Science.gov

Sample records for acquiring defense software

  1. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  2. Acquiring Software Design Schemas: A Machine Learning Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harandi, Mehdi T.; Lee, Hing-Yan

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach based on machine learning that acquires software design schemas from design cases of existing applications. An overview of the technique, design representation, and acquisition system are presented. the paper also addresses issues associated with generalizing common features such as biases. The generalization process is illustrated using an example.

  3. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallshein, Corinne C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  4. Agile Software Development in Defense Acquisition: A Mission Assurance Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO ATR -2012(9010)-2 Agile Software Development in Defense Acquisition - A Mission Assurance Perspective March 23, 2012 Peter...release; distribution unlimited. aoUc£23>o;r7 AEROSPACE REPORT NO ATR -2012(9010)-2 Agile Software Development in Defense Acquisition - A Mission...Engineering and Technology Group Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. (A\\ AEROSPACE ^•^ Aautoff $m MK*I? taH AEROSPACE REPORT NO ATR

  5. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) software technology program plan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, C.J.; Redwine, S.T.; Bloom, M.I.; Brykczynski, B.; Chludzinski, J.

    1987-06-01

    This paper was prepared in response to a request from the Battle Management C3 office within the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) of the Department of Defense (DoD). The request was for a software-technology program plan to define software research and development (RandD) efforts required by the SDI, and to provide the basis for integrating the SDIO software technology program with ongoing non-SDIO programs. The paper emphasizes reviewing the ongoing software programs and plans within the DoD and academia. The reviews identify critical software technology areas required to meet the unique SDI requirements, and indicate priorities among the software technologies to meet attainability, productivity, and reliability goals, as well as functional performance objectives.

  6. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    to be combined in a patterned way. – Web services stacks, iOS, Android, LAMP stack, AUTOSAR, SCADA and controls, ERP/ SCM / CRM infrastructure, network...ecosystem lead Challenge issues • Technology leadership focal point • Smart customer: inside expertise • Accelerate the pipeline 5 Software has a critical...Disproportionate benefits from software in economic growth – ICT industries since 1995 ICT drives 20-15% of economic growth is US and Europe ICT drives 40

  7. SDS (Strategic Defense System) Software Measurement Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-14

    examples should serve as starting methods for the validation methodology. TA S C rASC I ZZJ~JSAI13-11A " THE ANALYTIC SCIENCES CORPORATION I Prior...m unien I THE ANALYTIC SCIENCES CORPORATION I [MART8407] Martin & Brice; Effect of Hardware-Software Interaction on Performance; Computer, 7/84

  8. The Defense Technical Information Center: Acquiring Information and Imparting Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molholm, Kurt N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This overview of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) discusses how DTIC fits into the Department of Defense Scientific and Technical Information Program; its history, organization, users, and operations; types of information handled; subject classification; cataloging standards; Information Analysis Centers (IACs); and research and…

  9. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  10. 76 FR 75875 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Open Source Software Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Software Public Meeting AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... regarding the use of open source software in DoD contracts. DATES: Public Meeting: January 12, 2012, from 10... for the discussions in the meeting. Please cite ``Public Meeting, DFARS--Open Source Software'' in...

  11. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to set forth DoD Cost and Software Data... Software Data Reporting (CSDR) process offerors intend to use to satisfy the requirements of the...

  12. Acquiring Software Project Specifications in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Vincent; Tang, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    In teaching software engineering, it is often interesting to introduce real life scenarios for students to experience and to learn how to collect information from respective clients. The ideal arrangement is to have some real clients willing to spend time to provide their ideas of a target system through interviews. However, this arrangement…

  13. Method for distributed object communications based on dynamically acquired and assembled software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundermier, Amy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for acquiring and assembling software components at execution time into a client program, where the components may be acquired from remote networked servers is disclosed. The acquired components are assembled according to knowledge represented within one or more acquired mediating components. A mediating component implements knowledge of an object model. A mediating component uses its implemented object model knowledge, acquired component class information and polymorphism to assemble components into an interacting program at execution time. The interactions or abstract relationships between components in the object model may be implemented by the mediating component as direct invocations or indirect events or software bus exchanges. The acquired components may establish communications with remote servers. The acquired components may also present a user interface representing data to be exchanged with the remote servers. The mediating components may be assembled into layers, allowing arbitrarily complex programs to be constructed at execution time.

  14. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fábián, Tibor Károly; Hermann, Péter; Beck, Anita; Fejérdy, Pál; Fábián, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins), are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed. PMID:22605979

  15. Breakdown of Software Expenditures in the Department of Defense, United States and in the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    AD-A245 805 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California TAT THESIS.. BREAKDOWN OF SOFTWARE EXPENDITURES IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE , UNITED...Projeo No Tds, NO o unit A. ew I N~oe, 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) BREAKDOWN OF SOFTWARE EXPENDITURES IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ... expenditures in 1990 were over $186 billion worldwide with approximately $90 billion being spent in the United States. The Department of Defense accounted for

  16. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS Case 2008-D027) AGENCY... Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and Major... software data reporting (CSDR) system establishes requirements for proposals and contract performance...

  17. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    FEB 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering...The Journal of Defense Software Engineering February 2008 4 9 14 19 22 27 3 8 18 28 29 30 31 D ep ar t m e n t s From the Publisher Coming Events Call...for both. Good Things Come in Small Packages Elizabeth Starrett Publisher 4 CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense Software Engineering February 2008 DRILS

  18. Toward a Reform of the Defense Department Software Acquisition Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Software Licensing Project ________"__,___n _.... Software Engineering Institute Carnegie-Mellon University I__ Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Dt Aval aic/or Approved...The Need for More Precise Definitions 24 1.4 Issues Not Addressed In the DoD Regulations 27 1.5 Shrink Wrap and Other Standard Licenses 29 1.6 Issues...Modifications 54 2.6 Other Software Maintenance/Enhancement Licensing 57 Problems 3. The Need for Better Training about Software, Data Rights, 59 and

  19. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Technology, Survivability and Software.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    influencing the cost of software de- velopment.) Fairley lists 17 different factors that affect the quality and productivity of soft- ware." There is...engineers; ’Barry W. Boehm. Software Engineering Economic» (Enjrlewood Cliffs.NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1981). p. 16. ■Richard Fairley , Software Engineering

  20. A Strategic Defense Initiative Organization Software Testing Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Pentagon Washir gton, DC 20301-7100 Other Defense Technical Information Center 2 Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22314 Dr. Dan Alpert , Director Program in...Science, Technology & Society University of Illinois Room 201 912-1/2 West Illinois Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 IDA General Larry D. Welch, HQ 1 Mr

  1. Software Inspection Insertion Efforts for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    by bea sealer indludual resp Monil for bhe project and~ ab s on$elected by IDA to esur te air high quality and relevance to bhe problems, studied...managers and their staff to implement the inspec- tion process. Promoting advanced technology , especially an industry-proven process such as inspections...development. 1.2 BACKGROUND In the late 1980’s, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) tasked IDA to examine the technology needed for

  2. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative): technology, survivability, and software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This report reviews the status of the various SDI technologies and system components. It analyzes the feasibility of producing dependable software of the complexity that advanced BMD systems would require. Finally, it summarizes what is now known, and unknown, about the probable survivability of such systems against concerted enemy attacks of various kinds.

  3. Engineering of Data Acquiring Mobile Software and Sustainable End-User Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Benton T.

    2013-01-01

    The criteria for which data acquiring software and its supporting infrastructure should be designed should take the following two points into account: the reusability and organization of stored online and remote data and content, and an assessment on whether abandoning a platform optimized design in favor for a multi-platform solution significantly reduces the performance of an end-user application. Furthermore, in-house applications that control or process instrument acquired data for end-users should be designed with a communication and control interface such that the application's modules can be reused as plug-in modular components in greater software systems. The application of the above mentioned is applied using two loosely related projects: a mobile application, and a website containing live and simulated data. For the intelligent devices mobile application AIDM, the end-user interface have a platform and data type optimized design, while the database and back-end applications store this information in an organized manner and manage access to that data to only to authorized user end application(s). Finally, the content for the website was derived from a database such that the content can be included and uniform to all applications accessing the content. With these projects being ongoing, I have concluded from my research that the applicable methods presented are feasible for both projects, and that a multi-platform design for the mobile application only marginally drop the performance of the mobile application.

  4. Framework for understanding the Strategic Defense Initiatives' software debates. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1990-06-01

    On March 23, 1983, then-President Ronald Reagan challenged a group of engineers and scientists to make nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete. This challenge led to the beginning of a new era in space technology and strategic defense, thus creating the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), better known as Star Wars. By 1984, several studies had begun to show that software in conjunction with Battle Management/Command, Control, and Communications techniques would play a major role in determining the effectiveness of the SDI. The results from these studies caused numerous controversial debates on the reliability, dependability, and trustworthiness of the software. This thesis provides a framework for understanding the complexities of the SDI software and points out some of the major issues involved in the software debates. The structure for this thesis is based on presenting the opinions of various computer scientists and engineers, indicating the issues that are controversial and those that have been defined as a necessity for the SDI program. One of the major highlights is the SDI summary chart that provides the reader with a very brief narrative of each individuals' opinion on the software issues discussed in this thesis.

  5. Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    developmental opportunities and establishing clear acquisitions career paths; (3) increasing the number of federal employees in critical skill areas; and (4... astrophysics and a host of other fields.79 In sum, a number of factors have contributed to defense acquisitions becoming a significant issue in the

  6. Pipecolic Acid Orchestrates Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance and Defense Priming via Salicylic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Gruner, Katrin; Schuck, Stefan; Bräutigam, Andrea; Zeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of the two immune-regulatory plant metabolites, salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip), in the establishment of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR), SAR-associated defense priming, and basal immunity. Using SA-deficient sid2, Pip-deficient ald1, and sid2 ald1 plants deficient in both SA and Pip, we show that SA and Pip act both independently from each other and synergistically in Arabidopsis thaliana basal immunity to Pseudomonas syringae. Transcriptome analyses reveal that SAR establishment in Arabidopsis is characterized by a strong transcriptional response systemically induced in the foliage that prepares plants for future pathogen attack by preactivating multiple stages of defense signaling and that SA accumulation upon SAR activation leads to the downregulation of photosynthesis and attenuated jasmonate responses systemically within the plant. Whereas systemic Pip elevations are indispensable for SAR and necessary for virtually the whole transcriptional SAR response, a moderate but significant SA-independent component of SAR activation and SAR gene expression is revealed. During SAR, Pip orchestrates SA-dependent and SA-independent priming of pathogen responses in a FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1)-dependent manner. We conclude that a Pip/FMO1 signaling module acts as an indispensable switch for the activation of SAR and associated defense priming events and that SA amplifies Pip-triggered responses to different degrees in the distal tissue of SAR-activated plants. PMID:26672068

  7. Delayed Hypersensitivity: Indicator of Acquired Failure of Host Defenses in Sepsis and Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Meakins, Jonathan L.; Pietsch, John B.; Bubenick, Oldrich; Kelly, Ralph; Rode, Harold; Gordon, Julius; MacLean, Lloyd D.

    1977-01-01

    Primary failure of host defense mechanisms has been associated with increased infection and mortality. Anergy, the failure of delayed hypersensitivity response, has been shown to identify surgical patients at increased risk for sepsis and related mortality. The anergic and relatively anergic patients whose skin tests failed to improve had a mortality rate of 74.4%, whereas those who improved their responses had a mortality rate of 5.1% (P < 0.001). This study documents abnormalities of neutrophil chemotaxis, T-lymphocyte rosetting in anergic patients and the effect of autologous serum. These abnormalities may account for the increased infection and mortality rates in anergic patients. Skin testing with five standard antigens has identified 110 anergic (A) or relatively anergic (RA) patients in whom neutrophil chemotaxis (CTX) and bactericidal function (NBF), T-lymphocyte rosettes, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), cell-mediated lympholysis (CML), and blastogenic factor (BF) were studied. The MLC, CML and BF were normal in the patients studied, and were not clinically helpful. Neutrophil CTX in 19 controls was 117.5 ± 1.6 u whereas in 40 A patients, neutrophils migrated 81.7 ± 2.3 u and in 15 RA patients 97.2 ± 3.8 u (P < 0.01). In 14 patients whose skin tests converted to normal, neutrophil migration improved from 78.2 ± 5.4 u to 107.2 ± 4.0 u (P < 0.01). Incubation of A or control neutrophils in A serum reduced migration in A patients from 93 ± 3.7 u to 86.2 ± 3.5 u (P < 0.01) and in normals from 121.2 ± 1.6 u to 103.6 ± 2.6 u (P < 0.001). The per cent rosette forming cells in 66 A patients was 42.5 ± 3.1 compared to 53.6 ± 2.8 in normal responders (P < 0.02). Incubation of normal lymphocytes in anergic serum further reduced rosetting by 30%. Restoration of delayed hypersensitivity responses and concurrent improvement in cellular and serum components of host defense were correlated with maintenance of adequate nutrition and aggressive surgical drainage

  8. RixsToolBox: software for the analysis of soft X-ray RIXS data acquired with 2D detectors.

    PubMed

    Kummer, K; Tamborrino, A; Amorese, A; Minola, M; Braicovich, L; Brookes, N B; Ghiringhelli, G

    2017-03-01

    A software with a graphical user interface has been developed with the aim of facilitating the data analysis for users of a new resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer installed at the ESRF beamline ID32. The software is organized in modules covering all relevant steps in the data reduction from a stack of several hundred two-dimensional CCD images to a single RIXS spectrum. It utilizes both full charge integration and single-photon centroiding to cope with high-flux and high-resolution requirements. Additional modules for further data analysis and the extraction of instrumental parameters are available. The software has been in routine use for about a year now and in that time many additional features have been incorporated. It now meets the users' need for an easy-to-use data analysis tool that allows looking at and understanding data as it is acquired and thus steering users' experiments more efficiently.

  9. SARA: a software environment for the analysis of relaxation data acquired with accordion spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Harden, Bradley J; Frueh, Dominique P

    2014-02-01

    We present SARA (Software for Accordion Relaxation Analysis), an interactive and user-friendly MATLAB software environment designed for analyzing relaxation data obtained with accordion spectroscopy. Accordion spectroscopy can be used to measure nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rates in a fraction of the time required by traditional methods, yet data analysis can be intimidating and no unified software packages are available to assist investigators. Hence, the technique has not achieved widespread use within the NMR community. SARA offers users a selection of analysis protocols spanning those presented in the literature thus far, with modifications permitting a more general application to crowded spectra such as those of proteins. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each fitting method and suggest a protocol combining the strengths of each procedure to achieve optimal results. In the end, SARA provides an environment for facile extraction of relaxation rates and should promote routine application of accordion relaxation spectroscopy.

  10. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 27, Number 2. March/April 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    prepublication, 2013 9. Kramer, Franklin D., Stuart H. Starr, and Larry K. Wentz, Cyberpower and National Security, National Defense University, ISBN 978...2011/201109/201109-ONeill.pdf> 13. O’Neill, Don, “Peer Reviews”, Encyclopedia of Software Engineering- Volume 2, Second Edition, Edited by John ...Marciniak, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., January 2002, pp. 929-945 14. Schulmeyer, G. Gordon, “Handbook of Software Quality Assurance”, Artech House

  11. Acquiring data in real time in Italy from the Antarctic Seismographic Argentinean Italian Network (ASAIN): testing the global capabilities of the EarthWorm and Antelope software suites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton; Russi, Marino; Pesaresi, Damiano; Cravos, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    The Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, OGS) is running the Antarctic Seismographic Argentinean Italian Network (ASAIN), made of 7 seismic stations located in the Scotia Sea region in Antarctica and in Tierra del Fuego - Argentina: data from these stations are transferred in real time to the OGS headquarters in Trieste (Italy) via satellite links provided by the Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA). Data is collected and archived primarily in Güralp Compress Format (GCF) through the Scream! software at OGS and IAA, and transmitted also in real time to the Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology (ORFEUS). The main real time seismic data acquisition and processing system of the ASAIN network is based on the EarthWorm 7.3 (Open Source) software suite installed on a Linux server at the OGS headquarters in Trieste. It runs several software modules for data collection, data archiving, data publication on dedicated web servers: wave_serverV, Winston Wave Server, and data analysis and realtime monitoring through Swarm program. OGS is also running, in close cooperation with the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Civil Defense, the North East (NI) Italy seismic network, making use of the Antelope commercial software suite from BRTT as the main acquisition system. As a test to check the global capabilities of the Antelope software suite, we also set up an instance of Antelope acquiring data in real time from both the regional ASAIN seismic network in Antarctica and a subset of the Global Seismic Network (GSN) funded by the Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology (IRIS). The facilities of the IRIS Data Management System, and specifically the IRIS Data Management Center, were used for real time access to waveform required in this study. The first tests indicated that more than 80% of the earthquakes with magnitude M>5.0 listed in the Preliminary Determination

  12. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 23, Number 3, May/June 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    GEO P/L+S/C SR P/L+S/C P/L = Payload, S/C = Spacecraft, AEHF = Advanced Extreme High Frequency, GEO = Geosynchronous Earth Orbit, GPS = Global...our software foibles behind extremely visible hardware issues, but not any longer. Establishing a National Systems Engineering Laboratory Quality and...Division. Buett- ner has more than 20 years of experience including contracts from NASA’s comet sample return mission, all phases of defense industry

  13. Software Test and Evaluation Manual. Volume 2. Guidelines for Software Test and Evaluation in the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-25

    Section 4.1. For example, if a critical operacional software issue can be addressed during DT as opposed to OT. the OT Agency should ensure that DT plans...have been overlooked and not allocated to lower level components at all. In addition, traceability matrices can be used to reflect the completeness of...elements of information that are reported in the traceability matrices become available as the software development progresses, the traceability matrices

  14. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 20, Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    plan-driven software proponents into the systems engineering world. by Dr. Richard Turner CMMI Level 5 and the Team Software Process The 309th Software...at Agile development from Dr. Richard Turner in Toward Agile Systems Engineering Processes. In further discussions, my co-sponsors at the 309th...this question by comparing core agile characteristics to those of traditional systems engineering. Dr. Richard Turner Systems and Software Consortium

  15. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 14, Number 2, February 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    that companies that are successfully improving quality and schedules are the ones with the best measurements. by Capers Jones Applying Function Point...structured method for doing a requirements review. In Software Measurement Programs and Industry Leadership, Capers Jones significantly points out that...Allgood Section Chief, TISEA Software Measurement Programs and Industry Leadership Capers Jones Software Productivitiy Research Inc. This author and

  16. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Union Carbide accident in Bhopal, the Patriot Missile Defense System failure, the Iran Air Flight 655 shoot-down, and Therac -25 system malfunctions...plants, the Patriot Missile Defense System, Iran Air Flight 655, and Therac -25 will be ana- lyzed. Union Carbide Around midnight on December 2, 1984, a...fire. Therac -25 Between June 1985 and January 1987 Therac -25, a Medical Linear Accelerator designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL

  17. Guidelines for Tailoring DOD-STD-2167A for SDS (Strategic Defense System) Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    will be facilitated by i using a formal notation that provides a grammar for ensuring complete specification of critical *O software characteristics...the computer hardware to pedor omputtion or control funtions . 3.8 Comouter Software Comoonent (CSC1. A distinct pot of a computer software configurma...this standard, means tha: (1) the document uses : : nies of grammar , capitalization, punctuation, symbols, and notation consistent with thoese

  18. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 22, Number 5, July/August 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    SMXS/MXDEA 6022 Fir AVE BLDG 1238 Hill AFB, UT 84056-5820 Article Submissions: We welcome articles of interest to the defense software community ...Webb, Luke. “Knowledge Manage- ment for Through Life Support.” Doctoral Thesis (in progress) via pri- vate communication . RMIT University (Australia...Practice.” Communications of the ACM 41.12 (1998): 37-44. 13. Jarke, Matthias. “Requirements Tracing.” Communications of the ACM 41.12 (1998): 32-36. 14

  19. Crosstalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 18, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    TPKE Burlington, MA 01803 Phone: (781) 993-5500 Fax: (781) 993-5501 E-mail: hlougee@foliage.com Open Forum Free/Libre/Open Source Software( FLOSS ) has...become a competitive alternative to commercial software in almost all areas of computing. It has become more and more common to find FLOSS software...some exam- ples of FLOSS software that is being used on an increasing basis. There are many obvious advantages to FLOSS : the freedom to tinker with the

  20. Survey of Software Metrics in the Department of Defense and Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    NAWC-92-SR- 1. [Sackman 1967] Sackman, Harold . 1967. Computers, System Science, and Evolving Society. New York: Wiley. [SAF/AQ 1994] Department of...Reconciliation Between Process and Product Views. Journal of Systems and Software 12: 243-248. 0 Lasky , Jeffrey and Kevin Donaghy. May 1993. Conflict...of Systems and Software 12: 233-241. Sackman, Harold . 1967. Computers, System Science, and Evolving Society. New York: Wiley. SAIC Metrics Working

  1. Increasing Open Source Software Integration on the Department of Defense Unclassified Desktop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    military software, much of it is absorbed by license fees for computer operating systems and general-purpose office automation applications. Although...many available mature, robust Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. In particular, Linux-based operating systems have helped bring free, open source...thesis examines the feasibility of using OSS, particularly Linux-based operating systems , on unclassified DoD desktop computers. Specific attention is

  2. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 19, Number 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Siok, Clinton J. Whittaker, and Dr. Jeff Tian Software Recapitalization Economics This article analyzes the economics of cyclic replacement or...Jarzombek Jeff Schwalb Brent Baxter Elizabeth Starrett Kase Johnstun Chelene Fortier-Lozancich Nicole Kentta (801) 775-5555 crosstalk.staff@hill.af.mil...believe all software processes should include. Our final theme article by Michael F. Siok, Clinton J. Whittaker, and Dr. Jeff Tian discusses how to

  3. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 20, Number 10, October 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    principlesspecifically to the development of large, complex software systems provides a powerful tool for process and product management. This process is called...technical processes as well as its products. System engineering provides the tools the technical management task requires. The application of system...However, it can be argued that SwSE is a distinct and powerful tool for managing the technical develop- ment of large software projects. This

  4. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 20, Number 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    use of shared services and SOAs. The DoD Net-Centric Services Strategy outlines an approach in which the DoD’s wide range of information and...gram is to deliver a set of shared services as part of this common infrastructure. The NCES is a Defense Information Services Agency acquisition program... shared services and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that, among other things, is supported by the required use of a common and shared

  5. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 19, Number 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    major communications systems. by Dr. Troy Meink Development of a Ground Vehicle Maneuver Ontology to Support the Common Operational Picture These authors...TSAT, JTRS, and DISN-NG programs. Dr. Troy Meink Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense Networks and Information Integration Figure 1...commu- nications capability to enable net-centric operations and vastly improve future DoD operations.u About the Author Dr. Troy Meink is cur- rently

  6. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 26, Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    earpieces disguised as communicators, we could not comprehend a future with such wonderful devices. Now, I can wear a small device in my ear, tap it...officer on the USS Shenandoah. After the Navy, Mr. Schauer worked on Tactical Software for the SPY - 1A Phased Array radar at the Naval Surface

  7. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 13, Number 5, May 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    to have a good understanding of what things are so sacro - sanct that they could not change—the degree of stealthiness; performance param- eters...low-risk avionics development approach blended with state-of-the- art software development tools and processes has proven successful. Boeing also is

  8. Crosstalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 22, Number 1, January 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Understanding Communication, Negotiation Maturity/ Accountability/ Trust SWOT */ Portfolio Analysis Positioning and Value Proposition Strategic Planning and...L if e- C yc le P ro ce ss es P h as e * SWOT : Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Figure 1: Software Product...Economic Thinking and Behaviors Technology Understanding Communication, Negotiation Maturity/ Accountability/ Trust SWOT */ Portfolio Analysis

  9. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 18, Number 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    mission-critical soft- ware may result in harm to, or loss of human life and/or mission objectives such as in the case of the Therac -25 radiation overdose...accidents [2] and the Ariane-5 maiden launch failure [9]. The Therac -25 software caused severe radiation burns in numerous cancer patients before it

  10. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 20, Number 8, August 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    shelf and DoD-supplied software. Instead, they opted for the com- plexity of writing additional code that let the system run in parallel with Arabic and...location); Oracle e-Business (exhibits cost and performance), Primavera P3ec (devel- ops the schedule), DoD standard procure- ment system (authors the

  11. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    widespread fear among buyers that there might be mal- ware in their new software, for example, would depress sales and tarnish a brand. One only need recall...root zone servers. These DDOS attacks attempt to overwhelm servers with vast num- bers of messages. The use of bot - nets has increased the...Mail With Attachments Single and Group Chats Shared Workspaces Audio Conferencing Video Conferencing Centralized IT (DNS, DHCP) Centralized Backup and

  12. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    If the average defect potential is five bugs – or defects – per function point and removal efficiency is 85 percent, then the total number of delivered...and 2) defect removal efficiency. The term defect potentials refers to the total quantity of bugs or defects that will be found in five software arti...defect potentials or reduce the num- bers of bugs that must be eliminated. Examples of defect prevention methods include joint application design

  13. Crosstalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 22, Number 2, February 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    CrossTalk, providing both editorial oversight and technical review of the journal.CrossTalk’s mission is to encourage the engineering development of...schedule, and performance issues. Functional specialization has its role, but successful system development could benefit from increasing...the development life cycle. This month’s CrossTalk features excellent articles on the topic of software and systems integration. In Leveraging Federal

  14. Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presented are reviews of two computer software packages for Apple II computers; "Organic Spectroscopy," and "Videodisc Display Program" for use with "The Periodic Table Videodisc." A sample spectrograph from "Organic Spectroscopy" is included. (CW)

  15. Investigation of expert systems usage for software requirements development in the Strategic Defense Initiative environment. Interim report, May-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chien; Liebowitz

    1986-06-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) poses a significant challenge to the United States, namely how to counter the threat of Soviet nuclear ballistic missiles. Part of the solution to this problem involves the development of sophisticated automatic programming techniques. Embedded within these techniques is how to develop and check the consistency of evolving SDI-related software requirements. This report addresses what has been done in developing tools for software requirements determination and what has to be done in developing future software requirements tools for the SDI environment. The use of expert systems in an inherent part of these considerations. This report first develops a basic foundation on software design. Specifically, its definition, emergence, description, and methodologies and tools are addressed. Afterwards, the SDI environment and its associated problems are described. Then, recommendations for a knowledge-based software requirements development approach are explained.

  16. Infection of Arabidopsis with a necrotrophic pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, elicits various defense responses but does not induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR).

    PubMed

    Govrin, Eri M; Levine, Alex

    2002-02-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a non-specific necrotrophic pathogen that attacks more than 200 plant species. In contrast to biotrophs, the necrotrophs obtain their nutrients by first killing the host cells. Many studies have shown that infection of plants by necrosis-causing pathogens induces a systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides protection against successive infections by a range of pathogenic organisms. We analyzed the role of SAR in B. cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. We show that although B. cinerea induced necrotic lesions and camalexin biosynthesis, it did not induce SAR-mediated protection against virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae, or against subsequent B. cinerea infections. Induction of SAR with avirulent P. syringae or by chemical treatment with salicylic acid (SA) or benzothiadiazole also failed to inhibit B. cinerea growth, although removal of basal SA accumulation by expression of a bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) gene or by infiltration of 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, an inhibitor of phenylpropanoid pathway, increased B. cinerea disease symptoms. In addition, we show that B. cinerea induced expression of genes associated with SAR, general stress and ethylene/jasmonate-mediated defense pathways. Thus, B. cinerea does not induce SAR nor is it affected by SAR, making it a rare example of a necrogenic pathogen that does not cause SAR.

  17. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunit16 positively regulates salicylate-mediated systemic acquired resistance and jasmonate/ethylene-induced defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Chenggang; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Mou, Zhonglin

    2012-10-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long-lasting plant immunity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Biological induction of SAR requires the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA) and involves profound transcriptional changes that are largely controlled by the transcription coactivator nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1 (NPR1). However, it is unclear how SAR signals are transduced from the NPR1 signaling node to the general transcription machinery. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana Mediator subunit16 (MED16) is an essential positive regulator of SAR. Mutations in MED16 reduced NPR1 protein levels and completely compromised biological induction of SAR. These mutations also significantly suppressed SA-induced defense responses, altered the transcriptional changes induced by the avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000/avrRpt2, and rendered plants susceptible to both Pst DC3000/avrRpt2 and Pst DC3000. In addition, mutations in MED16 blocked the induction of several jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-responsive genes and compromised resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. The Mediator complex acts as a bridge between specific transcriptional activators and the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery; therefore, our data suggest that MED16 may be a signaling component in the gap between the NPR1 signaling node and the general transcription machinery and may relay signals from both the SA and the JA/ET pathways.

  18. Know Your Software Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Doug

    1986-01-01

    Advice on how to find the best software for institutional needs is presented. Purchasing prewritten software, acquiring custom-written software, and improving ready-made software are discussed. Questions to ask before buying software are provided. (MLW)

  19. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 24, Number 2, March/April 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    intensive systems, safety is the antithesis of dangerous and can relate to non-physical safety as well. Security is the ability of a system to...images/0/0f/OWASP_T10_-_2010_rc1.pdf> 3. See CWE/SANS Top 25 Most Dangerous Programming Errors at <http://www.sans.org/top25-programming-errors/> 4. There...extraordinary defensive mechanisms are vulnerable to some hazards, such as tornados, meteorite landings, or a Linux installation by an inept user. We would not

  20. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 27, Number 1, January/February 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    replacement models. Unfortunately, these mod- els are not well-suited to understand the cost, effort, and quality drivers of software sustainment, which...Some of the main challenges faced by developers and project managers are related to improving Quality , Predictability, and Reducing Cost and Rework...Use]   Performance [Phoenix, Environment]   Quality [Information, Consumer]   Timeliness [Information]   Pertinence [Information]   Usability

  1. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 24, Number 5, Sep/Oct 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Jennifer; Pal, Partha Pratim; Atighetchi, Michael; Rubel, Paul; and Webber, Franklin (2005), Survivability Architecture of a Mission Critical System...Washington (RAID 2005), Springer, pp. 43–62. 27. Cox, Benjamin ; Evans, David; Filipi, Adrian; Rowanhill, Jonathan; Hu, Wei; Davidson, Jack; Knight, John...the practice in developing and fielding large-scale industrial software and the complex factors that govern their outcome. As an inventor , Mr

  2. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 24, Number 3, May/June 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Man-machine systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1974. 16. C.D. Wickens and J.G. Hollands, Engineering psychology and human performance, Pearson...and Psychology 18 (1908), 459-482. 18. Madni, A.M. “Integrating Humans with Software and Systems: Technical Challenges and a Research Agenda...influence on individual risk taking, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65 (1962), 75-86. 22. M.A. Wallach, N. Kogan, and D.G. Bern

  3. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 27, Number 6, November/December 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    takes a good fiddler to make the best music . Some of the challenges we face when selecting and using tools and processes are: • Whether to centralize or...Wright gained system of system test experience at U.S. Army Communications- Electronics Command’s (CECOM) Whitfill Central Technical Support...Facility (CTSF), supporting the Electronic Proving Ground (EPG), to lead the interoperability testing of new software baselines for the Army’s Chief

  4. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) System Architecture and Key Tradeoff Studies, Phase IIC, Congestion control Subsystem Software Algorithm; Appendix E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Qualified Model SRAM Short-Range Attack Missile SRB Solid Rocket Booster SSBN Ballistic Missile Nuclear-Energy Submarine SSC Space Surveillance Center...ALGORITHM APPENDIX E 22 MARCH 1988 CONTRACT NO. MDA903-85-C-0065 r •J STAm#3KT"T A&.U i >>,*® $ PLEASE RETURN TO: Satellite & Space ...Subsystem Software Algorithm, Appendix E Personal Author: Niznik, C.A. Corporate Author Or Publisher: Rockwell International, Satellite & Space

  5. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 23, Number 4, July/August 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Tomorrow. New York: Harper & Row, 1957. 5. Taylor , Frederick Winslow . The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1911. 6...still based largely on the prin- ciples from Fredrick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, “The Principles of Scientific Management” [5]. Taylor’s methods were...7. Brooks, Frederick P. The Mythical Man Month: Essays on Software Engineering. 20th Anniversary Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995. 8

  6. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 23, Number 1, Jan/Feb 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    and the associated principles for implementation. Mike Phillips and Sandy Shrum continue the CMMI topic with their article Process Improvement for All...those currently using CMMI. Mike Phillips and Sandy Shrum Software Engineering Institute Process Improvement for All: What to Expect from CMMI...10feb2009.cfm A perfect supplement to Mike Phillips and Sandy Shrum’s Process Improvement for All: What to Expect from CMMI Version 1.3, this webinar

  7. Defense Infrastructure. Army’s Approach for Acquiring Land Is Not Guided by Up-to-Date Strategic Plan or Always Communicated Effectively

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    tortoise and Lane Mountain milk- vetch plant—both endangered species—and the Army proposed to purchase some land elsewhere to be used to protect the...desert tortoise and the milk- vetch . The Army noted that no community development had been planned for the area the Army wanted to acquire, so it...environmental impacts, noting that the potential losses of the desert tortoise and Lane Mountain milk- vetch plant were the most significant

  8. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 23, Number 6, Nov/Dec 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    I still have my nanoseconds from her1—and readers who know about that will smile gently. In her lectures , she had this wonderful visual cue she...used when telling people about the amazing things in regards to the shrinking of machines. She would have, prior to the lecture , taken telephone wire...them and dearly love the time I spent with them. It was a high point in my career. Outside the software world, Richard Feynman is my abso- lute hero

  9. The two facies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: the role of the tertiary amine and its N-oxide in chemical defense of insects with acquired plant alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lindigkeit, R; Biller, A; Buch, M; Schiebel, H M; Boppré, M; Hartmann, T

    1997-05-01

    enzyme was partially purified from two other arctiids. The three SNOs show the same general substrate specificity but differ in their affinities towards the main structural types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The enzymes from the two generalists (Creatonotos transiens and Arctia caja) display a broader substrate affinity than the enzyme from the specialist (Tyria jacobaeae). The two molecular forms of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, the lipophilic protoxic tertiary amine and its hydrophilic nontoxic N-oxide are discussed in respect to their bioactivation and detoxification in mammals and their role as defensive chemicals in specialized insects. Pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-sequestering insects store the alkaloids as nontoxic N-oxides which are reduced in the guts of any potential insectivore. The lipophilic tertiary alkaloid is absorbed passively and then bioactivated by cytochrome P-450 oxidase.

  10. Defense System Software Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    quality assurance discipline " Lack of quantitative data base for feedback of "lessons learned" 2. Actions to be Taken a. Service policies will be...and identify where they could be improved. Feedback from the field will be incorporated in updated versions of the guidelines and a cor cinued...c~0 .00 0 u 0 Efl ) 0 0 H 11-4 " . 00 oo Wro o,_ U ) z I QI- (n 0 0~ wH 000 1-5 MANAGEMENT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE The action vehicle envf.sioned for

  11. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  12. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths

  13. Antiterrorist Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    In light of the escalation of terrorism, the Department of Defense spearheaded the development of new antiterrorist software for all Government agencies by issuing a Broad Agency Announcement to solicit proposals. This Government-wide competition resulted in a team that includes NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division, who will develop the graphical user interface (GUI) and test it in their usability lab. The team launched a program entitled Joint Sphere of Security (JSOS), crafted a design architecture (see the following figure), and is testing the interface. This software system has a state-ofthe- art, object-oriented architecture, with a main kernel composed of the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) developed by Argonne National Laboratory. DIAS will be used as the software "breadboard" for assembling the components of explosions, such as blast and collapse simulations.

  14. Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards Harry L. Levinson Software Engineering Institute Carnegie...Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards © 2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring

  15. Software assurance standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the software assurance program for the provider of software. It also delineates the assurance activities for the provider and the assurance data that are to be furnished by the provider to the acquirer. In any software development effort, the provider is the entity or individual that actually designs, develops, and implements the software product, while the acquirer is the entity or individual who specifies the requirements and accepts the resulting products. This standard specifies at a high level an overall software assurance program for software developed for and by NASA. Assurance includes the disciplines of quality assurance, quality engineering, verification and validation, nonconformance reporting and corrective action, safety assurance, and security assurance. The application of these disciplines during a software development life cycle is called software assurance. Subsequent lower-level standards will specify the specific processes within these disciplines.

  16. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  17. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... They Work Kidney Disease A-Z Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease What is acquired cystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney disease happens when a ... cysts. What are the differences between acquired cystic kidney disease and polycystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney ...

  18. Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense Program. FY2003-2005 Performance Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    on capabilities. In order to validate the process, the initial baseline assessment focused on the traditional warfighter mission, or passive defense...and homeland security, while updating the assessment of passive defense capabilities. In addition, the baseline capability assessment establishes an...from tech base. Integrate counterforce, passive defense, and hazard/incident software models into a complete system. Develop logistics documentation

  19. Transforming Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    or agency each week?” 47 By way of just one example, Madrid’s La Razon reported on September 13 , 2004, that Spain would lose U.S. bases to Portugal...public release, distribution unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...DEFENSE 7 responsibilities. The homeland security JOC envisions a layered and comprehensive defense requiring geographical and functional integra- tion. 13

  20. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  1. 33 CFR 211.27 - Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Federal Jurisdiction over Real Estate § 211.27 Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction. Jurisdiction is acquired in accordance with the laws of the various States....

  2. Theoretical Issues in Software Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    large software projects. It has been less successful in acquiring a solid theoretical foundation for these methods. The software development process...justification save practice that has evolved for large , concur- rently processed programs. Furthermore, each phase needs formal description and analysis. The...Abstract B Me discipline of software engineering has transferred the common-sense methods of good programing and management to large software projects. It

  3. Software Development Cost Estimating Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    Hill AFB, UT Researching Blueprinting Technical writing I t l i i / ditin erna rev ew ng e ng Naval Center for Cost Analysis (NCCA), Arlington, VA...development processes Software estimating models Defense Acquisition Framework Data collection Acronyms T i lerm no ogy References Systems & Software...Designed for readability and comprehension Large right margin for notes Systems & Software Technology Conference 921 April 2009 Part I - Basics

  4. 43 CFR 3400.3-2 - Department of Defense lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Defense lands. 3400.3-2...: General § 3400.3-2 Department of Defense lands. The Secretary may issue leases with the consent of the Secretary of Defense on acquired lands set apart for military or naval purposes only if the leases...

  5. 43 CFR 3400.3-2 - Department of Defense lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Defense lands. 3400.3-2...: General § 3400.3-2 Department of Defense lands. The Secretary may issue leases with the consent of the Secretary of Defense on acquired lands set apart for military or naval purposes only if the leases...

  6. 43 CFR 3400.3-2 - Department of Defense lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Defense lands. 3400.3-2...: General § 3400.3-2 Department of Defense lands. The Secretary may issue leases with the consent of the Secretary of Defense on acquired lands set apart for military or naval purposes only if the leases...

  7. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  8. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    situations. The well known case of the Therac 25 failures (Nancy G. Leveson and Clark S. Turner, 1993, “An Investigation of the Therac -25 Accidents,” IEEE...known case of the Therac 25 failures (Nancy G. Leveson and Clark S. Turner, 1993, “An Investigation of the Therac -25 Accidents,” IEEE Computer 26(7

  9. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  10. Soviet strategic defense technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, E.

    1987-04-01

    The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Acquired Idiopathic Generalized Anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Geethu; Criton, Sebastian; Surendran, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is a rare condition, where the exact pathomechanism is unknown. We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis in a patient who later developed lichen planus. Here an autoimmune-mediated destruction of sweat glands may be the probable pathomechanism.

  12. LABORATORY-ACQUIRED MYCOSES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    laboratory- acquired mycoses . Insofar as possible, the etiological fungus, type of laboratory, classification of personnel, type of work conducted, and other...pertinent data have been listed in this study. More than 288 laboratory- acquired mycoses are described here, including 108 cases of

  13. Acquiring the Data Needed to Support Defense Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    several systems that are evolving to support the operational data needs of the warfighter. These include the Combined Information Data Network (CIDNE...Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR), and the Civil Affairs Operating System (CAOS). However, there are several problems in dealing with these systems ...with respect to the analyst’s needs. For example, the data that are collected by these systems are too atomistic, there are inadequate mechanisms for

  14. Acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, E R; Krivickas, L S

    2001-05-01

    The acquired demyelinating neuropathies can be divided into those with an acute onset and course and those with a more chronic course. The acute neuropathies present as Guillain-Barré syndrome and include acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), Miller Fisher syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and acute pandysautonomia. The chronic neuropathies are collectively known as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and include MADSAM (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy, also know as Lewis-Sumner syndrome) and DADS (distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy) as variants. The clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of these neuropathies are discussed.

  15. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  16. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  17. Defenses and disincentives to proliferation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, F.S.; Scesney, P.E.

    1992-03-02

    The proliferation of ballistic missiles and their associated technologies through the Third World has become a chief security concern for the United States and its allies. To meet this threat, the U.S. and other industrial nations have attempted to impose export controls on critical missile technologies in order to prohibit certain regimes from acquiring ballistic missile systems. Unfortunately, the controls have largely been ineffective as not only have ballistic missiles been acquired by dangerous Third World regimes, but often the technology and engineering expertise to indigenously produce these weapons have been obtained as well. Two major instances of ballistic missile use in the Third World--the Iran-Iraq War of the Cities and Desert Storm--have brought home the realization that arms control measures alone are not going to be successful in stopping proliferation of these weapons. Other responses to these systems are needed to enhance current arms control efforts. One of these responses is active ballistic missile defense. Desert Storm demonstrated the utility of defense as a response to the products of proliferation. Less obvious, but of great interest to SDI and U.S. foreign policy is how this demonstration of defensive prowess and subsequent development in defensive technologies will affect ballistic missile proliferation. The presence of defenses reduces the value of ballistic missiles that is determined by a potential proliferator. By doing so, defenses provide disincentives for regional countries to proliferate. Examining these disincentives is an integral part of determining the net value of defensive deployments.

  18. Signal regulators of systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Zhu, Shifeng; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays a vital role in a number of physiological responses, including plant defense. The last two decades have witnessed a number of breakthroughs related to biosynthesis, transport, perception and signaling mediated by SA. These findings demonstrate that SA plays a crictical role in both local and systemic defense responses. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one such SA-dependent response. SAR is a long distance signaling mechanism that provides broad spectrum and long-lasting resistance to secondary infections throughout the plant. This unique feature makes SAR a highly desirable trait in crop production. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of SA in SAR and discusses its relationship to other SAR inducers. PMID:25918514

  19. Software Program: Software Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Software Management Guidebook is twofold. First, this document defines the core products and activities required of NASA software projects. It defines life-cycle models and activity-related methods but acknowledges that no single life-cycle model is appropriate for all NASA software projects. It also acknowledges that the appropriate method for accomplishing a required activity depends on characteristics of the software project. Second, this guidebook provides specific guidance to software project managers and team leaders in selecting appropriate life cycles and methods to develop a tailored plan for a software engineering project.

  20. Proprietary software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marnock, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The protection of intellectual property by a patent, a copyright, or trade secrets is reviewed. The present and future use of computers and software are discussed, along with the governmental uses of software. The popularity of contractual agreements for sale or lease of computer programs and software services is also summarized.

  1. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  2. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  3. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  4. 29 CFR 570.128 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Good faith defense. 570.128 Section 570.128 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Enforcement § 570.128 Good faith defense. Link... commerce goods which he acquired in good faith in reliance on written assurance from the...

  5. 29 CFR 570.141 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Good faith defense. 570.141 Section 570.141 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Enforcement § 570.141 Good faith defense. A... ships or delivers for shipment in commerce goods which he acquired in good faith in reliance on...

  6. 29 CFR 570.141 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Good faith defense. 570.141 Section 570.141 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Enforcement § 570.141 Good faith defense. A... ships or delivers for shipment in commerce goods which he acquired in good faith in reliance on...

  7. 29 CFR 570.141 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Good faith defense. 570.141 Section 570.141 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Enforcement § 570.141 Good faith defense. A... ships or delivers for shipment in commerce goods which he acquired in good faith in reliance on...

  8. 29 CFR 570.141 - Good faith defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Good faith defense. 570.141 Section 570.141 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Enforcement § 570.141 Good faith defense. A... ships or delivers for shipment in commerce goods which he acquired in good faith in reliance on...

  9. Streamlining the Process of Acquiring Secure Open Architecture Software Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-08

    on the case studies centering on military command and control systems , such as the future C2RPC models being considered by naval commands (Garcia...however, requires new guidance and ideally, automated tools, for explicitly modeling and analyzing the architecture of an OA system during its...secure open architecture command and control systems , where next-generation military command and control systems are expected to be developed from

  10. Hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christine M; Cuker, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The development of thrombocytopenia is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent and important causes of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients include etiologies related to the underlying illness for which the patient is admitted, such as infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and iatrogenic etiologies such as drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, hemodilution, major surgery, and extracorporeal circuitry. This review presents a brief discussion of the pathophysiology, distinguishing clinical features, and management of these etiologies, and provides a diagnostic approach to hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia that considers the timing and severity of the platelet count fall, the presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis, the clinical context, and the peripheral blood smear. This approach may offer guidance to clinicians in distinguishing among the various causes of hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia and providing management appropriate to the etiology.

  11. Desmosomes in acquired disease

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement functions to integrate adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, that occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on how human diseases inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology, and in turn, how fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes may lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome. PMID:25795143

  12. Desmosomes in acquired disease.

    PubMed

    Stahley, Sara N; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement integrates adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, which occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on the way in which human diseases can inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology and in turn, the means by which fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes might lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome.

  13. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  14. GLOBE (Global Oceanographic Bathymetry Explorer) : an innovative and generic software combining all necessary functionalities for cruise preparation, for collection, linking, processing and display of scientific data acquired during sea cruises, and for exporting data and information to the main marine data centers and networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, J. M.; Sorribas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Within the EUROFLEETS project, and linked to the EMODNet and Geo-Seas European projects, GLOBE (Global Oceanographic Bathymetry Explorer) is an innovative and generic software. I. INTRODUCTION The first version can be used onboard during the survey to get a quick overview of acquired data, or later, to re-process data with accurate environmental data. II. MAIN FUNCTIONALITIES The version shown at AGU-2014 will present several key items : - 3D visualization: DTM multi-layers from EMODNet, - Water Column echogram, Seismic lines, ... - Bathymetry Plug-In: manual and automatic data cleaning, integration of EMODNet methodology to introduce CDI concept, filtering, spline, data gridding, ... - Backscatter with compensation, - Tectonic toolset, - Photo/Video Plug-In - Navigation 3D including tide correction, MRU corrections, GPS offsets correction, - WMS/WFS interfaces. III. FOCUS ON EMODNET One of the main objectives of the EMODNet European project is to elaborate a common processing flow for gridding the bathymetry data and for generating harmonized digital terrain model (DTM) : this flow includes the definition of the DTM characteristics (geodetic parameters, grid spacing, interpolation and smoothing parameters…) and also the specifications of a set of layers which enrich the basic depth layer : statistical layers (sounding density, standard deviation,…) and an innovative data source layer which indicates the source of the soundings and and which is linked and collects to the associated metadata. GLOBE Software provides the required tools for applying this methodology and is offered to the project partners. V. FOCUS ON THE TECTONIC TOOLSET The tectonic toolset allows the user to associate any DTM to 3D rotation movements. These rotations represent the movement of tectonic plates along discrete time lines (from 200 million years ago to now). One rotation is described by its axes, its value angle and its date. GLOBE can display the movement of tectonic plates

  15. Software Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six computer software programs for teaching science. Provides the publisher, grade level, cost, and descriptions of software, including: (1) "Recycling Logic"; (2) "Introduction to Biochemistry"; (3) "Food for Thought"; (4) "Watts in a Home"; (5) "Geology in Action"; and (6)…

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews six software packages for the Apple II family. Programs reviewed include "Science Courseware: Earth Science Series"; "Heat and Light"; "In Search of Space: Introduction to Model Rocketry"; "Drug Education Series: Drugs--Their Effects on You'"; "Uncertainties and Measurement"; and "Software Films: Learning about Science Series," which…

  18. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anne, Ed.; Radziemski, Cathy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software packages for the Macintosh series. "Course Builder 2.0," a courseware authoring system, allows the user to create programs which stand alone and may be used independently in the classroom. "World Builder," an artificial intelligence software package, allows creative thinking, problem-solving, and…

  19. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2 (AN/ TPY -2) radar in Japan. In 2013, the Secretary of Defense directed deployment of an additional AN/ TPY -2 radar in Japan to provide additional...Logistics (USD(AT&L)) to expend Congressionally-provided funds to acquire a 12th AN/ TPY -2 radar. This radar will be used in a 7th Terminal High...test, and production. In addition, Japan furnished land to the U.S. Government for the installation of a second AN/ TPY -2 Radar at Kyogamisaki which

  20. Acquired Factor V Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yugo; Masunaga, Nobutoyo; Katsura, Toshiaki; Akao, Masaharu; Okuno, Yoshiaki; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors directed against factor V rarely occur, and the clinical symptoms vary. We herein report the case of a patient who presented with a decreased factor V activity that had decreased to <3 %. We administered vitamin K and 6 units of fresh frozen plasma, but she thereafter developed an intracerebral hemorrhage. It is unclear whether surgery >10 years earlier might have caused the development of a factor V inhibitor. The treatment of acquired factor V inhibitors is mainly the transfusion of platelet concentrates and corticosteroids. Both early detection and the early initiation of the treatment of factor V inhibitor are thus considered to be important. PMID:27746446

  1. Software for quantitative trait analysis.

    PubMed

    Almasy, Laura; Warren, Diane M

    2005-09-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed.

  2. 48 CFR 212.7003 - Technical data and computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... computer software. 212.7003 Section 212.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... data and computer software. For purposes of establishing delivery requirements and license rights for technical data under 227.7102 and for computer software under 227.7202, there shall be a...

  3. 48 CFR 212.7003 - Technical data and computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... computer software. 212.7003 Section 212.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... data and computer software. For purposes of establishing delivery requirements and license rights for technical data under 227.7102 and for computer software under 227.7202, there shall be a...

  4. 48 CFR 212.7003 - Technical data and computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computer software. 212.7003 Section 212.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... data and computer software. For purposes of establishing delivery requirements and license rights for technical data under 227.7102 and for computer software under 227.7202, there shall be a...

  5. 48 CFR 212.7003 - Technical data and computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... computer software. 212.7003 Section 212.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... data and computer software. For purposes of establishing delivery requirements and license rights for technical data under 227.7102 and for computer software under 227.7202, there shall be a...

  6. 48 CFR 212.7003 - Technical data and computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... computer software. 212.7003 Section 212.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... data and computer software. For purposes of establishing delivery requirements and license rights for technical data under 227.7102 and for computer software under 227.7202, there shall be a...

  7. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  8. Software Smarts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contract with Johnson Space Center, Knowledge Based Systems Inc. (KBSI) developed an intelligent software environment for modeling and analyzing mission planning activities, simulating behavior, and, using a unique constraint propagation mechanism, updating plans with each change in mission planning activities. KBSI developed this technology into a commercial product, PROJECTLINK, a two-way bridge between PROSIm, KBSI's process modeling and simulation software and leading project management software like Microsoft Project and Primavera's SureTrak Project Manager.

  9. 78 FR 30898 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Rights in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Regulation Supplement; Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... in Technical Data, and Subpart 227.72, Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software... are associated with rights in technical data and computer software. DoD needs this information...

  10. 32 CFR 552.32 - Authority to acquire real estate and interests therein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority to acquire real estate and interests... Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.32 Authority to acquire real estate and interests therein. While... law authorizing such purchase (R. S. 3736; 41 U.S.C. 14). No real estate not in Federal...

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two programs: (1) "The Weather Machine" on understanding weather and weather forecasting and (2) "The Mystery of the Hotel Victoria" on problem solving in mathematics. Presents the descriptions, advantages, and weaknesses of the software. (YP)

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews seven computer software programs that can be used in science education programs. Describes courseware which deals with muscles and bones, terminology, classifying animals without backbones, molecular structures, drugs, genetics, and shaping the earth's surface. (TW)

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six software packages. Includes (1) "Plain Vanilla Statistics"; (2) "MathCAD 2.0"; (3) "GrFx"; (4) "Trigonometry"; (5) "Algebra II"; (6) "Algebra Drill and Practice I, II, and III." (PK)

  14. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of four science software programs. Includes topics such as plate tectonics, laboratory experiment simulations, the human body, and light and temperature. Contains information on ordering and reviewers' comments. (ML)

  15. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer software packages including "Lunar Greenhouse,""Dyno-Quest,""How Weather Works,""Animal Trackers,""Personal Science Laboratory," and "The Skeletal and Muscular Systems." Availability, functional, and hardware requirements are discussed. (CW)

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Eugene T., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews by classroom teachers of software for teaching science. Includes material on the work of geologists, genetics, earth science, classification of living things, astronomy, endangered species, skeleton, drugs, and heartbeat. Provides information on availability and equipment needed. (RT)

  18. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  19. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Heather D; Macgregor, Jennifer L; Nord, Kristin M; Tyring, Stephen; Rady, Peter; Engler, Danielle E; Grossman, Marc E

    2009-02-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis with an increased susceptibility to specific human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. Classically, this viral infection leads to the development of tinea versicolor-like macules on the trunk, neck, arms, and face during childhood, and over time, these lesions can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. More recently, an EV-like syndrome has been described in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. We describe two cases of EV-like syndrome in HIV-positive patients, review all previously reported cases of EV in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, introduce the term "acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis" to describe EV developing in the immunocompromised host and examine the limited treatment options for these patients.

  20. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  1. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  2. When management gets serious about managing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, Patti A. 'Trisha'

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes JPL's approach to improving the management of software. It discusses the various products, services and training that were developed, describes the deployment approach used, and concludes with several 'lessons learned' about changing how software is managed, developed and acquired.

  3. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  4. Defense Spending and Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-02

    Background paper on SIPRI military expenditure data Public Notice, “ Spending and Defending Defense spending has become a highly......Budget; Finance Reform; Military Spending ; Defense Spending ; Budget Cuts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  5. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants.

  6. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  7. Software reengineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. JSC created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the Space Shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to re-engineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. A beta vision of the environment was released in Mar. 1991. The commercial potential for such re-engineering tools is very great. CASE TRENDS magazine reported it to be the primary concern of over four hundred of the top MIS executives.

  8. Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Hiott, Jim; Golej, Jim; Plumb, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the space shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to reengineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. The latest release of the environment was in Feb. 1992.

  9. Acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Elaine M

    2004-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a disorder characterized by a profound deficit of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, bone marrow hypocellularity, and peripheral blood pancytopenia. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. The majority of cases are idiopathic; however, idiosyncratic reactions to some drugs, chemicals, and viruses have been implicated in its etiology. An autoimmune T-cell reaction likely causes the stem cell depletion, but the precise mechanism, as well as the eliciting and target antigens, is unknown. Symptoms vary from severe life-threatening cytopenias to moderate or non-severe disease that does not require transfusion support. The peripheral blood typically exhibits pancytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and normocytic or macrocytic erythrocytes. The bone marrow is hypocellular and may exhibit dysplasia of the erythrocyte precursors. First line treatment for severe AA consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young patients with HLA identical siblings, while immunosuppression therapy is used for older patients and for those of any age who lack a HLA matched donor. Patients with AA have an increased risk of developing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia. Further elucidation of the pathophysiology of this disease will result in a better understanding of the interrelationship among AA, PNH, and MDS, and may lead to novel targeted therapies.

  10. Acquired spatial dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Siéroff, E

    2015-08-10

    Acquired spatial dyslexia is a reading disorder frequently occurring after left or right posterior brain lesions. This article describes several types of spatial dyslexia with an attentional approach. After right posterior lesions, patients show left neglect dyslexia with errors on the left side of text, words, and non-words. The deficit is frequently associated with left unilateral spatial neglect. Severe left neglect dyslexia can be detected with unlimited exposure duration of words or non-words. Minor neglect dyslexia is detected with brief presentation of bilateral words, one in the left and one in the right visual field (phenomenon of contralesional extinction). Neglect dyslexia can be explained as a difficulty in orienting attention to the left side of verbal stimuli. With left posterior lesions, spatial dyslexia is also frequent but multiform. Right neglect dyslexia is frequent, but right unilateral spatial neglect is rare. Attentional dyslexia represents difficulty in selecting a stimulus, letter or word among other similar stimuli; it is a deficit of attentional selection, and the left hemisphere plays a crucial role in selection. Two other types of spatial dyslexia can be found after left posterior lesions: paradoxical ipsilesional extinction and stimulus-centred neglect dyslexia. Disconnections between left or right parietal attentional areas and the left temporal visual word form area could explain these deficits. Overall, a model of attention dissociating modulation, selection control, and selection positioning can help in understanding these reading disorders.

  11. Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Real-Time Innovations, Inc. (RTI) collaborated with Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Stanford University to leverage NASA research to produce ControlShell software. RTI is the first "graduate" of Ames Research Center's Technology Commercialization Center. The ControlShell system was used extensively on a cooperative project to enhance the capabilities of a Russian-built Marsokhod rover being evaluated for eventual flight to Mars. RTI's ControlShell is complex, real-time command and control software, capable of processing information and controlling mechanical devices. One ControlShell tool is StethoScope. As a real-time data collection and display tool, StethoScope allows a user to see how a program is running without changing its execution. RTI has successfully applied its software savvy in other arenas, such as telecommunications, networking, video editing, semiconductor manufacturing, automobile systems, and medical imaging.

  12. CSAM Metrology Software Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Duc; Sandor, Michael; Agarwal, Shri

    2005-01-01

    CSAM Metrology Software Tool (CMeST) is a computer program for analysis of false-color CSAM images of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits. (CSAM signifies C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy.) The colors in the images indicate areas of delamination within the plastic packages. Heretofore, the images have been interpreted by human examiners. Hence, interpretations have not been entirely consistent and objective. CMeST processes the color information in image-data files to detect areas of delamination without incurring inconsistencies of subjective judgement. CMeST can be used to create a database of baseline images of packages acquired at given times for comparison with images of the same packages acquired at later times. Any area within an image can be selected for analysis, which can include examination of different delamination types by location. CMeST can also be used to perform statistical analyses of image data. Results of analyses are available in a spreadsheet format for further processing. The results can be exported to any data-base-processing software.

  13. Survey of Software Assurance Techniques for Highly Reliable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a survey of software assurance techniques for highly reliable systems including a discussion of relevant safety standards for various industries in the United States and Europe, as well as examples of methods used during software development projects. It contains one section for each industry surveyed: Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear Power, Medical Devices and Transportation. Each section provides an overview of applicable standards and examples of a mission or software development project, software assurance techniques used and reliability achieved.

  14. Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chengwen; Wang, Yao; Gong, Yu; Xu, Hui; Yu, Qian; Shi, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Reactive perforating collagenosis (RPC) is a rare form of transepithelial elimination, in which altered collagen is extruded through the epidermis. There are 2 types of RPC, acquired RPC (ARPC) and inherited RPC, while the latter is extremely rare. Here we report on 1 case of ARPC. Methods: A 73-year-old female was presented with strongly itchy papules over her back and lower limbs for 3 months. She denied the history of oozing or vesiculation. A cutaneous examination showed diffusely distributed multiple well-defined keratotic papules, 4 to 10 mm in diameter, on the bilateral lower limbs and back as well as a few papules on her chest and forearm. Scratching scars were over the resolved lesions while Koebner phenomenon was negative. The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes for 15 years. Laboratory examinations showed elevated blood glucose level. Skin lesion biopsy showed a well-circumscribed area of necrosis filled with a keratotic plug. Parakeratotic cells and lymphocytic infiltration could be seen in the necrosed area. In dermis, sparse fiber bundles were seen perforating the epidermis. These degenerated fiber bundles were notarized as collagen fiber by elastic fiber stain, suggesting a diagnosis of RPC. Results: Then a diagnosis of ARPC was made according to the onset age and the history of diabetes mellitus. She was treated with topical application of corticosteroids twice a day and oral antihistamine once a day along with compound glycyrrhizin tablets 3 times a day. And the blood glucose was controlled in a satisfying range. Two months later, a significant improvement was seen in this patient. Conclusion: Since there is no efficient therapy to RPC, moreover, ARPC is considered to be associated with some systemic diseases, the management of the coexisting disease is quite crucial. The patient in this case received a substantial improvement due to the control of blood glucose and application of compound glycyrrhizin tablets. PMID

  15. [Software version and medical device software supervision].

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of software version in the medical device software supervision does not cause enough attention at present. First of all, the effect of software version in the medical device software supervision is discussed, and then the necessity of software version in the medical device software supervision is analyzed based on the discussion of the misunderstanding of software version. Finally the concrete suggestions on software version naming rules, software version supervision for the software in medical devices, and software version supervision scheme are proposed.

  16. Survivability as a Tool for Evaluating Open Source Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    mistaken to mean “ free ” software . It may be true in some instances that open source software is offered free -of-charge, but there are other instances...upgrades, and maintenance [11]. Cost is always a big driver of software selection, and it should be considered even when using OSS acquired free of charge...source projects during their free time, and may build software because the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software already in existence does not offer

  17. Mycobacterial disease, immunosuppression, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mycobacteria are an important group of acid-fast pathogens ranging from obligate intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium leprae to environmental species such as M. gordonae and M. fortuitum. The latter may behave as opportunistic human pathogens if the host defenses have been depleted in some manner. The number and severity of such infections have increased markedly with the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. These nontuberculous mycobacteria tend to be less virulent for humans than M. tuberculosis, usually giving rise to self-limiting infections involving the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of young children. However, the more virulent serovars of M. avium complex can colonize the bronchial and intestinal mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, becoming virtual members of the commensal gut microflora and thus giving rise to low levels of skin hypersensitivity to tuberculins prepared from M. avium and M. intracellulare. Systemic disease develops when the normal T-cell-mediated defenses become depleted as a result of old age, cancer chemotherapy, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus. As many as 50% of human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive individuals develop mycobacterial infections at some time during their disease. Most isolates of M. avium complex from AIDS patients fall into serotypes 4 and 8. The presence of these drug-resistant mycobacteria in the lungs of the AIDS patient makes their effective clinical treatment virtually impossible. More effective chemotherapeutic, prophylactic, and immunotherapeutic reagents are urgently needed to treat this rapidly increasing patient population. PMID:2680057

  18. Educational Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The third session of IT@EDU98 consisted of five papers on educational software and was chaired by Tran Van Hao (University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam) briefly describes the use of courseware. "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A…

  19. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Joseph C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Gives a review of four software packages including "Science Toolkit: Module 3--Body Lab" for measuring heart rate, lung capacity, and response time; "Project Zoo: Adventures with Charts and Graphs" for developing process skills; "The Body Electric" for explaining electrical activity in the body; and "M-ss-ng…

  20. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are computer software packages: "Where in Time Is Carmen Sandiego,""The Bio Sci Videodisc," and "Bio Sci Stacks." Included are hardware requirements, costs, emphasis, grade level, and availability. Functions of the packages are discussed including strengths and weaknesses and teaching suggestions. (CW)

  1. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History Microcomputer Review, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews seven educational computer software packages covering such topics as presidential elections, the American Revolution, the Vietnam War, the construction of historical time lines, and general U.S. history. Also reviews a program designed to help tailor data entry files. Provides ordering information, price, and computer compatibility…

  2. Reviews: Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four computer software packages including: "The Physical Science Series: Sound" which demonstrates making waves, speed of sound, doppler effect, and human hearing; "Andromeda" depicting celestial motions in any direction; "Biology Quiz: Humans" covering chemistry, cells, viruses, and human biology; and…

  3. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two computer software programs: (1) "Conquering Ratios and Proportions" using a medieval theme for guided practice in identifying and forming ratios for grades 5-8, and (2) "Percent Word Problems" providing problems for finding a percentage of a number and a number from a percentage. (YP)

  4. Software Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2000

    2000-01-01

    A chart of 40 alumni-development database systems provides information on vendor/Web site, address, contact/phone, software name, price range, minimum suggested workstation/suggested server, standard reports/reporting tools, minimum/maximum record capacity, and number of installed sites/client type. (DB)

  5. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Super Solvers Midnight Rescue!" a problem-solving program for IBM PCs; and "Interactive Physics," a simulation program for the Macintosh computer. The functions of the package are discussed including strengths and weaknesses and teaching suggestions. (CW)

  6. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Describes three software packages: (1) "MacMendeleev"--database/graphic display for chemistry, grades 10-12, Macintosh; (2) "Geometry One: Foundations"--geometry tutorial, grades 7-12, IBM; (3) "Mathematics Exploration Toolkit"--algebra and calculus tutorial, grades 8-12, IBM. (MVL)

  7. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed three computer software packages for Apple II series computers. Includes "The Right Job," a career counseling program; "Zoyon Patrol," a problem-solving program; and "Adventures with Charts and Graphs: Project Zoo," a graphing, mathematics, and science skills program. Each review includes strengths, weaknesses, and suggestions for use.…

  8. Reviews, Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software programs for Apple series computers. Includes "Orbital Mech," a basic planetary orbital simulation for the Macintosh, and "START: Stimulus and Response Tools for Experiments in Memory, Learning, Cognition, and Perception," a program that demonstrates basic psychological principles and experiments. (CW)

  9. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnaman, Daniel E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four educational software packages for Apple, IBM, and Tandy computers. Includes "How the West was One + Three x Four,""Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing,""Math and Me," and "Write On." Reviews list hardware requirements, emphasis, levels, publisher, purchase agreements, and price. Discusses the strengths…

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software programs for Apple II computers on weather for upper elementary and middle school grades. "Weather" introduces the major factors (temperature, humidity, wind, and air pressure) affecting weather. "How Weather Works" uses simulation and auto-tutorial formats on sun, wind, fronts, clouds, and…

  11. Star Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloza, Brad

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer software programs designed to spark learning enthusiasm at every grade level and across the curriculum. They include Reader Rabbit's Learn to Read, Spelling Power, Mind Twister Math, Community Construction Kit, Breaking the Code, Encarta Africana 2000, Virtual Serengeti, Operation: Frog (Deluxe), and My First…

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software programs: (1) "Discovery! Experiences with Scientific Reasoning"--problem solving for grades 4-12 (Apple II); (2) "Organic Stereochemistry"--a tutorial for organic chemistry for advanced secondary/college level (Apple II); and (3) "SHOW PARTNER (2.01)"--a graphics utility tool for…

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software for use with various age groups. Topics include activities involving temperature, simulations, earth science, the circulatory system, human body, reading in science, and ecology. Provides information on equipment needed, availability, package contents, and price. Comments of reviews are presented by classroom teachers.…

  14. Software Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  15. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Contains evaluations of two computer software packages, "Simulation Experiments 45-48 in Epstein's Laboratory Manual for Chemistry" and "Maps and Legends--the Cartographer (Ver 3.0)." Includes a brief description, applications, and the perceived strengths and weaknesses for each package. (CW)

  16. Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callamaras, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages including "Frog Dissection Lab Report,""Backyard Birds,""LEGO TC Logo,""Alcohol--Four Interactive Programs,""Windows on Science--Life Science,""Climate and Weather/Our Town Database," and "Weeds to Trees." Discussed are availability, features, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  18. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teles, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages for Macintosh microcomputers including "Phase Portraits," an exploratory graphics tool for studying first-order planar systems; and "MacMath," a set of programs for exploring differential equations, linear algebra, and other mathematical topics. Features, ease of use, cost, availability, and hardware…

  19. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews of seven software packages are presented including "The Environment I: Habitats and EcoSystems; II Cycles and Interactions"; "Super Sign Maker"; "The Great Knowledge Race: Substance Abuse"; "Exploring Science: Temperature"; "Fast Food Calculator and RD Aide"; "The Human Body:…

  20. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor";…

  1. Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game…

  2. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six software packages for Apple and/or IBM computers. Included are "Autograph,""The New Game Show,""Science Probe-Earth Science,""Pollution Patrol,""Investigating Plant Growth," and "AIDS: The Investigation." Discussed are the grade level, function, availability, cost, and hardware requirements of each. (CW)

  3. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews five software packages for use with school age children. Includes "Science Toolkit Module 2: Earthquake Lab"; "Adaptations and Identification"; "Geoworld"; "Body Systems II Series: The Blood System: A Liquid of Life," all for Apple II, and "Science Courseware: Life Science/Biology" for…

  4. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presented are reviews of several microcomputer software programs. Included are reviews of: (1) Microstat (Zenith); (2) MathCAD (MathSoft); (3) Discrete Mathematics (True Basic); (4) CALCULUS (True Basic); (5) Linear-Kit (John Wiley); and (6) Geometry Sensei (Broderbund). (RH)

  5. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three computer software: (1) "Elastic Lines: The Electronic Geoboard" on elementary geometry; (2) "Wildlife Adventures: Whales" on environmental science; and (3) "What Do You Do with a Broken Calculator?" on computation and problem solving. Summarizes the descriptions, strengths and weaknesses, and…

  6. Repository-based software engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James

    1992-01-01

    The activities performed during September 1992 in support of Tasks 01 and 02 of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program are outlined. The recommendations and implementation strategy defined at the September 9-10 meeting of the Reuse Acquisition Action Team (RAAT) are attached along with the viewgraphs and reference information presented at the Institute for Defense Analyses brief on legal and patent issues related to software reuse.

  7. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  8. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  9. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  10. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  11. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  12. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  13. Elicitors of Host Plant Defenses Partially Suppress Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations under Field Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defense elicitors are products that activate acquired defense responses in plants, thus rendering the plants less susceptible to attack by a broad range of pests. We previously demonstrated under laboratory conditions that foliar applications of the defense elicitors Actigard (acibenzolar-S-methyl)...

  14. Software Epistemology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    corpuses at scale using deep neural networks, i.e., Deep Machine Learning, on high quality features computed from canonical representations of...the application of Deep Learning on software features to support automated vulnerability identification and repair. 1.2 Overview Draper’s...referenced in Table 2. Several web -based tools were maintained to show cluster processing status. Figure 10 shows a snapshot of the build inventory

  15. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  16. EDS operator and control software

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to acquire, display and analyze large quantities of transient data for a real-time Advanced Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) experiment. Major topics discussed in this paper are the EDS operator interface (SHELL) program, the data acquisition and analysis scheduling software, and the graphics software. The workstation concept used in EDS, the software used to configure a user's workstation, and the ownership and management of a diagnostic are described. An EDS diagnostic is a combination of hardware and software designed to study specific aspects of the process. Overall system performance is discussed from the standpoint of scheduling techniques, evaluation tools, optimization techniques, and program-to-program communication methods. EDS is based on a data driven design which keeps the need to modify software to a minimum. This design requires a fast and reliable data base management system. A third party data base management product, Berkeley Software System Database, written explicitly for HP1000's, is used for all EDS data bases. All graphics is done with an in-house graphics product, Device Independent Graphics Library (DIGLIB). Examples of devices supported by DIGLIB are: Versatec printer/plotters, Raster Technologies Graphic Display Controllers, and HP terminals (HP264x and HP262x). The benefits derived by using HP hardware and software as well as obstacles imposed by the HP environment are presented in relation to EDS development and implementation.

  17. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Roles of Military Power 9  U.S. Defense Objectives 11  REBALANCING THE FORCE 17  Defend the United States and Support Civil Authorities at Home 18...the need to plan for the broadest possible range of operations—from homeland defense and defense support to civil authorities, to deterrence and...Defend the United States and support civil authorities at home: The rapid proliferation of destructive technologies, combined with potent

  18. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  19. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  20. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  1. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  2. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  3. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  4. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  5. Technologies for distributed defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  6. Software Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  7. Software Surrogate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, Blackboard Technology received a NASA Phase I SBIR award entitled "A Blackboard-Based Framework for Mixed-Initiative, Crewed- Space-System Applications." This research continued in Phase II at JSC, where a generic architecture was developed in which a software surrogate serves as the operator's representative in the fast-paced realm of nearly autonomous, intelligent systems. This SBIR research effort addressed the need to support human-operator monitoring and intervention with intelligent systems such as those being developed for NASA's crewed space program.

  8. Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    General Purpose Boundary Element Solution Technology (GPBEST) software employs the boundary element method of mechanical engineering analysis, as opposed to finite element. It is, according to one of its developers, 10 times faster in data preparation and more accurate than other methods. Its use results in less expensive products because the time between design and manufacturing is shortened. A commercial derivative of a NASA-developed computer code, it is marketed by Best Corporation to solve problems in stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid analysis and yielding and cracking of solids. Other applications include designing tractor and auto parts, household appliances and acoustic analysis.

  9. Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Various NASA Small Business Innovation Research grants from Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center were used to develop the 'kernel' of COMCO's modeling and simulation software, the PHLEX finite element code. NASA needed it to model designs of flight vehicles; one of many customized commercial applications is UNISIM, a PHLEX-based code for analyzing underground flows in oil reservoirs for Texaco, Inc. COMCO's products simulate a computational mechanics problem, estimate the solution's error and produce the optimal hp-adapted mesh for the accuracy the user chooses. The system is also used as a research or training tool in universities and in mechanical design in industrial corporations.

  10. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  11. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    DSB Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management September 2016 (U) This page intentionally blank REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD STUDY ON Cyber...U) This report is a product of the Defense Science Board (DSB). (U) The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent...position of the Department of Defense (DoD). The Defense Science Board Study on Cyber Defense completed its information-gathering in November 2015. The

  12. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  13. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  14. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  15. The innocent landowner defense under CERCLA should be transferable to subsequent purchasers

    SciTech Connect

    Spertus, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Under CERCLA, landowners are held strictly liable for cleaning up hazardous substances on their property. Purchasers who acquire title to contaminated property become liable for cleanup costs by virtue of their status as the current owner. Although liability under the Act is strict, joint, and several, a few limited defenses enable some landowners to avoid liability altogether. One such defense, known as the innocent landowner defense, is the subject of this article.

  16. Broad-spectrum acquired resistance in barley induced by the Pseudomonas pathosystem shares transcriptional components with Arabidopsis systemic acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Colebrook, E H; Creissen, G; McGrann, G R D; Dreos, R; Lamb, C; Boyd, L A

    2012-05-01

    Inducible resistance responses play a central role in the defense of plants against pathogen attack. Acquired resistance (AR) is induced alongside defense toward primary attack, providing broad-spectrum protection against subsequent pathogen challenge. The localization and molecular basis of AR in cereals is poorly understood, in contrast with the well-characterized systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response in Arabidopsis. Here, we use Pseudomonas syringae as a biological inducer of AR in barley, providing a clear frame of reference to the Arabidopsis-P. syringae pathosystem. Inoculation of barley leaf tissue with the nonadapted P. syringae pv. tomato avrRpm1 (PstavrRpm1) induced an active local defense response. Furthermore, inoculation of barley with PstavrRpm1 resulted in the induction of broad-spectrum AR at a distance from the local lesion, "adjacent" AR, effective against compatible isolates of P. syringae and Magnaporthe oryzae. Global transcriptional profiling of this adjacent AR revealed similarities with the transcriptional profile of SAR in Arabidopsis, as well as transcripts previously associated with chemically induced AR in cereals, suggesting that AR in barley and SAR in Arabidopsis may be mediated by analogous pathways.

  17. Safety. [requirements for software to monitor and control critical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1991-01-01

    Software requirements, design, implementation, verification and validation, and especially management are affected by the need to produce safe software. This paper discusses the changes in the software life cycle that are necessary to ensure that software will execute without resulting in unacceptable risk. Software is being used increasingly to monitor and control safety-critical processes in which a run-time failure or error could result in unacceptable losses such as death, injury, loss of property, or environmental harm. Examples of such processes maybe found in transportation, energy, aerospace, basic industry, medicine, and defense systems.

  18. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The 1987 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. This volume examines the Reagan administration's 1987 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is also part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  20. The 1988 defense budget

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Brookings annual analysis of the defense budget is designed to identify critical national security issues facing the country, to clarify choices that must be made in allocating resources, and to encourage informed public debate. Like its predecessors, this volume critically examines the Reagan administration's 1988 budget and associated multi-year plan for defense. It is part of a long-range effort at Brookings to use dynamic campaign analysis to address more explicitly and in greater detail the full scope of force planning and defense budgeting issues.

  1. Central Amygdala Somatostatin Neurons Gate Passive and Active Defensive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Garcia da Silva, Pedro; Albeanu, Dinu F.

    2016-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) has a key role in learning and expression of defensive responses. Recent studies indicate that somatostatin-expressing (SOM+) neurons in the lateral division of the CeA (CeL) are essential for the acquisition and recall of conditioned freezing behavior, which has been used as an index of defensive response in laboratory animals during Pavlovian fear conditioning. However, how exactly these neurons participate in fear conditioning and whether they contribute to the generation of defensive responses other than freezing remain unknown. Here, using fiber-optic photometry combined with optogenetic and molecular techniques in behaving mice, we show that SOM+ CeL neurons are activated by threat-predicting sensory cues after fear conditioning and that activation of these neurons suppresses ongoing actions and converts an active defensive behavior to a passive response. Furthermore, inhibition of these neurons using optogenetic or molecular methods promotes active defensive behaviors. Our results provide the first in vivo evidence that SOM+ neurons represent a CeL population that acquires learning-dependent sensory responsiveness during fear conditioning and furthermore reveal an important role of these neurons in gating passive versus active defensive behaviors in animals confronted with threat. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability to develop adaptive behavioral responses to threat is fundamental for survival. Recent studies indicate that the central lateral amygdala (CeL), in particular its somatostatin-expressing neurons, is crucial for both learning and the expression of defensive response. However, how exactly these neurons participate in such processes remains unclear. Here we show for the first time in behaving mice that the somatostatin-expressing neurons in the CeL acquire learning-dependent responsiveness to sensory cues predicting a threat. Furthermore, our results indicate that these neurons gate the behavioral output of an animal

  2. Plant defense activators: applications and prospects in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review addresses the current understanding of the plant immune response and the molecular mechanisms responsible for systemic acquired resistance as well as the phenomenon of "priming" in plant defense. A detailed discussion of the role of salicylic acid in activating the plant transcription c...

  3. Specification of Software Quality Attributes. Volume 3. Software Quality Evaluation Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    of Defense software quality standard ESD Electronic Systems Division FCA functional configuration audit FSD full-scale development HOL high order...device errors? _NN/A_ AM.6(l) Are there requirements for recovery from all communication transmission errors? FN7 N/A AM.7(I) Are there requirements

  4. Maintaining the Health of Software Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Software health management (SWHM) techniques complement the rigorous verification and validation processes that are applied to safety-critical systems prior to their deployment. These techniques are used to monitor deployed software in its execution environment, serving as the last line of defense against the effects of a critical fault. SWHM monitors use information from the specification and implementation of the monitored software to detect violations, predict possible failures, and help the system recover from faults. Changes to the monitored software, such as adding new functionality or fixing defects, therefore, have the potential to impact the correctness of both the monitored software and the SWHM monitor. In this work, we describe how the results of a software change impact analysis technique, Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), can be applied to monitored software to identify the potential impact of the changes on the SWHM monitor software. The results of DiSE can then be used by other analysis techniques, e.g., testing, debugging, to help preserve and improve the integrity of the SWHM monitor as the monitored software evolves.

  5. Office Computer Software: A Comprehensive Review of Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secretary, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes types of software including system software, application software, spreadsheets, accounting software, graphics packages, desktop publishing software, database, desktop and personal information management software, project and records management software, groupware, and shareware. (JOW)

  6. CERCLA's innocent landowner defense -- Consultants beware

    SciTech Connect

    Nijman, J.T. )

    1994-05-01

    Consultant liability is an area of the innocent landowner defense under CERCLA that is not often discussed. The only reasonable way to protect consultants hired by innocent purchasers'' is for Congress or state legislatures to establish standardized, regulated audit guidelines. However, even standardized guidelines do not protect consultants completely, because standards cannot specify all activity necessary to perform a particular task. Each project has unique circumstances, and standards arguably can become per se determinants of liability. CERCLA provides three defenses to its basic strict, joint and several liability provisions -- an act of God, an act of war, and an act or omission of a third party not in a contractual relationship with the current owner. Congress amended the third-party not in a contractual relationship with the current owner. Congress amended the third-party defense in SARA by redefining contractual relationship'' to exclude from liability owners who acquired the real property following disposal or placement of hazardous material, and established satisfactorily that the owner at the time of purchase neither knew nor had reason to know hazardous substances were disposed on the property -- the innocent landowner defense.

  7. DEFENSE INDUSTRY PROFIT REVIEW

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Department of Defense (DoD) must employ contracting policies and methods that create an environment for profit opportunities. Just where the... profit range should fall is a matter of judgment and a point on which there probably will always be disagreement. This report is intended to serve as a...partial basis for DoD management’s assessment of the adequacy of defense business profits , as part of their continuing evaluation of contracting policies and methods.

  8. Using Software Generation and Repair for Cyber-Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    processing unit CSS cascading style sheets DBSCAN density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise HTTP hypertext transfer protocol HTML... hypertext markup language JSON JavaScript object notation SQL structured query language SVG scalable vector graphics URL uniform resource locato Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 59

  9. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Software Technology Program Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    cFZ.1 02-W coo Z -- N C m. - 0Ce 0 co0)ccI-a e c LL 0 V - CA) 0- Vc 06. AdA c C4j 0. pr ’r U- technological capabilities (existing and under...2 Ci S L T 0 0 t ’c 61o" 0Ŕ ts 1 - o- - u.- ’:: E - &I a~S 0~- E ti~ LL ~SE 2* b~~~s 0 . l.oi - - A 1E a i " -- I" --- 6 jiti ljl:hI...OE ’I"’l j 5 t 0 IL C .3 | E U. 6. I0" *e - - 60 6 C I 3: 2 2 ; - I i’ I :, * e* - * I , "I ... - 0 2 % ll -" 𔄀 *2 OI211 3 1 6j l !I O l !o i .! -E I

  10. Metrics Concept Report. Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    Through Autom ation ............................................................... 24 7.1 The M etrics Definition Database...metrics, analyzing the metrics, and acting on the results of the analysis. The Added Value through Automation Section describes a database tool to...to the development and implementation of metrics in other project areas, " Automation of the methods used to define, analyze, report, and maintain

  11. Acquisition Handbook - Update. Comprehensive Approach to Reusable Defensive Software (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-25

    development of domain-specific reuse pro- cesses designed to support reuse based system development 2. Define a plan to perform technology transfer to other...are reused are called domains. A domain is a group of related systems that share a set of common capabilities. These domains can be defined as...is Component Recovery through Re-engineering, which is outlined in Appendix E. Reuse can be defined , based upon: (1) the granularity of the component

  12. Software Technology Readiness Assessment. Defense Acquisition Guidance with Space Examples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    evaluation and the overall system implementation progress 64 And Finally, an Expert’s Voice … • Richard Feynman * was once asked how many process...down the problem 2) Think real hard 3) Write down the solution * Richard Feynman (1918-1988); professor and researcher; one of the most

  13. Library Capability Demonstration. Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    physical disk partition in which that UNIX filesystem exists. Without those critica ’ files, execution of UNAS/SALE via the security wrappers is not...Management Review, 26 JULY 1993, Fairmont WV . [2] "CARDS Command Center Library Security Demonstration", Informal Technical Data, STARS-AC-04106/001/00, 26 August 1993 R-1

  14. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  15. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  16. National Missile Defense Contingency Deployment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Defense Organization PMCS IDEA PAPER TITLE: National Missile Defense, Contingency Deployment Planning PMCS CLASS: 95C AUTHOR: Clifford E. Reeves... NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT INTRODUCTION The author feels it is vital to start strategic planning for the development of operational...PROFESSIONAL MILITARY COMPTROLLER SCHOOL IDEA PAPER TITLE NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT AUTHOR CLIFFORD E. REEVES GS-15, OSD

  17. Software Model Of Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Synott, Debra J.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs constitutes software tool for simulation of medium- to large-scale software-development projects. Necessary to include easily identifiable and more-readily quantifiable characteristics like costs, times, and numbers of errors. Mathematical model incorporating these and other factors of dynamics of software-development process implemented in the Software Life Cycle Simulator (SLICS) computer program. Simulates dynamics of software-development process. In combination with input and output expert software systems and knowledge-based management software system, develops information for use in managing large software-development project. Intended to aid managers in planning, managing, and controlling software-development processes by reducing uncertainties in budgets, required personnel, and schedules.

  18. Simple solution to the medical instrumentation software problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Bingue, E.

    1995-04-01

    Medical devices now include a substantial software component, which is both difficult and expensive to produce and maintain. Medical software must be developed according to `Good Manufacturing Practices', GMP. Good Manufacturing Practices as specified by the FDA and ISO requires the definition and compliance to a software processes which ensures quality products by specifying a detailed method of software construction. The software process should be based on accepted standards. US Department of Defense software standards and technology can both facilitate the development and improve the quality of medical systems. We describe the advantages of employing Mil-Std-498, Software Development and Documentation, and the Ada programming language. Ada provides the very broad range of functionalities, from embedded real-time to management information systems required by many medical devices. It also includes advanced facilities for object oriented programming and software engineering.

  19. Lean Principles and Defense Information Technology Acquisition: An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules…

  20. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct.

  1. Duplicated Information Acquired by Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carl M.

    The object of this study is to make a start toward determining the extent of duplicated information that is being acquired in spite of customary precautions to avoid it. Referring to a specific case, the percentages in Table II show the frequency of appearance in five other works of 19 items in Mitchell's "Encyclopedia of American Politics." While…

  2. Acquired aplastic anemia in children.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Helge D; Olson, Timothy S; Bessler, Monica

    2013-12-01

    This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder.

  3. Framework for Small-Scale Experiments in Software Engineering: Guidance and Control Software Project: Software Engineering Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1998-01-01

    Software is becoming increasingly significant in today's critical avionics systems. To achieve safe, reliable software, government regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Defense mandate the use of certain software development methods. However, little scientific evidence exists to show a correlation between software development methods and product quality. Given this lack of evidence, a series of experiments has been conducted to understand why and how software fails. The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is the latest in this series. The GCS project is a case study of the Requirements and Technical Concepts for Aviation RTCA/DO-178B guidelines, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification. All civil transport airframe and equipment vendors are expected to comply with these guidelines in building systems to be certified by the FAA for use in commercial aircraft. For the case study, two implementations of a guidance and control application were developed to comply with the DO-178B guidelines for Level A (critical) software. The development included the requirements, design, coding, verification, configuration management, and quality assurance processes. This paper discusses the details of the GCS project and presents the results of the case study.

  4. Epigenetic responses to stress: triple defense?

    PubMed

    Gutzat, Ruben; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2012-11-01

    Stressful conditions for plants can originate from numerous physical, chemical and biological factors, and plants have developed a plethora of survival strategies including developmental and morphological adaptations, specific signaling and defense pathways as well as innate and acquired immunity. While it has become clear in recent years that many stress responses involve epigenetic components, we are far from understanding the mechanisms and molecular interactions. Extending our knowledge is fundamental, not least for plant breeding and conservation biology. This review will highlight recent insights into epigenetic stress responses at the level of signaling, chromatin modification, and potentially heritable consequences.

  5. Book and Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissick, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    This introductory column on books and software concerned with special education technology presents an article by JuHye Yook on the software design process. It discusses the rationale for developing new software for students with reading disabilities, the design and development process, and analysis of the software design. Software use by two…

  6. Other People's Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, E.; Murray, S. S.

    Why do we continually re-invent the astronomical software wheel? Why is it so difficult to use ``other people's software''? Leaving aside issues such as money, power, and control, we need to investigate practically how we can remove barriers to software sharing. This paper will offer a starting point for software cooperation, centered on the concept of ``minimal software buy-in''.

  7. Influence of infection of cotton by Rotylenchulus Reniformis and Meloidogyne Incognita on the production of enzymes involved in systemic acquired resistance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which results in enhanced defense mechanisms in plants, can be elicited by virulent and avirulent strains of pathogens including nematodes. Recent studies of nematode reproduction strongly suggest that Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis induce SAR ...

  8. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  9. Effects of Gain/Loss Framing in Cyber Defense Decision-Making

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Nathan; Paul, Celeste; Gersh, John; Greenberg, Ariel; Piatko, Christine; Sperling, Scott; Spitaletta, Jason; Arendt, Dustin L.; Burtner, Edwin R.

    2016-10-24

    Cyber defense requires decision making under uncertainty. Yet this critical area has not been a strong focus of research in judgment and decision-making. Future defense systems, which will rely on software-defined networks and may employ ‘moving target’ defenses, will increasingly automate lower level detection and analysis, but will still require humans in the loop for higher level judgment. We studied the decision making process and outcomes of 17 experienced network defense professionals who worked through a set of realistic network defense scenarios. We manipulated gain versus loss framing in a cyber defense scenario, and found significant effects in one of two focal problems. Defenders that began with a network already in quarantine (gain framing) used a quarantine system more than those that did not (loss framing). We also found some difference in perceived workload and efficacy. Alternate explanations of these findings and implications for network defense are discussed.

  10. Software Process Improvement: Supporting the Linking of the Software and the Business Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, Adriano Bessa; Rocha, Ana Regina; Lima, Andreia Cavalcanti

    The market is becoming more and more competitive, a lot of products and services depend of the software product and the software is one of the most important assets, which influence the organizations’ businesses. Considering this context, we can observe that the companies must to deal with the software, developing or acquiring, carefully. One of the perspectives that can help to take advantage of the software, supporting effectively the business, is to invest on the organization’s software processes. This paper presents an approach to evaluate and improve the processes assets of the software organizations, based on internationally well-known standards and process models. This approach is supported by automated tools from the TABA Workstation and is part of a wider improvement strategy constituted of three layers (organizational layer, process execution layer and external entity layer). Moreover, this paper presents the experience of use and their results.

  11. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    El Solh, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) was first described in 1978. Since then there has been much written regarding NHAP and its management despite the lack of well-designed studies in this patient population. The most characteristic features of patients with NHAP are the atypical presentation, which may lead to delay in diagnosis and therapy. The microbial etiology of pneumonia encompasses a wide spectrum that spans microbes recovered from patients with community-acquired pneumonia to organisms considered specific only to nosocomial settings. Decision to transfer a nursing home patient to an acute care facility depends on a host of factors, which include the level of staffing available at the nursing home, patients' advance directives, and complexity of treatment. The presence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens dictates approach to therapy. Prevention remains the cornerstone of reducing the incidence of disease. Despite the advance in medical services, mortality from NHAP remains high.

  12. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  13. Software Product Data (SPD) Current Environment Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    to the Chief of Staff, Secretary of the Air Force, and the Secretary of Defense for use in making system acquisition decisions . The center also recom...Air Logistics Center (ALC) libraries is paper-based, which makes it difficult to use in software maintenance and modifi- cations. This is attributed...code outweigh the costs of reverse engineering the code. Reverse engineering makes use of available SPD to begin the re- construction process

  14. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    PubMed

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  15. Defense against ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, H. )

    1992-01-01

    A development history and development status evaluation is presented for weapons technologies capable of serving as defenses against nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. The decisive turning-point in this history was the March 23, 1983 announcement by President Reagan of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Due to President Reagan's emphasis on population protection, 'global' defense systems have tended to dominate SDI design efforts. The most important SDI technical achievements to date encompass (1) miniature homig devices, (2) the upgrade of the Patriot SAM for missile-interception capabilities, (3) light exoatmospheric projectiles, such as 'Brilliant Pebbles', (4) successful laser-communications experiments, and (5) the warhead/decoy-discriminating Firepond lidar system. 7 refs.

  16. Defense Acquisition Structures and Capabilities Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    requirements, budget, industry, and organizations. See Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John Warner National Defense Authorization Act...Shortage of Skills and Talent. 3 Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John Warner National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year...Capabilities, Final Report, January 2004. 28 Secretary of Defense, Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John War- ner National Defense

  17. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  18. Controlling Software Piracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1992-01-01

    Explains what software manufacturers are doing to combat software piracy, recommends how managers should deal with this problem, and provides a role-playing exercise to help students understand the issues in software piracy. (SR)

  19. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  20. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  1. 9. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT DEARBORN - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Software Configuration Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes which are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, SMAP-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the concepts and practices of NASA in software assurance. Lower level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the Software Configuration Management Guidebook which describes software configuration management in a way that is compatible with practices in industry and at NASA Centers. Software configuration management is a key software development process, and is essential for doing software assurance.

  3. Systemic Acquired Tolerance to Virulent Bacterial Pathogens in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Block, Anna; Schmelz, Eric; O'Donnell, Phillip J.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Klee, Harry J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies on the interactions between plants and pathogenic microorganisms indicate that the processes of disease symptom development and pathogen growth can be uncoupled. Thus, in many instances, the symptoms associated with disease represent an active host response to the presence of a pathogen. These host responses are frequently mediated by phytohormones. For example, ethylene and salicylic acid (SA) mediate symptom development but do not influence bacterial growth in the interaction between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and virulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv). It is not apparent why extensive tissue death is integral to a defense response if it does not have the effect of limiting pathogen proliferation. One possible function for this hormone-mediated response is to induce a systemic defense response. We therefore assessed the systemic responses of tomato to Xcv. SA- and ethylene-deficient transgenic lines were used to investigate the roles of these phytohormones in systemic signaling. Virulent and avirulent Xcv did induce a systemic response as evidenced by expression of defense-associated pathogenesis-related genes in an ethylene- and SA-dependent manner. This systemic response reduced cell death but not bacterial growth during subsequent challenge with virulent Xcv. This systemic acquired tolerance (SAT) consists of reduced tissue damage in response to secondary challenge with a virulent pathogen with no effect upon pathogen growth. SAT was associated with a rapid ethylene and pathogenesis-related gene induction upon challenge. SAT was also induced by infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. These data show that SAT resembles systemic acquired resistance without inhibition of pathogen growth. PMID:15937273

  4. Defense Language Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Discussed in this Defense Language Institute (DLI) brochure are its intensive language programs' history, and its four schools, which are located in Monterey, California, Washington, D.C., Lackland Air Force Base, and Fort Bliss, Texas. Proficiency levels determined by the DLI and utilization of the audiolingual method are also described.…

  5. Defense Business Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    other. SCM and ERP systems both contribute to the overall distribution and coordination of resources. Just as an ERP enhances information flow...inventory management system (Thureen 2008). It combines the Army’s disparate wholesale and retail inventories, into one combined system (Sparacino 2002...Studies.............................................................................. 73 1. Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System

  6. Strategic Defense Initiative program

    SciTech Connect

    Conachan, F.C.

    1991-05-01

    This paper discusses the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. It summarizes the major programmatic and technological lessons learned from the SDI program over the past 7 years. It provides information on: past uses of SDI funds, persistent optimism in planning and starting projects, evolution of SDI architecture, and accuracy of cost estimates.

  7. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  8. Acquired Upper Extremity Growth Arrest.

    PubMed

    Gauger, Erich M; Casnovsky, Lauren L; Gauger, Erica J; Bohn, Deborah C; Van Heest, Ann E

    2016-09-29

    This study reviewed the clinical history and management of acquired growth arrest in the upper extremity in pediatric patients. The records of all patients presenting from 1996 to 2012 with radiographically proven acquired growth arrest were reviewed. Records were examined to determine the etiology and site of growth arrest, management, and complications. Patients with tumors or hereditary etiology were excluded. A total of 44 patients (24 boys and 20 girls) with 51 physeal arrests who presented at a mean age of 10.6 years (range, 0.8-18.2 years) were included in the study. The distal radius was the most common site (n=24), followed by the distal humerus (n=8), metacarpal (n=6), distal ulna (n=5), proximal humerus (n=4), radial head (n=3), and olecranon (n=1). Growth arrest was secondary to trauma (n=22), infection (n=11), idiopathy (n=6), inflammation (n=2), compartment syndrome (n=2), and avascular necrosis (n=1). Twenty-six patients (59%) underwent surgical intervention to address deformity caused by the physeal arrest. Operative procedures included ipsilateral unaffected bone epiphysiodesis (n=21), shortening osteotomy (n=10), lengthening osteotomy (n=8), excision of physeal bar or bone fragment (n=2), angular correction osteotomy (n=1), and creation of single bone forearm (n=1). Four complications occurred; 3 of these required additional procedures. Acquired upper extremity growth arrest usually is caused by trauma or infection, and the most frequent site is the distal radius. Growth disturbances due to premature arrest can be treated effectively with epiphysiodesis or osteotomy. In this series, the specific site of anatomic growth arrest was the primary factor in determining treatment. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  9. The inhibition of acquired fear.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most

  10. 75 FR 59411 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Patents, Data, and Copyrights (DFARS Case 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...DoD is proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update text on patents, data, and copyrights. The proposed rule removes text and clauses that are obsolete or unnecessary; relocates and integrates the coverage for computer software and computer software documentation with the coverage for technical data to eliminate redundant coverage for these......

  11. Survivability Design of Ground Systems for Area Defense Operation in an Urban Scenario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    and sensor classification range. Map Aware Non-uniform Automata ( MANA ) software is used to model an area defense operation against an invading enemy...of passive and active survivability measures, mobility, and sensor classification range. Map Aware Non-uniform Automata ( MANA ) software is used to...31 1. MANA -V Model .................................................................................31 2. Force Structure

  12. Defense Spending and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-07

    DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE ECONOMY Rudolph G. Penner Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Spending and the Economy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Administration budgets have proposed even more defense spending and less nondefense spending than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense

  13. Improving the Agency's Software Acquisition Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankinson, Allen

    2003-01-01

    External development of software has oftc n led to unsatisfactory results and great frustration for the assurE 7ce community. Contracts frequently omit critical assuranc 4 processes or the right to oversee software development activitie: At a time when NASA depends more and more on software to in plement critical system functions, combination of three factors ex; cerbate this problem: I ) the ever-increasing trend to acquire rather than develop software in-house, 2) the trend toward performance based contracts, and 3) acquisition vehicles that only state softwar 2 requirements while leaving development standards and assur! ince methodologies up to the contractor. We propose to identify specific methods at d tools that NASA projects can use to mitigate the adverse el ects of the three problems. TWO broad classes of methoddt ols will be explored. The first will be those that provide NASA p ojects with insight and oversight into contractors' activities. The st cond will be those that help projects objectively assess, and thus i nprwe, their software acquisition capability. Of particular interest is the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Software Acqt isition Capability Maturity Model (SA-CMMO).

  14. Image Processing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosio, M. A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

  15. Decentralized Software Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Institute for Software Research University of California, Irvine www.isr.uci.edu/tech-reports.html Peyman Oreizy University of California, Irvine... Peyman Oreizy and Richard N. Taylor Institute for Software Research University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA 92697-3425 USA {peymano, taylor...mechanisms that enforce cooperation among Decentralized Software Evolution Peyman Oreizy and Richard N. Taylor Institute for Software Research

  16. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  17. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Complexity, Systems, and Software Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8...for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the United States

  18. Finding Helpful Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Ted, Comp.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a list of evaluation services currently producing critical reviews of educational software. Includes information about The Apple K-12 Curriculum Software Reference, The Educational Software Preview, The Educational Software Selector, MicroSIFT, and Only The Best: The Discriminating Guide for Preschool-Grade 12. (TW)

  19. Software distribution using xnetlib

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Rowan, T.H.; Wade, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.

  20. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  1. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods.

  2. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  3. Three Approaches to Space Systems Acquisitions and their Application to the Defense Department’s Weather Satellite Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    that the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence are responsible for developing, acquiring, and operating space systems and...supporting information systems and networKs to support U.S. national security and enable defense and intelligence operations. The policy helps to clarity...for space situational awareness. In January 2011, the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence issued the NaUonaJ Security

  4. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  5. Software component quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  6. Responsbility for unreliable software

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    Unreliable software exposes software developers and distributors to legal risks. Under certain circumstances, the developer and distributor of unreliable software can be sued. To avoid lawsuits, software developers should do the following: determine what the risks am, understand the extent of the risks, and identify ways of avoiding the risks and lessening the consequences of the risks. Liability issues associated with unreliable software are explored in this article.

  7. Origin and functional diversification of an amphibian defense peptide arsenal.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Kim; Fry, Bryan G; Ye, Lumeng; Stijlemans, Benoit; Brys, Lea; Kok, Philippe; Clynen, Elke; Schoofs, Liliane; Cornelis, Pierre; Bossuyt, Franky

    2013-01-01

    The skin secretion of many amphibians contains an arsenal of bioactive molecules, including hormone-like peptides (HLPs) acting as defense toxins against predators, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) providing protection against infectious microorganisms. Several amphibian taxa seem to have independently acquired the genes to produce skin-secreted peptide arsenals, but it remains unknown how these originated from a non-defensive ancestral gene and evolved diverse defense functions against predators and pathogens. We conducted transcriptome, genome, peptidome and phylogenetic analyses to chart the full gene repertoire underlying the defense peptide arsenal of the frog Silurana tropicalis and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Our study uncovers a cluster of 13 transcriptionally active genes, together encoding up to 19 peptides, including diverse HLP homologues and AMPs. This gene cluster arose from a duplicated gastrointestinal hormone gene that attained a HLP-like defense function after major remodeling of its promoter region. Instead, new defense functions, including antimicrobial activity, arose by mutation of the precursor proteins, resulting in the proteolytic processing of secondary peptides alongside the original ones. Although gene duplication did not trigger functional innovation, it may have subsequently facilitated the convergent loss of the original function in multiple gene lineages (subfunctionalization), completing their transformation from HLP gene to AMP gene. The processing of multiple peptides from a single precursor entails a mechanism through which peptide-encoding genes may establish new functions without the need for gene duplication to avoid adaptive conflicts with older ones.

  8. An Assessment of Software Safety as Applied to the Department of Defense Software Development Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    qualities can contribute to credibility, SSMs a possess a thorough knowledge of their job that comes only from having the proper education and training ...the Sample Population 57 Survey Questions n . . ... 60 Survey Responsess.. ....... 62 Survey Conclusions .* 9*s 69 V. Training and Education...Requirements for System Safety Managers . . , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . 71 Introduction . . . . 0 a. . . . a , , 71 Current Status Of SSM Training

  9. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  10. Modernization of the multiple launch rocket system embedded system software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockensturm, Jeffrey J.

    1995-03-01

    Weapon systems in the Department of Defense (DOD) are becoming increasingly reliant on embedded software. As the size and level of complexity of these software development efforts have increased, the management of these programs has become more challenging. Additionally, as the Army strives to digitize the future battlefield, the demand for software will only increase. This thesis reviews the software development efforts associated with modernizing the Army's Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS). The thesis begins by presenting a background discussion of the Army's Fire Direction Data Manager (FDDM) development. After the FDDM background discussion, a case study of the troubled FDDM software development effort is presented. The FDDM case study follows the general format presented in the May 1992 General Accounting Office report on the FDDM software development difficulties. Following the FDDM review, the current MLRS software development effort, the Improved Fire Control System (IFCS), is presented. Next, the FDDM case study is reviewed to determine the software development lessons learned. Using the FDDM software lessons learned, the IFCS program is analyzed to determine the software risks, and to review the risk mitigation strategies of that program. The objective of the thesis is to provide insight into the use of modern software management methods in reducing software development program risk.

  11. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate–acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate–acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate–acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature–nurture debates. PMID:20234831

  12. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kronfeldner, Maria E

    2009-06-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate-acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate-acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate-acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature-nurture debates.

  13. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  14. Avian host defense peptides.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  15. Natural host defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heggers, J P

    1979-10-01

    Severe injury, whether the result of a major accident, a large burn, or a complicated surgical operation, often results in sepsis. Under such conditions both specific and nonspecific host defense systems are affected. The individual facets of major concern are chemotaxis, phagocytosis, intracellular killing, complement depletion, and depression of humoral and cellular mediated immunity. The most profound changes occur in cell-mediated immunity. Within a few hours o injury, the number of circulating T cells becomes depleted, concomitantly thoracic duct lymphocytes are markedly reduced. This change is not only quantitative but functional. The clinical impact of these deficient host defense mechanisms lies in the fact that low virulent organisms may become a lethal threat to the injured patient. Currently, investigators are attempting to reverse thse deficiencies through the use of immunotherapy.

  16. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood.

  17. Strategic Defense System: Stable Design and Adequate Testing must Precede Decision to Deploy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    software prototypes with human intervention. Furthermore, most of the system tests and evaluations so far have been based on the pre- Brilliant...software prototypes with human intervention. Further, the Secretary should ensure that required oversight by the Defense Acquisition Board be followed. The...integrated system-level tests in real time, using system hardware and software prototypes with human intervention. Agency Comments As requested by

  18. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  19. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Buying Power 1.0 Figure 2. Better Buying Power 2.0 Figure 3. Better Buying Power 3.0 179 Figure 4. Contract Cost Growth on Highest Risk (Major...Crossing Critical Congressional Cost- Growth Thresholds iv Getting Defense Acquisition Right 67 96 97 184 Table 1. Root...Causes for Major Programs Crossing Critical Con­ gressional Cost- Growth Thresholds or Other Major Problems 185 Figure 8. Planned Length of Active

  20. AFRL Defensive IO Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NUMBER Air Force Research Laboratory 525 Brooks Road, Rome NY 13441 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for...entire NOSC crew Air Force Enterprise Defense Moving from Data-Centric to Mission-Centric Operations 16 Summary • The AFRL /IF program includes all...William E.; Simpson, Lt. Col Richard 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Air Force

  1. Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-12

    projects conducted were a primary factor in the decision to form the JTF. Other JTFs may be organized to accomplish specific functional missions such...IV-8 Table of Contents viii JP 3-22 VI-1 Force Employment Factors in Foreign Internal Defense Operations ........ VI-2 VI-2...US combat operations in support of FID Executive Summary xi operations, which requires a Presidential decision and serves only as a temporary

  2. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  3. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  4. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  5. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  6. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  7. Acquired haemophilia in recipients of depot thioxanthenes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A J; Manson, L M; Dasani, H; Beddall, A; Collins, P; Shima, M; Ludlam, C A

    2000-11-01

    We present two cases in which the occurrence of acquired haemophilia is associated with the use of depot preparations of the thioxanthenes zuclopenthixol and flupenthixol. These drugs have not previously been implicated in the aetiology of acquired haemophilia.

  8. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multi-core, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to .50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  9. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multicore, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to approx.50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  10. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  11. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  12. NATO Conventional Defense: Force Augmentation with European Reservists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    reserve option was one of the initiatives studied under this larger RAND project. The analysis in this study was completed in October 1988. This Note...acquiring that security? The analysis shows that approximately 12 1General Bernard Rogers, "NATO’s Conventional Defense Improvement Initiative: A New...attack to an average penetration of less than 45 kilometers. This study utilizes dynamic analysis , in a - vii - combat simulation, to derive reserve option

  13. Software Literacy and Student Learning in the Tertiary Environment: Powerpoint and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Elaine; Hight, Craig; Cowie, Bronwen; Torrens, Rob; Ferrarelli, Lisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relationship between student success in acquiring software literacy and students' broader engagement and understanding of knowledge across different disciplines. We report on the first phase of a project that examines software literacies associated with Microsoft PowerPoint as a common software package encountered and…

  14. Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS). Software Architecture Seminar Report: Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-29

    designs and approaches without some stndaid defining the quality ot the product. Sotware development Is just beginning to have such a standaid. "* No...non-fwuctionhal qual- ity featurses Instead of post-modtem evaluaton of afticli quality factors the approach described budis -satis- facbWo into the...Architectures Defined ..................................................................................... 4 2.2.3 CARDS Approach

  15. 2006 XSD Scientific Software Workshop report.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K., Jr.; De Carlo, F.; Jemian, P.; Lang, J.; Lienert, U.; Maclean, J.; Newville, M.; Tieman, B.; Toby, B.; van Veenendaal, B.; Univ. of Chicago

    2006-01-22

    In May of 2006, a committee was formed to assess the fundamental needs and opportunities in scientific software for x-ray data reduction, analysis, modeling, and simulation. This committee held a series of discussions throughout the summer, conducted a poll of the members of the x-ray community, and held a workshop. This report details the findings and recommendations of the committee. Each experiment performed at the APS requires three crucial ingredients: the powerful x-ray source, an optimized instrument to perform measurements, and computer software to acquire, visualize, and analyze the experimental observations. While the APS has invested significant resources in the accelerator, investment in other areas such as scientific software for data analysis and visualization has lagged behind. This has led to the adoption of a wide variety of software with variable levels of usability. In order to maximize the scientific output of the APS, it is essential to support the broad development of real-time analysis and data visualization software. As scientists attack problems of increasing sophistication and deal with larger and more complex data sets, software is playing an ever more important role. Furthermore, our need for excellent and flexible scientific software can only be expected to increase, as the upgrade of the APS facility and the implementation of advanced detectors create a host of new measurement capabilities. New software analysis tools must be developed to take full advantage of these capabilities. It is critical that the APS take the lead in software development and the implementation of theory to software to ensure the continued success of this facility. The topics described in this report are relevant to the APS today and critical for the APS upgrade plan. Implementing these recommendations will have a positive impact on the scientific productivity of the APS today and will be even more critical in the future.

  16. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  17. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens.

  18. Corticomotoneuronal function and hyperexcitability in acquired neuromyotonia.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Steve; Cheah, Benjamin C; Yiannikas, Con; Vincent, Angela; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2010-09-01

    Acquired neuromyotonia encompasses a group of inflammatory disorders characterized by symptoms reflecting peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, which may be clinically confused in the early stages with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite a clear peripheral nerve focus, it remains unclear whether the ectopic activity in acquired neuromyotonia receives a central contribution. To clarify whether cortical hyperexcitability contributes to development of clinical features of acquired neuromyotonia, the present study investigated whether threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation could detect cortical hyperexcitability in acquired neuromyotonia, and whether this technique could differentiate acquired neuromyotonia from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical excitability studies were undertaken in 18 patients with acquired neuromyotonia and 104 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with results compared to 62 normal controls. Short-interval intracortical inhibition in patients with acquired neuromyotonia was significantly different when compared to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (averaged short interval intracortical inhibition acquired neuromyotonia 11.3 +/- 1.9%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2.6 +/- 0.9%, P < 0.001). In addition, the motor evoked potential amplitudes (acquired neuromyotonia 21.0 +/- 3.1%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 38.1 +/- 2.2%, P < 0.0001), intracortical facilitation (acquired neuromyotonia -0.9 +/- 1.3%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis -2.3 +/- 0.6%, P < 0.0001), resting motor thresholds (acquired neuromyotonia 62.2 +/- 1.6%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 57.2 +/- 0.9%, P < 0.05) and cortical silent period durations (acquired neuromyotonia 212.8 +/- 6.9 ms; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 181.1 +/- 4.3 ms, P < 0.0001) were significantly different between patients with acquired neuromyotonia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation established corticomotoneuronal integrity

  19. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  20. Guidelines for software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

  1. Design software for reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracz, Will

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the designing of software for reuse. Topics include terminology, software reuse maxims, the science of programming, an interface design example, a modularization example, and reuse and implementation guidelines.

  2. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  3. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  4. Inherited or acquired metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Florian; Ratai, Eva; Carroll, Jason J; Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders. Beyond the classic leukodystrophies, we are increasingly recognizing new hereditary leukoencephalopathies such as the hypomyelinating disorders. Conventional imaging can be unrevealing in some metabolic disorders, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be able to directly visualize the metabolic abnormality in certain disorders. Hence, neuroimaging can enhance our understanding of pathogenesis, even in the absence of a pathologic specimen. This review aims to present pathognomonic brain MRI lesion patterns, the diagnostic capacity of proton MRS, and information from clinical and laboratory testing that can aid diagnosis. We demonstrate that applying an advanced neuroimaging approach enhances current diagnostics and management. Additional information on inherited and metabolic disorders of the brain can be found in Chapter 63 in the second volume of this series.

  5. Planning and Scheduling of Software Manufacturing Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    resource can be reallocated to another product. 5. The same product can be developed with different process plans. For instance, a business application...resources that they use to produce the product. For instance, a business data base application software can be developed by acquiring a business application...several members of a development team quit and other development teams are busy working on other projects, then the assignments of the development group

  6. Software verification and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    General procedures for software verification and validation are provided as a guide for managers, programmers, and analysts involved in software development. The verification and validation procedures described are based primarily on testing techniques. Testing refers to the execution of all or part of a software system for the purpose of detecting errors. Planning, execution, and analysis of tests are outlined in this document. Code reading and static analysis techniques for software verification are also described.

  7. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  8. Synthetic plant defense elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  9. Microcomputer Software Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Presents overview of special considerations in developing microcomputer software collections, review of standardized cataloging practices, and discussion of problems of selection and acquisition of software. Policies governing loan procedures for microcomputer software which involve four types of copy protection (patent, trade secret, contract,…

  10. Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-18

    product The chicken#. (a.k.a. Process Focused Assessment ) – Management Systems ( ISO 9001 , ISO 27001, ISO 2000) – Capability Maturity Models (CMMI...How – Executive leadership commitment – Translate ROI to project manager vocabulary (cost, schedule, quality ) – Start small and build – Use...collaboration Vocabulary Reserved Words Software Acquisition Information Assurance Project Management System Engineering Software Engineering Software

  11. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

  12. Specifications for Thesaurus Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents specifications for software that is designed to support manual development and maintenance of information retrieval thesauri. Evaluation of existing software and design of custom software is discussed, requirements for integration with larger systems and for the user interface are described, and relationships among terms are discussed.…

  13. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  14. Software Engineering for Portability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanchev, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the portability of educational software focuses on the software design and development process. Topics discussed include levels of portability; the user-computer dialog; software engineering principles; design techniques for student performance records; techniques of courseware programing; and suggestions for further research and…

  15. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  16. Large Scale Portability of Hospital Information System Software

    PubMed Central

    Munnecke, Thomas H.; Kuhn, Ingeborg M.

    1986-01-01

    As part of its Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP) the Veterans Administration installed new hospital information systems in 169 of its facilities during 1984 and 1985. The application software for these systems is based on the ANS MUMPS language, is public domain, and is designed to be operating system and hardware independent. The software, developed by VA employees, is built upon a layered approach, where application packages layer on a common data dictionary which is supported by a Kernel of software. Communications between facilities are based on public domain Department of Defense ARPA net standards for domain naming, mail transfer protocols, and message formats, layered on a variety of communications technologies.

  17. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  18. Physics pedagogical software: The CIP software contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Denis

    1999-09-01

    In 1989, a decision was made that the journal Computers in Physics (CIP) would sponsor a software contest under the auspices of its education department. The goal was to reward software authors for their efforts to advance undergraduate pedagogy and to advertise their work to the larger physics community. The contest is now in its ninth year. In the following remarks, we will first attempt, some general observations and then some evaluative comments.

  19. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  20. Does strategic defense breed offense

    SciTech Connect

    York, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author examines the question of whether strategic defense activity, in any form, stimulates a related offensive activity. The author studies four post-World II efforts of the superpowers to develop and deploy strategic defenses. The author then derives lessons from those cases that he applies to his analysis of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Commentaries on the author's analysis are provided by four scholars.

  1. Acquire: an open-source comprehensive cancer biobanking system

    PubMed Central

    Dowst, Heidi; Pew, Benjamin; Watkins, Chris; McOwiti, Apollo; Barney, Jonathan; Qu, Shijing; Becnel, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The probability of effective treatment of cancer with a targeted therapeutic can be improved for patients with defined genotypes containing actionable mutations. To this end, many human cancer biobanks are integrating more tightly with genomic sequencing facilities and with those creating and maintaining patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and cell lines to provide renewable resources for translational research. Results: To support the complex data management needs and workflows of several such biobanks, we developed Acquire. It is a robust, secure, web-based, database-backed open-source system that supports all major needs of a modern cancer biobank. Its modules allow for i) up-to-the-minute ‘scoreboard’ and graphical reporting of collections; ii) end user roles and permissions; iii) specimen inventory through caTissue Suite; iv) shipping forms for distribution of specimens to pathology, genomic analysis and PDX/cell line creation facilities; v) robust ad hoc querying; vi) molecular and cellular quality control metrics to track specimens’ progress and quality; vii) public researcher request; viii) resource allocation committee distribution request review and oversight and ix) linkage to available derivatives of specimen. Availability and Implementation: Acquire implements standard controlled vocabularies, ontologies and objects from the NCI, CDISC and others. Here we describe the functionality of the system, its technological stack and the processes it supports. A test version Acquire is available at https://tcrbacquire-stg.research.bcm.edu; software is available in https://github.com/BCM-DLDCC/Acquire; and UML models, data and workflow diagrams, behavioral specifications and other documents are available at https://github.com/BCM-DLDCC/Acquire/tree/master/supplementaryMaterials. Contact: becnel@bcm.edu PMID:25573920

  2. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: review.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Cawson, R A; Porter, S R

    1986-07-19

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reviewed for dental practitioners, with an emphasis on oral findings; the clinical course, diagnosis, reporting, treatment, prognosis, transmission, and epidemiology are also covered. HIV infection has an incubation period that may be associated with glandular fever, a prodrome called AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) characterized by lymphadenopathy, low fever, weight loss, night sweats, diarrhea, oral candidosis, nonproductive cough and recurrent infections. AIDS is characterized by opportunistic infections. Over 50% present with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 21% with Kaposi's sarcoma, and 6% have both. The AIDS virus causes direct neurological symptoms in some cases. Oral candidosis (thrush) in a young male without a local cause such as xerostomia or immune suppression is strongly suggestive of AIDS. Other oral manifestations are severe herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, venereal warts, aphthous ulceration, mycobacterial oral ulcers, oral histoplasmosis, sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the jaw. Hairy leukoplakia, usually seen on the lateral border of the tongue, is probably caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Kaposi's sarcoma, an endothelial cell tumor, is characteristic of AIDS, and in 50% of patients is oral or perioral. Cervical lymph node enlargement will be seen in those with ARC as well as AIDS. No guidelines have been issued by the Department of Health and Social Security for dental surgeons in the UK for reporting AIDS cases. Although HIV virions have been isolated from saliva, there are no known incidents of transmission via saliva. HIV is less likely to be transmitted by needle stick injuries than, for example hepatitis B (25% risk), especially if the blood is from a carrier rather than a full blown AIDS case.

  3. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  4. Control Processes and Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    HOROWITZ, MARDI; COOPER, STEVEN; FRIDHANDLER, BRAM; PERRY, J. CHRISTOPHER; BOND, MICHAEL; VAILLANT, GEORGE

    1992-01-01

    Defense-mechanism theory and control-process theory are related psychodynamic approaches to explaining and classifying how people ward off emotional upsets. Although both theories explain defensive maneuvers in the same motivational terms, each defines categories different1y. Classic categories define defense mechanisms at a relatively macroscopic level, whereas control-process theory aims at relatively microgenetic analysis of how cognitive maneuvers—involving what is thought, how it is thought, and how it is organized—may generate defensive states. The theories are not contradictory, but they are focused on different levels of observation; it is useful to compare how these classifications are applied to specific case material. PMID:22700114

  5. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  6. Payload software technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A software analysis was performed of known STS sortie payload elements and their associated experiments. This provided basic data for STS payload software characteristics and sizes. A set of technology drivers was identified based on a survey of future technology needs and an assessment of current software technology. The results will be used to evolve a planned approach to software technology development. The purpose of this plan is to ensure that software technology is advanced at a pace and a depth sufficient to fulfill the identified future needs.

  7. Funding Research Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  8. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  9. Advanced flight software reconfiguraton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcher, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on advanced flight software reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is defined as identifying mission and configuration specific requirements, controlling mission and configuration specific data, binding this information to the flight software code to perform specific missions, and the release and distribution of the flight software. The objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced software reconfiguration tools and techniques; to demonstrate reconfiguration approaches on Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard systems displays; and to interactively test onboard systems displays, flight software, and flight data.

  10. Space Acquisitions: DOD’s Goals for Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems are Ambitious

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems Are Ambitious September 2008 GAO-08- 1073 Report Documentation Page Form...click on GAO-08- 1073 . For more information, contact Cristina T. Chaplain at (202) 512-4841 or chaplainc@gao.gov. Highlights of GAO-08- 1073 , a... 1073 SBIRS Software Abbreviations DOD Department of Defense FFRDC

  11. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants.

    PubMed

    Espinas, Nino A; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary "arms race" between plants and pathogens.

  12. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  13. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Espinas, Nino A.; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary “arms race” between plants and pathogens. PMID:27563304

  14. Healthcare Software Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jason G.; Pauley, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    Software assurance is a rigorous, lifecycle phase-independent set of activities which ensure completeness, safety, and reliability of software processes and products. This is accomplished by guaranteeing conformance to all requirements, standards, procedures, and regulations. These assurance processes are even more important when coupled with healthcare software systems, embedded software in medical instrumentation, and other healthcare-oriented life-critical systems. The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory requirements and guidance documentation do not address certain aspects of complete software assurance activities. In addition, the FDA’s software oversight processes require enhancement to include increasingly complex healthcare systems such as Hospital Information Systems (HIS). The importance of complete software assurance is introduced, current regulatory requirements and guidance discussed, and the necessity for enhancements to the current processes shall be highlighted. PMID:17238324

  15. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes.

  16. Technical Equivalency Documentation for a Newly Acquired Alpha Spectroscopy System

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Fisher, S K; Zeman, R A; Hann, P R

    2005-09-28

    The response of a newly acquired Canberra{trademark} Alpha Analyst (Chamber No.'s 137-172) used by the Hazards Control, Radiation Safety Section WBC/Spectroscopy Team has been studied with respect to an existing Canberra system. The existing Canberra system consists of thirty-six Model 7401 alpha spectrometry chambers (Chamber No.'s 1-36) and has previously been DOELAP qualified for the routine Alpha Spectroscopy program used in LLNL's in vitro bioassay program. The newly acquired Alpha Analyst system operates on a network with software that controls and performs analysis of a one-year-old twenty-four chamber Alpha Analyst system (Chamber No.'s 101-124) that has also been previously evaluated and recently DOELAP accredited. The Alpha Analyst system is an automated system that is controlled by the same software and computer system as that used for the existing Canberra alpha analysis systems. This document compares results from the existing Alpha System with the newer Alpha Analyst system.

  17. The Relationship between Inflation and Defense Expenditures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    All Federal Expenditures .. ......... . 22 2. Defense Expenditures .... ........... 24 3. Suggested Research on the Impact of DoD Spending ...only major study specifically simulating changes in military spending implied that defense and non- defense expenditures have identical impacts upon...analyzed in Chapter I is that defense expenditures are not assigned a central role in generating inflation. Even when defense spending is incorporated

  18. Do Oil Exports Fuel Defense Spending?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    defense spending , and there were years when defense expenditures actually increased. Additionally, in countries that did... spending , especially defense expenditures , but such is not always the case. One can study the impact of oil revenues on defense spending by using a...oil revenue levels and levels of military expenditures , however, appear weak, meaning that attempts to limit defense spending by tinkering with

  19. Software Aspects of PuMa-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, R.; Stappers, B.; Stappers, B.

    2006-08-01

    The Pulsar Machine II (PuMa-II) is a state of the art pulsar machine-installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), in December 2005. PuMa-II is a flexible instrument and is designed around an ensemble of 44 high-performance computers running the Linux operating system. Much of the flexibility of PuMa-II comes from the software that is being developed for this instrument. The radio signals reaching the telescope undergo several stages of electronic and software processing before a scientifically useful data product is generated. The electronic processing of signals includes the usual RF to IF conversion, analogue to digital conversion and telescope dependent electronic digital delay compensation that happen in the signal chain of WSRT. Within PuMa-II, this data is acquired, stored and suitably processed. In this poster we present various aspects of PuMa-II software and illustrate its pulsar signal processing capabilities.

  20. Sentinel-1 Support in the GAMMA Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmuller, Urs; Werner, Charles; Stroozzi, Tazio; Wiesmann, Andreas; Frey, Othmar; Santoro, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    First results using the new Sentinel-1 SAR look very promising but the special interferometric wide-swath data acquired in the TOPS mode makes InSAR processing challenging. The steep azimuth spectra ramp in each burst results in very stringent co-registration requirements. Combining the data of the individual bursts and sub-swaths into consistent mosaics requires careful “book-keeping” in the handling of the data and meta data and the large file sizes and high data throughputs require also a good performance. Considering these challenges good support from software is getting increasingly important. In this contribution we describe the Sentinel-1 support in the GAMMA Software, a high-level software package used by researchers, service providers and operational users in their SAR, InSAR and PSI work.

  1. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  2. 78 FR 78163 - Eligibility of the Gulf Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Cooperation Council To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Gulf Cooperation Council...

  3. Cancer intelligence acquired (CIA): tumor glycosylation and sialylation codes dismantling antitumor defense.

    PubMed

    Boligan, Kayluz Frias; Mesa, Circe; Fernandez, Luis Enrique; von Gunten, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a key feature of malignant transformation and reflects epigenetic and genetic anomalies among the multitude of molecules involved in glycan biosynthesis. Although glycan biosynthesis is not template bound, altered tumor glycosylation is not random, but associated with common glycosylation patterns. Evidence suggests that acquisition of distinct glycosylation patterns evolves from a 'microevolutionary' process conferring advantages in terms of tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and immune escape. Such glycosylation modifications also involve xeno- and hypersialylation. Xeno-autoantigens such as Neu5Gc-gangliosides provide potential targets for immunotherapy. Hypersialylation may display 'enhanced self' to escape immunosurveillance and involves several not mutually exclusive inhibitory pathways that all rely on protein-glycan interactions. A better understanding of tumor 'glycan codes' as deciphered by lectins, such as siglecs, selectins, C-type lectins and galectins, may lead to novel treatment strategies, not only in cancer, but also in autoimmune disease or transplantation.

  4. Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-23

    and specialists from industry; (2) developing improved personnel developmental opportunities and establishing clear acquisitions career paths; (3...interests into new realms such as computers, communications, spaceflight, microelectronics, astrophysics and a host of other fields.80 In sum, a number of

  5. Software Management for Weapon System Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Force, or the Department of Defense. 𔃾 Ir l ’ " r II " II ’ | ’ I AFIT/GSM/LSY/87S-24 SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT FOR WEAPON SYSTEM PROGRAMS THESIS Presented...distribution unlimited ) iL 4 t p , ~ nA l ’ FA I " ’ ’ 1 r a . . . r n w -:. v ; - , - ; r . -,, w,- :. .w -rn ’- S. - o . Preface This research was prompted...organization is responsible. The third program office. ASD/YWS, is also a small program office, " r . residing in the same organization as other small

  6. Software maturity model applied to SDI. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Springsteen, B.

    1991-09-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) is undertaking initiatives to mitigate software risks and to stimulate the DoD contractor community to improve its software practices. To that end, IDA assessed the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) software process maturity model and developed an implementation plan for its use within the SDI program. Under this plan, SDI element programs will use the SEI method to select software contractors with mature practices and to monitor contracts after they have been awarded. This document describes the SEI maturity model and the experience of contractors and government agencies. It also explains SDIO's plans to implement the model program-wide and the benefits and lessons learned from using the model on two contracts.

  7. Cryptosporidiosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D A; Wodak, A; Marriot, D J; Harkness, J L; Ralston, M; Hill, A; Penny, R

    1984-10-01

    Cryptosporidiosis was found in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The microbiological and morphological features of this newly recognized opportunistic infection are distinctive and diagnostic.

  8. The doctor's defense.

    PubMed

    Tur, Richard H S

    2002-10-01

    The paper takes as its point of departure a relatively recent case which attracted publicity in Britain, concerning a doctor charged with (but acquitted of) the murder of his terminally ill patient, and critically examines the criminal law of England and Wales relating to homicide in the context of medical practice. While similar issues obviously arise in many other countries, no comparative study is attempted in the paper. However, the arguments which have been presented are of more than local interest. From an analysis of this case and others, it appears that there is in common law something which can be called the doctor s defense. It holds that a doctor may, when caring for a patient who is suffering great pain, lawfully administer pain-killing drugs, despite the fact that, as the doctor well knows, one certain or highly probable consequence will be to shorten the patient s life. Current justifications for this defense are either incoherent or too weak. Some require that different conceptions of intention be deployed, depending on whether the agent is a doctor or not. Others rely on the philosophically controversial doctrine of double effect. Still others invoke an implausible notion of minimal causation. All these justifications apply readily enough to morally and factually easy cases, but fail in hard cases where the need for some justification is most pressing. These justifications seem incapable of providing adequate guidance to prosecutors or trial judges. Absent principled and transparent justification, the English criminal justice system exhibits different outcomes on what appear to be broadly similar facts. It is disturbing that the law is uncertain and incapable of giving adequate guidance. A doctor, compelled by conscience to intervene to end a person s life, should certainly be ready and willing to face rigorous legal scrutiny, but the law applied should not be arbitrary and random, nor should the outcome turn solely or chiefly on prosecutorial

  9. Using EPIC to Find Conflicts, Inconsistencies, and Gaps in Department of Defense Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    new tool that automates one step of the methodology. We describe the framework, methodol- ogy, and new software- based tool and demonstrate with case...analysts showed that 113 of the extractions were related to standards. Analy- 1 The EPIC tool is a Microsoft (MS) Office– based program written in...designated approving authority DARS DoD Architecture Registry System DAS Defense Acquisition System DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DBSMC Defense

  10. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  11. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then

  12. Self-Defense for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givler, Jill I.

    2005-01-01

    Resources for self-defense training programs have become more popular and available over the last few years. Introducing a self-defense unit as part of a school physical education program is a wonderful way to address a number of psychosocial issues that prevail among teenagers today. The physical skills learned in this type of program allow…

  13. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DAPA Project Officer” BeCKeR, gRACe CHuNg , Associate Deputy General Counsel, Office of the Secretary of Defense – “Legal view of the Processes...FiguRes Jordan, Dr. Leland G. “Systemic Fiscal Optimism in Defense Planning.” Acquisition Review Quarterly Winter 2000: 47-62. Joyce, Michael and Bettina

  14. Forecasting trends in NASA flight software development tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garman, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The experience gained in the design and development of Shuttle flight and ground support embedded software systems along with projections of increasing role and size of software in the proposed Space Station and other future NASA projects provides the basis for forecasting substantial changes in the tools and methodologies by which embedded software systems are developed and acquired. Similar changes in software architectures and operator interfaces will lead to substantial changes in the approach and techniques involved in software test and system integration. Increasing commonality among different flight systems and between flight and supporting ground systems is projected, along with a more distributed approach to software acquisition in highly complex projects such as Space Station.

  15. 22 CFR 120.44 - Foreign defense article or defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign defense article or defense service. 120... PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.44 Foreign defense article or defense service. Foreign defense article or defense service means any article or service described on the U.S. Munitions List of non-U.S....

  16. Scientific Software for the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Douglas; Gabaldon, Diana J.

    1985-01-01

    Lists and describes representative software for Macintosh microcomputers. Included are Apple University Consortium software, word processing software, statistics packages, integrated packages, database management systems, and others. Source of software and costs (when available) are included. (JN)

  17. COTS software selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  18. Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, atmospheric scientist Paul Meyer and solar physicist Dr. David Hathaway, developed promising new software, called Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR), which is illustrated in this Quick Time movie. VISAR is a computer algorithm that stabilizes camera motion in the horizontal and vertical as well as rotation and zoom effects producing clearer images of moving objects, smoothes jagged edges, enhances still images, and reduces video noise or snow. It could steady images of ultrasounds, which are infamous for their grainy, blurred quality. VISAR could also have applications in law enforcement, medical, and meteorological imaging. The software can be used for defense application by improving reconnaissance video imagery made by military vehicles, aircraft, and ships traveling in harsh, rugged environments.

  19. Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center,atmospheric scientist Paul Meyer and solar physicist Dr. David Hathaway, developed promising new software, called Video Image stabilization and Registration (VISAR), which is illustrated in this Quick Time movie. VISAR is a computer algorithm that stabilizes camera motion in the horizontal and vertical as well as rotation and zoom effects producing clearer images of moving objects, smoothes jagged edges, enhances still images, and reduces video noise or snow. It could steady images of ultrasounds, which are infamous for their grainy, blurred quality. VISAR could also have applications in law enforcement, medical, and meteorological imaging. The software can be used for defense application by improving reconnaissance video imagery made by military vehicles, aircraft, and ships traveling in harsh, rugged environments.

  20. GPS Software Packages Deliver Positioning Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "To determine a spacecraft s position, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed an innovative software program called the GPS (global positioning system)-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software, abbreviated as GIPSY-OASIS, and also developed Real-Time GIPSY (RTG) for certain time-critical applications. First featured in Spinoff 1999, JPL has released hundreds of licenses for GIPSY and RTG, including to Longmont, Colorado-based DigitalGlobe. Using the technology, DigitalGlobe produces satellite imagery with highly precise latitude and longitude coordinates and then supplies it for uses within defense and intelligence, civil agencies, mapping and analysis, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, infrastructure management, Internet portals, and navigation technology."

  1. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative): Myth or reality

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1988-06-01

    This report reviews previous attempts to develop strategic defenses, the technologies currently under consideration by the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), their main unknowns, and the likely performance of strategic defense concepts against evolving threats. 47 refs.

  2. Solar Asset Management Software

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Aaron; Zviagin, George

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  3. Perspective on Software Reuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    structured systems analysis [Gane & Sarson; McMenamin & Palmer] which tries to separate the "logical system" requirements from the "physical aspects...6. Lewis. T.G., Apple Macintosh Software, Software Reviews, IEEE Software, March 1985, pp. 89-92. 7. McMenamin S.M. and Palmer, J.F., Essential...lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS NONE 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY N/A 2b. OECLASSIFICATION/OOWNGRAOING SCHEDULE 3. OlSTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

  4. Accuracy of 3D Imaging Software in Cephalometric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-21

    Imaging and Communication in Medicine ( DICOM ) files into personal computer-based software to enable 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton. These...tissue profile. CBCT data can be imported as DICOM files into personal computer–based software to provide 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial...been acquired for the three pig models. The CBCT data were exported into DICOM multi-file format. They will be imported into a proprietary

  5. Quantification of moving target cyber defenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Cybenko, George

    2015-05-01

    Current network and information systems are static, making it simple for attackers to maintain an advantage. Adaptive defenses, such as Moving Target Defenses (MTD) have been developed as potential "game-changers" in an effort to increase the attacker's workload. With many new methods being developed, it is difficult to accurately quantify and compare their overall costs and effectiveness. This paper compares the tradeoffs between current approaches to the quantification of MTDs. We present results from an expert opinion survey on quantifying the overall effectiveness, upfront and operating costs of a select set of MTD techniques. We find that gathering informed scientific opinions can be advantageous for evaluating such new technologies as it offers a more comprehensive assessment. We end by presenting a coarse ordering of a set of MTD techniques from most to least dominant. We found that seven out of 23 methods rank as the more dominant techniques. Five of which are techniques of either address space layout randomization or instruction set randomization. The remaining two techniques are applicable to software and computer platforms. Among the techniques that performed the worst are those primarily aimed at network randomization.

  6. Evolutionary Drift Models for Moving Target Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Peterson, Elena S.; Teuton, Jeremy R.

    2012-10-31

    One of the biggest challenges faced by cyber defenders is that attacks evolve more rapidly than our ability to recognize them. We propose a moving target defense concept in which the means of detection is set in motion. This is done by moving away from static signature-based detection and instead adopting biological modeling techniques that describe families of related sequences. We present here one example for how to apply evolutionary models to cyber sequences, and demonstrate the feasibility of this technique on analysis of a complex, evolving software project. Specifically, we applied sequence-based and profile-based evolutionary models and report the ability of these models to recognize highly volatile code regions. We found that different drift models reliably identify different types of evolutionarily related code regions. The impact is that these (and possibly other) evolutionary models could be used in a moving target defense in which the "signature" being used to detect sequence-based behaviors is not a fixed signature but one that can recognize new variants of a known family based on multiple evolutionary models.

  7. On Software Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ershov, Andrei P.

    The problem of compatibility of software hampers the development of computer application. One solution lies in standardization of languages, terms, peripherais, operating systems and computer characteristics. (AB)

  8. Instructional Software Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Margret

    1985-01-01

    Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective principles for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)

  9. Classification software technique assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Atkinson, R.; Dasarathy, B. V.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapryian, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of software options is presented for the use of local user communities to obtain software for analyzing remotely sensed multispectral imagery. The resources required to utilize a particular software program are described. Descriptions of how a particular program analyzes data and the performance of that program for an application and data set provided by the user are shown. An effort is made to establish a statistical performance base for various software programs with regard to different data sets and analysis applications, to determine the status of the state-of-the-art.

  10. Software Reuse Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Susan J. (Editor); Smith, Kathryn A. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center sponsored a Workshop on NASA Research in Software Reuse on November 17-18, 1988 in Melbourne, Florida, hosted by Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. Participants came from four NASA centers and headquarters, eight NASA contractor companies, and three research institutes. Presentations were made on software reuse research at the four NASA centers; on Eli, the reusable software synthesis system designed and currently under development by SPS; on Space Station Freedom plans for reuse; and on other reuse research projects. This publication summarizes the presentations made and the issues discussed during the workshop.

  11. Dtest Testing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  12. Architecture for Verifiable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

  13. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  14. Acquiring and Managing Electronic Journals. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Donnelyn; Yue, Paoshan

    Electronic journals are both a blessing and a curse for libraries. To be meaningful in the current information environment--to meet users' ever-increasing demands--libraries must acquire as many appropriate full text resources as possible, as quickly as possible, and make them easy to use. This Digest provides tips for acquiring and providing…

  15. Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Elise I; Mutasim, Diya F; Heaton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis (AIGA) in a 56-year-old white woman. Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is an exceedingly rare group of heterogeneous disorders that has been almost exclusively reported in young Japanese males. Our case is unique in that AlGA may be underrecognized in this patient population.

  16. Statistical modelling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    During the six-month period from 1 April 1991 to 30 September 1991 the following research papers in statistical modeling of software reliability appeared: (1) A Nonparametric Software Reliability Growth Model; (2) On the Use and the Performance of Software Reliability Growth Models; (3) Research and Development Issues in Software Reliability Engineering; (4) Special Issues on Software; and (5) Software Reliability and Safety.

  17. Optimal defense theory explains deviations from latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kooyers, Nicholas J; Blackman, Benjamin K; Holeski, Liza M

    2017-04-01

    The latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis (LHDH) postulates that the prevalence of species interactions, including herbivory, is greater at lower latitudes, leading to selection for increased levels of plant defense. While latitudinal defense clines may be caused by spatial variation in herbivore pressure, optimal defense theory predicts that clines could also be caused by ecogeographic variation in the cost of defense. For instance, allocation of resources to defense may not increase plant fitness when growing seasons are short and plants must reproduce quickly. Here we use a common garden experiment to survey genetic variation for constitutive and induced phenylpropanoid glycoside (PPG) concentrations across 35 Mimulus guttatus populations over a ~13° latitudinal transect. Our sampling regime is unique among studies of the LHDH in that it allows us to disentangle the effects of growing season length from those of latitude, temperature, and elevation. For five of the seven PPGs surveyed, we find associations between latitude and plant defense that are robust to population structure. However, contrary to the LHDH, only two PPGs were found at higher levels in low latitude populations, and total PPG concentrations were higher at higher latitudes. PPG levels are strongly correlated with growing season length, with higher levels of PPGs in plants from areas with longer growing seasons. Further, flowering time is positively correlated with the concentration of nearly all PPGs, suggesting that there may be a strong trade-off between development time and defense production. Our results reveal that ecogeographic patterns in plant defense may reflect variation in the cost of producing defense compounds in addition to variation in herbivore pressure. Thus, the biogeographic pattern predicted by the LHDH may not be accurate because the underlying factors driving variation in defense, in this case, growing season length, are not always associated with latitude in the same

  18. Teaching Social Software with Social Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejias, Ulises

    2006-01-01

    Ulises Mejias examines how social software--information and communications technologies that facilitate the collaboration and exchange of ideas--enables students to participate in distributed research, an approach to learning in which knowledge is collectively constructed and shared. During Fall 2005, Mejias taught a graduate seminar that provided…

  19. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  20. DOD USER-NEEDS STUDY, PHASE II -- FLOW OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION WITHIN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME II, A. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION, B. TECHNICAL APPENDICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODMAN, ARNOLD F.; AND OTHERS

    IN PHASE II OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) SURVEY TO FIND OUT HOW SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ACQUIRE INFORMATION, SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY WERE INTERVIEWED TO DETERMINE THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS AND THE FLOW OF INFORMATION INHERENT IN SATISFYING THESE…

  1. An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

  2. Toward immunogenetic studies of amphibian chytridiomycosis: Linking innate and acquired immunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, J.Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Rosenblum, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent declines in amphibian diversity and abundance have contributed significantly to the global loss of biodiversity. The fungal disease chytridiomycosis is widely considered to be a primary cause of these declines, yet the critical question of why amphibian species differ in susceptibility remains unanswered. Considerable evidence links environmental conditions and interspecific variability of the innate immune system to differential infection responses, but other sources of individual, population, or species-typical variation may also be important. In this article we review the preliminary evidence supporting a role for acquired immune defenses against chytridiomycosis, and advocate for targeted investigation of genes controlling acquired responses, as well as those that functionally bridge the innate and acquired immune systems. Immunogenetic data promise to answer key questions about chytridiomycosis susceptibility and host-pathogen coevolution, and will draw much needed attention to the importance of considering evolutionary processes in amphibian conservation management and practice. ?? 2009 by American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  3. Cartographic applications software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    The Office of the Assistant Division Chief for Research, National Mapping Division, develops computer software for the solution of geometronic problems in the fields of surveying, geodesy, remote sensing, and photogrammetry. Software that has been developed using public funds is available on request for a nominal charge to recover the cost of duplication.

  4. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  5. Selecting the Right Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  6. Software Product Lines Essentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    improvement Technology innovation Reuse 7 Software Product Lines Linda Northrop © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Few Systems Are Unique Most...Focus was small-grained, opportunistic, and technology -driven. Results did not meet business goals. Reuse History 9 Software Product Lines Linda...servers, storage servers, network camera and scanner servers Bold Stroke Avionics Customized solutions for transportation industries E-COM Technology

  7. Who Owns Computer Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscomb, Anne Wells

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the protection of intellectual property as it applies to computer software and its impact on private enterprise and the public good. Highlights include the role of patents, copyrights, and trade secrets; some court cases; and recommendations for alternatives to the existing legal framework for protecting computer software. (KRN)

  8. Software process assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

  9. Software Marketing Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    Seven factors that currently affect the potential for marketing and publishing computer software for education are discussed: (1) computers as an inplace technology in education, (2) marketing and distribution patterns for software, (3) consumer demand, (4) quality, (5) timelessenss, (6) basic skills, and (7) the future. The proliferation of…

  10. Computer Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Intended to provide guidance in the selection of the best computer software available to support instruction and to make optimal use of schools' financial resources, this publication provides a listing of computer software programs that have been evaluated according to their currency, relevance, and value to Hawaii's educational programs. The…

  11. Software Solution Saves Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses computer software that can give classrooms and computer labs the capabilities of costly PC's at a small fraction of the cost. A growing number of cost-conscious school districts are finding budget relief in low-cost computer software known as "open source" that can do everything from manage school Web sites to equip…

  12. STARLINK Software Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Steve; Lawden, Mike; Bly, Martin

    The Starlink Software Collection is a set of software which is managed and distributed by the Starlink Project. Some of the software was written by members of the Project, but some of it comes from outside the Project. This note describes the functions of the individual items in the Collection and provides an overview of the software so that readers can identify the items they need. The software is classified into four main divisions: * Packages -- are large collections of programs for people who want to analyse, convert, and display data. They are subdivided into eleven classes to help you find what you want. * Utilities -- are small programs devoted to a specific purpose. For example, they help you prepare for observations, write documents, and write programs. * Subroutine Libraries -- are for programmers writing astronomical software. They provide facilities such as astronomical calculations, data management and graphics. * Infrastructure -- are items which are mainly of interest to people writing programs within the Starlink Software Environment. They are included for completeness. Each item is described in sufficient detail for you to decide whether or not to investigate it further. If you want to find out more about an item, follow the document references given opposite the item name. If you are using the hypertext version of this document, the most up-to-date document references can be found by following the link from the software item name.

  13. Cactus: Software Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    The early eighties saw a period of rapid change in computing and teachers lost control of how they used computers in their classrooms. Software companies produced computer tools that looked so good that teachers forgot about writing their own classroom materials and happily purchased software--that offered much more than teachers needed--from…

  14. No System? No Software!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Noting that the computer software cataloging system at the media center of the Washington (Illinois) Center for Continuing Education is essentially a card catalog in notebook form, this article describes aspects of the development and utilization of the system. Major sections describe: (1) software cataloging system terminology; (2) steps for…

  15. Software measurement guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassman, Mitchell J.; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1994-01-01

    This software Measurement Guidebook presents information on the purpose and importance of measurement. It discusses the specific procedures and activities of a measurement program and the roles of the people involved. The guidebook also clarifies the roles that measurement can and must play in the goal of continual, sustained improvement for all software production and maintenance efforts.

  16. Documentation Driven Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    reliability standards, ease of reconfigurability, and interoperability with other systems. The key challenges encountered during design of complex...software life cycles. The challenge here is to ensure proper transformation of project requirements, which may be specified informally, into the formal...software is becoming a more challenging task— often resulting in unexpected safety risks, schedule delays, and cost overruns. This research is

  17. Reusable Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Reusable Software System (RSS) is to provide NASA Langley Research Center and its contractor personnel with a reusable software technology through the Internet. The RSS is easily accessible, provides information that is extractable, and the capability to submit information or data for the purpose of scientific research at NASA Langley Research Center within the Atmospheric Science Division.

  18. Software engineering ethics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    Software engineering ethics is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: lack of a system viewpoint; arrogance of PC DOS software vendors; violation od upward compatibility; internet worm; internet worm revisited; student cheating and company hiring interviews; computing practitioners and the commodity market; new projects and old programming languages; schedule and budget; and recent public domain comments.

  19. PREVAPORATION PERFORMANCE PREDICTION SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pervaporation, Performance, Prediction Software and Database (PPPS&D) computer software program is currently being developed within the USEPA, NRMRL. The purpose of the PPPS&D program is to educate and assist potential users in identifying opportunities for using pervaporati...

  20. Plating Tank Control Software

    SciTech Connect

    Krafcik, John

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  1. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  2. Measuring software design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An extensive series of studies of software design measures conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory is described. Included are the objectives and results of the studies, the method used to perform the studies, and the problems encountered. The document should be useful to researchers planning similar studies as well as to managers and designers concerned with applying quantitative design measures.

  3. Software Quality Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    March 1979, pp. 121-128. Gorla, Narasimhaiah, Alan C. Benander, and Barbara A. Benander, "Debugging Effort Estimation Using Software Metrics", IEEE...Society, IEEE Guide for the Use of IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software, IEEE Std 982.2-1988, June 1989. Jones, Capers

  4. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  5. Predicting software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlewood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed look is given to software reliability techniques. A conceptual model of the failure process is examined, and some software reliability growth models are discussed. Problems for which no current solutions exist are addressed, emphasizing the very difficult problem of safety-critical systems for which the reliability requirements can be enormously demanding.

  6. Public-Private Partnerships in Defense Acquisition Programs-Defensible?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Ministry of Defence (Singapore) MOD Ministry of Defence (UK) xii MRO maintenance, repair and overhaul NAO National Accounting Office (UK) NPV net...in 2002). Similarly, in Australia—one of the early trend setters for PPPs—the implementation of defense PPPs by the Defense Material Organisation...wide range of systems and equipment, and material and services for those systems and equipment...The systems and equipment include vehicles, ships

  7. The DTIC Review; Volume 3 Number 4. Antimissile Defense: Strategic Interceptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    PERSONAL AUTHORS: HADYNSKI, MARK; URBANO , REYNALDO; SVOREC, GREGORY J. RAY ABSTRACT: (U) (U) The task of developing ABSTRACT: (U) The Ballistic Missile...primarily of refurbished components a formidable response - state of the art Theater acquired for the system’s demonstration and Missile Defense (TMD

  8. 76 FR 52131 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Nonavailability Exception for Procurement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Procurement of Hand or Measuring Tools (DFARS Case 2011- D025), Contractors Performing Private Security... Exception for Procurement of Hand or Measuring Tools (DFARS Case 2011-D025) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... known as the Berry Amendment to acquire only domestic hand or measuring tools. DATES: Effective...

  9. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  10. Cleanroom software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, M.; Mills, H. D.

    1981-01-01

    The 'cleanroom' software development process is a technical and organizational approach to developing software with certifiable reliability. Key ideas behind the process are well structured software specifications, randomized testing methods and the introduction of statistical controls; but the main point is to deny entry for defects during the development of software. This latter point suggests the use of the term 'cleanroom' in analogy to the defect prevention controls used in the manufacturing of high technology hardware. In the 'cleanroom', the entire software development process is embedded within a formal statistical design, in contrast to executing selected tests and appealing to the randomness of operational settings for drawing statistical inferences. Instead, random testing is introduced as a part of the statistical design itself so that when development and testing are completed, statistical inferences are made about the operation of the system.

  11. Software quality in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1997-11-01

    For many years, software quality assurance lagged behind hardware quality assurance in terms of methods, metrics, and successful results. New approaches such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) the ISO 9000-9004 standards, the SEI maturity levels, and Total Quality Management (TQM) are starting to attract wide attention, and in some cases to bring software quality levels up to a parity with manufacturing quality levels. Since software is on the critical path for many engineered products, and for internal business systems as well, the new approaches are starting to affect global competition and attract widespread international interest. It can be hypothesized that success in mastering software quality will be a key strategy for dominating global software markets in the 21st century.

  12. Strategic defense initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Engineering Technology Division has a leading role, including that of program management, in a major new programmatic thrust of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is in support of the national Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). It is appropriate for the Laboratory to become significantly involved in the program because several of the most promising SDI technologies are in areas for which ORNL (together with Y-12 and K-25) have strong capabilities and significant resources. The initial ORNL work in support of the SDI program is focused on three technologies in which ORNL has extensive experience and traditionally strong research and development programs: (1) space nuclear power, (2) flywheel energy storage, and (3) neutral particle beams. The space nuclear program will utilize our capabilities in areas such as refractory materials, high-temperature alkali metal systems, shielding, and instrumentation. Space nuclear reactors capable of supplying multimegawatt levels of electrical power on a continuous and long-term basis are envisioned to be required for a variety of SDI surveillance satellites and space-borne weapons platforms. The feasibility of an alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycle, which has promise of providing high power with a very low system mass, is planned for study.

  13. Gastroduodenal Mucosal Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hyder; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review To highlight recent developments in the field of gastroduodenal mucosal defense with emphasis on lumen-gut interactions. Recent Findings There has been a growing interest in the physiological functions of luminal chemosensors present from tongue to colon that detect organic molecules in the luminal content associated with nutrient ingestion, usually associated with specialized cells, in particular the enteroendocrine cells. These receptors transduce the release of peptide hormones, in particular proglucagon-derived products such as the glucagon-like-peptides (GLPs), which have profound effects on gut function and on metabolism. Luminal chemosensors transduce GLP release in response to changes in the cellular environment, as part of the mechanism of nutrient chemosensing. GLP-2 has important trophic effects on the intestinal mucosa, including increasing the proliferation rate of stem cells and reducing transmucosal permeability to ions and small molecules, in addition to increasing the rate of duodenal bicarbonate secretion. GLP-1, although traditionally considered an incretin that enhances the effect of insulin on peripheral tissues, also has trophic effects on the intestinal epithelium. Summary A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate GLP release can further illuminate the importance of nutrient chemosensing as an important component of the mechanism that mediates the trophic effects of luminal nutrients. GLP-1 and -2 are already in clinical use for the treatment of diabetes and intestinal failure. Improved understanding of the control of their release and their end-organ effects will identify new clinical indications and interventions that enhance their release. PMID:26376476

  14. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  15. Seven Processes that Enable NASA Software Engineering Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housch, Helen; Godfrey, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews seven processes that NASA uses to ensure that software is developed, acquired and maintained as specified in the NPR 7150.2A requirement. The requirement is to ensure that all software be appraised for the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). The enumerated processes are: (7) Product Integration, (6) Configuration Management, (5) Verification, (4) Software Assurance, (3) Measurement and Analysis, (2) Requirements Management and (1) Planning & Monitoring. Each of these is described and the group(s) that are responsible is described.

  16. Acquired Skills Profiles for Environmental Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. J.; Grieve, T.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that developed software for the production of skills profiles for individual students as an appendix to the curriculum vitae submitted with employment applications. The software is specifically designed for students in modular degree programs in environmental education. (DDR)

  17. Strategy alternatives for homeland air and cruise missile defense.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eric M; Payne, Michael D; Vanderwoude, Glenn W

    2010-10-01

    Air and cruise missile defense of the U.S. homeland is characterized by a requirement to protect a large number of critical assets nonuniformly dispersed over a vast area with relatively few defensive systems. In this article, we explore strategy alternatives to make the best use of existing defense resources and suggest this approach as a means of reducing risk while mitigating the cost of developing and acquiring new systems. We frame the issue as an attacker-defender problem with simultaneous moves. First, we outline and examine the relatively simple problem of defending comparatively few locations with two surveillance systems. Second, we present our analysis and findings for a more realistic scenario that includes a representative list of U.S. critical assets. Third, we investigate sensitivity to defensive strategic choices in the more realistic scenario. As part of this investigation, we describe two complementary computational methods that, under certain circumstances, allow one to reduce large computational problems to a more manageable size. Finally, we demonstrate that strategic choices can be an important supplement to material solutions and can, in some cases, be a more cost-effective alternative.

  18. How to Overcome Defensive Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    After discussing the defensive response in interpersonal communications in organizations, the article presents eight communication techniques for improving organizational communication skills and thereby creating a more supportive organizational climate. (MF)

  19. Defense AT&L. Volume 43, Number 6, November-December 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    discovery of powerful new technologies in mobile health and trauma care . The Department of Defense has used head-to-head competitions in realistic...Success of Software Integration Testing Labs Christian Hagen, Steven Hurt and Andrew Williams The U.S. military is moving from a world dominated by...understand how to measure and test systems with data-driven metrics and easily measurable results. Avoiding Proprietary Problems— A Software Clean

  20. Defense Contracting: Early Attention in the Acquisition Process Needed to Enhance Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    rotor blade Vendor is the only approved source Yes Yes Noa $42,019,356 Ground effect vehicles, motor vehicles, trailers and cycles M1A1...maintenance of management software Lack of data rights Yes Yes Noa $3,053,289 Navy Ships, small craft, pontoons, and floating docks Submarine repair...services Unique technology Yes Yes Noa $222,300,000 Defense systems research and development Situational awareness and communications software

  1. Software for Better Documentation of Other Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinedo, John

    2003-01-01

    The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

  2. Theater Missile Defense Integration Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    high endoatmospheric defense interceptor (HEDI) proposed t earlier. EADTB. Extended Air Defense Test Bed. A computer-based analysis center for...for attacking deeper elements of an aggressors’s ground forces. Known in NATO as Follow-on Force Attack ( FOFA ). JSTARS. Joint surveillance target...AFIA/INKS ATTN. INKS AFIS/INT ATTN: INT AIR hORCE CTR FOR STUDIES & ANALYSIS ATTN: AFSAA/SAKI 9 Dist-1 w^mmmm mmmm^-mmmemH

  3. US Home Defense Forces Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Groups and Length of Service. ....... . . . 69 Figure 16- Connecticut State Guard Personnel, 1940-1945 - Losses August 1940-1944...sought authority to form a cohesive group . In the East mayors, businessmen, and professionals formed Committees for Public Safety, Home Defense...forces that could apply for such support was as shown in Figure 2. The difficulty of grouping the various types of home defense forces in the 48 states in

  4. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  5. CASE: Software design technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanov, G.N.

    1994-05-01

    CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) is a set of methodologies for software design, development, and maintenance supported by a complex of interconnected automation tools. CASE is a set of tools for the programmer, analyst, and developer for the automation of software design and development. Today, CASE has become an independent discipline in software engineering that has given rise to a powerful CASE industry made up of hundreds of firms and companies of various kinds. They include companies that develop tools for software analysis and design and have a wide network of distributors and dealers, firms that develop specialized tools for narrow subject areas or for individual stages of the software life cycle, firms that organize seminars and courses for specialists, consulting firms, which demonstrate the practical power of CASE toolkits for specific applications, and companies specializing in the publication of periodicals and bulletins on CASE. The principal purchasers of CASE toolkits abroad are military organizations, data-processing centers, and commercial software developers.

  6. Software Measurement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This Software Measurement Guidebook is based on the extensive experience of several organizations that have each developed and applied significant measurement programs over a period of at least 10 years. The lessons derived from those experiences reflect not only successes but also failures. By applying those lessons, an organization can minimize, or at least reduce, the time, effort, and frustration of introducing a software measurement program. The Software Measurement Guidebook is aimed at helping organizations to begin or improve a measurement program. It does not provide guidance for the extensive application of specific measures (such as how to estimate software cost or analyze software complexity) other than by providing examples to clarify points. It does contain advice for establishing and using an effective software measurement program and for understanding some of the key lessons that other organizations have learned. Some of that advice will appear counterintuitive, but it is all based on actual experience. Although all of the information presented in this guidebook is derived from specific experiences of mature measurement programs, the reader must keep in mind that the characteristics of every organization are unique. Some degree of measurement is critical for all software development and maintenance organizations, and most of the key rules captured in this report will be generally applicable. Nevertheless, each organization must strive to understand its own environment so that the measurement program can be tailored to suit its characteristics and needs.

  7. 77 FR 10976 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  8. 78 FR 30232 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 204 and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  9. 78 FR 41331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  10. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 215 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  11. The Company Approach to Software Engineering Project Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, D.; Sandahl, K.; Abu Baker, M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching larger software engineering project courses at the end of a computing curriculum is a way for students to learn some aspects of real-world jobs in industry. Such courses, often referred to as capstone courses, are effective for learning how to apply the skills they have acquired in, for example, design, test, and configuration management.…

  12. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  13. Defensive Practice as ‘Fear-Based’ Practice: Social Work's Open Secret?

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Andrew; Havard, Tirion

    2016-01-01

    Defensive practice has received attention through the Munro review of child protection, which has identified that current organisational cultures increase the likelihood of defensive practice. Whilst the wider socio-political climate that gives rise to defensive practice has been explored within the literature, little attention has been paid to the everyday realities of defensive practice. This paper reports the findings of a study into final year social work students' attitudes towards defensive practice within social work. Three focus groups were completed with a total of ninety final-year students that collected qualitative and quantitative data using interactive software. This paper examines how participants perceived defensive practice, both in general and when faced with real-life vignettes. Participants distinguished between pro-active behaviour (sins of commission) and passive behaviour (sins of omission), generally regarding the latter as less serious because it was less tangible and easier to attribute to more positive motives. Whilst the literature identifies defensive practice as deliberate behaviour, the focus group discussions suggest that it is a subtler and less conscious process. Whilst there was there was a general consensus about the nature of defensive practice, there was considerable disagreement about specific vignettes and several competing explanations are explored. PMID:27559220

  14. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  15. 75 FR 33587 - Defense Science Board; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Correction AGENCY: Department of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice... 32416) announcing a meeting of the Defense Science Board Task Force. In one instance the notice... meeting of the Defense Science Board Task Force on the Survivability of DoD Systems and Assets...

  16. 29 CFR 1630.15 - Defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defenses. 1630.15 Section 1630.15 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.15 Defenses. Defenses to an allegation of... charges. It may be a defense to a charge of disparate treatment brought under §§ 1630.4 through 1630.8...

  17. 47 CFR 1.6005 - Exclusive defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusive defenses. 1.6005 Section 1.6005... Against Satellite Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent § 1.6005 Exclusive defenses. (a) The defenses listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section, are the only defenses available to...

  18. 47 CFR 1.6005 - Exclusive defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exclusive defenses. 1.6005 Section 1.6005... Against Satellite Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent § 1.6005 Exclusive defenses. (a) The defenses listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section, are the only defenses available to...

  19. DEFENSE INDUSTRY PROFIT REVIEW: VOLUME 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Summary findings (comparison of profit on defense business with profit on commercial business, analysis of defense profits , capital market...analysis); Profit /capital investment ratios and capital investment turnover; Profit /sales ratios ( profit by type of business (defense/ commercial ... profit by type contract); Department of Defense profit review system; Unallowable and nonrecoverable costs; Capital market analysis; Discussions with

  20. 1985-1986 American defense annual

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.E.; Kruzel, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Perspectivfes; U.S. defense strategy: A debate; The Defense budget; Strategic forces; Theater forces: U.S. Defense policy in NATO: Seapower and projection forces; Manpower; Organization and management; Arms control; The Strategic Defense Initiative; and Low-intensity conflict, the strategic challenge.

  1. Defense Science Board Task Force on Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition, Technology , and Logistics Washington, D.C. 20301-3140 20051201 017 This report is a product of the...DEFENSE PENTAGON WASHINGTON, DC 20301-3140 DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD MEMORANDUM FOR UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY , AND LOGISTICS...27 V. End-to-End Framework ..................................................... 28 CHAPTER 2. MOBILITY TECHNOLOGIES

  2. Management systems and software.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    2001-02-01

    To ensure that your software optimizes your practice management systems, design systems that allow you and your team to achieve your goals and provide high levels of quality dentistry and customer service to your patients. Then use your current software system or purchase a new practice management software program that will allow your practice to operate within the guidelines of the systems which you have established. You can be certain that taking these steps will allow you to practice dentistry with maximum profitability and minimum stress for the remainder of your career.

  3. Ascent/Descent Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Charles; Andrew, Robert; Roe, Scott; Frye, Ronald; Harvey, Michael; Vu, Tuan; Balachandran, Krishnaiyer; Bly, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Software Suite has been used to support a variety of NASA Shuttle Program mission planning and analysis activities, such as range safety, on the Integrated Planning System (IPS) platform. The Ascent/Descent Software Suite, containing Ascent Flight Design (ASC)/Descent Flight Design (DESC) Configuration items (Cis), lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle ascent and entry modeling analysis and mission design, resides on IPS/Linux workstations. A list of tools in Navigation (NAV)/Prop Software Suite represents tool versions established during or after the IPS Equipment Rehost-3 project.

  4. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  5. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  6. Towards a software profession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1986-01-01

    An increasing number of programmers have attempted to change their image. They have made it plain that they wish not only to be taken seriously, but they also wish to be regarded as professionals. Many programmers now wish to referred to as software engineers. If programmers wish to be considered professionals in every sense of the word, two obstacles must be overcome: the inability to think of software as a product, and the idea that little or no skill is required to create and handle software throughout its life cycle. The steps to be taken toward professionalization are outlined along with recommendations.

  7. Error Free Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  8. CNEOST Control Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhao, H. B.; Xia, Y.; Lu, H.; Li, B.

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the message passing mechanism via WebSocket protocol, and improves its flexibility, expansibility, and scalability. The user interface with responsive web design realizes the remote operating under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operating of software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  9. Advanced fingerprint verification software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradarani, A.; Taylor, J. R. B.; Severin, F.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a fingerprint software package that can be used in a wide range of applications from law enforcement to public and private security systems, and to personal devices such as laptops, vehicles, and door- locks. The software and processing units are a unique implementation of new and sophisticated algorithms that compete with the current best systems in the world. Development of the software package has been in line with the third generation of our ultrasonic fingerprinting machine1. Solid and robust performance is achieved in the presence of misplaced and low quality fingerprints.

  10. Software quality assurance handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    There are two important reasons for Software Quality Assurance (SQA) at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD): First, the benefits from SQA make good business sense. Second, the Department of Energy has requested SQA. This handbook is one of the first steps in a plant-wide implementation of Software Quality Assurance at KCD. The handbook has two main purposes. The first is to provide information that you will need to perform software quality assurance activities. The second is to provide a common thread to unify the approach to SQA at KCD. 2 figs.

  11. Software architecture and engineering for patient records: current and future.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Levine, Betty A; Mun, Seong K

    2009-05-01

    During the "The National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," a track focusing on "Systems Architecture and Software Engineering" included eight presenters. These presenters identified three key areas of interest in this field, which include the need for open enterprise architecture and a federated database design, net centrality based on service-oriented architecture, and the need for focus on software usability and reusability. The eight panelists provided recommendations related to the suitability of service-oriented architecture and the enabling technologies of grid computing and Web 2.0 for building health services research centers and federated data warehouses to facilitate large-scale collaborative health care and research. Finally, they discussed the need to leverage industry best practices for software engineering to facilitate rapid software development, testing, and deployment.

  12. A Novel Software Evolution Model Based on Software Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weifeng; Li, Bing; Ma, Yutao; Liu, Jing

    Many published papers analyzed the forming mechanisms and evolution laws of OO software systems from software reuse, software pattern, etc. There, however, have been fewer models so far merely built on the software components such as methods, classes, etc. and their interactions. In this paper, a novel Software Evolution Model based on Software Networks (called SEM-SN) is proposed. It uses software network at class level to represent software systems, and uses software network’s dynamical generating process to simulate activities in real software development process such as new classes’ dynamical creations and their dynamical interactions with already existing classes. It also introduces the concept of node/edge ageing to describe the decaying of classes with time. Empirical results on eight open-source Object-Oriented (OO) software systems demonstrate that SCM-SN roughly describes the evolution process of software systems and the emergence of their complex network characteristics.

  13. PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  14. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  15. Investing in Software Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Investing in Software Sustainment Robert Ferguson, Software Engineering...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investing in Software Sustainment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In many government weapon systems, sustaining software depends heavily on organic engineering efforts. This is different

  16. Software For Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steve E.

    1992-01-01

    SPLICER computer program is genetic-algorithm software tool used to solve search and optimization problems. Provides underlying framework and structure for building genetic-algorithm application program. Written in Think C.

  17. Software for FASTBUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, E. M.

    1989-11-01

    FASTBUS is an international standard high-speed bus system for data acquisition and processing. It is used by several large high-energy physics experiments. Mandatory bus protocols and programmable system features permit sophisticated configurations of embedded and external processors to operate coherently. The associated software should support: all defined modes of bus access, test facilities for hardware development, fault diagnosis for device and system debugging, automated configuration and initialisation of large systems, and distributed data collection and processing. An overview of the definition and design of FASTBUS software is presented. The need for and use of software engineering methods is outlined. Basic concepts are illustrated by examples at the bus and system levels, with emphasis on general purpose, experiment-independent software.

  18. Effectiveness of Software Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    quantitative measures of these factors. A useful analysis of the perception of software sustainment support within the Army C4ISR community is possible...6 Unit of Analysis and Research...6 Data Collection and Statistical Analysis

  19. Economics of software utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the reuse principle to software (use of methods, concepts, or system components in a context or a situation which is different from that originally envisaged in the development phase) requires solving many problems of technical, economic, organizational, and legal nature. At present, it is the technical problems of reuse that are receiving the greater attention. Economic aspects of reuse, which are the subject of this paper, are only beginning to be studied. In our analysis, an integrated approach to the economics of software recycling suggests three models that can be applied to examine reusability. Section 1 characterizes the application of the reuse principle in software systems. Section 2 identifies the factors which are relevant for reuse. Section 3 briefly describes the main processes of reuse. Section 4 presents the metrics for the evaluation of reuse models. Section 5 examines the reuse models, and Section 6 presents some recommendations for reducing the development costs of reusable software.

  20. A Symphony of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Offers a descriptive table of databases that help higher education institutions orchestrate advancement operations. Information includes vendor, contact, software, price, database engine/server platform, recommended reporting tools, record capacity, and client type. (EV)

  1. Writing Instructional Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Marian; Moose, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the main categories of instructional software, including drill/practice, tutorials, simulation/problem solving, games, and management, along with factors involved in their design. (Author/MBR)

  2. Computer Center: Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhrkopf, Richard, Ed.; Belshe, John F., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a software package, "Mitosis-Meiosis," available for Apple II or IBM computers with colorgraphics capabilities. Describes the documentation, presentation and flexibility of the program. Rates the program based on graphics and usability in a biology classroom. (CW)

  3. Error-Free Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    001 is an integrated tool suited for automatically developing ultra reliable models, simulations and software systems. Developed and marketed by Hamilton Technologies, Inc. (HTI), it has been applied in engineering, manufacturing, banking and software tools development. The software provides the ability to simplify the complex. A system developed with 001 can be a prototype or fully developed with production quality code. It is free of interface errors, consistent, logically complete and has no data or control flow errors. Systems can be designed, developed and maintained with maximum productivity. Margaret Hamilton, President of Hamilton Technologies, also directed the research and development of USE.IT, an earlier product which was the first computer aided software engineering product in the industry to concentrate on automatically supporting the development of an ultrareliable system throughout its life cycle. Both products originated in NASA technology developed under a Johnson Space Center contract.

  4. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  5. Software Solutions for ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, G. J.; Engstrom, A.; Bernhardt, R.; Prahl, U.; Adam, L.; Seyfarth, J.; Apel, M.; de Saracibar, C. Agelet; Korzhavyi, P.; Ågren, J.; Patzak, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Computational Materials Engineering expert group (ICMEg), a coordination activity of the European Commission, aims at developing a global and open standard for information exchange between the heterogeneous varieties of numerous simulation tools. The ICMEg consortium coordinates respective developments by a strategy of networking stakeholders in the first International Workshop on Software Solutions for ICME, compiling identified and relevant software tools into the Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, discussing strategies for interoperability between different software tools during a second (planned) international workshop, and eventually proposing a scheme for standardized information exchange in a future book or document. The present article summarizes these respective actions to provide the ICME community with some additional insights and resources from which to help move this field forward.

  6. Tier2 Submit Software

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Download this tool for Windows or Mac, which helps facilities prepare a Tier II electronic chemical inventory report. The data can also be exported into the CAMEOfm (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) emergency planning software.

  7. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as

  8. Clinical impact of RehaCom software for cognitive rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Elízabeth; Bringas, María Luisa; Salazar, Sonia; Rodríguez, Daymí; García, María Eugenia; Torres, Maydané

    2012-10-01

    We describe the clinical impact of the RehaCom computerized cognitive training program instituted in the International Neurological Restoration Center for rehabilitation of brain injury patients. Fifty patients admitted from 2008 through 2010 were trained over 60 sessions. Attention and memory functions were assessed with a pre- and post-treatment design, using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Memory Scale and Trail Making Test (Parts A and B). Negative effects were assessed, including mental fatigue, headache and eye irritation. The program's clinical usefulness was confirmed, with 100% of patients showing improved performance in trained functions.

  9. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jack C.; Appel, Heidi M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Arnold, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals) to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness. PMID:23986767

  10. Statistical Software Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    engineers, scientists, and statisticians The most important findings are: What is needed to address the challenge of cost- effectively building huge...MOST IMPORTANT RESULTS What is needed to address the challenge of cost- effectively building huge high- quality software systems is productive...information across software engineering projects as a means of evaluating effects of technology, language, organization, and process. CONTENTS OF THIS REPORT

  11. Public Key FPGA Software

    SciTech Connect

    Hymel, Ross

    2013-07-25

    The Public Key (PK) FPGA software performs asymmetric authentication using the 163-bit Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) on an embedded FPGA platform. A digital signature is created on user-supplied data, and communication with a host system is performed via a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. Software includes all components necessary for signing, including custom random number generator for key creation and SHA-256 for data hashing.

  12. Open Source Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Agency’s XMM-Newton Observatory, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and others. These are three highly visible astrophysics research projects whose...In scientific fields like astrophysics that critically depend on software, open source is considered an essential precondition for research to...space are made, this in turn often leads to modification, extension, and new versions of the astronomical software in use that enable astrophysical

  13. Software Architecture Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    viii Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Motivating example...211 xii 1 Introduction Architectural change is commonplace in real-world software systems. However, today’s software architects have few tools to help...the target architecture (the intended design to which the system must evolve) 1 1 Introduction are known. In fact, of course, this is often not the case

  14. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    acquisition and development of software-reliant systems . Novak has more than 25 years of experience with real-time embedded software product development...Problem Poor acquisition program performance inhibits military performance by depriving the warfighter of critical systems to achieve mission...objectives • Delayed systems withhold needed capabilities • Wasted resources drain funding needed for new systems Acquisitions fail for both technical

  15. Biological imaging software tools.

    PubMed

    Eliceiri, Kevin W; Berthold, Michael R; Goldberg, Ilya G; Ibáñez, Luis; Manjunath, B S; Martone, Maryann E; Murphy, Robert F; Peng, Hanchuan; Plant, Anne L; Roysam, Badrinath; Stuurman, Nico; Stuurmann, Nico; Swedlow, Jason R; Tomancak, Pavel; Carpenter, Anne E

    2012-06-28

    Few technologies are more widespread in modern biological laboratories than imaging. Recent advances in optical technologies and instrumentation are providing hitherto unimagined capabilities. Almost all these advances have required the development of software to enable the acquisition, management, analysis and visualization of the imaging data. We review each computational step that biologists encounter when dealing with digital images, the inherent challenges and the overall status of available software for bioimage informatics, focusing on open-source options.

  16. Biological Imaging Software Tools

    PubMed Central

    Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Berthold, Michael R.; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Ibáñez, Luis; Manjunath, B.S.; Martone, Maryann E.; Murphy, Robert F.; Peng, Hanchuan; Plant, Anne L.; Roysam, Badrinath; Stuurman, Nico; Swedlow, Jason R.; Tomancak, Pavel; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Few technologies are more widespread in modern biological laboratories than imaging. Recent advances in optical technologies and instrumentation are providing hitherto unimagined capabilities. Almost all these advances have required the development of software to enable the acquisition, management, analysis, and visualization of the imaging data. We review each computational step that biologists encounter when dealing with digital images, the challenges in that domain, and the overall status of available software for bioimage informatics, focusing on open source options. PMID:22743775

  17. Self-Healing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Serugendo, Giovanna Di Marzo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Self-Awareness as an Aspect of Self-Healing * A Working Taxonomy for Software Self-Healing * Failures, errors and faults * Approaches to Software Self-Healing * Self-healing at code level * Self-healing through self-organisation * Self-healing based on policies * Architectures for self-healing * Model-based solutions for self-healing * Discussion and Conclusion

  18. Foundations for Software Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Psychological acceptability: It is essential that the human interface be designed for ease of use, so that users routinely and automatically apply...industries such as banking, medicine and retail . Software assurance is the commonly used term to describe this broader context. The Committee on...Service points out that, ‘The pipeline of new talent [with the skills to ensure the security of software systems] is inadequate. . . . only 40 percent

  19. Awake Animal Imaging Motion Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, James

    2010-03-15

    The Awake Animal Motion Tracking Software code calculates the 3D movement of the head motion of a live, awake animal during a medical imaging scan. In conjunction with markers attached to the head, images acquired from multiple cameras are processed and marker locations precisely determined. Using off-line camera calibration data, the 3D positions of the markers are calculated along with a 6 degree of freedom position and orientation (pose) relative to a fixed initial position. This calculation is performed in real time at frame rates up to 30 frames per second. A time stamp with microsecond accuracy from a time base source is attached to each pose measurement.

  20. Software for Managing an Archive of Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallai, Charles; Jones, Helene; Callac, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This is a revised draft by Innovators concerning the report on Software for Managing and Archive of Images.The SSC Multimedia Archive is an automated electronic system to manage images, acquired both by film and digital cameras, for the Public Affairs Office (PAO) at Stennis Space Center (SSC). Previously, the image archive was based on film photography and utilized a manual system that, by todays standards, had become inefficient and expensive. Now, the SSC Multimedia Archive, based on a server at SSC, contains both catalogs and images for pictures taken both digitally and with a traditional film-based camera, along with metadata about each image.