC and EC, and highlight some of the key questions in this emerging field. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd PMID:23447401

  5. Ultra-sensitive sequencing reveals an age-related increase in somatic mitochondrial mutations that are inconsistent with oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Scott R; Salk, Jesse J; Schmitt, Michael W; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is believed to be highly vulnerable to age-associated damage and mutagenesis by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, somatic mtDNA mutations have historically been difficult to study because of technical limitations in accurately quantifying rare mtDNA mutations. We have applied the highly sensitive Duplex Sequencing methodology, which can detect a single mutation among >10(7) wild type molecules, to sequence mtDNA purified from human brain tissue from both young and old individuals with unprecedented accuracy. We find that the frequency of point mutations increases ~5-fold over the course of 80 years of life. Overall, the mutation spectra of both groups are comprised predominantly of transition mutations, consistent with misincorporation by DNA polymerase γ or deamination of cytidine and adenosine as the primary mutagenic events in mtDNA. Surprisingly, G → T mutations, considered the hallmark of oxidative damage to DNA, do not significantly increase with age. We observe a non-uniform, age-independent distribution of mutations in mtDNA, with the D-loop exhibiting a significantly higher mutation frequency than the rest of the genome. The coding regions, but not the D-loop, exhibit a pronounced asymmetric accumulation of mutations between the two strands, with G → A and T → C mutations occurring more often on the light strand than the heavy strand. The patterns and biases we observe in our data closely mirror the mutational spectrum which has been reported in studies of human populations and closely related species. Overall our results argue against oxidative damage being a major driver of aging and suggest that replication errors by DNA polymerase γ and/or spontaneous base hydrolysis are responsible for the bulk of accumulating point mutations in mtDNA.

  6. Mutational Signatures Are Critical for Proper Estimation of Purifying Selection Pressures in Cancer Somatic Mutation Data When Using the dN/dS Metric

    PubMed Central

    Van den Eynden, Jimmy; Larsson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Large cancer genome sequencing initiatives have led to the identification of cancer driver genes based on signals of positive selection in somatic mutation data. Additionally, the identification of purifying (negative) selection has the potential to identify essential genes that may be of therapeutic interest. The most widely used way of quantifying selection pressures in protein-coding genes is the dN/dS metric, which compares non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. In this study, we examine whether and how this metric is influenced by the mutational processes that have been active during tumor evolution. We use exome sequencing data from six different cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and demonstrate that dN/dS in its basic form, where uniform base substitution probabilities are assumed, is in fact strongly biased by these mutational processes. This is particularly true in malignant melanoma, where the mutational signature is characterized by a high amount of UV-induced cytosine to thymine mutations at dipyrimidine dinucleotides. This increases the likelihood of random synonymous mutations occurring in hydrophobic amino acid codons, leading to reduced dN/dS ratios in genes encoding membrane proteins and falsely suggesting purifying selection in these genes. When this effect is corrected for by taking mutational signature-derived substitution probabilities into account, purifying selection was found to be limited and similar in all cancer types studied. Our results demonstrate that it is crucial to take mutational signatures into account when applying the dN/dS metric to cancer somatic mutation data. PMID:28642787

  7. Mutational Signatures Are Critical for Proper Estimation of Purifying Selection Pressures in Cancer Somatic Mutation Data When Using the dN/dS Metric.

    PubMed

    Van den Eynden, Jimmy; Larsson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Large cancer genome sequencing initiatives have led to the identification of cancer driver genes based on signals of positive selection in somatic mutation data. Additionally, the identification of purifying (negative) selection has the potential to identify essential genes that may be of therapeutic interest. The most widely used way of quantifying selection pressures in protein-coding genes is the dN/dS metric, which compares non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. In this study, we examine whether and how this metric is influenced by the mutational processes that have been active during tumor evolution. We use exome sequencing data from six different cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and demonstrate that dN/dS in its basic form, where uniform base substitution probabilities are assumed, is in fact strongly biased by these mutational processes. This is particularly true in malignant melanoma, where the mutational signature is characterized by a high amount of UV-induced cytosine to thymine mutations at dipyrimidine dinucleotides. This increases the likelihood of random synonymous mutations occurring in hydrophobic amino acid codons, leading to reduced dN/dS ratios in genes encoding membrane proteins and falsely suggesting purifying selection in these genes. When this effect is corrected for by taking mutational signature-derived substitution probabilities into account, purifying selection was found to be limited and similar in all cancer types studied. Our results demonstrate that it is crucial to take mutational signatures into account when applying the dN/dS metric to cancer somatic mutation data.

  8. Acquired Resistance to Erlotinib in EGFR Mutation-Positive Lung Adenocarcinoma among Hispanics (CLICaP).

    PubMed

    Cardona, Andrés F; Arrieta, Oscar; Zapata, Martín Ignacio; Rojas, Leonardo; Wills, Beatriz; Reguart, Noemí; Karachaliou, Niki; Carranza, Hernán; Vargas, Carlos; Otero, Jorge; Archila, Pilar; Martín, Claudio; Corrales, Luis; Cuello, Mauricio; Ortiz, Carlos; Pino, Luis E; Rosell, Rafael; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucia

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all eventually develop acquired resistance to the treatment, with half of the patients developing EGFR T790M resistance mutations. The purpose of this study was to assess histological and clinical characteristics and survival outcomes in Hispanic EGFR mutated lung cancer patients after disease progression. EGFR mutation-positive lung cancer patients (n = 34) with acquired resistance to the EGFR-TKI erlotinib were identified from 2011 to 2015. Post-progression tumor specimens were collected for molecular analysis. Post-progression interventions, response to treatment, and survival were assessed and compared among all patients and those with and without T790M mutations. Mean age was 59.4 ± 13.9 years, 65% were never-smokers, and 53% had a performance status 0-1. All patients received erlotinib as first-line treatment. Identified mutations included: 60% DelE19 (Del746-750) and 40% L858R. First-line erlotinib overall response rate (ORR) was 61.8% and progression free survival (PFS) was 16.8 months (95% CI: 13.7-19.9). Acquired resistance mutations identified were T790M mutation (47.1%); PI3K mutations (14.7%); EGFR amplification (14.7%); KRAS mutation (5.9%); MET amplification (8.8%); HER2 alterations (5.9%, deletions/insertions in e20); and SCLC transformation (2.9%). Of patients, 79.4% received treatment after progression. ORR for post-erlotinib treatment was 47.1% (CR 2/PR 14) and median PFS was 8.3 months (95% CI: 2.2-36.6). Median overall survival (OS) from treatment initiation was 32.9 months (95% CI: 30.4-35.3), and only the use of post-progression therapy affected OS in a multivariate analysis (p = 0.05). Hispanic patients with acquired resistance to erlotinib continued to be sensitive to other treatments after progression. The proportion of T790M+ patients appears to be similar to that previously reported in Caucasians.

  9. Frequent CBL mutations associated with 11q acquired uniparental disomy in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Grand, Francis H; Hidalgo-Curtis, Claire E; Ernst, Thomas; Zoi, Katerina; Zoi, Christine; McGuire, Carolann; Kreil, Sebastian; Jones, Amy; Score, Joannah; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Oscier, David; Hall, Andrew; Brandts, Christian; Serve, Hubert; Reiter, Andreas; Chase, Andrew J; Cross, Nicholas C P

    2009-06-11

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) is a novel mechanism by which pathogenetic mutations in cancer may be reduced to homozygosity. To help identify novel mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), we performed a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screen to identify aUPD in 58 patients with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML; n = 30), JAK2 mutation-negative myelofibrosis (MF; n = 18), or JAK2 mutation-negative polycythemia vera (PV; n = 10). Stretches of homozygous, copy neutral SNP calls greater than 20Mb were seen in 10 (33%) aCML and 1 (6%) MF, but were absent in PV. In total, 7 different chromosomes were involved with 7q and 11q each affected in 10% of aCML cases. CBL mutations were identified in all 3 cases with 11q aUPD and analysis of 574 additional MPNs revealed a total of 27 CBL variants in 26 patients with aCML, myelofibrosis or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Most variants were missense substitutions in the RING or linker domains that abrogated CBL ubiquitin ligase activity and conferred a proliferative advantage to 32D cells overexpressing FLT3. We conclude that acquired, transforming CBL mutations are a novel and widespread pathogenetic abnormality in morphologically related, clinically aggressive MPNs.

  10. Clinical Effects of Driver Somatic Mutations on the Outcomes of Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treated With Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Della Porta, Matteo G; Gallì, Anna; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Zibellini, Silvia; Bernardi, Massimo; Rizzo, Ettore; Allione, Bernardino; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Pioltelli, Pietro; Marenco, Paola; Bosi, Alberto; Voso, Maria Teresa; Sica, Simona; Cuzzola, Mariella; Angelucci, Emanuele; Rossi, Marianna; Ubezio, Marta; Malovini, Alberto; Limongelli, Ivan; Ferretti, Virginia V; Spinelli, Orietta; Tresoldi, Cristina; Pozzi, Sarah; Luchetti, Silvia; Pezzetti, Laura; Catricalà, Silvia; Milanesi, Chiara; Riva, Alberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Ciceri, Fabio; Bonifazi, Francesca; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Santoro, Armando; Alessandrino, Emilio P; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-09-06

    The genetic basis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is heterogeneous, and various combinations of somatic mutations are associated with different clinical phenotypes and outcomes. Whether the genetic basis of MDS influences the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is unclear. We studied 401 patients with MDS or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) evolving from MDS (MDS/AML). We used massively parallel sequencing to examine tumor samples collected before HSCT for somatic mutations in 34 recurrently mutated genes in myeloid neoplasms. We then analyzed the impact of mutations on the outcome of HSCT. Overall, 87% of patients carried one or more oncogenic mutations. Somatic mutations of ASXL1, RUNX1, and TP53 were independent predictors of relapse and overall survival after HSCT in both patients with MDS and patients with MDS/AML (P values ranging from .003 to .035). In patients with MDS/AML, gene ontology (ie, secondary-type AML carrying mutations in genes of RNA splicing machinery, TP53-mutated AML, or de novo AML) was an independent predictor of posttransplantation outcome (P = .013). The impact of ASXL1, RUNX1, and TP53 mutations on posttransplantation survival was independent of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Combining somatic mutations and IPSS-R risk improved the ability to stratify patients by capturing more prognostic information at an individual level. Accounting for various combinations of IPSS-R risk and somatic mutations, the 5-year probability of survival after HSCT ranged from 0% to 73%. Somatic mutation in ASXL1, RUNX1, or TP53 is independently associated with unfavorable outcomes and shorter survival after allogeneic HSCT for patients with MDS and MDS/AML. Accounting for these genetic lesions may improve the prognostication precision in clinical practice and in designing clinical trials. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Acquired Resistance to Crizotinib from a Mutation in CD74–ROS1

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Mark M.; Katayama, Ryohei; McTigue, Michele; Liu, Wei; Deng, Ya-Li; Brooun, Alexei; Friboulet, Luc; Huang, Donghui; Falk, Matthew D.; Timofeevski, Sergei; Wilner, Keith D.; Lockerman, Elizabeth L.; Khan, Tahsin M.; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Digumarthy, Subba R.; Stone, James R.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Christensen, James G.; Iafrate, A. John; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Shaw, Alice T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Crizotinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), has also recently shown efficacy in the treatment of lung cancers with ROS1 translocations. Resistance to crizotinib developed in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring a CD74–ROS1 rearrangement who had initially shown a dramatic response to treatment. We performed a biopsy of a resistant tumor and identified an acquired mutation leading to a glycine-to-arginine substitution at codon 2032 in the ROS1 kinase domain. Although this mutation does not lie at the gatekeeper residue, it confers resistance to ROS1 kinase inhibition through steric interference with drug binding. The same resistance mutation was observed at all the meta-static sites that were examined at autopsy, suggesting that this mutation was an early event in the clonal evolution of resistance. (Funded by Pfizer and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00585195.) PMID:23724914

  12. Somatic mutations in plasma cell-free DNA are diagnostic markers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Masami; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaaki; Nakahara, Yujiro; Hirata, Hidenari; Uchi, Ryutaro; Niida, Atsushi; Momose, Kota; Sakimura, Shotaro; Chiba, Kenichi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ito, Shuhei; Sugimachi, Keishi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Yutaka; Miyano, Satoru; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Mimori, Koshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies owing to the high frequency of tumor recurrence. The identification of markers for early ESCC diagnosis and prediction of recurrence is expected to improve the long-term prognosis. Therefore, we searched for associations between tumor recurrence and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) mutations in blood plasma, which contains genetic markers for various cancer types. Experimental Design Genomic DNA from tumors and cfDNA from plasma were obtained from 13 patients undergoing treatment for newly diagnosed ESCC. Next-generation sequencing of cfDNA in plasma was performed to identify mutations in 53 cancer-related genes, in which recurrent mutations were previously detected in ESCC. cfDNA mutational profiles were compared before and after tumor resection in four patients. Furthermore, somatic mutations in serial plasma samples were monitored after treatment in four patients. Results We identified multiple concordant somatic mutations in cfDNA and primary tumor samples from 10 patients (83.3%) and in cfDNA and metastatic tumor samples from one patient (100%). Furthermore, the allele frequency of the concordant mutations in cfDNA changed concomitantly with tumor burden and increased approximately 6 months earlier than the detection of tumor recurrences by imaging tests in two patients. Conventional biomarkers, such as SCC and p53-Ab, did not reflect tumor recurrences. Conclusions The present multigene panel, which enabled the diagnosis of tumor recurrence with greater accuracy than did using standard tumor markers or imaging methods, is expected to greatly facilitate standard, postoperative follow-up monitoring in ESCC. PMID:27556701

  13. A Dual Model for Prioritizing Cancer Mutations in the Non-coding Genome Based on Germline and Somatic Events

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Poursat, Marie-Anne; Drubay, Damien; Motz, Arnaud; Saci, Zohra; Morillon, Antonin; Michiels, Stefan; Gautheret, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We address here the issue of prioritizing non-coding mutations in the tumoral genome. To this aim, we created two independent computational models. The first (germline) model estimates purifying selection based on population SNP data. The second (somatic) model estimates tumor mutation density based on whole genome tumor sequencing. We show that each model reflects a different set of constraints acting either on the normal or tumor genome, and we identify the specific genome features that most contribute to these constraints. Importantly, we show that the somatic mutation model carries independent functional information that can be used to narrow down the non-coding regions that may be relevant to cancer progression. On this basis, we identify positions in non-coding RNAs and the non-coding parts of mRNAs that are both under purifying selection in the germline and protected from mutation in tumors, thus introducing a new strategy for future detection of cancer driver elements in the expressed non-coding genome. PMID:26588488

  14. A Dual Model for Prioritizing Cancer Mutations in the Non-coding Genome Based on Germline and Somatic Events.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Poursat, Marie-Anne; Drubay, Damien; Motz, Arnaud; Saci, Zohra; Morillon, Antonin; Michiels, Stefan; Gautheret, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    We address here the issue of prioritizing non-coding mutations in the tumoral genome. To this aim, we created two independent computational models. The first (germline) model estimates purifying selection based on population SNP data. The second (somatic) model estimates tumor mutation density based on whole genome tumor sequencing. We show that each model reflects a different set of constraints acting either on the normal or tumor genome, and we identify the specific genome features that most contribute to these constraints. Importantly, we show that the somatic mutation model carries independent functional information that can be used to narrow down the non-coding regions that may be relevant to cancer progression. On this basis, we identify positions in non-coding RNAs and the non-coding parts of mRNAs that are both under purifying selection in the germline and protected from mutation in tumors, thus introducing a new strategy for future detection of cancer driver elements in the expressed non-coding genome.

  15. De novo somatic mutations in components of the PI3K-AKT3-mTOR pathway cause hemimegalencephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Huynh, My; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Kim, Sangwoo; Dixon-Salazar, Tracy; Heiberg, Andrew; Scott, Eric; Bafna, Vineet; Hill, Kiley J; Collazo, Adrienne; Funari, Vincent; Russ, Carsten; Gabriel, Stacey B; Mathern, Gary W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2012-06-24

    De novo somatic mutations in focal areas are well documented in diseases such as neoplasia but are rarely reported in malformation of the developing brain. Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is characterized by overgrowth of either one of the two cerebral hemispheres. The molecular etiology of HME remains a mystery. The intractable epilepsy that is associated with HME can be relieved by the surgical treatment hemispherectomy, allowing sampling of diseased tissue. Exome sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis in paired brain-blood samples from individuals with HME (n = 20 cases) identified de novo somatic mutations in 30% of affected individuals in the PIK3CA, AKT3 and MTOR genes. A recurrent PIK3CA c.1633G>A mutation was found in four separate cases. Identified mutations were present in 8-40% of sequenced alleles in various brain regions and were associated with increased neuronal S6 protein phosphorylation in the brains of affected individuals, indicating aberrant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Thus HME is probably a genetically mosaic disease caused by gain of function in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT3-mTOR signaling.

  16. De novo somatic mutations in components of the PI3K-AKT3-mTOR pathway cause hemimegalencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Huynh, My; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Kim, Sangwoo; Dixon-Salazar, Tracy; Heiberg, Andrew; Scott, Eric; Bafna, Vineet; Hill, Kiley J; Collazo, Adrienne; Funari, Vincent; Russ, Carsten; Gabriel, Stacey B; Mathern, Gary W; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2015-01-01

    De novo somatic mutations in focal areas are well documented in diseases such as neoplasia but are rarely reported in malformation of the developing brain. Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is characterized by overgrowth of either one of the two cerebral hemispheres. The molecular etiology of HME remains a mystery. The intractable epilepsy that is associated with HME can be relieved by the surgical treatment hemispherectomy, allowing sampling of diseased tissue. Exome sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis in paired brain-blood samples from individuals with HME (n = 20 cases) identified de novo somatic mutations in 30% of affected individuals in the PIK3CA, AKT3 and MTOR genes. A recurrent PIK3CA c.1633G>A mutation was found in four separate cases. Identified mutations were present in 8–40% of sequenced alleles in various brain regions and were associated with increased neuronal S6 protein phosphorylation in the brains of affected individuals, indicating aberrant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Thus HME is probably a genetically mosaic disease caused by gain of function in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT3-mTOR signaling. PMID:22729223

  17. [LB100 reverses the acquired resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGFR mutation].

    PubMed

    Shan, S; Wang, Y D; Ren, T

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To investigate the possibility of the Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor, LB100, in reversing acquired resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation. Methods: Cell line NCI-H1975 and established primary culture cell line 44-1 with gefitinib resistance were sequenced to determine the mutation type of EGFR gene. Cells were treated with gefitinib alone or combined with LB100 to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), and sensitivity of 44-1 and NCI-1975 to gefitinib alone or combined with LB100 was compared. The volume of NCI-H1975 xenografts with different drug treatments was observed to determine the efficiency of gefitinib with or without LB100 in tumor growth inhibition. Results: Both 44-1 and NCI-1975 cells had double EGFR mutation (sensitive L858R mutation and resistant T790M mutation). Both cells showed significant gefitinib resistance (IC50: 23.0 μmol/L in 44-1, 16.7 μmol/L in NCI-1975). When combined with LB100, IC50 of gefitinib decreased to 6.9 μmol/L in 44-1 cell and decreased to 3.4 μmol/L in NCI-H1975 cells. In NCI-1975 xenografts experiments, LB100 enhanced the ability of gefitinib in tumor growth inhibition (P<0.05). Conclusion: LB100 reverses acquired resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

  18. An Analysis of the Sensitivity of Proteogenomic Mapping of Somatic Mutations and Novel Splicing Events in Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Tang, Zuojian; Wang, Xuya; Grover, Himanshu; Askenazi, Manor; Teubl, Jennifer; Cao, Song; McLellan, Michael D.; Clauser, Karl R.; Tabb, David L.; Mertins, Philipp; Slebos, Robbert; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Li, Shunqiang; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Xie, Ling; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Sun, Shisheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Perou, Charles M.; Chen, Xian; Davies, Sherri R.; Maher, Christopher A.; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rodland, Karen D.; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Li; Townsend, R. Reid; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel; Smith, Richard D.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Carr, Steven A.; Payne, Samuel; Ellis, Matthew J.; Fenyő, David

    2015-12-02

    Improvements in mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing provide a new opportunity to determine whether polymorphisms, mutations and splice variants identified in cancer cells are translated. Herein we therefore describe a proteogenomic data integration tool (QUILTS) and illustrate its application to whole genome, transcriptome and global MS peptide sequence datasets generated from a pair of luminal and basal-like breast cancer patient derived xenografts (PDX). The sensitivity of proteogenomic analysis for singe nucleotide variant (SNV) expression and novel splice junction (NSJ) detection was probed using multiple MS/MS process replicates. Despite over thirty sample replicates, only about 10% of all SNV (somatic and germline) were detected by both DNA and RNA sequencing were observed as peptides. An even smaller proportion of peptides corresponding to NSJ observed by RNA sequencing were detected (<0.1%). Peptides mapping to DNA-detected SNV without a detectable mRNA transcript were also observed demonstrating the transcriptome coverage was also incomplete (~80%). In contrast to germ-line variants, somatic variants were less likely to be detected at the peptide level in the basal-like tumor than the luminal tumor raising the possibility of differential translation or protein degradation effects. In conclusion, the QUILTS program integrates DNA, RNA and peptide sequencing to assess the degree to which somatic mutations are translated and therefore biologically active. By identifying gaps in sequence coverage QUILTS benchmarks current technology and assesses progress towards whole cancer proteome and transcriptome analysis.

  19. Ultra-deep sequencing detects ovarian cancer cells in peritoneal fluid and reveals somatic TP53 mutations in noncancerous tissues.

    PubMed

    Krimmel, Jeffrey D; Schmitt, Michael W; Harrell, Maria I; Agnew, Kathy J; Kennedy, Scott R; Emond, Mary J; Loeb, Lawrence A; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Risques, Rosa Ana

    2016-05-24

    Current sequencing methods are error-prone, which precludes the identification of low frequency mutations for early cancer detection. Duplex sequencing is a sequencing technology that decreases errors by scoring mutations present only in both strands of DNA. Our aim was to determine whether duplex sequencing could detect extremely rare cancer cells present in peritoneal fluid from women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). These aggressive cancers are typically diagnosed at a late stage and are characterized by TP53 mutations and peritoneal dissemination. We used duplex sequencing to analyze TP53 mutations in 17 peritoneal fluid samples from women with HGSOC and 20 from women without cancer. The tumor TP53 mutation was detected in 94% (16/17) of peritoneal fluid samples from women with HGSOC (frequency as low as 1 mutant per 24,736 normal genomes). Additionally, we detected extremely low frequency TP53 mutations (median mutant fraction 1/13,139) in peritoneal fluid from nearly all patients with and without cancer (35/37). These mutations were mostly deleterious, clustered in hotspots, increased with age, and were more abundant in women with cancer than in controls. The total burden of TP53 mutations in peritoneal fluid distinguished cancers from controls with 82% sensitivity (14/17) and 90% specificity (18/20). Age-associated, low frequency TP53 mutations were also found in 100% of peripheral blood samples from 15 women with and without ovarian cancer (none with hematologic disorder). Our results demonstrate the ability of duplex sequencing to detect rare cancer cells and provide evidence of widespread, low frequency, age-associated somatic TP53 mutation in noncancerous tissue.

  20. Mouse somatic mutation orthologous to MELAS A3302G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene confers respiration defects.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akinori; Enoki, Shunkei; Ishikawa, Kaori; Mito, Takayuki; Obata, Kanae; Nagashima, Ruriko; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-11-27

    We searched for mtDNA harboring somatic mutations in mouse B82 cells, and found an A2748G mutation orthologous to the A3302G mutation in tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene reported in a patient with MELAS, the most prevalent mitochondrial disease. We isolated subclones of B82 cells until we obtained one subclone harboring >95% A2748G mtDNA. Cytoplasmic transfer of A2748G mtDNA resulted in cotransfer of A2748G mtDNA and respiration defects into mouse ES cells. Thus, A2748G mtDNA is responsible for respiration defects, and the ES cells harboring A2748G mtDNA may be useful for generation of transmitochondrial mice harboring A2748G mtDNA as potential disease models of MELAS.

  1. The Specificity of the FOXL2 c.402C>G Somatic Mutation: A Survey of Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Senz, Janine; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Melnyk, Nataliya; Salamanca, Clara; Maines-Bandiera, Sarah; Cooke, Susanna L.; Leung, Peter; Brenton, James D.; Gilks, C. Blake; Monahan, John; Huntsman, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background A somatic mutation in the FOXL2 gene is reported to be present in almost all (97%; 86/89) morphologically defined, adult-type, granulosa-cell tumors (A-GCTs). This FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation changes a highly conserved cysteine residue to a tryptophan (p.C134W). It was also found in a minority of other ovarian malignant stromal tumors, but not in benign ovarian stromal tumors or unrelated ovarian tumors or breast cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we studied other cancers and cell lines for the presence of this mutation. We screened DNA from 752 tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin and 28 ovarian cancer cell lines and 52 other cancer cell lines of varied origin. We found the FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation in an unreported A-GCT case and the A-GCT-derived cell line KGN. All other tumors and cell lines analyzed were mutation negative. Conclusions/Significance In addition to proving that the KGN cell line is a useful model to study A-GCTs, these data show that the c.402C>G mutation in FOXL2 is not commonly found in a wide variety of other cancers and therefore it is likely pathognomonic for A-GCTs and closely related tumors. PMID:19956657

  2. Germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppresssor gene are similar to somatic VHL aberrations in sporadic renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, J.M.; Naglich, J.; Gelbert, L.

    1994-09-01

    A candidate gene for von Hippel Lindau disease was recently identified that led to the isolation of a partial cDNA clone with extended open reading frame without significant homology to known genes or obvious functional motifs, except for an acidic pentamer repeat domain. To further characterize the functional domains of the VHL gene and assess its involvement in hereditary and non-hereditary tumors, we performed mutation analyses and studied its expresssion in normal and tumor tissue. We identified germline mutations in 39% of VHL disease families. Moreover, 33% of sporadic RCCs, and all (6/6) sporadic RCC cell lines analyzed, showed mutations within the VHL gene. Both germline and somatic mutations included deletions, insertions, splice site mutations, missense and nonsense mutations, all of which clustered at the 3{prime} end of the corresponding partial VHL cDNA open reading frame including an alternatively-spliced exon of 123 nucleotides in length, suggesting functionally important domains encoded by the VHL gene in this region. Over 180 sporadic tumors of other types have shown no detectable base changes within the presumed coding sequence of the VHL gene to date. We conclude that the gene causing VHL has an important and specific role in the etiology of sporadic renal cell carcinomas, acts as a recessive tumor suppressor gene, and appears to encode important functional domains within the 3{prime} end of the known open reading frame.

  3. The development of rapid and accurate screening test for RET hotspot somatic and germline mutations in MEN2 syndromes.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Andrej; Glavač, Damjan

    2015-12-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with distinctive features separating it from other thyroid cancers. Cancer may be sporadic or occur as a consequence of the hereditary syndrome called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) with three distinct phenotypes in MEN2A, MEN2B and FMTC. Each variant of MEN2 results from different RET gene mutations, with a good genotype-phenotype correlation. The goal of the study was to develop a fast and accurate screening method for a reliable detection of hot-spot RET germline and sporadic tumor mutations. From a cohort of 191 patients with MTC and their relatives, 38 tested positive and 31 tested negative for a germline or somatic tumor RET mutation were selected. A positive HRM mutation pattern was detected in all mutation-positive patients and altogether the method was able to clearly differentiate between twenty different genotypes. A novel germline variant p.Ala639Thr was detected in MTC patient, which was determined to be likely benign. Analytical specificity was determined to be 98.6% and a sensitivity threshold was determined to be 30%. The fast and accurate HRM method reduces the turnaround time providing fast and important information, especially when targeted anti-tyrosine kinase therapy on tumor samples is considered. Overall, we developed a high-throughput, accurate and cost-effective approach for the detection of RET germline and sporadic tumor mutations.

  4. Impact of Somatic Mutations in the D-Loop of Mitochondrial DNA on the Survival of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Ching; Wang, Chen-Chi; Jiang, Rong-San; Wang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Shih-An

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate somatic mutations in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and their impact on survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Surgical specimen confirmed by pathological examination and corresponding non-cancerous tissues were collected from 120 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The sequence in the D-loop of mtDNA from non-cancerous tissues was compared with that from paired cancer samples and any sequence differences were recognized as somatic mutations. Results Somatic mutations in the D-loop of mtDNA were identified in 75 (62.5%) oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and most of them occurred in the poly-C tract. Although there were no significant differences in demographic and tumor-related features between participants with and without somatic mutation, the mutation group had a better survival rate (5 year disease-specific survival rate: 64.0% vs. 43.0%, P = 0.0266). Conclusion Somatic mutation in D-loop of mtDNA was associated with a better survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. PMID:25906372

  5. Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma With a Somatic KCNJ5 Mutation Revealing APC-Dependent Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Vouillarmet, Julien; Fernandes-Rosa, Fabio; Graeppi-Dulac, Julia; Lantelme, Pierre; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Thivolet, Charles; Peix, Jean-Louis; Boulkroun, Sheerazed; Clauser, Eric; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent somatic mutations in KCNJ5, CACNA1D, ATP1A1, and ATP2B3 have been identified in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). The question as to whether they are responsible for both nodulation and aldosterone production is not solved. We describe the case of a young patient who was diagnosed with severe arterial hypertension due to primary aldosteronism at age 26 years, followed by hemorrhagic stroke 4 years later. Abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Identification of lateralized aldosterone secretion led to right adrenalectomy, followed by normalization of biochemical and hormonal parameters and amelioration of blood pressure. The resected adrenal showed three nodules, one of them expressing aldosterone synthase and harboring a somatic KNCJ5 mutation. A Weiss revisited index of 3 of the APA prompted us to perform a second 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography after surgery, which revealed abnormal rectal activity despite the absence of clinical symptoms. Gastrointestinal exploration showed multiple polyps with severe dysplasia, and the diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis was established in the presence of a germline heterozygous APC gene mutation. Sequencing of somatic DNA from the APA and a second adrenal nodule revealed biallelic APC inactivation due to loss of heterozygosity in both nodules. This case report underlines the need for establishing the frequency of germline APC variants in patients with primary aldosteronism and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia because their presence may predispose to APA development and severe hypertension well before the first familial adenomatous polyposis symptoms appear. From a mechanistic point of view, it supports a two-hit model for APA development, whereby the first hit drives increased cell proliferation whereas the second hit specifies the pattern of hormonal secretion.

  6. Somatic Mutation Profiles of MSI and MSS Colorectal Cancer Identified by Whole Exome Next Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Christina; Fischer, Axel; Isau, Melanie; Boerno, Stefan T.; Wunderlich, Andrea; Barmeyer, Christian; Seemann, Petra; Koenig, Jana; Lappe, Michael; Kuss, Andreas W.; Garshasbi, Masoud; Bertram, Lars; Trappe, Kathrin; Werber, Martin; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Zatloukal, Kurt; Lehrach, Hans; Schweiger, Michal R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is with approximately 1 million cases the third most common cancer worldwide. Extensive research is ongoing to decipher the underlying genetic patterns with the hope to improve early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this direction, the recent progress in next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the field of cancer genomics. However, one caveat of these studies remains the large amount of genetic variations identified and their interpretation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the first work on whole exome NGS of primary colon cancers. We performed 454 whole exome pyrosequencing of tumor as well as adjacent not affected normal colonic tissue from microsatellite stable (MSS) and microsatellite instable (MSI) colon cancer patients and identified more than 50,000 small nucleotide variations for each tissue. According to predictions based on MSS and MSI pathomechanisms we identified eight times more somatic non-synonymous variations in MSI cancers than in MSS and we were able to reproduce the result in four additional CRCs. Our bioinformatics filtering approach narrowed down the rate of most significant mutations to 359 for MSI and 45 for MSS CRCs with predicted altered protein functions. In both CRCs, MSI and MSS, we found somatic mutations in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, BMPR1A, a gene where so far germline mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome, and show that the mutations functionally impair the protein function. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that with deep sequencing of tumor exomes one may be able to predict the microsatellite status of CRC and in addition identify potentially clinically relevant mutations. PMID:21203531

  7. Exome and deep sequencing of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma reveal somatic mutations that affect key pathways involved in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Formicola, Daniela; Pignataro, Piero; Cimmino, Flora; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Mora, Jaume; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Pantile, Marcella; Zanon, Carlo; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Hogarty, Michael D.; de Torres, Carmen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of somatic mutation of the most aggressive forms of neuroblastoma is not completely determined. We sought to identify potential cancer drivers in clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Whole exome sequencing was conducted on 17 germline and tumor DNA samples from high-risk patients with adverse events within 36 months from diagnosis (HR-Event3) to identify somatic mutations and deep targeted sequencing of 134 genes selected from the initial screening in additional 48 germline and tumor pairs (62.5% HR-Event3 and high-risk patients), 17 HR-Event3 tumors and 17 human-derived neuroblastoma cell lines. We revealed 22 significantly mutated genes, many of which implicated in cancer progression. Fifteen genes (68.2%) were highly expressed in neuroblastoma supporting their involvement in the disease. CHD9, a cancer driver gene, was the most significantly altered (4.0% of cases) after ALK. Other genes (PTK2, NAV3, NAV1, FZD1 and ATRX), expressed in neuroblastoma and involved in cell invasion and migration were mutated at frequency ranged from 4% to 2%. Focal adhesion and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways, were frequently disrupted (14.1% of cases) thus suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. Notably BARD1, CHEK2 and AXIN2 were enriched in rare, potentially pathogenic, germline variants. In summary, whole exome and deep targeted sequencing identified novel cancer genes of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Our analyses show pathway-level implications of infrequently mutated genes in leading neuroblastoma progression. PMID:27009842

  8. Codon-level co-occurrences of germline variants and somatic mutations in cancer are rare but often lead to incorrect variant annotation and underestimated impact prediction

    PubMed Central

    Koire, Amanda; Kim, Young Won; Wang, Jarey; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Jin, Haijing; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells explore a broad mutational landscape, bringing the possibility that tumor-specific somatic mutations could fall in the same codons as germline SNVs and leverage their presence to produce substitutions with a larger impact on protein function. While multiple, temporally consecutive mutations to the same codon have in the past been detected in the germline, this phenomenon has not yet been explored in the context of germline-somatic variant co-occurrences during cancer development. We examined germline context at somatic mutation sites for 1395 patients across four cancer cohorts (breast, skin, colon, and head and neck) and found 392 codon-level co-occurrences between germline and somatic variants, including over a dozen in well-known cancer genes. We found that for the majority of these co-occurrence events, traditional somatic calling led to an inaccurate representation of the protein site and a significantly lower predicted impact on protein fitness. We conclude that these events often lead to imprecise annotation of somatic variants but do not appear to be a frequent source of driver events during cancer development. PMID:28350864

  9. Estrogen receptor alpha somatic mutations Y537S and D538G confer breast cancer endocrine resistance by stabilizing the activating function-2 binding conformation

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, Sean W; Mayne, Christopher G; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Carlson, Kathryn E; Martin, Teresa A; Novick, Scott J; Toy, Weiyi; Green, Bradley; Panchamukhi, Srinivas; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Griffin, Patrick R; Shen, Yang; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene (ESR1), especially Y537S and D538G, have been linked to acquired resistance to endocrine therapies. Cell-based studies demonstrated that these mutants confer ERα constitutive activity and antiestrogen resistance and suggest that ligand-binding domain dysfunction leads to endocrine therapy resistance. Here, we integrate biophysical and structural biology data to reveal how these mutations lead to a constitutively active and antiestrogen-resistant ERα. We show that these mutant ERs recruit coactivator in the absence of hormone while their affinities for estrogen agonist (estradiol) and antagonist (4-hydroxytamoxifen) are reduced. Further, they confer antiestrogen resistance by altering the conformational dynamics of the loop connecting Helix 11 and Helix 12 in the ligand-binding domain of ERα, which leads to a stabilized agonist state and an altered antagonist state that resists inhibition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12792.001 PMID:26836308

  10. Prospective blinded study of somatic mutation detection in cell-free DNA utilizing a targeted 54-gene next generation sequencing panel in metastatic solid tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Won-Suk; Lanman, Richard B; Mortimer, Stefanie; Zill, Oliver A; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Kang, Won Ki; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Park, Keunchil; Lee, Jeeyun; Talasaz, AmirAli

    2015-11-24

    Sequencing of the mutant allele fraction of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) derived from tumors is increasingly utilized to detect actionable genomic alterations in cancer. We conducted a prospective blinded study of a comprehensive cfDNA sequencing panel with 54 cancer genes. To evaluate the concordance between cfDNA and tumor DNA (tDNA), sequencing results were compared between cfDNA from plasma and genomic tumor DNA (tDNA). Utilizing next generation digital sequencing technology (DST), we profiled approximately 78,000 bases encoding 512 complete exons in the targeted genes in cfDNA from plasma. Seventy-five patients were prospectively enrolled between February 2013 and March 2014, including 61 metastatic cancer patients and 14 clinical stage II CRC patients with matched plasma and tissue samples. Using the 54-gene panel, we detected at least one somatic mutation in 44 of 61 tDNA (72.1%) and 29 of 44 (65.9%) cfDNA. The overall concordance rate of cfDNA to tDNA was 85.9%, when all detected mutations were considered. We collected serial cfDNAs during cetuximab-based treatment in 2 metastatic KRAS wild-type CRC patients, one with acquired resistance and one with primary resistance. We demonstrate newly emerged KRAS mutation in cfDNA 1.5 months before radiologic progression. Another patient had a newly emerged PIK3CA H1047R mutation on cfDNA analysis at progression during cetuximab/irinotecan chemotherapy with gradual increase in allele frequency from 0.8 to 2.1%. This blinded, prospective study of a cfDNA sequencing showed high concordance to tDNA suggesting that the DST approach may be used as a non-invasive biopsy-free alternative to conventional sequencing using tumor biopsy.

  11. Prospective blinded study of somatic mutation detection in cell-free DNA utilizing a targeted 54-gene next generation sequencing panel in metastatic solid tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanman, Richard B.; Mortimer, Stefanie; Zill, Oliver A.; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Kang, Won Ki; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Park, Keunchil; Lee, Jeeyun; Talasaz, AmirAli

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the mutant allele fraction of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) derived from tumors is increasingly utilized to detect actionable genomic alterations in cancer. We conducted a prospective blinded study of a comprehensive cfDNA sequencing panel with 54 cancer genes. To evaluate the concordance between cfDNA and tumor DNA (tDNA), sequencing results were compared between cfDNA from plasma and genomic tumor DNA (tDNA). Utilizing next generation digital sequencing technology (DST), we profiled approximately 78,000 bases encoding 512 complete exons in the targeted genes in cfDNA from plasma. Seventy-five patients were prospectively enrolled between February 2013 and March 2014, including 61 metastatic cancer patients and 14 clinical stage II CRC patients with matched plasma and tissue samples. Using the 54-gene panel, we detected at least one somatic mutation in 44 of 61 tDNA (72.1%) and 29 of 44 (65.9%) cfDNA. The overall concordance rate of cfDNA to tDNA was 85.9%, when all detected mutations were considered. We collected serial cfDNAs during cetuximab-based treatment in 2 metastatic KRAS wild-type CRC patients, one with acquired resistance and one with primary resistance. We demonstrate newly emerged KRAS mutation in cfDNA 1.5 months before radiologic progression. Another patient had a newly emerged PIK3CA H1047R mutation on cfDNA analysis at progression during cetuximab/irinotecan chemotherapy with gradual increase in allele frequency from 0.8 to 2.1%. This blinded, prospective study of a cfDNA sequencing showed high concordance to tDNA suggesting that the DST approach may be used as a non-invasive biopsy-free alternative to conventional sequencing using tumor biopsy. PMID:26452027

  12. Lesions from patients with sporadic cerebral cavernous malformations harbor somatic mutations in the CCM genes: evidence for a common biochemical pathway for CCM pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, David A.; Shi, Changbin; Shenkar, Robert; Gallione, Carol J.; Akers, Amy L.; Li, Stephanie; De Castro, Nicholas; Berg, Michel J.; Corcoran, David L.; Awad, Issam A.; Marchuk, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions affecting the central nervous system. CCM occurs either sporadically or in an inherited, autosomal dominant manner. Constitutional (germline) mutations in any of three genes, KRIT1, CCM2 and PDCD10, can cause the inherited form. Analysis of CCM lesions from inherited cases revealed biallelic somatic mutations, indicating that CCM follows a Knudsonian two-hit mutation mechanism. It is still unknown, however, if the sporadic cases of CCM also follow this genetic mechanism. We extracted DNA from 11 surgically excised lesions from sporadic CCM patients, and sequenced the three CCM genes in each specimen using a next-generation sequencing approach. Four sporadic CCM lesion samples (36%) were found to contain novel somatic mutations. Three of the lesions contained a single somatic mutation, and one lesion contained two biallelic somatic mutations. Herein, we also describe evidence of somatic mosaicism in a patient presenting with over 130 CCM lesions localized to one hemisphere of the brain. Finally, in a lesion regrowth sample, we found that the regrown CCM lesion contained the same somatic mutation as the original lesion. Together, these data bolster the idea that all forms of CCM have a genetic underpinning of the two-hit mutation mechanism in the known CCM genes. Recent studies have found aberrant Rho kinase activation in inherited CCM pathogenesis, and we present evidence that this pathway is activated in sporadic CCM patients. These results suggest that all CCM patients, including those with the more common sporadic form, are potentially amenable to the same therapy. PMID:24698976

  13. Lesions from patients with sporadic cerebral cavernous malformations harbor somatic mutations in the CCM genes: evidence for a common biochemical pathway for CCM pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David A; Shi, Changbin; Shenkar, Robert; Gallione, Carol J; Akers, Amy L; Li, Stephanie; De Castro, Nicholas; Berg, Michel J; Corcoran, David L; Awad, Issam A; Marchuk, Douglas A

    2014-08-15

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions affecting the central nervous system. CCM occurs either sporadically or in an inherited, autosomal dominant manner. Constitutional (germline) mutations in any of three genes, KRIT1, CCM2 and PDCD10, can cause the inherited form. Analysis of CCM lesions from inherited cases revealed biallelic somatic mutations, indicating that CCM follows a Knudsonian two-hit mutation mechanism. It is still unknown, however, if the sporadic cases of CCM also follow this genetic mechanism. We extracted DNA from 11 surgically excised lesions from sporadic CCM patients, and sequenced the three CCM genes in each specimen using a next-generation sequencing approach. Four sporadic CCM lesion samples (36%) were found to contain novel somatic mutations. Three of the lesions contained a single somatic mutation, and one lesion contained two biallelic somatic mutations. Herein, we also describe evidence of somatic mosaicism in a patient presenting with over 130 CCM lesions localized to one hemisphere of the brain. Finally, in a lesion regrowth sample, we found that the regrown CCM lesion contained the same somatic mutation as the original lesion. Together, these data bolster the idea that all forms of CCM have a genetic underpinning of the two-hit mutation mechanism in the known CCM genes. Recent studies have found aberrant Rho kinase activation in inherited CCM pathogenesis, and we present evidence that this pathway is activated in sporadic CCM patients. These results suggest that all CCM patients, including those with the more common sporadic form, are potentially amenable to the same therapy.

  14. Sequencing of the Reannotated LMNB2 Gene Reveals Novel Mutations in Patients with Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hegele, Robert A.; Cao, Henian; Liu, Dora M.; Costain, Gary A.; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Rodger, N. Wilson; Durrington, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL, also called “Barraquer-Simons syndrome”) is unknown. Genomic DNA mutations affecting the nuclear lamina protein lamin A cause inherited partial lipodystrophy but are not found in patients with APL. Because it also encodes a nuclear lamina protein (lamin B2) and its genomic structure was recently reannotated, we sequenced LMNB2 as a candidate gene in nine white patients with APL. In four patients, we found three new rare mutations in LMNB2: intron 1 −6G→T, exon 5 c.643G→A (p.R215Q; in two patients), and exon 8 c.1218G→A (p.A407T). The combined frequency of these mutations was 0.222 in the patients with APL, compared with 0.0018 in a multiethnic control sample of 1,100 subjects (P=2.1×10-7) and 0.0045 in a sample of 330 white controls (P=1.2×10-5). These novel heterozygous mutations are the first reported for LMNB2, are the first reported among patients with APL, and indicate how sequencing of a reannotated candidate gene can reveal new disease-associated mutations. PMID:16826530

  15. Sequencing of the reannotated LMNB2 gene reveals novel mutations in patients with acquired partial lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hegele, Robert A; Cao, Henian; Liu, Dora M; Costain, Gary A; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Rodger, N Wilson; Durrington, Paul N

    2006-08-01

    The etiology of acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL, also called "Barraquer-Simons syndrome") is unknown. Genomic DNA mutations affecting the nuclear lamina protein lamin A cause inherited partial lipodystrophy but are not found in patients with APL. Because it also encodes a nuclear lamina protein (lamin B2) and its genomic structure was recently reannotated, we sequenced LMNB2 as a candidate gene in nine white patients with APL. In four patients, we found three new rare mutations in LMNB2: intron 1 -6G-->T, exon 5 c.643G-->A (p.R215Q; in two patients), and exon 8 c.1218G-->A (p.A407T). The combined frequency of these mutations was 0.222 in the patients with APL, compared with 0.0018 in a multiethnic control sample of 1,100 subjects (P = 2.1 x 10-7) and 0.0045 in a sample of 330 white controls (P = 1.2 x 10-5). These novel heterozygous mutations are the first reported for LMNB2, are the first reported among patients with APL, and indicate how sequencing of a reannotated candidate gene can reveal new disease-associated mutations.

  16. Sensitive genotyping of somatic mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF genes from NSCLC patients using hydrogel biochips.

    PubMed

    Emelyanova, Marina; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Mazurenko, Natalia; Chudinov, Alexander; Demidova, Irina; Zborovskaya, Irina; Lyubchenko, Lyudmila; Zasedatelev, Alexander; Nasedkina, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    Targeted inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations in the EGFR gene and key effectors of the EGFR-signaling pathway (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA) are associated with sensitivity to these drugs. We developed a highly sensitive LUNG CANCER (LC)-biochip approach for the detection of the most common EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF gene mutations. The locked nucleic acid clamp PCR technique was used to increase the sensitivity of the assay, then allele-specific hybridization of a fluorescently labeled target on a biochip was performed. To prove the feasibility of the approach, clinical samples from 112 patients with NSCLC were analyzed. A total of 14 EGFR (12.5%) mutations, 21 (18.8%) KRAS mutations, 12 (10.7%) PIK3CA mutations, and 1 BRAF mutation (0.9%) were found. We compared the results with those from direct sequencing. We detected 50 different mutations by the LC-biochip assay and only 33 of them were found by direct sequencing. To demonstrate that the LC-biochip assay did not give false-positive results, the 17 specimens with discordant results were subjected to locked nucleic acid clamp PCR followed by sequencing. The results of this analysis were identical to the results obtained by the LC-biochip assay indicating that the biochip-based assay was both accurate and reliable. This approach was able to detect approximately 0.5% of mutated alleles in wild-type DNA background. The biochip-based assay is a reliable and inexpensive method for the identification of NSCLC patients, who may respond to a specific targeted therapy.

  17. JAK2V617F somatic mutation in the general population: myeloproliferative neoplasm development and progression rate

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Camilla; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Kofoed, Klaus F.; Birgens, Henrik S.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical significance of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm has been the target of intensive research in recent years. However, there is considerably uncertainty about prognosis in JAK2V617F positive individuals without overt signs of myeloproliferative disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased JAK2V617F somatic mutation burden is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasm progression rate in the general population. Among 49,488 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, 63 (0.1%) tested positive for the JAK2V617F mutation in the time period 2003–2008. Of these, 48 were available for re-examination in 2012. Level of JAK2V617F mutation burden was associated with myeloproliferative neoplasm progression rate, consistent with a biological continuum of increasing JAK2V617F mutation burden across increasing severity of myeloproliferative neoplasm from no disease (n=8 at re-examination) through essential thrombocythemia (n=20) and polycythemia vera (n=13) to primary myelofibrosis (n=7). Among those diagnosed with a myeloproliferative neoplasm only at re-examination in 2012, in the preceding years JAK2V617F mutation burden increased by 0.55% per year, erythrocyte volume fraction increased by 1.19% per year, and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume increased by 1.25% per year, while there was no change in platelet count or erythropoietin levels. Furthermore, we established a JAK2V617F mutation burden cut-off point of 2% indicative of disease versus no disease; however, individuals with a mutation burden below 2% may suffer from a latent form of myeloproliferative disease revealed by a slightly larger spleen and/or slightly higher lactic acid dehydrogenase concentration compared to controls. Of all 63 JAK2V617F positive individuals, 48 were eventually diagnosed with a myeloproliferative neoplasm. PMID:24907356

  18. Mutually exclusive recurrent somatic mutations in MAP2K1 and BRAF support a central role for ERK activation in LCH pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Rikhia; Hampton, Oliver A.; Shen, Xiaoyun; Simko, Stephen J.; Shih, Albert; Abhyankar, Harshal; Lim, Karen Phaik Har; Covington, Kyle R.; Trevino, Lisa; Dewal, Ninad; Muzny, Donna M.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Hu, Jianhong; Wang, Linghua; Lupo, Philip J.; Hicks, M. John; Bonilla, Diana L.; Dwyer, Karen C.; Berres, Marie-Luise; Poulikakos, Poulikos I.; Merad, Miriam; McClain, Kenneth L.; Wheeler, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by lesions composed of pathological CD207+ dendritic cells with an inflammatory infiltrate. BRAFV600E remains the only recurrent mutation reported in LCH. In order to evaluate the spectrum of somatic mutations in LCH, whole exome sequencing was performed on matched LCH and normal tissue samples obtained from 41 patients. Lesions from other histiocytic disorders, juvenile xanthogranuloma, Erdheim-Chester disease, and Rosai-Dorfman disease were also evaluated. All of the lesions from histiocytic disorders were characterized by an extremely low overall rate of somatic mutations. Notably, 33% (7/21) of LCH cases with wild-type BRAF and none (0/20) with BRAFV600E harbored somatic mutations in MAP2K1 (6 in-frame deletions and 1 missense mutation) that induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in vitro. Single cases of somatic mutations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes ARAF and ERBB3 were also detected. The ability of MAPK pathway inhibitors to suppress MAPK kinase and ERK phosphorylation in cell culture and primary tumor models was dependent on the specific LCH mutation. The findings of this study support a model in which ERK activation is a universal end point in LCH arising from pathological activation of upstream signaling proteins. PMID:25202140

  19. PPM1D Mosaic Truncating Variants in Ovarian Cancer Cases May Be Treatment-Related Somatic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Pharoah, Paul D P; Song, Honglin; Dicks, Ed; Intermaggio, Maria P; Harrington, Patricia; Baynes, Caroline; Alsop, Kathryn; Bogdanova, Natalia; Cicek, Mine S; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Hillemanns, Peter; Lele, Shashi; Lester, Jenny; McGuire, Valerie; Moysich, Kirsten B; Poblete, Samantha; Sieh, Weiva; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Widschwendter, Martin; Whittemore, Alice S; Dörk, Thilo; Menon, Usha; Odunsi, Kunle; Goode, Ellen L; Karlan, Beth Y; Bowtell, David D; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    Mosaic truncating mutations in the protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent, 1D (PPM1D) gene have recently been reported with a statistically significantly greater frequency in lymphocyte DNA from ovarian cancer case patients compared with unaffected control patients. Using massively parallel sequencing (MPS) we identified truncating PPM1D mutations in 12 of 3236 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) case patients (0.37%) but in only one of 3431 unaffected control patients (0.03%) (P = .001). All statistical tests were two-sided. A combination of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and MPS data suggested that 12 of the 13 mutations were mosaic. All mutations were identified in post-chemotherapy treatment blood samples from case patients (n = 1827) (average 1234 days post-treatment in carriers) rather than from cases collected pretreatment (less than 14 days after diagnosis, n = 1384) (P = .002). These data suggest that PPM1D variants in EOC cases are primarily somatic mosaic mutations caused by treatment and are not associated with germline predisposition to EOC.

  20. PPM1D Mosaic Truncating Variants in Ovarian Cancer Cases May Be Treatment-Related Somatic Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Dicks, Ed; Intermaggio, Maria P.; Harrington, Patricia; Baynes, Caroline; Alsop, Kathryn; Bogdanova, Natalia; Cicek, Mine S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Hillemanns, Peter; Lele, Shashi; Lester, Jenny; McGuire, Valerie; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Poblete, Samantha; Sieh, Weiva; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Widschwendter, Martin; Whittemore, Alice S.; Dörk, Thilo; Menon, Usha; Odunsi, Kunle; Goode, Ellen L.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Bowtell, David D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Mosaic truncating mutations in the protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent, 1D (PPM1D) gene have recently been reported with a statistically significantly greater frequency in lymphocyte DNA from ovarian cancer case patients compared with unaffected control patients. Using massively parallel sequencing (MPS) we identified truncating PPM1D mutations in 12 of 3236 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) case patients (0.37%) but in only one of 3431 unaffected control patients (0.03%) (P = .001). All statistical tests were two-sided. A combination of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and MPS data suggested that 12 of the 13 mutations were mosaic. All mutations were identified in post-chemotherapy treatment blood samples from case patients (n = 1827) (average 1234 days post-treatment in carriers) rather than from cases collected pretreatment (less than 14 days after diagnosis, n = 1384) (P = .002). These data suggest that PPM1D variants in EOC cases are primarily somatic mosaic mutations caused by treatment and are not associated with germline predisposition to EOC. PMID:26823519

  1. Colorectal Adenomas Contain Multiple Somatic Mutations That Do Not Coincide with Synchronous Adenocarcinoma Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Vaqué, José P.; Martínez, Nerea; Varela, Ignacio; Fernández, Fidel; Mayorga, Marta; Derdak, Sophia; Beltrán, Sergi; Moreno, Thaidy; Almaraz, Carmen; De las Heras, Gonzalo; Bayés, Mónica; Gut, Ivo; Crespo, Javier; Piris, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a comparative ultrasequencing study of multiple colorectal lesions obtained simultaneously from four patients. Our data show that benign lesions (adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps) contain a high mutational load. Additionally multiple synchronous colorectal lesions show non overlapping mutational signatures highlighting the degree of heterogeneity between multiple specimens in the same patient. Observations in these cases imply that considering not only the number of mutations but an effective oncogenic combination of mutations can determine the malignant progression of colorectal lesions. PMID:25775023

  2. Sequencing of DICER1 in sarcomas identifies biallelic somatic DICER1 mutations in an adult-onset embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    de Kock, Leanne; Rivera, Barbara; Revil, Timothée; Thorner, Paul; Goudie, Catherine; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Choong, Catherine S; Priest, John R; van Diest, Paul J; Tanboon, Jantima; Wagner, Anja; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Choong, Peter Fm; Foulkes, William D

    2017-06-06

    Sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous cancers. We assessed the contribution of DICER1 mutations to sarcoma development. The coding region of DICER1 was sequenced in 67 sarcomas using a custom Fluidigm Access Array. The RNase III domains were Sanger sequenced in six additional sarcomas to identify hotspot DICER1 variants. The median age of sarcoma diagnosis was 45.7 years (range: 3 months to 87.4 years). A recurrent embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the broad ligament, first diagnosed at age 23 years, harboured biallelic pathogenic somatic DICER1 variants (1 truncating and 1 RNase IIIb missense). We identified nine other DICER1 variants. One somatic variant (p.L1070V) identified in a pleomorphic sarcoma and one germline variant (c.2257-7A>G) may be pathogenic, but the others are considered to be benign. We show that deleterious DICER1 mutations underlie the genetic basis of only a small fraction of sarcomas, in particular ERMS of the urogenital tract.

  3. An Analysis of the Sensitivity of Proteogenomic Mapping of Somatic Mutations and Novel Splicing Events in Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Tang, Zuojian; Wang, Xuya; Grover, Himanshu; Askenazi, Manor; Teubl, Jennifer; Cao, Song; McLellan, Michael D.; Clauser, Karl R.; Tabb, David L.; Mertins, Philipp; Slebos, Robbert; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Li, Shunqiang; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Xie, Ling; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Sun, Shisheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Perou, Charles M.; Chen, Xian; Davies, Sherri R.; Maher, Christopher A.; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rodland, Karen D.; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Li; Townsend, R. Reid; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel; Smith, Richard D.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Carr, Steven A.; Payne, Samuel; Ellis, Matthew J.; Fenyő, David

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing provide a new opportunity to determine whether polymorphisms, mutations, and splice variants identified in cancer cells are translated. Herein, we apply a proteogenomic data integration tool (QUILTS) to illustrate protein variant discovery using whole genome, whole transcriptome, and global proteome datasets generated from a pair of luminal and basal-like breast-cancer-patient-derived xenografts (PDX). The sensitivity of proteogenomic analysis for singe nucleotide variant (SNV) expression and novel splice junction (NSJ) detection was probed using multiple MS/MS sample process replicates defined here as an independent tandem MS experiment using identical sample material. Despite analysis of over 30 sample process replicates, only about 10% of SNVs (somatic and germline) detected by both DNA and RNA sequencing were observed as peptides. An even smaller proportion of peptides corresponding to NSJ observed by RNA sequencing were detected (<0.1%). Peptides mapping to DNA-detected SNVs without a detectable mRNA transcript were also observed, suggesting that transcriptome coverage was incomplete (∼80%). In contrast to germline variants, somatic variants were less likely to be detected at the peptide level in the basal-like tumor than in the luminal tumor, raising the possibility of differential translation or protein degradation effects. In conclusion, this large-scale proteogenomic integration allowed us to determine the degree to which mutations are translated and identify gaps in sequence coverage, thereby benchmarking current technology and progress toward whole cancer proteome and transcriptome analysis. PMID:26631509

  4. Integrated analysis of somatic mutations and focal copy-number changes identifies key genes and pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Cécile; Amaddeo, Giuliana; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Ladeiro, Yannick; Pelletier, Laura; Maad, Ichrafe Ben; Calderaro, Julien; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Letexier, Mélanie; Degos, Françoise; Clément, Bruno; Balabaud, Charles; Chevet, Eric; Laurent, Alexis; Couchy, Gabrielle; Letouzé, Eric; Calvo, Fabien; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. High-resolution copy number analysis of 125 tumors of which 24 were subjected to whole-exome sequencing identified 135 homozygous deletions and 994 somatic gene mutations with predicted functional consequences. We identified new recurrent alterations in 6 genes (ARID1A, RPS6KA3, NFE2L2, IRF2, CDH8 and PROKR2) not previously described in HCC. Functional analyses demonstrated tumor suppressor properties for IRF2 whose inactivation, exclusively found in hepatitis B virus related tumors, leads to impaired TP53 function. Alternatively, inactivation of proteins involved in chromatin remodeling was frequent and predominant in alcohol related tumors. Moreover, activation of the oxidative stress metabolism and inactivation of RPS6KA3 were new pathways associated with WNT/β-catenin activation, thereby suggesting a cooperative effect in tumorigenesis. This study shows the dramatic somatic genetic diversity in HCC, it reveals interactions between oncogene and tumor suppressor gene mutations markedly related to specific risk factors. PMID:22561517

  5. A somatic-mutational process recurrently duplicates germline susceptibility loci and tissue-specific super-enhancers in breast cancers

    DOE PAGES

    Glodzik, Dominik; Morganella, Sandro; Davies, Helen; ...

    2017-01-23

    Somatic rearrangements contribute to the mutagenized landscape of cancer genomes. Here, we systematically interrogated rearrangements in 560 breast cancers by using a piecewise constant fitting approach. We identified 33 hotspots of large (>100 kb) tandem duplications, a mutational signature associated with homologous-recombination-repair deficiency. Notably, these tandem-duplication hotspots were enriched in breast cancer germline susceptibility loci (odds ratio (OR) = 4.28) and breast-specific 'super-enhancer' regulatory elements (OR = 3.54). These hotspots may be sites of selective susceptibility to double-strand-break damage due to high transcriptional activity or, through incrementally increasing copy number, may be sites of secondary selective pressure. Furthermore, the transcriptomicmore » consequences ranged from strong individual oncogene effects to weak but quantifiable multigene expression effects. We thus present a somatic-rearrangement mutational process affecting coding sequences and noncoding regulatory elements and contributing a continuum of driver consequences, from modest to strong effects, thereby supporting a polygenic model of cancer development.« less

  6. DNA-methylome analysis in Burkitt and follicular lymphomas identifies differentially methylated regions linked to somatic mutation and transcriptional control

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Matthew J.; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Doose, Gero; Gutwein, Jana; Richter, Julia; Hovestadt, Volker; Huang, Bingding; Rico, Daniel; Jühling, Frank; Kolarova, Julia; Lu, Qianhao; Otto, Christian; Wagener, Rabea; Arnolds, Judith; Burkhardt, Birgit; Claviez, Alexander; Drexler, Hans G.; Eberth, Sonja; Eils, Roland; Flicek, Paul; Haas, Siegfried; Humme, Michael; Karsch, Dennis; Kerstens, Hinrik H.D.; Klapper, Wolfram; Kreuz, Markus; Lawerenz, Chris; Lenzek, Dido; Loeffler, Markus; López, Cristina; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.; Martens, Joost H.A.; Kulis, Marta; Martín-Subero, José Ignacio; Möller, Peter; Nage, Inga; Picelli, Simone; Vater, Inga; Rohde, Marius; Rosenstiel, Philip; Rosolowski, Maciej; Russell, Robert B.; Schilhabel, Markus; Schlesner, Matthias; Stadler, Peter F.; Szczepanowski, Monika; Trümper, Lorenz; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Küppers, Ralf; Ammerpohl, Ole; Lichter, Peter; Siebert, Reiner; Hoffmann, Steve; Radlwimmer, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    In spite of both having features of germinal center B-cells, Burkitt lymphomas and follicular lymphomas are biologically and clinically quite diverse. We here performed whole genome bisulfite, genome and transcriptome sequencing from 13 IG-MYC-translocation positive Burkitt lymphoma, 9 BCL2-translocation positive follicular lymphoma and four normal germinal center B-cell samples. Comparison of Burkitt and follicular lymphoma samples revealed differential methylation of intragenic regions that strongly correlated with expression of associated genes, e.g. genes active in germinal center dark zone and light zone B-cells. Integrative pathway analyses of regions differentially methylated between Burkitt and follicular lymphoma implicated DNA methylation to cooperate with somatic mutation of sphingosine-phosphate signaling, as well as the TCF3/ID3 and SWI/SNF complexes in a large fraction of Burkitt lymphomas. Taken together, our results demonstrate a tight connection between somatic mutation, DNA methylation and transcriptional control in key B-cell pathways deregulated differentially between Burkitt and other germinal center B-cell lymphomas. PMID:26437030

  7. Synthetic Circulating Cell-free DNA as Quality Control Materials for Somatic Mutation Detection in Liquid Biopsy for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Peng, Rongxue; Li, Ziyang; Gao, Peng; Jia, Shiyu; Yang, Xin; Ding, Jiansheng; Han, Yanxi; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2017-09-01

    Detection of somatic genomic alterations in tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the plasma is challenging owing to the low concentrations of cfDNA, variable detection methods, and complex workflows. Moreover, no proper quality control materials are available currently. We developed a set of synthetic cfDNA quality control materials (SCQCMs) containing spike-in cfDNA on the basis of micrococcal nuclease digestion carrying somatic mutations as simulated cfDNA and matched genomic DNA as genetic background to emulate paired tumor-normal samples in real clinical tests. Site-directed mutagenesis DNA that contained 1500-2000 bases with single-nucleotide variants or indels and genomic DNA from CRISPR/Cas9 edited cells with EML4-ALK rearrangements was fragmented, quantified, and added into micrococcal nuclease-digested DNA derived from HEK293T cells. To prove their suitability, the SCQCMs were compared with patient-derived plasma samples and validated in a collaborative study that encompassed 11 laboratories. The results of SCQCM analysis by next-generation sequencing showed strong agreement with those of patient-derived plasma samples, including the size profile of cfDNA and the quality control metrics of the sequencing data. More than 95% of laboratories correctly detected the SCQCMs with EGFR T790M, L858R, KRAS G12D, and a deletion in exon 19, as well as with EML4-ALK variant 2. The SCQCMs were successfully applied in a broad range of settings, methodologies, and informatics techniques. We conclude that SCQCMs can be used as optimal quality controls in test performance assessments for circulating tumor DNA somatic mutation detection. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Abnormal Expressions of DNA Glycosylase Genes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 Are Associated with Somatic Mutation Loads in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Kato, Hisami; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Igarashi, Hisaki; Goto, Masanori; Tao, Hong; Inoue, Yusuke; Nakamura, Satoki; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of abnormalities in the DNA glycosylases NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 on human cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, we found that the median somatic total mutation loads and the median somatic single nucleotide mutation loads exhibited significant inverse correlations with the median NEIL1 and NEIL2 expression levels and a significant positive correlation with the median NEIL3 expression level using data for 13 cancer types from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A subset of the cancer types exhibited reduced NEIL1 and NEIL2 expressions and elevated NEIL3 expression, and such abnormal expressions of NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 were also significantly associated with the mutation loads in cancer. As a mechanism underlying the reduced expression of NEIL1 in cancer, the epigenetic silencing of NEIL1 through promoter hypermethylation was found. Finally, we investigated the reason why an elevated NEIL3 expression level was associated with an increased number of somatic mutations in cancer and found that NEIL3 expression was positively correlated with the expression of APOBEC3B, a potent inducer of mutations, in diverse cancers. These results suggested that the abnormal expressions of NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 are involved in cancer through their association with the somatic mutation load. PMID:27042257

  9. Mutations Associated with Acquired Resistance to PD-1 Blockade in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zaretsky, Jesse M.; Garcia-Diaz, Angel; Shin, Daniel S.; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Hugo, Willy; Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Torrejon, Davis Y.; Abril-Rodriguez, Gabriel; Sandoval, Salemiz; Barthly, Lucas; Saco, Justin; Moreno, Blanca Homet; Mezzadra, Riccardo; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Ruchalski, Kathleen; Shintaku, I. Peter; Sanchez, Phillip J.; Puig-Saus, Cristina; Cherry, Grace; Seja, Elizabeth; Kong, Xiangju; Pang, Jia; Berent-Maoz, Beata; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Graeber, Thomas G.; Tumeh, Paul C.; Schumacher, Ton N.M.; Lo, Roger S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately 75% of objective responses to anti–programmed death 1 (PD-1) therapy in patients with melanoma are durable, lasting for years, but delayed relapses have been noted long after initial objective tumor regression despite continuous therapy. Mechanisms of immune escape in this context are unknown. METHODS We analyzed biopsy samples from paired baseline and relapsing lesions in four patients with metastatic melanoma who had had an initial objective tumor regression in response to anti–PD-1 therapy (pembrolizumab) followed by disease progression months to years later. RESULTS Whole-exome sequencing detected clonal selection and outgrowth of the acquired resistant tumors and, in two of the four patients, revealed resistance-associated loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding interferon-receptor–associated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), concurrent with deletion of the wild-type allele. A truncating mutation in the gene encoding the antigen-presenting protein beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) was identified in a third patient. JAK1 and JAK2 truncating mutations resulted in a lack of response to interferon gamma, including insensitivity to its antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The B2M truncating mutation led to loss of surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I. CONCLUSIONS In this study, acquired resistance to PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in patients with melanoma was associated with defects in the pathways involved in interferon-receptor signaling and in antigen presentation. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:27433843

  10. Nucleotide Insertions and Deletions Complement Point Mutations to Massively Expand the Diversity Created by Somatic Hypermutation of Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Peter M.; Verdino, Petra; Wang, Zhengyuan; da Silva Correia, Jean; Chhoa, Mark; Macondray, Griffin; Do, Minjee; Neben, Tamlyn Y.; Horlick, Robert A.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Wilson, Ian A.; King, David J.

    2014-01-01

    During somatic hypermutation (SHM), deamination of cytidine by activation-induced cytidine deaminase and subsequent DNA repair generates mutations within immunoglobulin V-regions. Nucleotide insertions and deletions (indels) have recently been shown to be critical for the evolution of antibody binding. Affinity maturation of 53 antibodies using in vitro SHM in a non-B cell context was compared with mutation patterns observed for SHM in vivo. The origin and frequency of indels seen during in vitro maturation were similar to that in vivo. Indels are localized to CDRs, and secondary mutations within insertions further optimize antigen binding. Structural determination of an antibody matured in vitro and comparison with human-derived antibodies containing insertions reveal conserved patterns of antibody maturation. These findings indicate that activation-induced cytidine deaminase acting on V-region sequences is sufficient to initiate authentic formation of indels in vitro and in vivo and that point mutations, indel formation, and clonal selection form a robust tripartite system for antibody evolution. PMID:25320089

  11. T cell neoepitope discovery in colorectal cancer by high throughput profiling of somatic mutations in expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Mennonna, Daniele; Maccalli, Cristina; Romano, Michele C; Garavaglia, Claudio; Capocefalo, Filippo; Bordoni, Roberta; Severgnini, Marco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Gori, Alessandro; Longhi, Renato; Braga, Marco; Ghirardelli, Luca; Baldari, Ludovica; Orsenigo, Elena; Albarello, Luca; Zino, Elisabetta; Fleischhauer, Katharina; Mazzola, Gina; Ferrero, Norma; Amoroso, Antonio; Casorati, Giulia; Parmiani, Giorgio; Dellabona, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Patient-specific (unique) tumour antigens, encoded by somatically mutated cancer genes, generate neoepitopes that are implicated in the induction of tumour-controlling T cell responses. Recent advancements in massive DNA sequencing combined with robust T cell epitope predictions have allowed their systematic identification in several malignancies. We undertook the identification of unique neoepitopes in colorectal cancers (CRCs) by using high-throughput sequencing of cDNAs expressed by standard cancer cell cultures, and by related cancer stem/initiating cells (CSCs) cultures, coupled with a reverse immunology approach not requiring human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele-specific epitope predictions. Several unique mutated antigens of CRC, shared by standard cancer and related CSC cultures, were identified by this strategy. CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, either autologous to the patient or derived from HLA-matched healthy donors, were readily expanded in vitro by peptides spanning different cancer mutations and specifically recognised differentiated cancer cells and CSC cultures, expressing the mutations. Neoepitope-specific CD8(+) T cell frequency was also increased in a patient, compared with healthy donors, supporting the occurrence of clonal expansion in vivo. These results provide a proof-of-concept approach for the identification of unique neoepitopes that are immunogenic in patients with CRC and can also target T cells against the most aggressive CSC component. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Activation in the ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Andrew J.; Telesco, Shannon E.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The ErbB/EGFR/HER family of kinases consists of four homologous receptor tyrosine kinases which are important regulatory elements in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Somatic mutations in, or over-expression of, the ErbB family is found in many cancers and is correlated with a poor prognosis; particularly, clinically identified mutations found in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of ErbB1 have been shown to increase its basal kinase activity and patients carrying these mutations respond remarkably to the small tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Here, we analyze the potential effects of the currently catalogued clinically identified mutations in the ErbB family kinase domains on the molecular mechanisms of kinase activation. Recently, we identified conserved networks of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions characteristic to the active and inactive conformation, respectively. Here, we show that the clinically identified mutants influence the kinase activity in distinctive fashion by affecting the characteristic interaction networks. PMID:21701703

  13. Analysis of acquired mutations in transgenes arising in Ba/F3 transformation assays: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Smith, Kevin; Godil, Jamila; Agarwal, Anupriya; Tognon, Cristina; Druker, Brian

    2017-02-21

    The identification and functional validation of potentially oncogenic mutations in leukemia is an essential step toward a future of personalized targeted therapy. To assess the oncogenic capacity of individual mutations, reliable and scalable in vitro experimental approaches are required. Since 1988, researchers have used the IL-3 dependent Ba/F3 transformation assay to validate the oncogenic potential of mutations to drive factor-independent growth. Here we report a previously unrecognized phenomenon whereby Ba/F3 cells, engineered to express weakly transforming mutations, present with additional acquired mutations in the expressed transgene following factor withdrawal. Using four mutations with known transformative capacity in three cytokine receptors (CSF2RB, CSF3R and IL7R), we demonstrate that the mutated receptors are highly susceptible to acquiring additional mutations. These acquired mutations of unknown functional significance are selected by factor withdrawal but appear to exist prior to the removal of growth factor. This anomaly has the potential to confound efforts to both validate and characterize oncogenic mutations in leukemia, particularly when it is not standard practice to sequence validate cDNAs from transformed Ba/F3 lines. We present specific recommendations to detect and mitigate this phenomenon in future research using Ba/F3 transformation assays, along with methods to make the Ba/F3 assay more quantitative.

  14. PIK3R1 (p85α) is somatically mutated at high frequency in primary endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Urick, Mary E; Rudd, Meghan L; Godwin, Andrew K; Sgroi, Dennis; Merino, Maria; Bell, Daphne W

    2011-06-15

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important therapeutic target. Mutations in PIK3CA, which encodes p110α, the catalytic subunit of PI3K, occur in endometrioid endometrial cancers (EEC) and nonendometrioid endometrial cancers (NEEC). The goal of this study was to determine whether PIK3R1, which encodes p85α, the inhibitory subunit of PI3K, is mutated in endometrial carcinoma. We carried out exonic sequencing of PIK3R1 from 42 EECs and 66 NEECs. The pattern of PIK3R1 mutations was compared with the patterns of PIK3CA, PTEN, and KRAS mutations. The biochemical effect of seven PIK3R1 mutations was examined by stable expression in U2OS cells, followed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis of p110α, and Western blotting of phospho-AKT(Ser473) (p-AKT(Ser473)). We found that PIK3R1 was somatically mutated in 43% of EECs and 12% of NEECs. The majority of mutations (93.3%) were localized to the p85α-nSH2 and -iSH2 domains. Several mutations were recurrent. PIK3R1 mutations were significantly (P = 0.0015) more frequent in PIK3CA-wild type EECs (70%) than in PIK3CA mutant EECs (18%). Introduction of wild-type p85α into U2OS cells reduced the level of p-AKT(Ser473) compared with the vector control. Five p85α mutants, p85αdelH450-E451, p85αdelK459, p85αdelY463-L466, p85αdelR574-T576, and the p85αN564D positive control, were shown to bind p110α and led to increased levels of p-AKT(Ser473). The p85αR348X and p85αK511VfsX2 mutants did not bind p110α and showed no appreciable change in p-AKT(Ser473) levels. In conclusion, our study has revealed a new mode of PI3K alteration in primary endometrial tumors and warrants future studies to determine whether PIK3R1 mutations correlate with clinical outcome to targeted therapies directed against the PI3K pathway in EEC and NEEC.

  15. Somatic mosaicism for a newly identified splice-site mutation in a patient with adenosine deaminase-deficient immunodeficiency and spontaneous clinical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, R.; Yang, D.R.; Israni, A.; Huie, M.L. ); Ownby, D.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Absent or severely reduced adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity produces inherited immunodeficiency of varying severity, with defects of both cellular and humoral immunity. The authors report somatic mosaicism as the basis for a delayed presentation and unusual course of a currently healthy young adult receiving no therapy. He was diagnosed at age 2[1/2] years because of life-threatening pneumonia, recurrent infections, failure of normal growth, and lymphopenia, but he retained significant cellular immune function. A fibroblast cell line and a B cell line, established at diagnosis, lacked ADA activity and were heteroallelic for a splice-donor-site mutation in IVS 1 (+1GT[yields]CT) and a missense mutation (Arg101Gln). All clones (17/17) isolated from the B cell mRNA carried the missense mutation, indicating that the allele with the splice-site mutation produced unstable mRNA. In striking contrast, a B cell line established at age 16 years expressed 50% of normal ADA; 50% had the missense mutation. Genomic DNA contained the missense mutation but not the splice-site mutation. All three cell lines were identical for multiple polymorphic markers and the presence of a Y chromosome. In vivo somatic mosaicism was demonstrated in genomic DNA from peripheral blood cells obtained at 16 years of age, in that less than half the DNA carried the splice-site mutation (P<.0.02, vs. original B cell line). Consistent with mosaicism, erythrocyte content of the toxic metabolite deoxyATP was only minimally elevated. Somatic mosaicism could have arisen either by somatic mutation or by reversion at the site of mutation. Selection in vivo for ADA normal hematopoietic cells may have played a role in the return to normal health, in the absence of therapy. 57 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Improved survival associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations in copy-number low endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIN, DOUGLAS I.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway has been implicated in the development of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (EEC). Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project stratified EEC into four molecular subgroups, with the majority of tumors falling into the copy-number low-EEC (CNL-EEC) molecular subgroup. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether alterations of the PI3K pathway are associated with specific survival outcomes in patients with EEC. The clinical and genomic data of 307 patients with endometrioid-type tumors were obtained from TCGA project, including 90 patients in the CNL-EEC subgroup. Patients were evaluated in terms of survival and clinicopathological characteristics, as well as mutations in the PI3K catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene and their effect on PIK3CA function. In CNL-EEC subgroup patients, somatic PIK3CA mutations (48/90 cases) were associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with that of wild-type PIK3CA (P=0.018). Furthermore, this improved survival was specific to the CNL-EEC subgroup and was not observed in other TCGA molecular subgroups. The majority of CNL-EEC cases were low-stage (stage I) and low-to-intermediate grade (grades 1–2) endometrioid tumors. There were no significant differences in age, stage, histology or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade between PIK3CA-mutated and non-mutated patient groups (P>0.05). In addition, the majority of cases contained activating PIK3CA mutations. Overall, in the TCGA cohort, PIK3CA mutations had a favorable effect on the survival of patients with EEC, and this effect was dependent on tumoral molecular sub-stratification. Future studies on larger independent cohorts with long term follow-up are warranted to further analyze this association. PMID:26722235

  17. Somatic mutations in PIK3CA and activation of AKT in intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kuboki, Yuko; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Shiratori, Keiko; Kawamura, Shunji; Kobayashi, Makio; Shimizu, Michio; Ban, Shinichi; Koyama, Isamu; Higashi, Morihiro; Shin, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Unno, Michiaki; Kanno, Atsushi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Orikasa, Hideki; Watanabe, Tomoo; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Harada, Youji; Furukawa, Toru

    2011-12-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a recently recognized rare variant of intraductal neoplasms of the pancreas. Molecular aberrations underlying the neoplasm remain unknown. We investigated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, KRAS, and BRAF. We also investigated aberrant expressions of phosphorylated AKT, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), tumor protein 53 (TP53), SMAD4, and CTNNB1 in 11 cases of ITPNs and compared these data with those of 50 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), another distinct variant of pancreatic intraductal neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA were found in 3 of 11 ITPNs but not in IPMNs (P = 0.005; Fisher exact test). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were found in none of the ITPNs but were found in 26 of the 50 IPMNs (P = 0.001; Fisher exact test). PIK3CA mutations were associated with strong expression of phosphorylated AKT (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Moreover, the expression of phosphorylated AKT was apparent in most ITPNs but only in a few IPMNs (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Aberrant expressions of TP53, SMAD4, and CTNNB1 were not statistically different between these neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA and the expression of phosphorylated AKT were not associated with age, sex, tissue invasion, and patients' prognosis in ITPNs. These results indicate that activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may play a crucial role in ITPNs but not in IPMNs. In contrast, the mutation in KRAS seems to play a major role in IPMNs but not in ITPNs. The activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may be a potential target for molecular diagnosis and therapy of ITPNs.

  18. Somatic Mutations Predict Poor Outcome in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome After Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bejar, Rafael; Stevenson, Kristen E.; Caughey, Bennett; Lindsley, R. Coleman; Mar, Brenton G.; Stojanov, Petar; Getz, Gad; Steensma, David P.; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert; Antin, Joseph H.; Alyea, Edwin; Armand, Philippe; Ho, Vincent; Koreth, John; Neuberg, Donna; Cutler, Corey S.; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recurrently mutated genes in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are pathogenic drivers and powerfully associated with clinical phenotype and prognosis. Whether these types of mutations predict outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with MDS is not known. Patients and Methods We used massively parallel sequencing to examine tumor samples collected from 87 patients with MDS before HSCT for coding mutations in 40 recurrently mutated MDS genes. Results Mutations were identified in 92% of patients, most frequently in the ASXL1 (29%), TP53 (21%), DNMT3A (18%), and RUNX1 (16%) genes. In univariable analyses, only TP53 mutations were associated with shorter overall (OS; hazard ratio [HR], 3.74; P < .001) and progression-free survival (HR, 3.97; P < .001). After adjustment for clinical variables associated with these end points, mutations in TP53 (HR, 2.30; P = .027), TET2 (HR, 2.40; P = .033), and DNMT3A (HR, 2.08; P = .049) were associated with decreased OS. In multivariable analysis including clinical variables, complex karyotype status, and candidate genes, mutations in TP53 (HR, 4.22; P ≤ .001) and TET2 (HR, 1.68; P = .037) were each independently associated with shorter OS. Nearly one half of patients (46%) carried a mutation in TP53, DNMT3A, or TET2 and accounted for 64% of deaths. Three-year OS in patients without these mutations was 59% (95% CI, 43% to 72%), versus 19% (95% CI, 9% to 33%) in patients with these mutations. Conclusion Mutations in TP53, TET2, or DNMT3A identify patients with MDS with shorter OS after HSCT. PMID:25092778

  19. Characterization of in vivo somatic mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene of a human control population.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart-Schultz, K; Thomas, C B; Thompson, C L; Strout, C L; Brinson, E; Jones, I M

    1993-01-01

    The ability to recognize a change in mutation spectrum after an exposure to a toxic substance and then relate that exposure to health risk depends on the knowledge of mutations that occur in the absence of exposure. Toward this end, we have been studying both the frequency and molecular nature of mutations of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene in peripheral blood lymphocytes as surrogate reporters of genetic damage. We have analyzed mutants, one per donor to ensure independence, from a control population in which the quantitative effects of smoking and age on mutant frequency have been well defined. Analyses of cDNA and genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing have identified the mutations in 63 mutants, 45 from males and 18 from females, of which 34 were smokers and 29 were nonsmokers. Slightly less than half of the mutations were base substitutions; they were predominantly at GC base pairs. Different mutations at the same site indicated that there are features of the hprt polypeptide that affect the mutation spectrum. Two pairs of identical mutations indicated that there may also be hot spots. Mutations not previously reported have been detected, indicating that the mutation spectrum is only partly defined. The remainder of the mutations were deletions or insertions/duplications; deletions ranged from one base pair to complete loss of the locus. Despite a small average increase in mutant frequency for smokers, an increased proportion of base substitutions at AT base pairs in smokers (p = 0.2) hinted at a smoking-associated shift in the mutation spectrum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8513767

  20. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S.; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W.; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J.; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5′ terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted. PMID:25595892

  1. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kämpjärvi, Kati; Järvinen, Tiina M; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5'terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted.

  2. Detecting somatic mutations in genomic sequences by means of Kolmogorov–Arnold analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gurzadyan, V. G.; Yan, H.; Vlahovic, G.; Kashin, A.; Killela, P.; Reitman, Z.; Sargsyan, S.; Yegorian, G.; Milledge, G.; Vlahovic, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Kolmogorov–Arnold stochasticity parameter technique is applied for the first time to the study of cancer genome sequencing, to reveal mutations. Using data generated by next-generation sequencing technologies, we have analysed the exome sequences of brain tumour patients with matched tumour and normal blood. We show that mutations contained in sequencing data can be revealed using this technique, thus providing a new methodology for determining subsequences of given length containing mutations, i.e. its value differs from those of subsequences without mutations. A potential application for this technique involves simplifying the procedure of finding segments with mutations, speeding up genomic research and accelerating its implementation in clinical diagnostics. Moreover, the prediction of a mutation associated with a family of frequent mutations in numerous types of cancers based purely on the value of the Kolmogorov function indicates that this applied marker may recognize genomic sequences that are in extremely low abundance and can be used in revealing new types of mutations. PMID:26361546

  3. DriverNet: uncovering the impact of somatic driver mutations on transcriptional networks in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bashashati, Ali; Haffari, Gholamreza; Ding, Jiarui; Ha, Gavin; Lui, Kenneth; Rosner, Jamie; Huntsman, David G; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel A; Shah, Sohrab P

    2012-12-22

    Simultaneous interrogation of tumor genomes and transcriptomes is underway in unprecedented global efforts. Yet, despite the essential need to separate driver mutations modulating gene expression networks from transcriptionally inert passenger mutations, robust computational methods to ascertain the impact of individual mutations on transcriptional networks are underdeveloped. We introduce a novel computational framework, DriverNet, to identify likely driver mutations by virtue of their effect on mRNA expression networks. Application to four cancer datasets reveals the prevalence of rare candidate driver mutations associated with disrupted transcriptional networks and a simultaneous modulation of oncogenic and metabolic networks, induced by copy number co-modification of adjacent oncogenic and metabolic drivers. DriverNet is available on Bioconductor or at http://compbio.bccrc.ca/software/drivernet/.

  4. Somatic mutations of the ret Protooncogene in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma are not restricted to exon 16 and are associated with tumor recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Romei, C.; Elisei, R.; Pinchera, A.

    1996-04-01

    Germline point mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the ret protooncogene have been identified as causative in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Somatic point mutations of the same gene, exclusively associated with codon 918 of exon 16, have also been reported in few cases of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. We analyzed the blood and tumor DNA of 19 patients with sporadic MTC and 6 patients with primary parathyroid adenoma for point mutations at exons 10, 11, and 16 of the ret protooncogene by restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified product and by sequence analysis of exons 10 and 11. A Cys{sup 634}{r_arrow}Tyr mutation was found in both the tumoral and blood DNA of one patient, indicating that he was affected by an hereditary form of MTC, erroneously considered sporadic. In the other 18 patients with MTC, somatic point mutations of ret were found in 8 cases (44.4%). In 5 cases the mutation affected exon 16 (Met{sup 918}{r_arrow}Thr), and in 3 cases it affected exon 11 (Cys{sup 634}{r_arrow}Arg in 1 and Cys{sup 634}{r_arrow}Trp in 2); these 3 mutations were confirmed by sequence analysis. The remaining 10 patients had no mutation in exon 10 by either restriction analysis or sequence analysis. Clinical data showed that 75% of the patients whose tumor carried ret mutation had tumor recurrence and/or increased serum calcitonin concentrations during the postsurgical follow-up period as opposed to 10% of the patients without mutations (P < 0.02, by {chi}{sup 2} analysis). No ret mutation was found in the tumoral DNA from parathyroid adenomas. Our findings indicate that the somatic ret point mutation frequently found in sporadic MTC may affect not only exon 16 but also exon 11 and is associated with less favorable clinical outcome. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Emergence of KRAS mutations and acquired resistance to anti EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Misale, Sandra; Yaeger, Rona; Hobor, Sebastijan; Scala, Elisa; Janakiraman, Manickam; Liska, David; Valtorta, Emanuele; Schiavo, Roberta; Buscarino, Michela; Siravegna, Giulia; Bencardino, Katia; Cercek, Andrea; Chen, Chin-Tung; Veronese, Silvio; Zanon, Carlo; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Gambacorta, Marcello; Gallicchio, Margherita; Vakiani, Efsevia; Boscaro, Valentina; Medico, Enzo; Weiser, Martin; Siena, Salvatore; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Solit, David; Bardelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Summary A main limitation of therapies that selectively target kinase signaling pathways is the emergence of secondary drug resistance. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds the extracellular domain of EGFR, is effective in a subset of KRAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancers1. After an initial response, secondary resistance invariably ensues, thereby limiting the clinical benefit of this drug2. The molecular bases of secondary resistance to cetuximab in colorectal cancer are poorly understood3-8. Here, we show for the first time that molecular alterations (in most instances point mutations) of KRAS are causally associated with the onset of acquired resistance to anti-EGFR treatment in colorectal cancers. Expression of mutant KRAS under the control of its endogenous gene promoter was sufficient to confer cetuximab resistance but resistant cells remained sensitive to combinatorial inhibition of EGFR and MEK. Analysis of metastases from patients who developed resistance to cetuximab or panitumumab showed the emergence of KRAS amplification in one sample and acquisition of secondary KRAS mutations in 60% (6/10) of the cases. KRAS mutant alleles were detectable in the blood of cetuximab treated patients as early as 10 months prior to radiographic documentation of disease progression. In summary, the results identify KRAS mutations as frequent drivers of acquired resistance to cetuximab in colorectal cancers, indicate that the emergence of KRAS mutant clones can be detected non-invasively months prior to radiographic progression and suggest early initiation of a MEK inhibitor as a rational strategy for delaying or reversing drug resistance. PMID:22722830

  6. Phenotypic consequences of somatic mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Anika Maria; Drobnitzky, Neele; Devery, Aoife Maire; Bokobza, Sivan Mili; Adams, Richard A.; Maughan, Timothy S.; Ryan, Anderson Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are frequently found in human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of ATM function confers sensitivity to ionising radiation (IR) and topoisomerase inhibitors and may thus define a subset of cancer patients that could get increased benefit from these therapies. In this study, we evaluated the phenotypic consequences of ATM missense changes reported in seven NSCLC cell lines with regard to radiosensitivity and functionality of ATM signalling. Our data demonstrate that only 2/7 NSCLC cell lines (H1395 and H23) harbouring ATM missense mutations show a functional impairment of ATM signalling following IR-exposure. In these two cell lines, the missense mutations caused a significant reduction in ATM protein levels, impairment of ATM signalling and marked radiosensitivity. Of note, only cell lines with homozygous mutations in the ATM gene showed significant impairment of ATM function. Based on these observations, we developed an immunohistochemistry-based assay to identify patients with loss or reduction of ATM protein expression in a clinical setting. In a set of 137 NSCLC and 154 colorectal cancer specimens we identified tumoral loss of ATM protein expression in 9.5% and 3.9% of cases, respectively, demonstrating the potential utility of this method. PMID:27602502

  7. Frequent somatic loss of BRCA1 in breast tumours from BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers and vice versa

    PubMed Central

    Staff, S; Isola, J J; Johannsson, O; Borg, Å; Tanner, M M

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumour suppressor genes the alleles of which have to be inactivated before tumour development occurs. Hereditary breast cancers linked to germ-line mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes almost invariably show allelic imbalance (AI) at the respective loci. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are believed to take part in a common pathway in maintenance of genomic integrity in cells. We carried out AI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of BRCA2 in breast tumours from germ-line BRCA1 mutation carriers and vice versa. For comparison, 14 sporadic breast tumours were also studied. 8 of the 11 (73%) informative BRCA1 mutation tumours showed AI at the BRCA2 locus. 53% of these tumours showed a copy number loss of the BRCA2 gene by FISH. 5 of the 6 (83%) informative BRCA2 mutation tumours showed AI at the BRCA1 locus. Half of the tumours (4/8) showed a physical deletion of the BRCA1 gene by FISH. Combined allelic loss of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene was seen in 12 of the 17 (71%) informative hereditary tumours, whereas copy number losses of both BRCA genes was seen in only 4/14 (29%) sporadic control tumours studied by FISH. In conclusion, the high prevalence of AI at BRCA1 in BRCA2 mutation tumours and vice versa suggests that somatic events occurring at the other breast cancer susceptibility gene locus may be selected in the cancer development. The mechanism resulting in AI at these loci seems more complex than a physical deletion.   http://www.bjcancer.com © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11710835

  8. Somatic c.34G>T KRAS mutation: a new prescreening test for MUTYH-associated polyposis?

    PubMed

    Aimé, Adeline; Coulet, Florence; Lefevre, Jeremie H; Colas, Chrystelle; Cervera, Pascale; Flejou, Jean-François; Lascols, Olivier; Soubrier, Florent; Parc, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the somatic c.34G>T KRAS transversion as a marker suggestive of MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We compared 86 adenomas and 19 colorectal cancers (CRCs) of 30 MAP patients to 135 adenomas and five CRCs of 47 familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. The c.34G>T mutation was investigated by DNA sequencing. Secondly, the germline MUTYH gene sequence was analyzed in patients carrying c.34G>T in CRCs diagnosed between 2008 and 2012. The c.34G>T was present in 39.7% of MAP adenomas versus 1.6% of FAP adenomas (P < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting MAP were 39.7% and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity increased with the number of adenomas tested (P = 0.039). KRAS exon 2 analysis was performed on 2239 CRC and 2.2% harbored the c.34G>T transversion. Among 28 carriers of the c.34G>T mutation, biallelic MUTYH mutations were detected in seven patients (25%). One patient did not have any polyp or family history and did not fulfill criteria for MUTYH testing. With high specificity, the c.34G>T mutation seems to be a useful and promising test for MAP. For polyposis, it may guide genetic testing toward APC or MUTYH. If routinely performed in CRC patients, it could help to diagnose MUTYH-mutation carriers, even when they don't fulfill genetic testing criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Somatic mutation of EZH2 (Y641) in follicular and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of germinal center origin | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Morin et al. describe recurrent somatic mutations in EZH2, a polycomb group oncogene. The mutation, found in the SET domain of this gene encoding a histone methyltransferase, is found only in a subset of lymphoma samples. Specifically, EZH2 mutations are found in about 12% of follicular lymphomas (FL) and almost 23% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) of germinal center origin. This paper goes on to demonstrate that altered EZH2 proteins, corresponding to the most frequent mutations found in human lymphomas, have reduced activity using in vitro histone methylation assays.

  10. Omenn syndrome associated with a functional reversion due to a somatic second-site mutation in CARD11 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Pannicke, Ulrich; Lorenz, Myriam R.; Fisch, Paul; Jeelall, Yogesh; Rohr, Jan; Speckmann, Carsten; Vraetz, Thomas; Farmand, Susan; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Krüger, Marcus; Strahm, Brigitte; Henneke, Philipp; Enders, Anselm; Horikawa, Keisuke; Goodnow, Christopher; Schwarz, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Omenn syndrome (OS) is a severe immunodeficiency associated with erythroderma, lymphoproliferation, elevated IgE, and hyperactive oligoclonal T cells. A restricted T-cell repertoire caused by defective thymic T-cell development and selection, lymphopenia with homeostatic proliferation, and lack of regulatory T cells are considered key factors in OS pathogenesis. We report 2 siblings presenting with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Pneumocystis jirovecii infections and recurrent sepsis; one developed all clinical features of OS. Both carried homozygous germline mutations in CARD11 (p.Cys150*), impairing NF-κB signaling and IL-2 production. A somatic second-site mutation reverting the stop codon to a missense mutation (p.Cys150Leu) was detected in tissue-infiltrating T cells of the OS patient. Expression of p.Cys150Leu in CARD11-deficient T cells largely reconstituted NF-κB signaling. The reversion likely occurred in a prethymic T-cell precursor, leading to a chimeric T-cell repertoire. We speculate that in our patient the functional advantage of the revertant T cells in the context of persistent CMV infection, combined with lack of regulatory T cells, may have been sufficient to favor OS. This first observation of OS in a patient with a T-cell activation defect suggests that severely defective T-cell development or homeostatic proliferation in a lymphopenic environment are not required for this severe immunopathology. PMID:26289640

  11. Somatic MED12 Nonsense Mutation Escapes mRNA Decay and Reveals a Motif Required for Nuclear Entry.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Tuomas; Kämpjärvi, Kati; Keskitalo, Salla; von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Liu, Xiaonan; Rantanen, Ville; Pitkänen, Esa; Kinnunen, Matias; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; Kontro, Mika; Turunen, Mikko; Mäkinen, Netta; Taipale, Jussi; Heckman, Caroline; Lehti, Kaisa; Mustjoki, Satu; Varjosalo, Markku; Vahteristo, Pia

    2017-03-01

    MED12 is a key component of the transcription-regulating Mediator complex. Specific missense and in-frame insertion/deletion mutations in exons 1 and 2 have been identified in uterine leiomyomas, breast tumors, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here, we characterize the first MED12 5' end nonsense mutation (c.97G>T, p.E33X) identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and show that it escapes nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) by using an alternative translation initiation site. The resulting N-terminally truncated protein is unable to enter the nucleus due to the lack of identified nuclear localization signal (NLS). The absence of NLS prevents the mutant MED12 protein to be recognized by importin-α and subsequent loading into the nuclear pore complex. Due to this mislocalization, all interactions between the MED12 mutant and other Mediator components are lost. Our findings provide new mechanistic insights into the MED12 functions and indicate that somatic nonsense mutations in early exons may avoid NMD.

  12. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-02-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Combining Drosophila melanogaster somatic-mutation-recombination and electron-spin-resonance-spectroscopy data to interpret epidemiologic observations on chromium carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Katz, A J; Chiu, A; Beaubier, J; Shi, X

    2001-06-01

    Lung cancers are significantly increased among workers exposed to chromate (Cr6+, Cr3+), chromium pigments (Cr6+) and chromium plating (Cr6+). Chromium lung burdens and cancer risk increase proportionately with duration of employment at long latencies. However, this epidemiologic information alone is insufficient in determining whether Cr6+ or Cr3+ are equally important in causing cancer. We have attempted to combine epidemiologic data with data from the Drosophila melanogaster somatic-mutation-recombination-test and from the in vitro electron-spin-resonance spectroscopy study to demonstrate that following somatic recombination plays a more important role than somatic mutation in chromium carcinogenesis. Cr4+ is more important than Cr5+ or Cr6+ in inducing somatic recombination while Cr6+ produces more and bigger clones than Cr4+ in somatic mutation. Cr3+ produces negative results in this fruit-fly wing-spot-assay. When the larvae and flies exposed to Cr6+ and Cr4+ are examined by ESR, only Cr5+ and Cr3+ are found. Thermodynamic parameters deltaE, deltaH, and deltaS are also estimated from these latter experiments to explain the relative importance of Cr6+, Cr4+, Cr3+ in chromium carcinogenesis among exposed industrial workers.

  14. Recurrent somatic mutation in DROSHA induces microRNA profile changes in Wilms tumour

    PubMed Central

    Torrezan, Giovana T.; Ferreira, Elisa N.; Nakahata, Adriana M.; Barros, Bruna D. F.; Castro, Mayra T. M.; Correa, Bruna R.; Krepischi, Ana C. V.; Olivieri, Eloisa H. R.; Cunha, Isabela W.; Tabori, Uri; Grundy, Paul E.; Costa, Cecilia M. L.; de Camargo, Beatriz; Galante, Pedro A. F.; Carraro, Dirce M.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumour (WT) is an embryonal kidney neoplasia for which very few driver genes have been identified. Here we identify DROSHA mutations in 12% of WT samples (26/222) using whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing of 10 microRNA (miRNA)-processing genes. A recurrent mutation (E1147K) affecting a metal-binding residue of the RNase IIIb domain is detected in 81% of the DROSHA-mutated tumours. In addition, we identify non-recurrent mutations in other genes of this pathway (DGCR8, DICER1, XPO5 and TARBP2). By assessing the miRNA expression pattern of the DROSHA-E1147K-mutated tumours and cell lines expressing this mutation, we determine that this variant leads to a predominant downregulation of a subset of miRNAs. We confirm that the downregulation occurs exclusively in mature miRNAs and not in primary miRNA transcripts, suggesting that the DROSHA E1147K mutation affects processing of primary miRNAs. Our data underscore the pivotal role of the miRNA biogenesis pathway in WT tumorigenesis, particularly the major miRNA-processing gene DROSHA. PMID:24909261

  15. Estimating Exceptionally Rare Germline and Somatic Mutation Frequencies via Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Song-Ro; Arnheim, Norman; Calabrese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We used targeted next generation deep-sequencing (Safe Sequencing System) to measure ultra-rare de novo mutation frequencies in the human male germline by attaching a unique identifier code to each target DNA molecule. Segments from three different human genes (FGFR3, MECP2 and PTPN11) were studied. Regardless of the gene segment, the particular testis donor or the 73 different testis pieces used, the frequencies for any one of the six different mutation types were consistent. Averaging over the C>T/G>A and G>T/C>A mutation types the background mutation frequency was 2.6x10-5 per base pair, while for the four other mutation types the average background frequency was lower at 1.5x10-6 per base pair. These rates far exceed the well documented human genome average frequency per base pair (~10−8) suggesting a non-biological explanation for our data. By computational modeling and a new experimental procedure to distinguish between pre-mutagenic lesion base mismatches and a fully mutated base pair in the original DNA molecule, we argue that most of the base-dependent variation in background frequency is due to a mixture of deamination and oxidation during the first two PCR cycles. Finally, we looked at a previously studied disease mutation in the PTPN11 gene and could easily distinguish true mutations from the SSS background. We also discuss the limits and possibilities of this and other methods to measure exceptionally rare mutation frequencies, and we present calculations for other scientists seeking to design their own such experiments. PMID:27341568

  16. Recurrent somatic mutations affecting B-cell receptor signaling pathway genes in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Matlock, Matthew; Trani, Lee; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kreisel, Friederike; Cashen, Amanda F.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Bartlett, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common form of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, yet it remains only partially characterized at the genomic level. To improve our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of this incurable and clinically heterogeneous disease, whole-exome sequencing was performed on tumor/normal pairs from a discovery cohort of 24 patients with FL. Using these data and mutations identified in other B-cell malignancies, 1716 genes were sequenced in 113 FL tumor samples from 105 primarily treatment-naive individuals. We identified 39 genes that were mutated significantly above background mutation rates. CREBBP mutations were associated with inferior PFS. In contrast, mutations in previously unreported HVCN1, a voltage-gated proton channel-encoding gene and B-cell receptor signaling modulator, were associated with improved PFS. In total, 47 (44.8%) patients harbor mutations in the interconnected B-cell receptor (BCR) and CXCR4 signaling pathways. Histone gene mutations were more frequent than previously reported (identified in 43.8% of patients) and often co-occurred (17.1% of patients). A novel, recurrent hotspot was identified at a posttranslationally modified residue in the histone H2B family. This study expands the number of mutated genes described in several known signaling pathways and complexes involved in lymphoma pathogenesis (BCR, Notch, SWitch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF), vacuolar ATPases) and identified novel recurrent mutations (EGR1/2, POU2AF1, BTK, ZNF608, HVCN1) that require further investigation in the context of FL biology, prognosis, and treatment. PMID:28064239

  17. Is Increased Low-dose somatic Radiosensitivity Associated with Increased Transgenerational Germline Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, David J.

    2008-10-02

    Using single-molecule polymerase chain reaction, the frequency of spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus was studied in DNA samples extracted from sperm and bone marrow of Atm knockout (Atm+/–) heterozygous male mice. The frequency of spontaneous mutation in sperm and bone marrow in Atm+/– males did not significantly differ from that in wild-type BALB/c mice. Acute gamma-ray exposure did not affect ESTR mutation frequency in bone marrow and resulted in similar increases in sperm samples taken from Atm+/– and BALB/c males. Taken together, these results suggest that the Atm haploinsufficiency analyzed in our study does not affect spontaneous and radiation-induced ESTR mutation frequency in mice.

  18. The effects of Atm haploinsufficiency on mutation rate in the mouse germ line and somatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Akshay K; Barber, Ruth C; Hardwick, Robert J; Weil, Michael M; Genik, Paula C; Brenner, David J; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2008-09-01

    Using single-molecule polymerase chain reaction, the frequency of spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus was studied in DNA samples extracted from sperm and bone marrow of Atm knockout (Atm(+/-)) heterozygous male mice. The frequency of spontaneous mutation in sperm and bone marrow in Atm(+/-) males did not significantly differ from that in wild-type BALB/c mice. Acute exposure to 1 Gy of gamma-rays did not affect ESTR mutation frequency in bone marrow and resulted in similar increases in sperm samples taken from Atm(+/-) and BALB/c males. Taken together, these results suggest that the Atm haploinsufficiency analysed in our study does not affect spontaneous and radiation-induced ESTR mutation frequency in mice.

  19. Segregation of the fragile X mutation from a male with a full mutation: Unusual somatic instability in the FMR-1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kambouris, M.; Bluhm, D.; Feldman, G.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is associated with an unstable CGG-repeat in the FMR-1 gene. There are few reports of affected males transmitting the FMR-l gene to offspring. We report on a family in which the propositus and his twin sister each had a full mutation with abnormal methylation. Their mother had an FMR-1 allele in the normal range and a large premutation, with normal methylation. The maternal grandmother had two normal FMR-1 alleles. The maternal grandfather had an unusual somatic FMR-1 pattern, with allele size ranging from premutation to full mutation. No allele was detectable by PCR analysis. Multiple Southern blot analyses identified a hybridization pattern that originated at a distinct premutation band and extended into the full mutation range. Methylation studies revealed a mosaic pattern with both unmethylated premutations and methylated full mutations. This individual declined formal evaluation but did not finish high school and has difficulty in reading and writing. The size of the premutation FMR-1 allele passed to his daughter is larger than his most prominent premutation allele. This is most likely due to gonadal mosaicism similar to that in his peripheral lymphocytes. Alternatively, this expansion event may have occurred during his daughter`s early embryonic development and this large premutation allele is mitotically unstable. This pattern of FMR-1 alleles in a presumably mildly affected male is highly unusual. These findings are consistent with the absence of transmission of a full fragile X mutation through an expressing male. Studies of tissue-specific FMR-1 allele expansion and FMR-1 protein expression on this individual should help to determine the correlation of the molecular findings with the phenotypic effects. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Germline PMS2 and somatic POLEexo mutations cause hypermutability of the leading DNA strand in Biallelic Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Andrianova, Maria A; Chetan, Ghati Kasturirangan; Sibin, Madathan Kandi; Mckee, Thomas; Merkler, Doron; Narasinga, Rao Kvl; Ribaux, Pascale; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Nikolaev, Sergey I

    2017-08-14

    Biallelic Mismatch Repair Deficiency (bMMRD) in tumors is frequently associated with somatic mutations in the exonuclease domains of DNA polymerases POLE or POLD1 and results to a characteristic mutational profile. In this study we describe the genetic basis of ultramutated high grade brain tumors in the context of bMMRD. We performed exome sequencing of two second-cousin patients from a large consanguineous family of Indian origin with early onset of high grade glioblastoma and astrocytoma. We identified a germline homozygous nonsense variant R802X in the PMS2 gene. Additionally, by genome sequencing of these tumors we have observed extremely high somatic mutation rates (237 and 123 m