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Sample records for acquiring human immunodeficiency

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities. PMID:27394024

  2. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis. PMID:26676359

  3. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  4. Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes. PMID:15744406

  5. The Effects of a Kansas Education Class on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, R. Warren, Jr.

    This study was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade Kansas students pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Attitudes and knowledge of 9th and 10th grade students who had participated in a Sex Respect Class offered in the 9th grade were compared…

  6. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression. PMID:26962942

  7. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  8. Epstein-Barr and human immunodeficiency viruses in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Morgello, S.

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma was examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors was used as substrate for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Targets for amplification were the EBNA-1 region of EBV, the gag region of HIV, and a single copy cellular sequence as a control. The cases studied were autopsy and surgical specimens collected between the years 1985 and 1989. By the working formulation for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, five had large cell, four had mixed large and small cleaved cell, two had small cleaved cell, and one had an unclassified histology. Epstein-Barr virus was detected in 6 of 12 tumors studied. Human immunodeficiency virus was not detected in any of the tumors. The presence of EBV was not correlated with any particular histologic tumor type. It is concluded that EBV, not HIV, can be detected in a large percentage (50%) of AIDS-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas. This viral association may be significant in light of the demonstrated ability of EBV to induce lymphoid tumors in experimental mammalian systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1323221

  9. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elizabeth; Rieux, Véronique; Guillet, Jean-Gérard; Kazatchkine, Michel

    2005-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS) has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac) containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins). ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides. PMID:15867969

  10. South Asian Consensus Guidelines for the rational management of diabetes in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Raza, Syed Abbas; Bantwal, Ganpathy; Baruah, Manash P.; Latt, Tint Swe; Shrestha, Dina; John, Mathew; Katulanda, Prasad; Somasundaram, Noel; Sahay, Rakesh; Pathan, Faruque

    2011-01-01

    As newer methods of management are made available, and accessible, survival rates with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasing. This means that chronic, metabolic complications of HIV are becoming more frequent in clinical practice, as acute morbidity is controlled. Management of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is gradually expanding to include these chronic and metabolic complications of the disease, and the adverse effects associated with its treatments, including diabetes. Unfortunately, no guidelines are available to help the medical practitioners choose appropriate therapy for patients with these conditions. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with HIV. The development of these guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. These guidelines and associated review of literature represent a compilation of available knowledge regarding rational management of diabetes in HIV. Patients of diabetes with concomitant HIV infection are managed optimally with insulin therapy and judicious use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with suitable alternatives is also recommended. These guidelines should prove helpful to physicians, not only in South Asia, but also across the globe, while managing patients with coexistent HIV and diabetes. PMID:22028994

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Using drug from mathematical perceptive

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Amar Nath; Saha, Shubhankar; Roy, Priti Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Entry of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus into the host immune cell involves the participation of various components of host and viral cell unit. These components may be categorized as attachment of the viral surface envelope protein subunit, gp120, to the CD4+ receptor and chemokine coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, present on T cell surface. The viral fusion protein, gp41, the second cleaved subunit of Env undergoes reconfiguration and the membrane fusion reaction itself. Since the CD4+ T cell population is actively involved; the ultimate outcome of human immunodeficiency virus infection is total collapse of the host immune system. Mathematical modeling of the stages in viral membrane protein-host cell receptor-coreceptor interaction and the effect of antibody vaccine on the viral entry into the susceptible host cell has been carried out using as impulsive differential equations. We have studied the effect of antibody vaccination and determined analytically the threshold value of drug dosage and dosing interval for optimum levels of infection. We have also investigated the effect of perfect adherence of drug dose on the immune cell count in extreme cases and observed that systematic drug dosage of the immune cells leads to longer and improved lives. PMID:26568917

  12. The spatial distribution pattern of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Yongli; Shi, Xuezhong; Mao, Saicai; Shi, Nian; Hui, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) exhibit variable patterns among the provinces of China. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is needed for the prevention and control of AIDS. Thus, the cumulative number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS from the period 1985-2013, and the incidence rate of AIDS in 2013 were determined. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and hotspot analysis were conducted using ArcGIS10.2 to explore the spatial distribution of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Both the thematic map and the global spatial autocorrelation Moran's I statistics revealed a clustered distribution of the spatial pattern. A local spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated hotspots of AIDS incidence rate that were confined to the provinces of Guangxi, Yunnan and Sichuan. The hotspots encompassed Guangxi and Yunnan, while Henan Province displayed a negative autocorrelation with more variable numbers that included neighbouring regions. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistics identified 6 hotspots and 8 coldspots for the incidence of AIDS, and 7 hotspots and 1 coldspot for the cumulative number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS. The spatial distribution pattern of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China is clustered, demonstrating hotspots located in the Southwest. Specific interventions targeting provinces with severe HIV/AIDS epidemic are urgently needed. PMID:27245799

  13. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  14. Purinergic signaling and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: From viral entry to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Daniela F; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela BR

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious condition associated to severe immune dysfunction and immunodeficiency. Mechanisms involved in HIV-associated immune activation, inflammation and loss of CD4+ T cells have been extensively studied, including those concerning purinergic signaling pathways. Purinergic signaling components are involved in viral entry and replication and disease progression. Research involving the participation of purinergic signaling in HIV infection has been not only important to elucidate disease mechanisms but also to introduce new approaches to therapy. The involvement of purinergic signaling in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and its implications in the control of the HIV infection are reviewed in this paper. PMID:26279989

  15. What High School Students Who Are Mildly Mentally Retarded Know about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Hazel B.; Horn, Charles J., Jr.

    Alabama high school students (N=309) with mild mental retardation completed a questionnaire concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and sources of information about human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Students demonstrated some basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and expressed some concern about getting AIDS. They…

  16. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection. PMID:27515208

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: neuroradiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W M; Brant-Zawadzki, M

    1983-11-01

    Central nervous system complications depicted by CT in ten patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are described. Three patients had multifocal intra-axial enhancing lesions representing atypical brain abscesses (two with toxoplasmosis, one with candidiasis). A fourth patient with multifocal "ring" lesions whose biopsy was interpreted as suggestive of toxoplasmosis responded poorly to treatment. Following his death three months later of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, autopsy revealed primary intracerebral immunoblastic lymphoma. One patient had Kaposi sarcoma involving the right frontal lobe (seen as an enhancing mass on the CT scan). CT findings in the remaining five patients revealed mild to moderate enlargement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces (including ventricles and basal cisternae) as a result of cryptococcal meningitis in three patients and "aseptic" meningitis in two. The two patients in whom early biopsy confirmed toxoplasmosis responded well to anti-infective therapy, resulting in dramatic clinical recoveries. PMID:6622693

  18. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate and acquired immunity

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Mercedes; Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, Clotilde; Girón-González, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. Consequently, increased morbidity and mortality must be expected in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Disrupted gut barrier lead to an increased passage of microbial products and to an activation of the mucosal immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators, which in turn might increase barrier dysfunction. In the present review, the intestinal barrier structure, measures of intestinal barrier dysfunction and the modifications of them in HIV monoinfection and in HIV-HCV coinfection will be considered. Both pathogenesis and the consequences for the progression of liver disease secondary to gut microbial fragment leakage and immune activation will be assessed. PMID:26819512

  19. Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Cancer: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rajendiran, Smrithi; Kashyap, Meghana V.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the “Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer”. Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing “Comorbidities and Treatment”, “Public Health Perspectives”, and “Best Practices”. This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers. PMID:24227993

  20. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including indepth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions. PMID:24527744

  1. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Seyed Ramin; Sedaghat, Abbas; Banihashemi, Arash Tehrani; Gouya, Mohammadmehdi; Rawson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:25489445

  2. Attitudes of Baccalaureate Nursing Students toward Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome According to Mode of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrea M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Nursing students (n=236) completed the AIDS Knowledge Scale and AIDS Attitude Scale. Results showed most stigma attached to AIDS acquired through drug use or sexual contact, the least through maternal transmission or blood transfusion. Demographic characteristics did not influence attitudes. (SK)

  3. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  4. Shigellosis in Subjects with Traveler's Diarrhea Versus Domestically Acquired Diarrhea: Implications for Antimicrobial Therapy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toro, Carlos; Arroyo, Ana; Sarria, Ana; Iglesias, Nuria; Enríquez, Ana; Baquero, Margarita; de Guevara, Concepción Ladrón

    2015-09-01

    An increase of sexually transmitted shigellosis is currently being reported in developed countries. In addition, travel-related shigellosis can introduce resistant strains that could be disseminated within this new scenario. Epidemiological features and antimicrobial susceptibility of shigellosis depending on where infection was acquired were investigated. From 2008 to 2013, subjects with shigellosis were studied. Patients were classified according to acquisition of Shigella as traveler's diarrhea (TD) or domestically acquired diarrhea (DAD). Ninety cases of shigellosis were identified: 76 corresponding to the TD group and 14 to the DAD group. In the DAD group, most of patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), being shigellosis associated to male sex (P = 0.007) and HIV infection (P < 0.0001). S. sonnei (47.8%) and S. flexneri (42.2%) were the predominant species. The highest resistance was detected for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (81.8%), followed by ampicillin (AMP) (37.8%) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) (23.3%). Resistant Shigella strains were more frequent in subjects with TD than those with DAD, although only for CIP the difference was significant (P = 0.034). Continuous monitoring of patients with shigellosis is necessary to control the spread of resistant Shigella strains and for effective therapy. Men with shigellosis who have not traveled to an endemic area should be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26195465

  5. Shigellosis in Subjects with Traveler's Diarrhea versus Domestically Acquired Diarrhea: Implications for Antimicrobial Therapy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Carlos; Sarria, Ana Arroyo, Ana; Iglesias, Nuria; Enríquez, Ana; Baquero, Margarita; de Guevara, Concepción Ladrón

    2015-01-01

    An increase of sexually transmitted shigellosis is currently being reported in developed countries. In addition, travel-related shigellosis can introduce resistant strains that could be disseminated within this new scenario. Epidemiological features and antimicrobial susceptibility of shigellosis depending on where infection was acquired were investigated. From 2008 to 2013, subjects with shigellosis were studied. Patients were classified according to acquisition of Shigella as traveler's diarrhea (TD) or domestically acquired diarrhea (DAD). Ninety cases of shigellosis were identified: 76 corresponding to the TD group and 14 to the DAD group. In the DAD group, most of patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), being shigellosis associated to male sex (P = 0.007) and HIV infection (P < 0.0001). S. sonnei (47.8%) and S. flexneri (42.2%) were the predominant species. The highest resistance was detected for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (81.8%), followed by ampicillin (AMP) (37.8%) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) (23.3%). Resistant Shigella strains were more frequent in subjects with TD than those with DAD, although only for CIP the difference was significant (P = 0.034). Continuous monitoring of patients with shigellosis is necessary to control the spread of resistant Shigella strains and for effective therapy. Men with shigellosis who have not traveled to an endemic area should be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26195465

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  7. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among

  9. A Case Series of Acquired Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children: An Emerging Public Health Concern in Rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gamell, Anna; Muri, Lukas; Ntamatungiro, Alex; Nyogea, Daniel; Luwanda, Lameck B.; Hatz, Christoph; Battegay, Manuel; Felger, Ingrid; Tanner, Marcel; Klimkait, Thomas; Letang, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of drug-resistance mutations among African children living with in human immunodeficiency virus on antiretroviral treatment has been scarcely reported. This threatens the overall success of antiretroviral programs and the clinical outcomes of children in care. We present a well characterized series of children from rural Tanzania with acquired drug-resistance mutations to contribute to the better understanding of this emerging public health concern. PMID:26807427

  10. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions. PMID:26872341

  11. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions. PMID:26872341

  12. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills. PMID:1450349

  13. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia. PMID:2132469

  14. Influence of the greenhouse effect on human health through stratospheric cooling: Possible increase in acquired immunodeficient syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Kazuto; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Shin

    1996-09-01

    The greenhouse effect cools the stratosphere and increases formation of PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) in polar regions and enhances ozone depletion. If the enhanced ozone depletion diffused to lower latitudes, it could increase ultraviolet radiation (UV), which might increase acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemiological studies are made to test this hypothesis. The relation between AIDS prevalence R and latitude {theta}. Comparison of analyses shows that R of Caucasians would be higher than Non-Caucasians at the same {theta}. These trends are similar to those of skin cancers known to be caused by UV. In developing countries poverty, malnutrition, etc., could cause high R, and since most developing countries are located at low {theta}, the low {theta} increase may be due to these factors. However if so in Africa they are about the same and the low {theta} increase would disappear, but data on African countries also show the low {theta} increase and the significant correlation. Some countries at low {theta} have low R, probably because HIV is not prevalent for them. Then the upper envelope of the distribution of R would be cases when HIV is prevalent and UV is most effective. Therefore analyses are repeated using maxima of R within intervals of {theta} of 1, 3 and 5{degree}. In all cases the low {theta} increase and the correlation becomes more significant. These results support the hypothesis that AIDS is promoted by UV.

  15. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  16. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Stahl, R E; el-Sadr, W; Cassai, N D; Forrester, E M; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1985-04-01

    Blood and a variety of tissues from 97 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 25 with the AIDS prodrome were studied ultrastructurally. Tubuloreticular structures (TRS) were found in 85 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 92 per cent of those with the prodrome. Test tube and ring-shaped forms (TRF), found in 41 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 8 per cent of those with the prodrome, increased with disease progression. Among the patients with AIDS, as the number of sites examined per case increased, the incidence of TRS and TRF tended to approach 100 per cent, suggesting that they are present in all patients with AIDS. Other changes seen frequently were immunologic capping of blood lymphocytes, intramitochondrial iron in blood reticulocytes and marrow normoblasts, megakaryocytic immaturity and platelet phagocytosis, collections of membranous rings in hepatocytic cytoplasm, suggestive of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and proliferations and engorgement of hepatic Ito cells with lipid. The data suggest that TRS and TRF can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. PMID:3872253

  17. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  18. The First Case of Vestibulocochlear Neuritis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chin Saeng; Kim, Nak Min; Yun, Su A

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea. PMID:27433384

  19. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  20. Psychopathology in 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients with mostly intravenous drug use history.

    PubMed

    Perretta, P; Nisita, C; Zaccagnini, E; Lorenzetti, C; Nuccorini, A; Cassano, G B; Akiskal, H S

    1996-01-01

    This report presents systematic clinical data regarding psychiatric diagnoses, personal and family psychiatric histories, and symptomatologic aspects of 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, of whom slightly less than two thirds were at risk due to intravenous drug abuse. In addition, a comparison was made between the distribution patterns of these variables at various stages of HIV illness and related at-risk behaviors. Eighty-four percent of the patients met criteria for a spectrum of DSM-III-R diagnoses (mostly affective) that were associated with high rates of affective and alcohol abuse disorders among first-degree relatives. Mood disorders did not differ significantly between the two main groups at risk (intravenous drug users [IVDUs] v others) by gender, age, or stage of illness. The overall data from the rating scales show high levels of psychic and somatic anxiety in the early stages of illness, whereas cognitive symptoms, retardation, and disorientation are dominant in later stages. A noteworthy finding in this study is that many depressed patients demonstrated current and/or past hypomanic, hyperthymic, or cyclothymic features with no evidence of brain damage detectable by computed axial tomography (CAT). These temperamental attributes, which preceded HIV infection, may have served as risk factors for both drug abuse and impulsive sexual behavior in all types of at-risk groups. PMID:8826691

  1. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines. PMID:26577109

  2. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Chris G.; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the ‘docking’, first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one ‘final’ probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial ‘orientation’ of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the ‘final’ AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  3. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Chris G; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the 'docking', first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one 'final' probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial 'orientation' of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the 'final' AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target. PMID:27483476

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  5. Experience with rehabilitation in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, P G; Levinson, S F

    1991-08-01

    Patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represent a novel referral population for rehabilitation services. Limited information about the rehabilitation needs of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection is available. We reviewed 51 consecutive patients with AIDS referred to a rehabilitation consult service. Common problems encountered included generalized deconditioning (27%) and neurologic dysfunction (45%). Neurologic presentations were diverse and included hemiparesis, diffuse cognitive dysfunction and dementia, myelopathy, myopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Other patients were referred for wound care as well as the management of the local effects of Kaposi's sarcoma, various musculoskeletal syndromes and new onset blindness. Problems identified included impaired mobility (76%), difficulty with self-care (57%), impaired cognition (29%) and uncontrolled pain (37%). Among the rehabilitation interventions utilized were therapeutic exercise (73%), gait aids (45%), bathroom and safety equipment (45%), orthotics (29%), vocational counseling (4%), pain management (29%) and whirlpool treatments (10%). Five patients were too ill or refused treatment. We conclude that AIDS patients referred for rehabilitation have a wide variety of physical deficits, demonstrate a considerable degree of functional impairment and may require multiple rehabilitation interventions. PMID:1878178

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, distribution of viral types and risk factors in cervical samples from human immunodeficiency virus-positive women attending three human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome reference centres in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barboza, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Maruza, Magda; Tenório, Terezinha; Ximenes, Ricardo AA

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have a greater prevalence of coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is of high oncogenic risk. Indeed, the presence of the virus favours intraepithelial squamous cell lesion progression and may induce cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection, distribution of HPV types and risk factors among HIV-positive patients. Cervical samples from 450 HIV-positive patients were analysed with regard to oncotic cytology, colposcopy and HPV presence and type by means of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results were analysed by comparing demographic data and data relating to HPV and HIV infection. The prevalence of HPV was 47.5%. Among the HPV-positive samples, 59% included viral types of high oncogenic risk. Multivariate analysis showed an association between HPV infection and the presence of cytological alterations (p = 0.003), age greater than or equal to 35 years (p = 0.002), number of partners greater than three (p = 0.002), CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 (p = 0.041) and alcohol abuse (p = 0.004). Although high-risk HPV was present in the majority of the lesions studied, the low frequency of HPV 16 (3.3%), low occurrence of cervical lesions and preserved immunological state in most of the HIV-positive patients were factors that may explain the low occurrence of precancerous cervical lesions in this population. PMID:25317701

  7. Influence of the home environment on the prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sewnunan, A; Modiba, L M

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a 'family crises' which marks the beginning of the deterioration of the family unit and the trauma in the emotional, psychological and material lives of both the mother and child. In South African context where the majority of HIV-positive mothers are young single women who live in extended families, disclosure to the sexual partner alone is not an adequate condition for the success of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In South Africa, close to one in three women who attend antenatal clinics are HIV positive. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the worst affected provinces, where as many as 40-60% of pregnant women attending antenatal services are living with HIV infection. The study sought to investigate the link between the home environment and its contribution to the success of the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was used in this study to explore whether the home environment for the support system is available for the HIV-positive women on the PMTCT programme. The population of this study included all women who have undergone counselling and tested HIV positive and who have joined the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS in a specific hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Although 14 women agreed to participate in the study, only 10 women were interviewed as saturation was attained. Data were collected using semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Content analysis was used and it was done manually. This study revealed that one of the major issues still surrounding HIV/AIDS and PMTCT is that of non-disclosure, selective disclosure and the stigma and discrimination that surrounds this disease. PMID:26694631

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  9. Ocular examination and diagnosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gariano, R F; Rickman, L S; Freeman, W R

    1993-01-01

    Ocular involvement is seen frequently and is an important source of morbidity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We outline here the general skills of physical diagnosis valuable to primary care physicians or infectious diseases specialists in recognizing and evaluating ocular complaints in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. We provide an overview of common ocular diseases in these patients, with an emphasis on signs and symptoms that aid in the differential diagnosis. Images PMID:8384763

  10. Human B-cell interleukin-10: B-cell lines derived from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Burkitt's lymphoma constitutively secrete large quantities of interleukin-10.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, D; Knobloch, T J; Dayton, M A

    1992-09-01

    A recent addition to the lymphokine network is human IL-10 (hIL-10). This novel lymphokine has striking homology to BCRF1 protein, the product of a previously uncharacterized open-reading frame in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. To date, IL-10 expression has been described in several T clones induced with anti-CD3 and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), in monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in murine B-cell lymphomas. We sought to determine whether human B cells express hIL-10 and, if so, its relationship to EBV and to other B-cell lymphokines. We studied 21 EBV-positive B-cell lines derived from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Burkitt's lymphoma (n = 6), American Burkitt's (n = 3), African Burkitt's (n = 5), and normal lymphoblastoid cell lines (n = 7), in comparison with seven EBV-negative cell lines. All cell lines were activated with the tumor promoters PMA and teleocidin and were studied by Northern blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). We demonstrated that EBV-positive cell lines derived from patients with American Burkitt's lymphoma, and especially those from patients with AIDS, constitutively express large quantities of hIL-10 by Northern blot analysis and ELISA (range, 3,101 to 25,915 pg/mL), and that both teleocidin and PMA induce hIL-10 in these cell lines. In contrast, six of seven EBV-negative cell lines did not express hIL-10 even by RT-PCR, and hIL-10 was not triggered by PMA or teleocidin. To assure that the 350 bp amplified by PCR was hIL-10 and not BCRF1, we used PCR primers, which do not amplify a fragment from plasmid templates containing BCRF1. Cloning and sequencing of the 350 bp product also demonstrated that B-cell IL-10 is identical to hIL-10 from the T-cell clone B21. Correlation of hIL-10 with other B-cell lymphokines secreted by these B-cell lines demonstrated that hIL-10 secretor cell lines also

  11. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  12. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  13. Clinical predictors of functioning in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I B; Cleary, P D

    1996-06-01

    To help clinicians better assess and treat functional disabilities in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors estimate empirical relations among biologic and physiologic variables, symptoms, and physical functioning in persons with AIDS. The sample of 305 persons with AIDS for this cross-sectional analysis came from three sites in Boston, Massachusetts: a hospital-based group practice, a human immunodeficiency virus clinic at a city hospital, and a staff-model health maintenance organization. Physical functioning, 10 AIDS-specific symptoms, and mental health were assessed by interview. Clinical diagnoses, comorbidities, health habits such as smoking, laboratory results, and selected medication use were assessed by chart review. Significant predictors of physical functioning P < 0.01, R2 = .58) in a multivariable regression model included energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, fever symptoms, a lower hemoglobin level, and current non-pneumonia bacterial infection. Ninety-six percent of the explained variance in physical functioning was accounted for by three symptom complexes: energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, and fever symptoms. Significant predictors of energy/fatigue in multivariable models included poorer mental health, lower white blood cell count, longer time since diagnosis, and weight loss (P < 0.01, R2 =.36). Significant predictors of neurologic symptoms included poorer mental health, weight loss, and no zidovudine use (P < 0.001, R2 = .30). Predictors of fever symptoms included poorer mental health, no zidovudine use, weight loss, and history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0.05, R2 = .25). In conclusion, symptom reports were strong predictors of physical functioning. Poorer mental health and weight loss were correlated consistently with worse symptoms, and not using zidovudine was correlated with worse neurologic and fever symptoms. These variables, and the others the authors identified, may represent

  14. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in three patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Hurissa, Zewdu; Diro, Ermias; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Kuhls, Katrin; Schönian, Gabriele; Hailu, Asrat

    2011-06-01

    We report paired strains of Leishmania parasites, one from the viscera and the other from skin lesions that were isolated from three patients with visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis that were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The causative parasites were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and by a panel of multilocus microsatellite markers. We demonstrated that the causative agent was Leishmania donovani in all cases, irrespective of the phenotype of the disease. The paired strains from viscera and skin lesions of the same patients showed genetic identity across the 14 microsatellite markers investigated. These findings demonstrate that the skin lesions in these human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis were caused by dissemination of viscerotropic L. donovani parasites as a consequence of severe immunosuppression. However, in all three patients, rapid clearance of the skin lesions was observed after antimonial therapy. PMID:21633027

  15. Prospective study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza and antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III in homosexual men. Selective loss of an influenza-specific, human leukocyte antigen-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in human T lymphotropic virus-III positive individuals with symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, G M; Salahuddin, S Z; Markham, P D; Joseph, L J; Payne, S M; Kriebel, P; Bernstein, D C; Biddison, W E; Sarngadharan, M G; Gallo, R C

    1985-01-01

    Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from 18 homosexual men who did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and from 9 heterosexual men were repetitively tested for their ability to generate HLA self-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza virus (flu-self) over a 2-yr period. The sera of the same donors were tested for antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III). Six of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors consistently generated weak cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to flu-self. Seven of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors were seropositive for antibodies to HTLV-III. No obvious correlation was detected between weak flu-self cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and antibodies to HTLV-III. However, one homosexual donor generated no detectable cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to flu-self, although he was a strong responder to HLA-alloantigens. This donor had an OKT4:OKT8 ratio of 0.4 and was seropositive for HTLV-III antigens; HTLV-III virus was identified in his PBL; and he developed AIDS during the course of this study. A second donor with lymphadenopathy and who was seropositive for HTLV-III antigens exhibited marginal cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to flu-self which he subsequently lost. PBL from two patients, one with Kaposi's sarcoma and one with generalized lymphadenopathy, were also tested for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to flu-self and to alloantigens. Both donors failed to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte to flu-self, but generated strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to alloantigens. The selective loss of an HLA-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response without loss of HLA alloantigenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity may be an important functional immunologic characteristic in the development of AIDS. PMID:2997287

  16. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  18. Rapidly progressed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex as an initial manifestation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Makoto; Nobukuni, Keigo; Takata, Hiroshi; Kawata, Noriko; Hayashibara, Noriko; Ishizu, Hideki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi

    2005-07-01

    We report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex (ADC) that presented human immunodeficiency virus infection as an initial manifestation. A 34-year-old man developed disturbance of consciousness and severe abulia over 3 months. The CD4 lymphocyte count was 7.9/microl, while human immunodeficiency virus RNA in blood amounted to 4.2 x 10(4) copies/ml. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusely high signal intensity in the deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres. On the 20th hospital day, the patient died of sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Autopsy findings in the brain included increased glial cells and multinucleated giant cells in cerebral white matter and subcortical gray matter. These features were compatible with ADC. PMID:16093602

  19. Recommendations for assisting in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    The majority of cases of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are transmitted perinatally. 165 (76%) of the cases of AIDS in children under 13 years of age reported as of December 1, 1985, in the US had as the only known risk factor a mother from a high-risk group. However, perinatal transmission from an infected mother to her infant is not automatic; studies have placed the rate of transmission from 0%-65%. A concern in addition to the risk posed to infants born to infected mothers is evidence of an increased likelihood of developing full-blown AIDS when infection with the AIDS virus occurs in association in pregnancy. Target groups for counseling and testing for antibodies to the AIDS virus should include pregnant women or those who may become pregnant who already have evidence of AIDS infection, are intravenous drug abusers, were born in countries where there is a high rate of heterosexual transmission of AIDS, are prostitutes, or are the sexual partners of men in high-risk groups. Such counseling and testing should be made available through the settings that women at increased risk frequent, including drug abuse treatment programs and sexually transmitted diseases clinics. Infected women should be advised to delay pregnancy until more is known about the perinatal transmission of AIDS. Pregnancy infected women should be closely monitored for the development of opportunistic infections as well as psychosocial difficulties. Although these recommendations pertain to women, men who are infected with the AIDS virus also should be counseled about risks of perinatal transmission. PMID:2999576

  20. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on oral manifestations of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. V. S. Eswara; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Kantheti, Lalith Prakash Chandra; Poosarla, Chandrasekhar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global health problem, although the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease into a manageable disease with improved quality-of-life mainly in the developed countries. Very few studies are available regarding effect of HAART on oral lesions in developing countries like India. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to document and compare oral lesions in HIV-seropositive patients before and after HAART. Materials and Methods: Oral manifestations were recorded in 320 HIV seropositive patients attending to the Voluntary Counseling and Confidential Testing Centre at the Government General Hospital, Guntur, before and after treating with HAART and the results were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Oral Candidiasis was significantly reduced in patients under HAART after 3 months. Furthermore, there was decreased incidence of periodontal diseases, but increased hyperpigmentation in patients undergoing HAART. Conclusion: The oral manifestations of HIV infection have changed due to the advent of HAART. Many opportunistic infections have resolved as a result of an improved immune system. Though the risk of hyperpigmentation in those with HAART has increased the prevalence of oral candidiasis and periodontal diseases were less in patients who had access to HAART. PMID:26392652

  1. Practical diagnostic testing for human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J B; Balfour, H H

    1988-01-01

    Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in 1983, there has been a proliferation of diagnostic tests. These assays can be used to detect the presence of HIV antibody, HIV antigen, HIV ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acids, and HIV reverse transcriptase. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blot, radioimmunoprecipitation assays, indirect immunofluorescence assays, reverse transcriptase assays, and several molecular hybridization techniques are currently available. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent, Western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence assays for HIV antibody are very sensitive, specific, and adaptable to most laboratories. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HIV antigen is also readily adaptable to most laboratories and will be commercially available soon. While the other assays are more tedious, they are valuable confirmatory tests and are suitable for reference laboratories. The biohazards of performing HIV testing can be minimized with proper biosafety measures. Images PMID:3060241

  2. [Hemiballismus disclosing cerebral toxoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Awada, A

    1993-01-01

    A 33-year-old Saudi woman presented with right hemiballismus of recent onset. Brain CT showed a left thalamo-subthalamic lesion which was thought initially to be a metastasis or a tuberculoma. The presence of severe subacute diarrhea, multiple lymphadenopathies and lymphopenia suggested an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Tests for HIV-1 infection were positive and, despite the absence of antitoxoplasma antibodies in the serum, antitoxoplasmic treatment by pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine was given. One and a half month later, both abnormal movements and CT images had disappeared. The probable source of HIV infection was imported packed red blood cells received by the patient 5 years earlier. Toxoplasmic brain abscess associated with AIDS should be considered as a possible cause of hemiballismus in young adult even in the regions where AIDS is still infrequent. PMID:8303164

  3. Head and neck presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, R A; Schneider, K L; Cohen, N L

    1984-05-01

    Since December 1980, over 2,000 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported. The charts of 72 patients admitted to the New York University Medical Center with a diagnosis of AIDS were reviewed with particular emphasis on presenting signs, symptoms and laboratory values. Symptoms tended to be non-specific and most often resembled an upper respiratory infection. Over 95% of the patients presented with either diffuse adenopathy, oral or facial lesions consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma, white oral lesions, or anergy. Laboratory findings included leukopenia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The in-hospital mortality rate was 26%. The current status of our knowledge concerning AIDS is reviewed and discussed. The frequency and types of presenting signs and symptoms in the head and neck are reported in order to alert the otolaryngologic community to this entity. PMID:6717222

  4. Head and neck presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, R A; Schneider, K L; Cohen, N L

    1985-12-01

    Since December 1980, over 3000 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported. The charts of 102 patients admitted to the New York University Medical Center with a diagnosis of AIDS were reviewed with particular emphasis on presenting signs, symptoms, and laboratory values. Symptoms tended to be nonspecific and most often resembled those of an upper respiratory infection. Over 71% of the patients presented with at least two of the following four signs: diffuse adenopathy, oral and facial lesions consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma, white oral lesions, and anergy. Laboratory findings included leukopenia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. The in-hospital mortality rate was 26%. The current status of our knowledge concerning AIDS is reviewed and discussed. The frequency and types of presenting signs and symptoms in the head and neck are reported to alert the otolaryngologic community to this entity. PMID:3937090

  5. Kaposi Sarcoma of Childhood: Inborn or Acquired Immunodeficiency to Oncogenic HHV-8.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carolyn C; Dickson, Mark A; Sadjadi, Mahan; Gessain, Antoine; Abel, Laurent; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an endothelial malignancy caused by human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. The epidemic and iatrogenic forms of childhood KS result from a profound and acquired T cell deficiency. Recent studies have shown that classic KS of childhood can result from rare single-gene inborn errors of immunity, with mutations in WAS, IFNGR1, STIM1, and TNFRSF4. The pathogenesis of the endemic form of childhood KS has remained elusive. We review childhood KS pathogenesis and its relationship to inherited and acquired immunodeficiency to oncogenic HHV-8. PMID:26469702

  6. Neuromuscular complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G

    1994-01-01

    At least 4 distinct peripheral neuropathy syndromes occur in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The most common, painful sensory neuropathy, may be related to the viral infection or may be medication induced and is treated symptomatically. The other 3, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex (some patients), and the progressive polyradiculopathies related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may all respond to appropriate therapy. Both inflammatory myopathy and zidovudine myopathy also abate with early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8048229

  7. Induction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Specific T-Cell Responses in HIV Vaccine Trial Participants Who Subsequently Acquire HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Helen; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Lee, Deborah; Moore, Erin; Cao, Jianhong; McNevin, John; Andrus, Thomas; Zhu, Haiying; Rubin, Abbe; Zhu, Tuofu; Celum, Connie; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2006-01-01

    Candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines designed to elicit T-cell immunity in HIV-1-uninfected persons are under investigation in phase I to III clinical trials. Little is known about how these vaccines impact the immunologic response postinfection in persons who break through despite vaccination. Here, we describe the first comprehensive characterization of HIV-specific T-cell immunity in vaccine study participants following breakthrough HIV-1 infection in comparison to 16 nonvaccinated subjects with primary HIV-1 infection. Whereas none of the 16 breakthrough infections possessed vaccine-induced HIV-1-specific T-cell responses preinfection, 85% of vaccinees and 86% of nonvaccinees with primary HIV-1 infection developed HIV-specific T-cell responses postinfection. Breakthrough subjects' T cells recognized 43 unique HIV-1 T-cell epitopes, of which 8 are newly described, and 25% were present in the vaccine. The frequencies of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting cells recognizing epitopes within gene products that were and were not encoded by the vaccine were not different (P = 0.64), which suggests that responses were not anamnestic. Epitopes within Nef and Gag proteins were the most commonly recognized in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated infected subjects. One individual controlled viral replication without antiretroviral therapy and, notably, mounted a novel HIV-specific HLA-C14-restricted Gag LYNTVATL-specific T-cell response. Longitudinally, HIV-specific T cells in this individual were able to secrete IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha, as well as proliferate and degranulate in response to their cognate antigenic peptides up to 5 years postinfection. In conclusion, a vaccinee's ability to mount an HIV-specific T-cell response postinfection is not compromised by previous immunization, since the CD8+ T-cell responses postinfection are similar to those seen in vaccine-naïve individuals. Finding an individual who is controlling infection

  8. Investigation of Potent Lead for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chan, Yueh-Chiu; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has become, because of the rapid spread of the disease, a serious global problem and cannot be treated. Recent studies indicate that VIF is a protein of HIV to prevent all of human immunity to attack HIV. Molecular compounds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database filtered through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to inhibit VIF can protect against HIV. Glutamic acid, plantagoguanidinic acid, and Aurantiamide acetate based docking score higher with other TCM compounds selected. Molecular dynamics are useful for analysis and detection ligand interactions. According to the docking position, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding changes, and structure variation, the study try to select the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine compound Aurantiamide acetate is better than the other for protein-ligand interactions to maintain the protein composition, based on changes in the structure. PMID:25013765

  9. Neurosurgical management of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An update.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, B T; Kenefick, T P

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective review of a 24-month experience on the neurosurgical service at a large metropolitan hospital identified 33 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who underwent diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Intracranial mass lesions unresponsive to empiric medical therapy for presumed Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis underwent diagnostic biopsy in 22 patients: primary lymphoma was identified in 10 (45%) of these patients, and biopsy led to a treatable diagnosis in 16 of the 22. Patients with lymphoma were significantly more likely to have a single mass lesion than those with other diagnoses. The remaining 11 patients had a wide variety of neurologic disorders, including multiple strokes and transverse myelitis, aspergillous fungal infection of the base of the skull, primary lymphoma of the spinal cord, cat-scratch fever of the spine causing painful radiculopathy, hydrocephalus associated with cryptococcal meningitis, and progressive inflammatory peripheral neuropathy. Two patients had lymphoma within the subarachnoid space. Three patients with well-controlled AIDS underwent elective neurosurgical therapy for intractable radiculopathies due to herniated lumbar discs in 2 and cervical spondylosis in 1. Current treatment strategies in AIDS appear to have limited the need for brain biopsy, but the spectrum of neurologic disorders has broadened, requiring continued participation by neurologists and neurosurgeons. With improved long-term survival, the elective treatment of non-AIDS-related neurologic disorders in selected patients may be appropriate. Images PMID:8460506

  10. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  11. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this screening: (1) Everyone aged 15 to ... the disease to other people. Potential Benefits and Harms of Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The ...

  12. Economic consequences for Medicaid of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Baily, Mary Ann; Bilheimer, Linda; Wooldridge, Judith; well, Kathryn Lang; Greenberg, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Medicaid is currently a major source of financing for health care for those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to a lesser extent, for those with other manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is likely to become even more important in the future. This article focuses on the structure of Medicaid in the context of the HIV epidemic, covering epidemiological issues, eligibility, service coverage and use, and reimbursement. A simple methodology for estimating HI\\'-related Medicaid costs under alternative assumptions about the future is also explained. PMID:10113503

  13. Negative labeling and social exclusion of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the antiretroviral therapy era: insight from attitudes and behavioral intentions of female heads of households in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Hinton, Nicole; Victor, Bart; Vaz, Lara M E; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2014-01-01

    In the age of antiretroviral therapy (ART), unraveling specific aspects of stigma that impede uptake and adherence to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services and the complex intersections among them might enhance the efficacy of stigma-reduction interventions targeted at the general public. Few studies have described community stigma in high HIV prevalence regions of Mozambique where program scale-up has been concentrated, but fear of stigma persists as a barrier to HIV service uptake. Principal components analysis of attitudinal data from 3749 female heads of households surveyed in Zambézia Province was used to examine patterns of agreement with stigmatizing attitudes and behavior toward people living with HIV. Inferences were based on comparison of factor loadings and commonality estimates. Construct validity was established through correlations with levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and consistency with the labeling theory of stigma. Two unique domains of community stigma were observed: negative labeling and devaluation (NLD, α = 0.74) and social exclusion (SoE, α = 0.73). NLD is primarily an attitudinal construct, while SoE captures behavioral intent. About one-third of the respondents scored in the upper tertile of the NLD stigma scale (scale: 0-100 stigma points) and the equivalent was 41.3% in the SoE stigma scale. Consistent with literature, NLD and SoE stigma scores were inversely correlated with HIV transmission route knowledge. In item level analysis, fear of being labeled a prostitute/immoral and of negative family affect defined the nature of stigma in this sample. Thus, despite ART scale-up and community education about HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), NLD and SoE characterized the community stigma of HIV in this setting. Follow-up studies could compare the impact of these stigma domains on HIV services uptake, in order to inform domain-focused stigma-reduction interventions. PMID:24274172

  14. Genetic variability in human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Alizon, M; Montagnier, L

    1987-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been established. In addition to the nucleic acid variations responsible for the restriction map polymorphism, isolates of HIV differ significantly at the protein level, especially in the envelope, in terms of amino acid substitutions and reciprocal insertions-deletions. In this investigation, molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the genomes of 2 HIV isolates obtained from patients in Zaire were carried out. The 1st isolate was recovered in 1983 from a 24-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); the 2nd was isolated in 1985 from a 7-year-old boy with AIDS-related complex (ARC). The genetic organization of these isolates was identical to that found in other HIV isolates from the US and Europe, particularly in terms of the conservation of the central region located between the pol and env genes composed of a series of overlapping open reading frames. There were, however, substantial differences in the primary structure of the viral proteins, with env being more variable than the gag and pol genes. Alignment of the envelopes revealed hypervariable domains with a great number of mutations and reciprocal insertions and deletions. Overall, this analysis suggests that the African and American HIV infections have a common origin given their identical genetic organization. The sequence variability reflects a divergent evolutionary process, and the fact that the 2 Zairian isolates were more divergent than American isolates studied by others indicates a longer evolution of HIV in Africa. An essential research goal is to identify the HIV envelope domains responsible for the virus-cellular surface antigen interaction since an immune response against these epitopes could elicit neutralizing antibodies for use in a vaccine. PMID:3439717

  15. First report of Cystoisospora belli parasitemia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge Néstor; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Chertcoff, Agustín Víctor; Nigro, Mónica Gabriela; Pantano, María Laura; Ledesma, Bibiana Alba; Vittar, Natalia; Carnevale, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Cystoisospora belli in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been described as cause of chronic diarrhea and disseminated cystoisosporosis. Diagnosis of intestinal cystoisosporosis can be achieved at the tissue level in the villus epithelium of the small bowel. Disseminated cystoisosporosis is diagnosed by microscopy identification of unizoite tissue cysts in the lamina propria of the intestine. We report a case of disseminated cystoisosporosis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient with detection of parasitemia. We studied a 39-year old patient with AIDS and chronic diarrhea by analysis of stool and duodenal biopsy samples. Blood samples were also collected and examined by light microscopy and molecular techniques for C. belli DNA detection. The unizoite tissue cyst stages were present in the lamina propria, with unsporulated oocysts in feces. Zoites were present in blood smears and DNA of C. belli was detected in blood samples. Our study identified a new stage in the life cycle of C. belli. Detection of parasitemia is a novel and noninvasive tool for diagnosis of disseminated cystoisosporosis. PMID:26751889

  16. Implications of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for Professionals in the Field of Visual Impairments and Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, William E.

    1988-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has significant ocular implications. This article examines: the effect of AIDS on vision, historical and philosophical perspectives on public health education, AIDS education, legal and policy issues of concern to schools and service agencies, and sex education and AIDS-related education of blind and…

  17. The Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasner, Peter D.; Kaslow, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology and natural history of human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Discusses early and late clinical manifestations, diagnosis of infection, incubation and latency periods, and survival time. Reviews data from published literature on distribution of HIV infection in adult United States population and factors that…

  18. Women at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadagno, David; And Others

    This article reports results from a survey among women at risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as transmitting it in a vertical (to offspring) and horizontal (sexual partner or intravenous [IV] drug usage) mode. Little is known about the extent of HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, and IV drug usage for women at risk for…

  19. [Pathology of urologic importance associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Musci, R; Meroni, T; Andres, M; De Cobelli, O; Larcher, P; Franchini, V; Bovo, G

    1993-04-01

    Infection by the HIV virus affects the urogenital system in a minor percentage of cases in comparison to other organs such as the lungs, the central nervous system and the haemolymphopoietic system. In recent years however, with the continued spread of the disease also urologists find themselves dealing with the various urogenital pathologies that are presented in seropositive or fully-blown Aids patients. The Authors present their experience and describe the problems correlated to the dealing with acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients that are affected with urogenital pathologies. PMID:8330057

  20. The pathology of an epizootic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, K. G.; Prahalada, S.; Lowenstine, L. J.; Gardner, M. B.; Maul, D. H.; Henrickson, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    A syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency within a group of outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with unusually high mortality has been identified at the California Primate Research Center. The cause of death for most of the affected animals included septicemia and/or chronic diarrhea with wasting, often complicated by other problems. In many cases, multiple or unusual infectious agents were isolated or recognized, including cytomegalovirus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Candida albicans. Septicemias due to usually innocuous agents such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Alcaligenes faecalis were seen. Two animals developed cutaneous fibrosarcomas. Affected animals had generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, with depletion of T-cell populations, initially follicular hyperplasia followed by depletion, and absence of plasma cells. This spontaneous disease syndrome in nonhuman primates has similarities to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, providing an animal model for the study of the complex factors modulating the immune system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6691418

  1. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae. PMID:17728918

  2. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, John; Agrawal, Sudhir; Civeira, Maria P.; Sarin, Prem S.; Sun, Daisy; Zamecnik, Paul C.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs.

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is clearly one of the most serious health-care crises in the professional lives of contemporary physicians. It cannot be regarded as a curiosity to be dealt with by inner-city infectious-disease experts, but rather must be considered a problem for all health-care providers and a problem in which the obstetrician-gynecologist has a special role to play. PMID:18475370

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Spectrum Beyond AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brain C.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time. It is the most profound manifestation of infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since 1984, serologic methods have existed to detect antibody to HIV. Several other clinical entities have been detected and are attributable to HIV infection. Appropriate counsel must accompany antibody testing. The author discusses the acute seroconversion event, as well as asymptomatic carrier status, including generalized lymphadenopathy. He also reviews the symptomatic states that do not meet the surveillance definition of AIDS, including treatments where available. PMID:21263801

  5. [Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with tuberculosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    González, Norma E; Álvarez Ponte, Silvia; López, Mariela; Fronti, Pablo; Smith, Silvina; Pawluk, Victor

    2016-10-01

    The secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is rare in children and even rarer associated with tuberculosis. e report the case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, disseminated tuberculosis and hemophagocytic syndrome. An 8-year-old girl, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, was admitted due to fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. She presented abdominal distension, dehydration, tachypnea, crackles and wheezing in both lungs, anemia, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. She received broad-spectrum antibiotics and exploratory laparotomy was performed with appendectomy and lymph node biopsy. After 72 hours the patient presented tonic clonic seizure, impaired sensory, fever, hypoxemia, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites and peripheral edema. She developed bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia and bone marrow microscopic examination with hemophagocytosis. She received intravenous gammaglobulin, steroids and blood transfusions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured in gastric aspirate, bone marrow and abdominal lymph node biopsy. She was treated with isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol, showing marked improvement. PMID:27606663

  6. Frequency of hyponatremia and nonosmolar vasopressin release in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Vitting, K.E.; Gardenswartz, M.H.; Zabetakis, P.M.; Tapper, M.L.; Gleim, G.W.; Agrawal, M.; Michelis, M.F. )

    1990-02-16

    The frequency and pathophysiology of hyponatremia were studied in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Of 71 hospitalized patients surveyed retrospectively, hyponatremia was observed in 37 (52%). Of 48 patients studied prospectively, 27 (56%) were hyponatremic. In 16 hyponatremic patients, volume status; serum and urine osmolalities; renal, adrenal, and thyroid function; and plasma vasopressin levels were assessed. Urine osmolalities were inappropriately elevated relative to serum osmolalities. Four patients had moderate renal insufficiency. Plasma vasopressin levels, measured by radioimmunoassay, were elevated in 15 patients, with the highest levels seen in patients who died. Hyponatremia of multiple etiologies occurred in a majority of inpatients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, often following the administration of hypotonic fluids, and was associated with a 30% (8/27) short-term mortality.

  7. Nontropical pyomyositis as a cause of subacute, multifocal myalgia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.F.; Sprenger, H.G.; Mooyaart, E.L.; Tamsma, J.T.; Kengen, R.A.; Weits, J. )

    1990-11-01

    We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection, in which severe myalgia was the presenting symptom over several weeks. Multifocal muscle lesions were identified by gallium scanning and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The epidemiology, possible pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic imaging, and therapy are reviewed. Early suspicion of nontropical pyomyositis in severely immunocompromised patients with cryptic myalgia is recommended.

  8. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... (78 FR 21613), FDA published a document that announced the disease ] areas for meetings in fiscal... Federal Register document for public comment that was published on September 24, 2012 (77 FR 58849), and a... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused...

  9. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... of May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29755). In that notice, FDA requested public comment regarding patients... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29755), FDA announced the notice of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused...

  10. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cancers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J O

    2001-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is considered home to more than 60% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases, with an estimated adult prevalence of 8.0%. It is stated that this region has contributed more than 90% of childhood deaths related to HIV infection and about 93% of childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths. Although no country in Africa is spared of the infection, the bulk is seen in East and South Africa, with the highest recorded rates of 20% to 50% in Zimbabwe. On the other hand, West Africa is less affected, while countries in Central Africa have relatively stable infection rates. Although infections, especially tuberculosis, have emerged as the most important HIV/AIDS-associated killers in recent times, AIDS-associated malignancies are increasingly identified in the late stages. As a result of incomplete data from African countries, it is unclear whether the epidemiology and risks of these cancers are the same as observed in the developed countries. Since the advent of AIDS, epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has become more common in both sexes in Africa, with a dramatic lowering of the male to female ratio from 19:1 to 1.7:1, especially in East Africa. Although there has been a rising trend of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) worldwide, there is an apparently lower risk in Africa compared with that in the developing world. At present, there is no strong evidence linking increased incidence of invasive cervical cancer to the HIV epidemic; however, some studies have demonstrated an association between HIV and the increased prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). On the other hand, HIV infection is now established as a risk factor for the development of squamous cell neoplasia of the conjunctiva based on studies from Rwanda, Malawi, and Uganda. Despite the problems and limitations of information from sub-Saharan Africa, interesting trends of HIV/AIDS-related cancers

  11. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  12. Intrinsic cellular defenses against human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2012-09-21

    Viral infections are often detrimental to host survival and reproduction. Consequently, hosts have evolved a variety of mechanisms to defend themselves against viruses. A component of this arsenal is a set of proteins, termed restriction factors, which exhibit direct antiviral activity. Among these are several classes of proteins (APOBEC3, TRIM5, Tetherin, and SAMHD1) that inhibit the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Here, we outline the features, mechanisms, and evolution of these defense mechanisms. We also speculate on how restriction factors arose, how they might interact with the conventional innate and adaptive immune systems, and how an understanding of these intrinsic cellular defenses might be usefully exploited. PMID:22999946

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Alaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) related pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare complication of HIV infection. The pathophysiology of HIV-related PAH is complex, with viral proteins seeming to play the major role. However, other factors, such as coinfection with other microorganisms and HIV-related systemic inflammation, might also contribute. The clinical presentation of HIV-related PAH and diagnosis is similar to other forms of pulmonary hypertension. Both PAH-specific therapies and HAART are important in HIV-related PAH management. Future studies investigating the pathogenesis are needed to discover new therapeutic targets and treatments. PMID:24027641

  14. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  15. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  16. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  17. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  18. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  19. The diagnostic utility of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gluckman, R. J.; Rosner, F.; Guarneri, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, and culture are useful procedures in the evaluation of patients with suspected or proven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who are febrile. In as many as one fourth of these patients, the information provided by the bone marrow examination may establish a diagnosis of a disseminated opportunistic infection when other studies are not informative. We have also discovered a previously unreported association between thrombocytopenia and the presence of bone marrow granulomas in our patients with AIDS and suggest that thrombocytopenia may be a clue to enable the clinician to predict a positive bone marrow result more accurately. The explanation for this apparent association remains to be elucidated. PMID:2733050

  20. Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow Abnormalities in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frontiera, Michael; Myers, Adam M.

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing the peripheral hematologic manifestations, bone marrow changes and clinical course in 41 consecutive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), frequent findings included anemia (95%), leukopenia (76%), bone marrow hypercellularity (73%) and pancytopenia (41%). These hematologic abnormalities were not clearly associated with specific clinical manifestations of AIDS, but support the conclusion that the hematopoietic system is a target organ in AIDS. The mechanisms of these abnormalities still need to be evaluated. Clinicians should be aware of these commonly encountered changes. Images PMID:3660772

  1. Specific translocations characterize Burkitt's-like lymphoma of homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chaganti, R S; Jhanwar, S C; Koziner, B; Arlin, Z; Mertelsmann, R; Clarkson, B D

    1983-06-01

    A Burkitt's-like B-cell lymphoma (BLL) has recently been shown to be associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which affects homosexual men. We report cytogenetic studies of two BLL tumors in homosexual men. Both tumors had chromosome translocations characteristic of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), one the t(8;14) and the other the t(8;22). The pathway of lymphomagenesis in this disorder is discussed in the light of recent data on chromosome change and localization of immunoglobulin genes and oncogenes. PMID:6839024

  2. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  3. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Related Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Nájera, Rafael; Herrera, M. I.; Andrés, R. de

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and related retroviruses, describing basic characteristics of this new group of viruses such as morphologic and genetic structure, biological and cultural properties, virus growth characteristics, genetic variability and virus replication. The discovery of new human and simian retroviruses has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to convene a group of experts to establish criteria for their characterization. This will allow rapid identification of new variants that may arise and allow public health measures to be implemented accordingly. Different approaches are made to nomenclature in view of the evolution of knowledge about these viruses, and a system of nomenclature has been proposed by the WHO working group. This system, inspired by the one developed for the influenza viruses, is practical and descriptive, providing information on the origins of the organism and its type. Images PMID:2829446

  5. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a common cause of pulmonary disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Suffredini, A.F.; Ognibene, F.P.; Lack, E.E.; Simmons, J.T.; Brenner, M.; Gill, V.J.; Lane, H.C.; Fauci, A.S.; Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H.

    1987-07-01

    During a 4.4-year period, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis was seen in 41 of 110 (38%) patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and accounted for 32% (48/152) of all episodes of clinical pneumonitis. Diffuse alveolar damage was typically a feature of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, but neither lung biopsy nor bronchoalveolar lavage detected a pathogen. Of these 41 patients, 13 had no associated pulmonary tumor and had not been exposed to pulmonary toxins, whereas 28 patients had either concurrent pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, previous experimental therapies, or a history of pneumocystis pneumonia or drug abuse. Of these 41, 23 had normal chest radiographs. The clinical features of patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis were similar to those of patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, although histologic findings showed less severe alveolar damage in patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (p less than 0.001). Pathologic evaluation and clinical follow-up suggest that many clinical episodes of pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are due to nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis of unknown cause.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is neuroinvasive and commonly causes cognitive and motor deficits during the later stages of viral infection. (referred to as HIV dementia). The mechanism(s) for disease revolves around secretory products produced from immune-activated brain macrophages/microglia. Recently, we developed an animal model system for HIV dementia that contains xenografts of HIV-1-infected cells inoculated into brains of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This animal system was used to quantitatively evaluate HIV-induced neuropathology. Xenografts of HIV-1-infected human monocytes (placed into the putamen and cortex of SCID mice) remained viable for 5 weeks. HIV-1 p24 antigen expression in mouse brain was persistent. Progressive inflammatory responses (including astrogliosis and cytokine production), which began at 3 days, peaked at day 12. The range of astrocyte proliferative reactions exceeded the inoculation site by > 1000 microns. Brains with virus-infected monocytes showed a > or = 1.6-fold increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (staining distribution and intensity) as compared with similarly inoculated brains with uninfected control monocytes. These findings paralleled the accumulation and activation of murine microglia (increased branching of cell processes, formation of microglial nodules, interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 expression). An inflammatory reaction of human monocytes (as defined by HLA-DR, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression) and neuronal injury (apoptosis) also developed after virus-infected monocyte xenograft placement into mouse brain tissue. These data, taken together, demonstrate that this SCID mouse model of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis can reproduce key aspects of disease (virus-infected macrophages, astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuronal damage). This model may serve as an important means for therapeutic development directed toward improving mental function in HIV

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, S. Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection. PMID:26538978

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-01-01

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries. PMID:22489261

  9. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  10. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  11. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marc; Masur, Henry; Kovacs, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The presentation of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in previously healthy men having sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco and New York City in 1981 heralded the beginning of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Despite a decreasing incidence of PCP among patients with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s, PCP remains one of the most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in the United States and Western Europe. Newer molecular diagnostic tests in conjunction with standard immunofluorescent or colorimetric tests have allowed for more rapid and accurate diagnosis. Although several effective oral and intravenous therapies exist to treat PCP, mortality rates in HIV-infected individuals remain unacceptably high, especially in those with advanced AIDS. The identification of specific mutations in Pneumocystis genes targeted by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has raised concerns about the development of resistance to the drug of choice and may ultimately lead to greater utilization of alternative therapies to treat PCP in the future. PMID:26974301

  12. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Maeve M; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  13. Bioengineering human microvascular networks in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Melero-Martin, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The future of tissue engineering and cell-based therapies for tissue regeneration will likely rely on our ability to generate functional vascular networks in vivo. In this regard, the search for experimental models to build blood vessel networks in vivo is of utmost importance. The feasibility of bioengineering microvascular networks in vivo was first shown using human tissue-derived mature endothelial cells (ECs); however, such autologous endothelial cells present problems for wide clinical use, because they are difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities and require harvesting from existing vasculature. These limitations have instigated the search for other sources of ECs. The identification of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in blood presented an opportunity to non-invasively obtain ECs (5-7). We and other authors have shown that adult and cord blood-derived ECFCs have the capacity to form functional vascular networks in vivo. Importantly, these studies have also shown that to obtain stable and durable vascular networks, ECFCs require co-implantation with perivascular cells. The assay we describe here illustrates this concept: we show how human cord blood-derived ECFCs can be combined with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a single cell suspension in a collagen/fibronectin/fibrinogen gel to form a functional human vascular network within 7 days after implantation into an immunodeficient mouse. The presence of human ECFC-lined lumens containing host erythrocytes can be seen throughout the implants indicating not only the formation (de novo) of a vascular network, but also the development of functional anastomoses with the host circulatory system. This murine model of bioengineered human vascular network is ideally suited for studies on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of human vascular network formation and for the development of strategies to vascularize engineered tissues. PMID:21775960

  14. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease.

  15. Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.; Garay, S.M.; Greene, J.B.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.; McCauley, D.I.

    1987-07-01

    Eighty-six (/sup 67/Ga)citrate chest scans were performed in 71 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Forty-five of these patients also had Kaposi's sarcoma. Only 29 of 57 abnormal scans were correlated with abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiographs were negative for 27 scans and unavailable for one. Several scan patterns were seen. Diffusely increased lung uptake was seen most commonly with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, but also other infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Focal uptake corresponding to regional lymph node groups occurred most often with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare but aslo with lymphoma. Localized intrapulmonary uptake was seen in bacterial pneumonias. Perihilar activity occurred in two cases. When chest radiographs were abnormal and /sup 67/Ga scans negative, the most common diagnosis was pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.

  16. Acquired immunodeficiency similar to Gulf War illness in a dead former serviceman.

    PubMed

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, A M; Pusiol, T; Barbolini, G; Maiorana, A

    2015-06-01

    A 38-year-old non-commissioned officer was certified unfit for military duty several months before his death. The forensic autopsy revealed a severe bone marrow aplasia and a pulmonary angioinvasive aspergillosis. Moreover, the presence of inorganic foreign particles in the pulmonary macrophages and intestinal endothelia was observed. The microanalysis implemented on these last selected specimens revealed the presence of silica particles microimpregnated by lanthanides and steel. The patient's acquired immunodeficiency appears comparable with that of Iraqi civilians suffering from Gulf War illness. This is the first report in the literature of the presence of intestinal endothelia engulfed by foreign war particulates; the silica particles may have entered the intestinal endothelia via the blood stream or by ingestion of impregnated fruit and vegetable foodstuffs. This finding provides new perspectives in the assessment of war-associated diseases and includes electron probe microanalysis among the new techniques of military and forensic medicine. PMID:25428137

  17. Sequence heterogeneity of murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus: the role of endogenous virus.

    PubMed

    Gayama, S; Vaupel, B A; Kanagawa, O

    1995-05-01

    A defective murine leukemia virus is the causative agent of murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS). We have cloned cDNAs from both virus infected and non-infected cells using the PCR methods with primers corresponding to the franking sequence of the unique p12 gag gene. Sequence analysis of these cDNA clones revealed: (i) the presence of endogenous virus related to MAIDS virus in C57BL/6 mice, (ii) B cell lineage specific expression of endogenous virus and (iii) extensive heterogeneity of MAIDS virus recovered from virus infected cells due to the recombination of the related viruses (defective pathogenic virus, ecotropic virus and endogenous virus). These findings suggest that the creation of virus variants in infected cells may play an important role in virus pathogenesis and escape from immune attack during the development of MAIDS. PMID:7547712

  18. Reciprocal modulations between p53 and Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C J; Wang, C; Friedman, D J; Pardee, A B

    1995-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after a long clinical latency. This disease is associated with a spectrum of cancers. Here we report that wild-type p53 is a potent suppressor of Tat, a major transactivator of HIV-1. Reciprocally, Tat inhibits the transcription of p53. Downregulation of p53 by upregulated tat may be important for the establishment of productive viral infection in a cell and also may be involved in the development of AIDS-related malignancies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7777531

  19. Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

  20. Bacterial Respiratory Infections Complicating Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii, remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens most prevalent in those infected with HIV, other than M. tuberculosis, represent the primary focus of the current review with particular emphasis on the pneumococcus, the leading cause of mortality due to HIV infection in the developed world. Additional themes include (1) risk factors; (2) the predisposing effects of HIV-mediated suppression on pulmonary host defenses, possibly intensified by smoking; (3) clinical and laboratory diagnosis, encompassing assessment of disease severity and outcome; and (4) antibiotic therapy. The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, including an overview of the rationale underpinning the current "prime-boost" immunization strategy based on sequential administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23. PMID:26974299

  1. Recent key advances in human immunodeficiency virus medicine and implications for China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article we summarize several recent major developments in human immunodeficiency virus treatment, prevention, outcome, and social policy change. Updated international guidelines endorse more aggressive treatment strategies and safer antiretroviral drugs. New antiretroviral options are being tested. Important lessons were learned in the areas of human immunodeficiency virus vaccines and microbicide gels from clinical studies, and additional trials in prevention, especially pre-exposure prophylaxis, are nearing completion. Insight into the role of the virus in the pathogenesis of diseases traditionally thought to be unrelated to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has become a driving force for earlier and universal therapy. Lastly, we review important achievements of and future challenges facing China as she steps into her eighth year of the National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program. PMID:20500898

  2. Attitudes toward the care of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A survey of community internists.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, A A; Watson-Abady, J A; Mandel, F S

    1990-01-01

    Community physicians may play an increasing role in treating patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) because of the shift away from inpatient care. At a community hospital in New York, NY, we surveyed 230 attending physicians in a department of medicine to determine their attitudes toward the care of patients with AIDS. Factor analysis produced three clusters of attitudes termed antipathy, liability, and isolation. These factors, together with physicians' "knowledge" and background, were analyzed as predictors of treating patients with AIDS. While antipathy, isolation, and fear of acquiring AIDS were not predictors, liability scores were inversely correlated with the likelihood of treating the disease (r = -.18). Liability was influenced by patients' attitudes toward AIDS. Primary care physicians had higher liability and isolation scores than subspecialists and were more likely to see support groups, guaranteed funding, and education as incentives to treat patients with AIDS. Further study is needed to target measures that support primary care physicians in their care of patients with this disease. PMID:2297299

  3. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  4. Immunophenotypic characterization of the cutaneous exanthem of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. Apposition of degenerative Langerhans cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes during the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ringler, D. J.; Hancock, W. W.; King, N. W.; Letvin, N. L.; Daniel, M. D.; Desrosiers, R. C.; Murphy, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    A T-cell tropic retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), has recently been isolated from immunodeficient rhesus monkeys. This virus has remarkable similarities to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Subsequent studies of simian infection with SIV have shown it to be a relevant animal model for studying the pathogenesis of AIDS in man. In both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys, a cutaneous maculopapular eruption has been described. To date, the pathogenesis and possible relationship of these exanthema to the evolution of systemic immunosuppression have remained obscure. In this study, the mononuclear cell infiltrates that characterize skin rashes of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys were found to be composed predominantly of cells with phenotypic characteristics of cytotoxic/suppressor (T8+) lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Many of these cells expressed membrane-bound interleukin-2 receptor molecules. Double labeling and immunoelectron microscopy revealed these cells in direct contact with degenerative Langerhans cells within the epidermis and dermis. These observations suggest that the cutaneous rash associated with SIV infection may be the consequence of target cell injury of Langerhans cells by effector cells with cytotoxic potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3030113

  5. Transdermal testosterone administration in women with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Corcoran, C; Armstrong, C; Caramelli, K; Anderson, E; Cotton, D; Basgoz, N; Hirschhorn, L; Tuomala, R; Schoenfeld, D; Daugherty, C; Mazer, N; Grinspoon, S

    1998-08-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is increasing rapidly among women, no prior studies have investigated gender-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complications in this population. Markedly decreased serum androgen levels have been demonstrated in women with AIDS and may be a contributing factor to the wasting syndrome in this population. To assess the effects of androgen replacement therapy in women with AIDS wasting, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study of transdermal testosterone administration. The primary aim of the study was to determine efficacy in terms of the change in serum testosterone levels, safety parameters and tolerability. A secondary aim of the study was to investigate testosterone effects on weight, body composition, quality of life, and functional indexes. Fifty-three ambulatory women with the AIDS wasting syndrome defined as weight less than 90% of ideal body weight or weight loss of more than 10% of the preillness maximum, free of new opportunistic infection within 6 weeks of study initiation, and with screening serum levels of free testosterone less than the mean of the normal reference range (< 3 pg/mL) were enrolled in the study. Subjects were age 37 +/- 1 yr old (mean +/- SEM), weighed 92 +/- 2% of ideal body weight, and had lost 17 +/- 1% of their maximum weight. CD4 count was 324 +/- 36 cells/mm3, and viral burden was 102,382 +/- 28,580 copies. Subjects were randomized into three treatment groups, in which two placebo patches (PP), one active/one placebo patch (AP group), or two active patches (AA group) were applied twice weekly to the abdomen for 12 weeks. The expected nominal delivery rates of testosterone were 150 and 300 microg/day, respectively, for the AP and AA groups. Forty-five subjects completed the study (PP group, n = 13; AP group, n = 14; AA group, n = 18). Two additional subjects from the PP group and two from the AP

  6. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  7. Disseminated histoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mora, Delio José; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2008-03-01

    Histoplasmosis occurs in approximately 5% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in endemic areas and often evolves to a disseminated picture if diagnosis is delayed and/or CD4 count falls below 150 cells x mm(3) without high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This report presents clinical features of patients with histoplasmosis admitted from 1992 to 2005. Of the 57 individuals, 45 (79%) were male, aged 20-40 years; 30 (52.6%) presented histoplasmosis together with HIV diagnosis and 35 (61.4%) referred illness course up to 4 weeks. Fever, hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, dyspnea and skin lesions were noticed in 50 (87.7%), 38 (66.7%), 30 (52.6%) and 25 (43.9%) patients respectively. High levels of lactic acid dehydrogenase, X-ray lung interstitial pattern, pancytopenia and CD4 count <100 cells x mm(3) were observed in 48 (84.2%), 35 (66%), 34 (59.6%) and 33 (94%) patients respectively. Mycological diagnosis was performed by one or more methods in all patients. Thirty nine (68.4%) received amphotericin B and/or itraconazole. A cure rate was observed in 76.9% and nine (23.1%) died early during therapy. Otherwise death occurred in 18 (31.6%) before diagnosis was completed. Despite free HAART disposal in public Brazilian health services, histoplasmosis still occurs as the first AIDS baseline condition in patients without antiretroviral therapy, many of whom are not receiving any medical care for HIV infection. PMID:18254750

  8. Anti-F(ab')2 antibodies in thrombocytopenic patients at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J R; Lennette, E T; Karpatkin, S

    1986-01-01

    22 homosexual or narcotic addict patients at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with AIDS, were studied for the presence of antiimmunoglobulin antibodies and circulating immune complexes (20 were thrombocytopenic, 6 had AIDS). Circulating immune complex levels were 10-fold higher than levels in normal subjects. IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were noted in homosexual as well as narcotic addict patients. Of 16 homosexual patients, 7 had IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibody of moderate to marked titer with broad reactivity against autologous, homologous, and control F(ab')2 fragments. Three others demonstrated limited reactivity against one or two F(ab')2 fragments. The remaining six patients were negative. Six of six narcotic addict patients had IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibody, five with limited reactivity, one with broad reactivity. In contrast, neither elevated circulating immune complexes nor anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were detectable in six autoimmune thrombocytopenic patients. Anti-F(ab')2 antibody could be affinity purified from serum or circulating immune complexes. Anti-F(ab')2 reactivity correlated with circulating immune complex levels, r = 0.83, P less than 0.01. PMID:3011860

  9. Percutaneous needle lung aspiration for diagnosing pneumonitis in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Wallace, J M; Batra, P; Gong, H; Ovenfors, C O

    1985-03-01

    Fourteen patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or suspected AIDS underwent percutaneous needle lung aspiration (PNLA) for evaluation of 16 occurrences of acute pneumonitis. A 22-gauge spinal needle was passed 2 to 3 times in the area of greatest radiographic involvement under fluoroscopic guidance. The specimen was immediately placed on microscope slides for Gomori's methenamine silver and Papanicolaou staining. The needle was then flushed with sterile water for bacterial, Legionella, viral, mycobacterial, and fungal cultures, and for Legionella immunofluorescent staining. Diagnostic information was provided by 14 of the 16 procedures. Of 11 patients ultimately found to have P. carinii pneumonitis, PNLA specimens were diagnostic in 10 (91%). Infectious agents other than P. carinii also were identified by PNLA, including cytomegalovirus (4 cases), M. avium-intracellulare (1 case), and pyogenic bacteria (3 cases). Complications of PNLA were: pneumothorax in 7 cases (44%), 3 (19%) of which required chest tube evacuation; and minor hemoptysis (less than 50 ml) in 2. The PNLA can be a useful diagnostic procedure in the patient with AIDS and pneumonitis. It has the advantages of being less costly and time-consuming than fiberoptic bronchoscopy. It is, however, frequently complicated by pneumothorax, making it an inappropriate approach for patients with significant respiratory compromise. PMID:3872089

  10. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Combined with Vitreous Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Methods This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and an aqueous humor test by PCR-RFLP. Results The deep, white retinal lesions coalesced and progressively expanded in a circumferential manner, with sparing of the perivascular retina. However, retinal and vitreous hemorrhages, unusual findings for PORN, could be noted around the optic nerve. Varicellar-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex types 1,2 (HSV-1,2) were detected in the aqueous humor by PCR. Conclusions PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, concurrent or combined etiologic agents can include HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV in AIDS patients. Therefore, combined antiviral therapy with acyclovir and ganciclovir could be more reasonable as an initial therapy. PMID:17460434

  11. Infection and T lymphocyte subpopulations: changes associated with bacteremia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fishman, J A; Martell, K M; Rubin, R H

    1983-01-01

    Patients with bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were prospectively studied using monoclonal antibody reagents to assess alterations in T-lymphocyte subpopulations. Patients with endocarditis had significantly higher ratios of T-helper (OKT4+) to T-suppressor-cytotoxic (OKT8+) cells than did patients with bacteremia alone. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis patients had a mean ratio of 8.49 (range 4.73-22.36) while S aureus bacteremia had a mean ratio of 2.75 (range 2.15 to 3.21). Similar results were found with Staphylococcus epidermidis endocarditis (mean 1.62) and bacteremia (mean 1.23). Klebsiella pneumoniae endocarditis (5.10) and sepsis (4.32), and E coli bacteremia (2.15). Nine male patients with AIDS had markedly depressed ratios (mean 0.25, range 0.04 to 0.67) while eight male homosexuals with unexplained lymphadenopathy ("pre-AIDS") had normal or increased ratios. Bacteremic infections are associated with an increased OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio with the degree of increase dependent upon virulence, location, and duration of infection. The immunomodulating effects of infection are manifested in changes in T-cell subsets, and these measurements can be useful in clinical management. PMID:6094086

  12. Neurosyphilis in a Man with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghani, Khosro; Kallini, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a 33-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus who developed erythematous macules on the palms and soles with subsequent headaches, papilledema, and iritis. They review the salient characteristics of neurosyphilis with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. The incidence of syphilis has increased since the year 2000 in African Americans, Hispanics, and men who have sex with men. Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of this disease—a fastidious, slowly growing, microaerophilic spirochete. Sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission. The rapid plasma reagin, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory assay, and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption assay are commonly used to diagnose syphilis. The mainstay treatment is penicillin. Special considerations exist in the natural history and management of syphilis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:25161759

  13. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis: a cause of pulmonary gallium-67 uptake in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckier, L.S.; Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.

    1988-05-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is currently recognized as a frequent pediatric manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the gallium scan findings in a 3-yr-old girl with this disorder and review its clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. LIP must be a prime consideration in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary gallium uptake in pediatric AIDS patients. Further experience will afford greater perspective on the diagnostic role that nuclear medicine will ultimately play in this disease. 49 references.

  14. Investigation of chronic diarrhoea in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study of 155 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Blanshard, C; Francis, N; Gazzard, B G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimum diagnostic investigation for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and diarrhoea is not known. Often no pathogen is detected and it is unclear whether this is because pathogens are absent in some patients or the investigations used fail to detect them. The hypothesis that AIDS related diarrhoea is usually due to an infection, which can be identified by a simple diagnostic strategy based on the results of intensive investigation of a cohort of such patients, was investigated. METHODS: 155 patients with AIDS and chronic diarrhoea underwent contemporaneous examination of stools, duodenal, jejunal, and rectal biopsy specimens and duodenal aspirate for bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens. A decision tree analysis was used to determine the best sequential diagnostic strategy for clinicians. RESULTS: 128 of 155 patients investigated (83%) had at least one potential pathogen. The presenting clinical features could not predict the presence or site of the pathogens. Stool analysis identified the most pathogens (93 of 199, 47%). Rectal biopsy was essential for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus and adenovirus. Duodenal biopsy was as helpful as jejunal biopsy and detected some treatable pathogens missed by other methods. Electron microscopy, impression smears, and duodenal aspirate yielded little extra information. If gut biopsy was reserved for patients without a stool pathogen, some treatable pathogens would have been missed. CONCLUSION: Most patients with AIDS and chronic diarrhoea have at least one gut pathogen, which can be identified by stool analysis and light microscopic examination of duodenal and rectal biopsies. Some pathogens will be missed unless all these investigations are done on all such patients. PMID:9038664

  15. Respiratory failure in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, R A; Sorkin, I B; Fazzini, E P; Rapoport, D M; Stenson, W M; Goldring, R M

    1986-05-01

    Seven patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were studied to define the pathophysiology of their respiratory failure. The patients had fever, cough, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray. Biopsies revealed a spectrum of alveolar filling, interstitial edema and infiltration, and fibrosis. The patients were studied on mechanical ventilation to assess the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and supplemental oxygen on shunt fraction. Mean anatomic shunt (measured on 100% oxygen) was 34 +/- 8%, which increased significantly (p less than .001) to 43 +/- 9% when the FIO2 was decreased to 40% to 60% (physiologic shunt), indicating ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) imbalance or impaired diffusion. Increasing PEEP by 9 +/- 2 cm H2O reduced the anatomic shunt to 30 +/- 7% (p less than .01) and the physiologic shunt to 37 +/- 7% (p less than .02). There was a similar decrease in anatomic and physiologic shunts in five studies, a greater decrease in physiologic shunt in four, and a greater decrease in anatomic shunt in two. Evidence of alveolar recruitment with PEEP, measured by an increase in static thoracic compliance, was found in only one study. There was no correlation between the effect of PEEP on compliance and its effect on shunt. The data suggest that in patients with AIDS and P. carinii pneumonia, PEEP can decrease shunt by reducing the anatomic shunt, improving V/Q imbalance, and converting areas of anatomic shunt to areas of low V/Q. P. carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS can produce a clinical and pathophysiologic pattern similar to that described in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:3516574

  16. A Glimpse of the Early Years of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic: A Fellow's Experience in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Colasanti, Jonathan; Armstrong, Wendy S.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a manageable chronic disease in the United States, yet the first author's experience on a general infectious diseases (ID) consult service illustrates that certain areas of the United States still experience high rates of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related complications. PMID:25734112

  17. The Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic, Washington, DC.

    This document presents findings of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. The executive summary lists 20 major findings and recommendations which together comprise a comprehensive national strategy for managing the HIV epidemic. The commission recommends: (1) replacement of the obsolete term "AIDS"…

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Associated Sporadic Nonfamilial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda.

    PubMed

    Guha, Sibashish Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Lal, Niharika Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), a relatively uncommon metabolic disease, is the most common cutaneous porphyria. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with sporadic, nonfamilial PCT that presented with classical cutaneous findings and multiple risk factors, including alcohol abuse, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, that have been strongly associated with the sporadic form of PCT. PMID:27293254

  19. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Damani A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  20. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future. PMID:25577549

  1. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Damani A; Carroll, Karen C; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  2. Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Dominic; Nakamoto, Beau K; Sullivan, Katherine; Sletten, David M; Fujii, Satomi; Umekawa, Sari; Kocher, Morgan; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Low, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequencies of symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on stable combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients infected with HIV reported higher frequencies of dysautonomia symptoms compared with HIV-negative patients, particularly in the autonomic domains related to urinary, sleep, gastroparesis, secretomotor, pupillomotor, and male sexual dysfunction. PMID:26269797

  3. Aquagenic urticaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection: treatment with stanozolol.

    PubMed

    Fearfield, L A; Gazzard, B; Bunker, C B

    1997-10-01

    We report the first case of aquagenic urticaria in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This is a rare physical urticaria not previously described in this context. The disorder proved unamenable to conventional treatment with antihistamines, but did respond dramatically to stanozolol, suggesting a novel indication for this anabolic steroid. PMID:9390343

  4. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Associated Sporadic Nonfamilial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Sibashish Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Lal, Niharika Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), a relatively uncommon metabolic disease, is the most common cutaneous porphyria. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with sporadic, nonfamilial PCT that presented with classical cutaneous findings and multiple risk factors, including alcohol abuse, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, that have been strongly associated with the sporadic form of PCT. PMID:27293254

  6. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  7. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  8. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  9. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  10. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  11. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Anthony A; Rosenthal, David G; Bender Ignacio, Rachel; Chu, Helen Y

    2015-12-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in immunocompromised hosts is a fulminant syndrome of immune activation with high rates of mortality that may be triggered by infections or immunodeficiency. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disorder is necessary to prevent progression to multiorgan failure and death. We report a case of HLH in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus, disseminated histoplasmosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Escherichia coli bacteremia. We discuss management of acutely ill patients with HLH and treatment of the underlying infection versus initiation of HLH-specific chemotherapy. PMID:26566535

  12. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Anthony A.; Rosenthal, David G.; Bender Ignacio, Rachel; Chu, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in immunocompromised hosts is a fulminant syndrome of immune activation with high rates of mortality that may be triggered by infections or immunodeficiency. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disorder is necessary to prevent progression to multiorgan failure and death. We report a case of HLH in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus, disseminated histoplasmosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Escherichia coli bacteremia. We discuss management of acutely ill patients with HLH and treatment of the underlying infection versus initiation of HLH-specific chemotherapy. PMID:26566535

  13. Antiviral drugs other than zidovudine and immunomodulating therapies in human immunodeficiency virus infection. An overview.

    PubMed

    Clumeck, N; Hermans, P

    1988-08-29

    Although the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infections has focused on the treatment of opportunistic infections, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cancers in end stages of the disease, therapies now aim at preventing the natural progression of the underlying disease. In addition to zidovudine many investigational drugs are proposed to treat AIDS-related complex patients. Most of these therapies can be divided into two major groups: (1) The first group includes agents with antiretroviral properties: nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-3'-dideoxycytidine and ribavirin, suramin, antimoniotungstate (heteropolyanion-23), foscarnet (phosphonoformate), interferons, peptide T, castanospermine, dextran sulfate, AL721, or ampligen. (2) The second group aims to restore the defective immune system; it includes thymosin (thymopentin), interleukin-2, cyclosporine, plasmapheresis, bone marrow transplantation, inosine, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, methionine-enkephalin and carrisyn. At present, no drug other than zidovudine has proved as monotherapy to lengthen survival of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. PMID:2457313

  14. Biology of anemia, differential diagnosis, and treatment options in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Claster, Susan

    2002-05-15

    Anemia is the most common hematologic manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The causes of HIV-related anemia are multifactorial and include direct and indirect effects of HIV infection. HIV-related anemia generally is due to reduced red blood cell (RBC) production, secondary to a variety of causes, but it may also involve nutritional deficiencies, increased RBC destruction, or a combination of these problems. Evaluation of hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, bilirubin, and mean corpuscular volume value and review of the peripheral blood smear are necessary for diagnosis. Treatment of HIV-related anemia should address the correctable underlying causes of this disorder, such as modifications of offending medications, nutritional deficiencies, and parvovirus infection. Patients with HIV infection have a blunted erythropoietin response to anemia. Therapeutic modalities for anemia that is not amenable to correction include blood transfusion and recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin alfa). PMID:12001030

  15. Perinatally infected adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (perinatally human immunodeficiency virus)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Leticia S; Cardoso, Claudete A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of highly potent antiretroviral treatment during the last decades has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. Children that were diagnosed during the first months or years of life and received treatment, are living longer and better and are presently reaching adolescence and adulthood. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIV) and young adults may present specific clinical, behavior and social characteristics and demands. We have performed a literature review about different aspects that have to be considered in the care and follow-up of PHIV. The search included papers in the MEDLINE database via PubMed, located using the keywords “perinatally HIV-infected” AND “adolescents”. Only articles published in English or Portuguese from 2003 to 2014 were selected. The types of articles included original research, systematic reviews, and quantitative or qualitative studies; case reports and case series were excluded. Results are presented in the following topics: “Puberal development and sexual maturation”, “Growth in weight and height”, “Bone metabolism during adolescence”, “Metabolic complications”, “Brain development, cognition and mental health”, “Reproductive health”, “Viral drug resistance” and “Transition to adult outpatient care”. We hope that this review will support the work of pediatricians, clinicians and infectious diseases specialists that are receiving these subjects to continue treatment. PMID:26279988

  16. The Interaction between Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Papillomaviruses in Heterosexuals in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in the world, which is further aggravated by the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) disease with invasive cervical cancer being an AIDS-defining cancer. The prevalence of HPV infection and associated disease is very high in HIV-infected people and continues to be a problem even after anti-retroviral therapy. In the genital tract, the interaction between HPV and HIV is complex, with infection with multiple HPV types reported to make both women and men more susceptible to HIV infection. Besides the national programmes to vaccinate girls against HPV and screen women for cervical cancer, there should be targeted cervical cancer screening, treatment and prevention programmes introduced into HIV treatment centres. There is evidence that in high HIV prevalence areas, HIV-positive women could cause increases in the prevalence of genital HPV infection in HIV-negative men and so increase the HPV circulating in the community. Condom use and circumcision reduce the acquisition of HIV-1, and also to some extent of HPV. This review will highlight what is known about the interaction of HIV and HPV, with an emphasis on research in Africa. PMID:26239348

  17. Relationships over 1 year between lymphocyte subsets and psychosocial variables among adults with infection by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Perry, S; Fishman, B; Jacobsberg, L; Frances, A

    1992-05-01

    To examine relationships between immune and psychosocial variables among adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, 221 subjects without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were assessed for degree of depression, anxiety, psychiatric symptoms, social support, stressful life events, hardiness, hopelessness, bereavement, and intrusive and avoidant thoughts about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At entry, none of 22 psychosocial variables significantly correlated with lymphocyte subsets. Among subjects seen 6 and 12 months later, severity of physical symptoms was associated with greater emotional distress, but the CD4 cell count was predicted by neither clinical ratings of psychopathology and global functioning nor by standardized self-report measures of constructs used in psychoimmune research. We conclude that among our sample, physical symptoms contributed to emotional distress, but emotional distress did not contribute to the CD4 cell count, a marker of disease progression. PMID:1586275

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in the central nervous system correlates directly with extent of disease

    SciTech Connect

    Weiser, B.; La Neve, D.; Eilbott, D.J.; Burger, H.; Seidman, R. ); Peress, N. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Northport, NY )

    1990-05-01

    To investigate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis in infected individuals and examine the correlation of HIV-1 expression with extent of clinical and pathologic disease, the authors studied spinal cords from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with a wide range of spinal cord pathology. By performing in situ hybridization with HIV-1-specific riboprobes, they detected HIV-1 RNA in all 10 cords from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with a common, characteristic pathologic entity called vacuolar myelopathy but not in 10 control cords from HIV-1-infected and uninfected patients. In the cords from individuals with vacuolar myelopathy, the level of HIV-1 RNA expression correlated directly with extent of spinal cord pathology and clinical findings. These data support a role for HIV-1 int he pathogenesis of tissue damage and related clinical disease in infected individuals.

  19. Lymphoma Secondary to Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes at a Turkish Pediatric Oncology Center.

    PubMed

    Tanyildiz, Hikmet G; Dincaslan, Handan; Yavuz, Gulsan; Unal, Emel; Ikinciogulları, Aydan; Dogu, Figen; Tacyildiz, Nurdan

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of lymphoma in primary immunodeficiency cases and autoimmune diseases, as well as on a background of immunodeficiency following organ transplants, is increasing. The lymphoma treatment success rate is known to be a low prognosis. Our study aimed to emphasize the low survival rates in immunodeficient vs. immunocompetent lymphoma patients and also to investigate the effect of rituximab in patients with ataxia telangiectasia and other immunodeficiencies. We summarized the clinical characteristics and treatment results of 17 cases with primary immunodeficiency that developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed with ataxia-telangiectasia, two with common variable immunodeficiency, two with selective IgA deficiency, one with X-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, one with Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) deficiency, and one with lymphoma developing after autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). One patient underwent a renal transplant. Of the nine males and eight females (aged 3-12 years, median = 7) that developed lymphoma, seven were diagnosed with HL and ten with NHL (seven B-cell, three T-cell). The NHL patients were started on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster, POG9317, LMB-96, or R-CHOP treatment protocols with reduced chemotherapy dosages. HL cases were started on the doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and/or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) protocol, also with modified dosages. Importantly, all seven cases of HL are alive and in remission, while six of the ten NHL patients have died. Primary immunodeficiency is a strong predisposing factor for developing lymphoma. Low treatment success rates relative to other lymphomas and difficulties encountered during treatment indicate that new treatment agents are needed

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes Prevalence in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Wen-jie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the epidemic characteristics, transmission sources and routes of various subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sequence variations in Henan, central China. To provide theoretical foundation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy in this region where the primary HIV transmission route was through former paid blood donation. Materials and Methods HIV-1 gene env and gag were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 1,287 HIV-1 confirmed samples in Henan. Results Among 1,287 samples, 5 HIV-1 strains were found including subtypes B' (95.9%), C (0.47%) and recombinant subtypes CRF 07_BC (1.09%), CRF 08_BC (1.79%) and CRF 01_AE (0.78%). Phylogenetic tree analysis found that 1,234 Henan subtype B' were closely related to those commonly found in Thailand, and were distantly related to other international subtypes. The dominant strain in former blood plasma donors (FPDs) was subtype B', and the dominant strains in sexual transmission were subtype B' and BC. Among HIV patients who were most likely infected through routes other than paid blood donation, the percentage of non-B' subtypes was much higher than those of FPD. Conclusion These findings suggest that the prevailing strain of HIV-1 in Henan is subtype B', similar to the B' subtype found in Thailand. In addition, for the first time we found subtypes C and recombinant subtypes CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE in this region. Indicating that the subtype feature of HIV-1 became more complicated than before in central China. PMID:19881967

  1. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic. PMID:27487603

  2. Ocular findings in human immunodeficiency virus patients in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Mona A; Ramsahai, Shweta; Del Fierro, Katrina; Rasul, Samad; Onumah, Chavon; Lerebours, Valerie; Gajjala, Jhansi; Copeland, Robert A; Jones, Leslie S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Washington, DC in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of patients with HIV who were seen by the ophthalmology consultation service between September 2003 and May 2011 at a single academic institution in Washington, DC. Medical history and ophthalmic findings were reviewed. Patients with complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination were included. Descriptive statistics were performed. The records of 151 patients were included in the final analysis. All patients had complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination. Sixty-eight (45 %) patients and fifty-eight (50 %) of those with a diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. The leading anterior segment disease was herpes zoster ophthalmicus and the leading posterior segment disease was HIV retinopathy. Of the 151 included patients, 78 (52 %) were receiving HAART at the time of the examination. Thirty-one (42 %) of those not receiving HAART were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. In this study, we find that the overall prevalence of ocular disease has decreased since the introduction of HAART. However, HIV patients continue to be predisposed to developing ophthalmic disease at higher rates than the general population. Visual dysfunction remains an important source of morbidity in HIV patients, particularly in those with AIDS. Measures for improvement include increased communication between infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists to ensure adherence to HAART and routine eye examinations. PMID:22450559

  3. Risk behavior-based model of the cubic growth of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Colgate, S A; Stanley, E A; Hyman, J M; Layne, S P; Qualls, C

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States has grown as the cube of time rather than exponentially. We explain this by interactions involving partner choice and sexual frequency in a risk-behavior model with biased mixing. This leads to a saturation wave of infection moving from high- to low-risk groups. If this description is correct, then the decreasing growth rate of AIDS cases is not due to behavior changes; rather it is due to the intrinsic epidemiology of the disease. PMID:2543987

  4. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies. PMID:14974895

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection despite prior immunization with a recombinant envelope vaccine regimen.

    PubMed Central

    McElrath, M J; Corey, L; Greenberg, P D; Matthews, T J; Montefiori, D C; Rowen, L; Hood, L; Mullins, J I

    1996-01-01

    With efforts underway to develop a preventive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine, it remains unclear which immune responses are sufficient to protect against infection and whether prior HIV-1 immunity can alter the subsequent course of HIV-1 infection. We investigated these issues in the context of a volunteer who received six HIV-1LAI envelope immunizations and 10 weeks thereafter acquired HIV-1 infection through a high-risk sexual exposure. In contrast to nonvaccinated acutely infected individuals, anamnestic HIV-1-specific B- and T-cell responses appeared within 3 weeks in this individual, and neutralizing antibody preceded CD8+ cytotoxic responses. Despite an asymptomatic course and an initial low level of detectable infectious virus, a progressive CD4+ cell decline and dysfunction occurred within 2 years. Although vaccination elicited immunity to HIV-1 envelope, which was recalled upon HIV-1 exposure, it was insufficient to prevent infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8633000

  6. Delayed diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a patient with non-specific neurological symptoms and pancytopenia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both non-specific presentation and asymptomatic course of human immunodeficiency virus infection lead to undiagnosed long-term persistence of the virus in a patient's organism. Case presentation Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian man with non-specific neurological symptoms and pancytopenia, who was referred to an internal medicine ward for further diagnosis. Upon admission to our hospital, he denied any past risky behaviors and refused to have his blood collected for human immunodeficiency virus testing. Later, he eventually provided consent to conduct the human immunodeficiency virus test which turned out to have a positive result. The overall clinical pattern indicated an advanced-stage of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which contrasted with the history he had provided. Conclusions This case report indicates the need to consider human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis in patients with non-specific neurological and hematological disorders. Our report also demonstrates difficulties that can be experienced by the physician while trying to obtain both a clear history and consent to perform human immunodeficiency virus testing. PMID:24666756

  7. Total knee arthroplasty in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Unger, A S; Kessler, C M; Lewis, R J

    1995-08-01

    Twenty-six knee arthroplasties were performed in 15 patients with hemophilia A and human immunodeficiency virus infection from 1984 to 1991. Patient age range was 27 to 48 years. After an average follow-up period of 6.4 years (range, 1-9 years) all patients were alive and none of the implants had become infected. T4 lymphocyte counts showed some deterioration, which was not clinically significant. All of the patients were improved following surgery. Nineteen implants were rated excellent, four good, and three fair. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus did not adversely affect the clinical outcome of knee arthroplasty at follow-up periods up to 9 years. PMID:8523002

  8. Functional role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpu.

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, E F; Cohen, E A; Lu, Y C; Sodroski, J G; Haseltine, W A

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the role of vpu in the replication and cytopathicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), infectious proviruses were constructed that were isogenic except for the ability to produce the protein product of vpu. The vpu-encoded protein is shown to decrease the rate of syncytium formation and cell killing in infected CD4+ human T cells, to increase greatly the export of virus particles from infected cells, and to reduce the rate of accumulation of cell-associated viral proteins. The vpu protein complements in trans the defect in a vpu- HIV-1 provirus but does not affect the simian immunodeficiency virus, which lacks vpu. These observations suggest that vpu may contribute to the AIDS epidemic by increasing the transmission efficiency of the virus. Images PMID:2472639

  9. Neurocysticercosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chianura, Leonardo; Sberna, Maurizio; Moioli, Cristina; Villa, Maria Riccarda; Orcese, Carloandrea; Causarano, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Ecuador is considered a holoendemic high-risk area for the transmission of cysticercosis. Moreover, the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs worldwide. We present a case of simultaneous diagnosis of cysticercosis and HIV infection in a 22-year-old Ecuadorian immigrant. We would postulate that with the increasing HIV incidence in endemic areas of cysticercosis, the simultaneous diagnosis of both diseases is an event to be expected. PMID:17107432

  10. Simplified testing for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Pagcharoenpol, P; Burgess-Cassler, A; Schramm, W

    1996-04-01

    Test strips for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were investigated using specimens from risk groups in Thailand (141 reactive; 445 nonreactive) in a local Thai laboratory. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Using a set of seroconversion panels, the sensitivity of the test strips was within the range of sensitivities obtained with enzyme immunoassays. The test was developed for performance at decentralized settings under nonlaboratory conditions. PMID:8815120

  11. [Lopinavir/ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women].

    PubMed

    Téllez, María Jesús

    2014-11-01

    There are clear sex-related biological differences between men and women. Diseases that affect the two sexes differently are studied separately. However, some diseases affect both men and women, but their incidence or outcome are clearly different. In human immunodeficiency virus infection, the potential differences in the effects of antiretroviral therapy are poorly characterized and few studies have been designed to elucidate these differences. Moreover, women are usually poorly represented in clinical trials of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:25542872

  12. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  13. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    PubMed

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child. PMID:27079412

  14. Recent advances in synthetic carbohydrate-based human immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyuan; Qin, Chunjun; Hu, Jing; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Yin, Jian

    2016-04-01

    An effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is urgently needed to prevent HIV infection and progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As glycosylation of viral proteins becomes better understood, carbohydrate-based antiviral vaccines against special viruses have attracted much attention. Significant efforts in carbohydrate synthesis and immunogenicity research have resulted in the development of multiple carbohydrate-based HIV vaccines. This review summarizes recent advances in synthetic carbohydrate-based vaccines design strategies and the applications of these vaccines in the prevention of HIV. PMID:26992403

  15. Inflammatory joint disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Forster, S M; Seifert, M H; Keat, A C; Rowe, I F; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D; Pinching, A J; Harris, J R W

    1988-01-01

    Nine men positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who developed peripheral, non-erosive arthritis were followed up. The clinical features were compatible with reactive arthritis but were atypical in several respects: the joint symptoms were generally severe, persistent, and unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The onset of arthritis was associated with various infections, none of which are known to be associated with the development of reactive arthritis. HLA typing was performed for three patients, all of whom were positive for HLA-B27. HIV was isolated from the synovial fluid of one patient. No patient had AIDS before developing arthritis, but four progressed to having AIDS after a mean of 7·5 months, and two died. Arthritis resolved in only one patient. The possibility of HIV infection should be considered in all patients with conditions suggesting reactive arthritis. Synovitis in patients with severe immunodeficiency has important pathogenetic implications. PMID:3135044

  16. Thirty years of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Younai, Fariba S

    2013-01-01

    After more than 30 years of battling a global epidemic, the prospect of eliminating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the most challenging infectious disease of the modern era is within our reach. Major scientific discoveries about the virus responsible for this immunodeficiency disease state, including its pathogenesis, transmission patterns and clinical course, have led to the development of potent antiretroviral drugs that offer great hopes in HIV treatment and prevention. Although these agents and many others still in development and testing are capable of effectively suppressing viral replication and survival, the medical management of HIV infection at the individual and the population levels remains challenging. Timely initiation of antiretroviral drugs, adherence to the appropriate therapeutic regimens, effective use of these agents in the pre and post-exposure prophylaxis contexts, treatment of comorbid conditions and addressing social and psychological factors involved in the care of individuals continue to be important considerations. PMID:24136672

  17. Acquired resistance to Giardia muris in X-linked immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Skea, D L; Underdown, B J

    1991-01-01

    A previous study from this laboratory (D. P. Snider, D. Skea, and B. J. Underdown, Infect. Immun. 56:2838-2842, 1988) indicated that immunodeficient mice expressing the xid gene develop prolonged infections with Giardia muris, unlike immunocompetent mice, which eliminate the intestinal protozoan parasite in 8 to 10 weeks. In this study, CBA/N (xid) and CBA/Ca mice were infected with G. muris cysts and at various times following this primary infection were cured by treatment with metronidazole. In contrast to the marked differences in the ability of xid and normal mice to eliminate a primary infection, mice of both strains were resistant to a secondary challenge of G. muris cysts. These data imply that the mechanism(s) responsible for elimination of a primary infection is not identical to those required to resist a secondary challenge infection. Splenocytes from immunocompetent CBA/Ca mice (but not immunodeficient CBA/N mice) could transfer the ability to eliminate a primary G. muris infection to irradiated mice of either strain. In contrast, splenocytes from previously infected CBA/Ca mice could not transfer resistance to a challenge infection, further supporting the hypothesis that there are differences between mechanisms required to eliminate a primary infection and those necessary to resist a second challenge infection. PMID:2019439

  18. Plasmoblastic lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Emoke; Krenács, L; Bagdi, Eniko; Pávai, Z; Macarie, I; Nagy, Elod-Erno; Demian, Smaranda

    2008-01-01

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, typically present as extranodal disease associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. PBLs are often the initial manifestation of AIDS. Here we present a case of PBL concerning the oral cavity. A 34-year-old woman presented a tumor in the oral cavity that involved the maxilla and gingiva (confirmed by CT-scan). The gingival biopsy showed a massive infiltration by large lymphoid cells with round, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, fine chromatin and an significant amount of basophilic cytoplasm which express CD79a, CD138, cytoplasmic lambda light chain and LCA, without staining for CD20, CD38, CD3 and CTK. Serological analysis confirmed HIV positivity. PBLs lack most B-lineage markers, but many express CD79a in at least some of the cells, therefore generate difficulties in differential diagnosis. Overall assessment and correlation of the histopathological and immunohistochemical features with the clinical findings and serology investigation are the most helpful diagnostic tools and can lead to the final diagnosis. PMID:18758634

  19. Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Bylund, D J; Ziegner, U H; Hooper, D G

    1992-06-01

    The performance of HIV testing requires meticulous attention to preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic variables, especially matters of patient confidentiality. Laboratory directors must pay strict attention to quality control and quality assurance practices. Careful attention to these considerations can produce a screening program in low-prevalence populations that has an extremely low false-positive rate, with a positive predictive value of greater than 99%. Issuing a clear and concise laboratory report to the clinician is important. The Fifth Consensus Conference on Testing for Human Retroviruses of the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors, March 1990, has recommended that ELISA be reported as reactive or nonreactive; IFA as reactive, nonreactive, or nonspecific, and WB as reactive, nonreactive, or indeterminate. It is recommended that the terms positive and negative be reserved for the summary interpretation given at the conclusion of the HIV-1 antibody testing algorithm. The testing algorithm used for HIV antibody screening at Scripps Clinic is shown in Figure 3. Other algorithms for complete testing on a single sample only or on two separate samples are reported. We agree with others that the patient should not be counseled for infection with HIV until a reactive confirmatory test(s) establishes a positive diagnosis. Certain special situations in diagnostic testing deserve comment. Establishing the diagnosis of HIV infection can be difficult in seronegative persons with acute infection. Polymerase chain reaction, viral culture or antigen detection may be useful tests in this situation. However, careful interpretation of test results and close correlation with patient risk factors are important to establish the proper diagnosis. Reports of seronegative persons, some remaining seronegative over a protracted time, have raised concerns over the transfusional risk of HIV infection. Blood donor screening programs are using

  20. Design and baseline participant characteristics of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemiology Research (HER) Study: a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in US women.

    PubMed

    Smith, D K; Warren, D L; Vlahov, D; Schuman, P; Stein, M D; Greenberg, B L; Holmberg, S D

    1997-09-15

    The prospective, multisite human immunodeficiency (HIV) Epidemiology Research Study was established to define the biologic, psychologic, and social effects of HIV infection on the health of US women. From 1993 to 1995, a total of 871 HIV-infected women and 439 demographically matched, uninfected women aged 16-55 years, half of whom reported injection drug use and half of whom reported only sexual risk behaviors, were recruited in four US cities. Two sites recruited primarily from medical/drug therapy care settings, and two recruited from community sources. Women consented to biannual interviews; physical examination; blood, urine, and cervicovaginal specimen collection and repository; laboratory assays; and abstraction of outpatient and inpatient medical records to document HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related diagnoses. Retention was greater than 88% at the third 6-month follow-up. Lower retention was associated with currently injecting drugs, not having dependent children, and not being infected with HIV at enrollment. In addition to the core study, a variety of nested studies are under way, some in collaboration with other HIV cohorts and various Public Health Service agencies. This cohort is distinct from other HIV longitudinal cohorts in the diversity of its participants and the comprehensive range of measures to study prospectively the biomedical, social, and emotional effects of the HIV epidemic on infected women and those whose behavior puts them at high risk of infection. PMID:9290506

  1. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  2. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications. PMID:24034072

  3. Early diagnosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Hesman, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is now considered a long-term condition. However, HIV can only become a long-term condition if it is diagnosed early and antiretroviral therapy is commenced immediately. Individuals with HIV who are diagnosed late have an increased risk of death in the year after diagnosis compared to those diagnosed promptly. This article outlines HIV testing policy in the UK, the importance of the early diagnosis of HIV, the barriers to HIV testing, and how to offer testing in a range of settings. PMID:27286626

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Liver Disease Forum 2010: Conference Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Thomas, David L.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease continues to represent a critical mediator of morbidity and mortality in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The frequent presence and overlap of concomitant injurious processes, including hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections, hepatoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapeutic agents, alcohol, and other toxins, in the setting of immunosuppression lead to rapid fibrotic progression and early development of end-stage liver disease. This conference summary describes the proceedings of a state-of-the-art gathering of international experts designed to highlight the status of current research in epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, and treatment of HIV and liver disease. PMID:21898501

  5. Update on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Yesufu, Omobolaji T.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) occurs mainly in West Africa, but an increasing number of cases have been recognized in Europe, India, and the United States. In this era of global integration, clinicians must be aware of when to consider the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and how to test for this virus. Although there is debate regarding when therapy should be initiated and which regimen should be chosen, recent trials have provided important information on treatment options for HIV-2 infection. In this review, we present information on recent clinical advances in our understanding of HIV-2 infection and highlight remaining diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. PMID:21367732

  6. Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kalapila, Aley G; Marrazzo, Jeanne

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a chronic medical condition. Several new drugs are available, including fixed-dose combination tablets, that have greatly simplified combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens to treat HIV, while increasing the life-expectancy of infected individuals. In the last decade, multiple well-regarded studies have established the benefits of using ART in high-risk, HIV-negative persons to prevent HIV acquisition. The primary care provider must not only understand commonly encountered issues pertaining to ART, such as toxicities and drug interactions, but also needs to be aware of using ART for HIV prevention. PMID:27235622

  7. Care of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Menopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Cejtin, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    More women than ever before are both Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected and menopausal, because of increased survival and more frequent diagnosis in older women. Such a woman has the combined burden of her infection, its treatment, comorbid conditions, and aging. Thus she is at risk for a variety of problems such as disorders of bone mineral density and deficiencies in cognitive functioning. In addition to this, she experiences menopause in a unique fashion, with more symptoms and perhaps at an earlier age. The clinician caring for her must take a proactive approach to this multitude of factors that may affect her health and well-being. PMID:22284959

  8. Towards detecting the human immunodeficiency virus using microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alodhayb, Abdullah; Brown, Nicole; Saydur Rahman, S. M.; Harrigan, Richard; Beaulieu, L. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Detecting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is difficult because the virus is prone to mutations and is in low concentrations in the body. Inside the HIV virion are two well characterized single stranded (ss) RNA molecules (viral genome) that feature both variable regions and regions that are conserved under virus mutation. In this work, microcantilever sensors have been employed as potential HIV detectors by targeting a conserved sequence of the viral genome by attempting to detect target ssDNA and ssRNA molecules that are significantly longer than the ssDNA molecules functionalized on the cantilever.

  9. Toxoplasma encephalitis in Haitian adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathologic-CT correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Post, M.J.D.; Chan, J.C.; Hensley, G.T.; Hoffman, T.A.; Moskowitz, L.B.; Lippmann, S.

    1983-05-01

    The clinical data, histologic findings, and computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in eight adult Haitians with toxoplasma encephalitis were analyzed retrospectively. Diagnosis was established by identification of Toxoplasma gondii on autopsy in five and brain biopsy in three specimens and subsequently confirmed by the immunoperoxidase method. All these patiens, six of whom had been in the United States for 24 months or less, had severe idiopathic immunodeficiency syndrome. All were lymphopenic and six were on treatment for tuberculosis when the toxoplasma encephalitis developed. All patients were studied with CT when they developed an altered mental status and fever associated with seizures and/or focal neurologic deficits. Scans before treatment showed multiple intraparenchymal lesions in seven and a single lesion in the thalamus in one. Ring and/or nodular enhancement of the lesions was found in six and hypodense areas in two. Progressions of abnormalities occurred on serial studies. These CT findings that were best shown on axial and coronal thin-section double-dose contrast studies were useful but not diagnostically pathognomonic. In patients with similar clinical presentation CT is recommended to identify focal areas of involvement and to guide brain biopsy or excision so that prompt medical thereapy of this often lethal infection can be instituted.

  10. Addressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Advanced Practice Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokes, Kathleen M.; Stein, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 23 advanced practice nursing programs showed only 3 had HIV-specific graduate-level nursing courses. Recommendations were made for HIV-specific courses, integration of HIV content into other courses, use of Centers for Disease Control and Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines, and subspecialties in HIV nursing. (SK)

  11. Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 in human immunodeficiency virus 1-positive and human immunodeficiency virus 1-negative populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Taguchi, H; Katano, H; Mori, S; Nakamura, T; Nojiri, N; Nakajima, K; Tadokoro, K; Juji, T; Iwamoto, A

    1999-02-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) among human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-positive (HIV-1+) and HIV-1-negative (HIV-1-) populations in Japan, 276 HIV-1+ patients and 1,000 HIV-1- blood donors were enrolled in this study. Antibodies against HHV8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were examined through indirect immunofluorescent assay by using a B-cell line that was infected latently with HHV8 (body cavity-based lymphoma 1). An HHV8- and Epstein-Barr virus-negative B-cell line (Ramos) was used as a control. Thirty-two seropositive cases against LANA (anti-LANA+) were identified among the 276 HIV-1+ patients who were studied. Five cases were foreigners living in Japan. The risk factor of all 27 Japanese cases was unprotected sexual intercourse, and the great majority of these cases (23 in 27; 85%) reported homosexual/bisexual behavior. Anti-LANA+ status correlated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, such as amoeba and HBV infection, further suggesting male homosexual behavior as the main route of HHV8 transmission in Japan. Only two LANA+ cases were identified among 1,000 HIV- blood donors in Japan; thus, seroprevalence of HHV8 identified by LANA was estimated to be 0.2% among HIV-1- populations in this country. PMID:9892401

  12. [An epidemiological and immunological study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the southern area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Cervero, M; Medina Asensio, J; Rubio, R; Costa, J R

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics and immunological parameters are characterized in different groups of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients infected by HIV, and the prognostic markers of survival in patients diagnosed of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was carried out in 312 patients from June 1984 to March 1989. The most common risk group was intravenous drug addicts (IVDA) 80.9%. We observed that during the last years there was an increase in the number of cases of heterosexual transmission. Through follow up, 17.6% of patients developed acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). The incidence rate for AIDS was higher amongst homosexuals than IVDA (35.4/14.6). Esophageal candidiasis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were the AIDS indicators most frequently encountered. Once the study period was over, with a follow up of 19.3 +/- 3.4 months, the probability of survival after 12 months was 70 +/- 0.07% and after 24 months was 42% +/- 0.09%. The risk group (homosexuals), the appearance of a neoplasia as the first diagnosis of AIDS, and the immunological parameters (CD3 less than 500, CD4 less than 400, CD4/CD8 ratio less than 0.5 and total lymphocyte count of less than 1700 were the markers with worst prognosis which correlated with survival rates (p less than 0.01). We confirmed that when comparing immunologic parameters amongst HIV infection groups, IgA levels were higher (p less than 0.05); the total number of lymphocytes, the number of helper lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were lower (p less than 0.01) in IV and AIDS group with respect to group II and III, in patients with AIDS with respect to group IV-non-AIDS and in those who died with relation to AIDS. PMID:2063023

  13. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Neural Xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovich, Therese A.; Lazar, Eliot; Blumberg, Benjamin M.; Saito, Yoshihiro; Eskin, Thomas A.; Reichman, Richard; Baram, David A.; del Cerro, Coca; Gendelman, Howard E.; del Cerro, Manuel; Epstein, Leon G.

    1992-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay....

  16. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay....

  17. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay....

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay....

  19. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay....

  20. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) through Solid Organ Transplantation (Draft Guideline). The Draft Guideline can...

  1. Intra-Blood-Brain Barrier Synthesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antigen and Antibody in Humans and Chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudsmit, Jaap; Epstein, Leon G.; Paul, Deborah A.; van der Helm, Hayo J.; Dawson, George J.; Asher, David M.; Yanagihara, Richard; Wolff, Axel V.; Gibbs, Clarence J.; Carleton Gajdusek, D.

    1987-06-01

    The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was associated with progressive encephalopathy in adult and pediatric patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV antigen was detected in CSF from 6 of 7 AIDS patients with progressive encephalopathy. By contrast, HIV antigen, whether free or complexed, was detected in CSF from only 1 of 18 HIV antibody seropositive patients without progressive encephalopathy and from 0 of 8 experimentally infected chimpanzees without clinical signs. Intra-blood-brain barrier synthesis of HIV-specific antibody was demonstrated in the majority of patients with AIDS (9/12) or at risk for AIDS (8/13) as well as in the experimentally infected chimpanzees, indicating HIV-specific B-cell reactivity in the brain without apparent neurological signs. In 6 of 11 patients with HIV infection, antibodies synthesized in the central nervous system were directed against HIV envelope proteins. Active viral expression appears to be necessary for both the immunodeficiency and progressive encephalopathy associated with HIV infection.

  2. Pathogenesis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Suyog Subhash; Ramteke, Karuna Balwant; Raparti, Girish Tulsidas; Kalra, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced understanding about the way human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and causes infection in humans has led to invention and use of newer more effective antiretroviral drugs. As treatment for HIV is long term, side effects of the antiretrovirals become an important area of research focus. Antiretrovirals can cause severe metabolic abnormalities, collectively known as HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. If untreated, these metabolic abnormalities have the potential to increase stroke and cardiac ischemia. Management includes choice of nonoffending drugs, switch over to less toxic drugs, hypolipidemics, oral antidiabetics including thiazolidinediones, metformin and growth hormone analogs and finally facial surgeries. Updated knowledge about HIV lipodystrophy, and the hormone-related drugs used to treat it, is essential for physicians and endocrinologists to be able to diagnose the patients and effectively treat them. PMID:22701839

  3. The epidemiology of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Horsburgh, C R; Selik, R M

    1989-01-01

    We analyzed cases of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (DNTM) in patients with AIDS reported to the Centers for Disease Control. Between 1981 and 1987, 2,269 cases were reported. In 96% of cases, infection was caused by M. avium complex (MAC). The number of cases has risen steadily since 1981, but the rate as a percentage of AIDS cases has remained stable at 5.5%. DNTM was seen less frequently in AIDS cases with Kaposi's sarcoma than in other AIDS cases (p less than 0.01). Rates of DNTM were lower in Hispanics and declined with age but were not significantly different by patient sex or means of acquiring HIV infection. Rates of disseminated MAC varied by geographic region from 3.9% to 7.8% (p less than 0.0001). As assessed by helper/suppressor T-cell ratios, AIDS patients with DNTM were not more immunologically impaired than those with other opportunistic infections. Life table analysis revealed that AIDS patients with DNTM survived a shorter time (median, 7.4 months) than did other AIDS patients (median, 13.3 months; p less than 0.0001). We conclude that DNTM is acquired by unpreventable environmental exposures. Because DNTM adversely affects survival of AIDS patients, effective therapeutic agents must be vigorously sought. PMID:2912355

  4. Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Sarah R; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Brenchley, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV. These viruses have been reported to infect multiple cell lineages of hematopoietic origin, including all phenotypic and functional CD4 T cell subsets. The two most commonly reported cell types that become infected in vivo are memory CD4 T cells and tissue-resident macrophages. Though viral infection of CD4 T cells is routinely detected in both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques, significant viral infection of macrophages is only routinely observed in animal models wherein CD4 T cells are almost entirely depleted. Here we review the roles of macrophages in lentiviral disease progression, the evidence that macrophages support viral replication in vivo, the animal models where macrophage-mediated replication of SIV is thought to occur, how the virus can interact with macrophages in vivo, pathologies thought to be attributed to viral replication within macrophages, how viral replication in macrophages might contribute to the asymptomatic phase of HIV/SIV infection, and whether macrophages represent a long-lived reservoir for the virus. PMID:27307568

  5. Loss of lean body and muscle mass correlates with androgen levels in hypogonadal men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and wasting.

    PubMed

    Grinspoon, S; Corcoran, C; Lee, K; Burrows, B; Hubbard, J; Katznelson, L; Walsh, M; Guccione, A; Cannan, J; Heller, H; Basgoz, N; Klibanski, A

    1996-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) wasting syndrome (AWS) is a devastating complication of human immunodeficiency virus infection characterized by a disproportionate decrease in lean body mass. The pathogenesis of the AWS is unknown, but recent data suggest that endogenous secretion of the potent anabolic hormone, testosterone; is decreased in 30-50% of men with AIDS. However, it is unknown whether decreased androgen levels are associated with decreased lean body mass and/or functional decreases in muscle strength and aerobic capacity in hypogonadal men with the AWS. In addition, testosterone is known to have stimulatory effects on GH secretion, and the loss of these effects on the GH-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis may be an additional mechanism of decreased lean body mass in this population. Twenty hypogonadal subjects (free-testosterone < 12 pg/mL) with weight loss > 10% of preillness weight or absolute weight < 90% ideal body weight (IBW) were enrolled in the study. None of the subjects were receiving Megace. Lean body mass and fat-free mass were determined by potassium-40 isotope analysis (40K) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively, and analyzed with respect to gonadal function by linear regression analysis. Muscle mass was determined by urinary creatinine excretion, and exercise functional capacity was assessed by a 6-min walk test, a sit-to-stand test, and a timed get-up-and-go test. Results also were compared with gonadal function by regression analysis. IGF-I and mean overnight GH levels, determined from frequent sampling (q20 min from 2000-0800 h), were compared with results obtained from age- and sex-matched normal controls. Subjects were 26-58 yr of age (39 +/- 7 yr, mean +/- SD) with a CD4 cell count of 150 +/- 186 cells/mm3. Serum levels of FSH were elevated in 30% of the subjects. Muscle mass was significantly reduced, compared with expected mass for height (23.3 +/- 5.5 vs. 29.3 +/- 1.7 kg, P = 0.0001) and was

  6. 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, J; Walker, M C; Leclerc, J M; Lapointe, N; Beaulieu, R; Thibodeau, L

    1990-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents which affect the integration, stability, or inducibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus would have considerable value in treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Two nucleoside analogs of cytosine, 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine, which seem to have such value because of their capabilities to affect both the stability and the methylation patterns of the nucleic acids into which they are incorporated, were tested for their ability to inhibit the replication of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in human CEM T cells in vitro. 5-Azadeoxycytidine (1 microM) completely inhibited HIV replication in CEM cells, by the criteria of reduced viral antigen expression and decreased supernatant reverse transcriptase activity, with little toxicity for the treated cells. 5-azacytidine (1 microM) also inhibited HIV replication, but less effectively. When added 2 or more h after CEM cells were infected with HIV-1, both 5-azacytosine derivatives were less effective than they were when added at the time of infection. Even 2 h of exposure to 5-azadeoxycytidine was sufficient for inhibition of HIV replication. Although long exposure to either analog at concentrations of 1 microM would result in pronounced cellular cytotoxicity, the the fact that short exposures to the same dose of drug inhibit HIV replication but are not toxic for the cells implies that cellular toxicity itself is not an important mechanism of the antiviral action of the analogs. PMID:1691617

  7. Selective induction of toxicity to human cells expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by a conditionally cytotoxic adenovirus vector.

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, L K; Arens, M Q; Subramanian, T; Chinnadurai, G

    1990-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) primarily infect CD4+ T lymphocytes, leading eventually to the development of a systemic immune dysfunction termed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An attractive strategy to combat HIV-mediated pathogenesis would be to eliminate the initial pool of infected cells and thus prevent disease progression. We have engineered a replication-defective, conditionally cytotoxic adenovirus vector, Ad-tk, whose action is dependent on the targeted expression of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (tk), cloned downstream of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, in human cells expressing the HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat. Infection of Tat-expressing human HeLa or Jurkat cells with Ad-tk resulted in high-level tk expression, which was not deleterious to the viability of these cells. However, in the presence of the antiherpetic nucleoside analog ganciclovir, Ad-tk infection resulted in a massive reduction in the viability of these Tat-expressing cell lines. As adenoviruses are natural passengers of the human lymphoid system, our results suggest adenovirus vector-based strategies for the targeted expression, under the control of cis-responsive HIV regulatory elements, of cytotoxic agents in HIV-infected cells for the therapy of HIV-mediated pathogenesis. Images PMID:2247444

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection. PMID:8067276

  9. Overview of Microbicides for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Baxter, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention tools that women can use and control are urgently needed. Microbicides are chemical products applied to the vagina or rectum to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Four classes of candidate microbicides have been tested to date: those that (1) enhance the natural defences in the vagina to inactivate HIV; (2) inactivate HIV in the vagina; (3) prevent HIV from attaching to, and fusing with, the host cells; and (4) prevent HIV from replicating in genital tract host cells. Despite numerous disappointing efficacy trial results over the past 20 years, substantial progress is now being made in microbicide development after the release of the CAPRISA 004 trial, which provided proof-of-concept that topical antiretroviral microbicides can prevent sexual transmission of HIV and herpes simplex type-2 infection. Microbicides, which fill an important gap for women-controlled prevention methods, have the potential to alter the course of the HIV pandemic. PMID:22386823

  10. Fungal, Viral, and Parasitic Pneumonias Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Skalski, Joseph H; Limper, Andrew H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory illness is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The spectrum of pulmonary disease that can affect patients with HIV is wide and includes opportunistic infection with many fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms. This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness. PMID:26974302

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed. PMID:2004869

  12. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam and diagnostic work-up is unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  13. Coronary Artery Disease in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Population.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Michael G; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficient combined antiretroviral therapies has lengthened the mean life span of the population affected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transforming this terminal infection to a chronic yet manageable disease. Nonetheless, patients with HIV--treatment naive or not--exhibit larger risks for coronary artery disease than the noninfected population. Moreover, coronary atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis may be the most prevalent condition in the HIV-infected population that is being accentuated by the effects of viral agents and the antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors. Nonetheless, generalized metabolic dysfunctions and premature senescence are often attributed to the viremia caused by the HIV infection directly and primarily. Therefore, a multifactorial approach is to be considered when attempting to explain the strong correlation between HIV and coronary artery disease, including co-opportunistic viremias and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. PMID:23797758

  14. Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

    1991-11-01

    Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

  15. Combinations of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine) and phosphonoformate (foscarnet) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and cytomegalovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, B F; Schinazi, R F

    1989-01-01

    Combinations of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and phosphonoformate produced a moderate synergistic inhibitory effect against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro at concentrations that are easily achieved in humans. The synergistic effect was more pronounced with increasing concentrations and was not secondary to toxic effects of the drugs. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine neither inhibited the replication of human cytomegalovirus in human embryonic lung fibroblasts nor interfered with the anticytomegalovirus effect of phosphonoformate. By using partially purified reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, various combinations of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate and phosphonoformate produced strong indications of additive interactions. The synergistic interactions in infected cells and the additive effects observed at the reverse transcriptase level indicate that mechanisms other than the reverse transcriptase may be of importance for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by these two compounds. A concomitant treatment of cytomegalovirus infections, such as cytomegalovirus retinitis, with phosphonoformate in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome receiving 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine may be appropriate, and this combination may also be useful in controlling human immunodeficiency virus infection. PMID:2546487

  16. Lung and chest wall mechanics in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, E; Calderini, E; Robatto, F M; Puccio, P; Milic-Emili, J

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical characteristics of the respiratory system in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). In 12 mechanically ventilated patients, total respiratory system mechanics was assessed using the technique of rapid airway occlusion during constant flow inflation, and was partitioned into lung and chest wall components using the oesophageal balloon technique. We measured interrupter resistance (Rint), which mainly reflects airway resistance, additional resistance (deltaR) due to viscoelastic behaviour and time constant inequalities, and static elastance (Est). In addition, the static inflation volume-pressure (V-P) curve was assessed. In eight patients, computed tomography scans were performed within 2 days of the assessment of respiratory mechanics. Compared to values reported in the literature for normal subjects, Est and deltaR were markedly increased in AIDS patients with PCP, whilst Rint exhibited a relatively smaller increase. These changes, which involved only the lung and airways, were mainly due to the reduction of ventilated lung units, but additional factors were involved to cause independent modifications of lung stiffness, airway calibre, and viscoelastic properties. The changes in Rint, deltaR, and Est were similar to those observed in other studies on patients with ARDS of different aetiologies. At variance with common observations in the latter patients, none of the AIDS patients with PCP exhibited an inflection point on the static inflation V-P curve, suggesting little or no alveolar recruitment during lung inflation. This finding could be related to the distinctive histopathology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Indeed, computed tomography revealed homogeneous diffuse interstitial and alveolar infiltration rather than the dense, dependent opacities observed in other studies on acute respiratory

  17. The hypertriglyceridemia of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an increased prevalence of low density lipoprotein subclass pattern B

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, K.R.; Krauss, R.M.; Pang, M.; Doerrler, W.; Jensen, P.; Grunfeld, C. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1993-06-01

    To better define the role of environmental factors on LDL phenotypic expression, the authors determined LDL patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and infection characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and weight loss. Similar to previous studies, plasma triglyceride levels were increased, whereas plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in the AIDS subjects compared to those in age-matched controls. The percentage of AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype was increased 2.5-fold, demonstrating an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype in an acquired form of hypertriglyceridemia. For each LDL phenotype in AIDS, serum triglyceride levels were higher than the same phenotypic pattern in controls, with the most marked elevations in triglycerides found in AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype. In contrast to what was observed in controls, HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in all AIDS subjects and were unrelated to LDL pattern. Total and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in controls with the LDL B phenotype than in those with the LDL A phenotype, but there was no difference in total and LDL cholesterol in AIDS subjects with LDL B compared to A. On multiple regression analysis in subjects with AIDS, plasma triglyceride levels, age, and HDL cholesterol all contribute to the occurrence of the LDL B phenotype, but elevations in plasma triglyceride levels are the strongest independent predictor. Body mass index was not a predictor of LDL B phenotype in AIDS. These results suggest that disturbances in triglyceride metabolism that are caused by AIDS lead to the appearance of the LDL subclass B phenotype and provide further evidence that environmental or disease states that perturb lipid metabolism can produce an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype. 35 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH <0.01 mIU/l. Serum anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were absent. Computed tomography scan showed a large abscess in the anterior neck involving the left lobe and isthmus, as well as inhomogeneous changes in the right lobe of the thyroid. The radioisotopic scan showed absent uptake of tracer in keeping with thyroiditis. Although the initial presentation was that of hyperthyroidism, destruction of the gland later resulted in sustained hypothyroidism, necessitating thyroid hormone supplementation. The hyperthyroidism can be explained by the release of presynthesized and stored thyroid hormone into the circulation as a result of inflammation and disruption of the thyroid follicles, and the subsequent hypothyroidism by the fact that much of the gland was destroyed by the abscess and the extensive inflammatory process. This is the first documented case of hyperthyroidism in a patient with acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia. PMID:24847469

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes Affecting Human Natural Killer Cell Cytolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyoungjun; Billadeau, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synapse. Concurrently, lytic granules undergo minus-end directed movement and accumulate at the microtubule-organizing center through the interaction with microtubule motor proteins, followed by polarization of the lethal cargo toward the target cell. Ultimately, myosin-dependent movement of the lytic granules toward the NK cell plasma membrane through F-actin channels, along with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor-dependent fusion, promotes the release of the lytic granule contents into the cleft between the NK cell and target cell resulting in target cell killing. Herein, we will discuss several disease-causing mutations in primary immunodeficiency syndromes and how they impact NK cell-mediated killing by disrupting distinct steps of this tightly regulated process. PMID:24478771

  20. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  1. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia. PMID:24047742

  2. Effect of sexual behavior change on long-term human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Morris, M; Dean, L

    1994-08-01

    Substantial changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sexual behavior have been reported by virtually every survey of homosexual/bisexual men in the last decade. This paper uses a behavior-based simulation to examine how such changes are likely to affect the long-term future of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among homosexual men. Data from the Longitudinal AIDS Impact Project in New York City are used to estimate age-specific patterns of unprotected anogenital contact and behavioral change from 1980 to 1991. Model projections are validated using New York City surveillance data on AIDS incidence from 1981 to 1991. The current levels of unsafe sex reported in the Longitudinal AIDS Impact Project are shown to be almost exactly on the epidemic threshold. If this behavior were maintained, HIV prevalence would slowly decline in the population, but with just one additional unsafe sexual partner per year HIV would instead become endemic, with seroprevalence of about 65% in the oldest group and about 25% in the youngest. Transmission dynamics in the youngest group are analyzed in detail. For this group, the assortative age-matching bias in partner selection patterns raises the unsafe behavior threshold slightly in the long run. PMID:8030625

  3. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  4. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  5. School placement for human immunodeficiency virus-infected children: the Baltimore City experience.

    PubMed

    Santelli, J S; Birn, A E; Linde, J

    1992-05-01

    Over the past 6 years, the city of Baltimore has successfully implemented a school placement policy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Both policy and specific procedures are based on nationally promulgated guidelines. School placement policy is part of an overall AIDS policy that includes education of students and staff and adoption of universal precautions to prevent transmission of communicable diseases in school. Implementation has been marked by excellent collaboration between the departments of health and education. Important policy components include expedited clinical investigation of each case, an interagency review panel, strict protection of confidentiality, a restricted setting for certain children, a school site visit for each placement, and continued monitoring of the school placement by school nurses. Many HIV-infected students need special educational services and/or school health services. The Baltimore City school placement process has avoided the exaggerated publicity endured by some communities, where media reporting has aggravated community fears and invaded the lives of families with HIV-infected children. Baltimore City has succeeded in ensuring access to education, protecting families' confidentiality, and providing special care for HIV-infected students. Local communities should emphasize national guidelines in designing school placement policies for HIV-infected children. School placement policies work best in the context of a comprehensive policy incorporating AIDS education and care. PMID:1579392

  6. Diagnostic implications of Ga-67 chest-scan patterns in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.H.; Garay, S.M.; Grossman, R.J.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.

    1989-03-01

    Consecutive gallium-67 scans (n = 237) of 180 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients with suspected pulmonary infections were evaluated for intensity and pattern of gallium distribution. Scan findings were correlated with the history, chest radiographic findings, and clinicopathologic diagnoses. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) occurred significantly more often with heterogeneous diffuse uptake than with homogeneous diffuse uptake. Heterogeneous diffuse uptake had an 87% positive predictive value for PCP, which was higher than that of other patterns. Localized pulmonary uptake was most commonly due to bacterial pneumonia or PCP; ill-defined, perihilar uptake, to cytomegalovirus or PCP; and focal (lymph node) uptake, to tuberculosis or lymphoma. The positive predictive value of any pulmonary uptake for lung pathology was 93%, and the negative predictive value of a negative scan was 96%. These findings confirm the utility of gallium scanning in the detection of lung pathology related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, particularly PCP. Furthermore, identification of a diffuse pattern may permit the use of a less invasive test more specifically directed at the confirmation of a diagnosis of PCP.

  7. Gap Junctions Mediate Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Bystander Killing in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into the CNS is an early event after infection, resulting in neurological dysfunction in a significant number of individuals. As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer, the prevalence of cognitive impairment is increasing, despite antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms that mediate CNS dysfunction are still not completely understood, and include inflammation, viral presence, and/or replication. In this report, we characterize a novel role of gap junctions in transmitting and thereby amplifying toxic signals originating from HIV-infected astrocytes that trigger cell death in uninfected astrocytes. HIV-infected astrocytes were resistant to apoptosis; however, uninfected astrocytes forming gap junctions with infected astrocytes were apoptotic. Gap junction blockers abolished apoptosis in uninfected astrocytes, supporting the role of these channels in amplifying cell death. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of toxicity within the brain, triggered by low numbers of HIV-infected astrocytes and amplified by gap junctions, contributing to the pathogenesis of NeuroAIDS. PMID:18032656

  8. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595

  9. Key role of human leukocyte antigen in modulating human immunodeficiency virus progression: An overview of the possible applications.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Alba; Montesano, Carla; Colizzi, Vittorio; Amicosante, Massimo

    2015-05-12

    Host and viral factors deeply influence the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Among them human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus plays a key role at different levels. In fact, genes of the HLA locus have shown the peculiar capability to modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, HLA class I molecules are recognized by CD8(+) T-cells and natural killers (NK) cells towards the interaction with T cell receptor (TCR) and Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) 3DL1 respectively. Polymorphisms within the different HLA alleles generate structural changes in HLA class I peptide-binding pockets. Amino acid changes in the peptide-binding pocket lead to the presentation of a different set of peptides to T and NK cells. This review summarizes the role of HLA in HIV progression toward acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome and its receptors. Recently, many studies have been focused on determining the HLA binding-peptides. The novel use of immune-informatics tools, from the prediction of the HLA-bound peptides to the modification of the HLA-receptor complexes, is considered. A better knowledge of HLA peptide presentation and recognition are allowing new strategies for immune response manipulation to be applied against HIV virus. PMID:25964877

  10. How Many Have Died from Undiagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Histoplasmosis, A Treatable Disease? Time to Act

    PubMed Central

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Aznar, Christine; Blanchet, Denis; Vantilcke, Vincent; Demar, Magalie; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated disseminated Histoplasma capsulatum capsulatum infection often mimics tuberculosis. This disease is well know in the United States but is dramatically underdiagnosed in Central and South America. In the Amazon region, given the available incidence data and the regional HIV prevalence, it is expected that, every year, 1,500 cases of histoplasmosis affect HIV patients in that region alone. Given the mortality in undiagnosed patients, at least 600 patients would be expected to die from an undiagnosed but treatable disease. The lack of a simple diagnostic tool and the lack of awareness by clinicians spiral in a vicious cycle and made a major problem invisible for 30 years. The HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome community should tackle this problem now to prevent numerous avoidable deaths from HIV-associated histoplasmosis in the region and elsewhere. PMID:24277783

  11. How many have died from undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus-associated histoplasmosis, a treatable disease? Time to act.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Aznar, Christine; Blanchet, Denis; Vantilcke, Vincent; Demar, Magalie; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated disseminated Histoplasma capsulatum capsulatum infection often mimics tuberculosis. This disease is well know in the United States but is dramatically underdiagnosed in Central and South America. In the Amazon region, given the available incidence data and the regional HIV prevalence, it is expected that, every year, 1,500 cases of histoplasmosis affect HIV patients in that region alone. Given the mortality in undiagnosed patients, at least 600 patients would be expected to die from an undiagnosed but treatable disease. The lack of a simple diagnostic tool and the lack of awareness by clinicians spiral in a vicious cycle and made a major problem invisible for 30 years. The HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome community should tackle this problem now to prevent numerous avoidable deaths from HIV-associated histoplasmosis in the region and elsewhere. PMID:24277783

  12. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions. PMID:24080632

  13. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — an assessment of the present situation in the world: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A consultative meeting was convened by the World Health Organization in Geneva on 22-25 November 1983 to assess the present situation of AIDS (the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the world and to encourage collaboration between the different nations affected by this disease. AIDS was first reported in the USA in 1981, but probably existed there as early as 1978. Soon after its recognition in the USA, similar cases were identified in other areas of the world. In most western European countries and Canada, the epidemiological pattern is very similar to that in the United States, the majority of cases being in homosexual men. In other areas such as equatorial Africa and the Caribbean, the pattern seems to be different with no identifiable risk factors for the majority of cases. The disease is manifested by opportunistic infections and/or selected malignancies, with apparent differences in the clinical presentation between the cases in North America and Europe, on the one hand, and those in the tropics. To date there is no treatment that has significantly improved the underlying cellular immune deficiency, and the mortality is very high. The etiology of AIDS is unknown, but the epidemiological pattern is most consistent with its being caused by a transmissible agent; retroviruses come on top of the list of candidate agents. Despite the unknown etiology and the lack of laboratory diagnostic tests, sufficient information is available to permit health authorities to make recommendations that may reduce appreciably the incidence of the disease. AIDS is an important health problem in a number of countries and has international implications. Collaborative laboratory, epidemiological and clinical research between countries is needed to accelerate control efforts. In the meantime, WHO will coordinate exchange of information among countries. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6331905

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among patients attending hemophilia treatment centers and mortality experience of hemophiliacs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Lawrence, D N; Evatt, B L; Bregman, D J; Zyla, L D; Curran, J W; Aledort, L M; Eyster, M E; Brownstein, A P; Carman, C J

    1985-06-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized among hemophiliacs in 1982. The authors have conducted investigations to determine the onset and incidence of AIDS among hemophiliacs and to determine trends in hemophilia mortality since the introduction of clotting-factor concentrates in the late 1960s. A survey of United States hemophilia treatment centers, supported by the Centers for Disease Control and the National Hemophilia Foundation, defined a population of hemophiliacs which was monitored for AIDS cases through June 1984. Death reports from the United States Vital Statistics System and from the hemophilia treatment center survey provided mortality trends for 1968-1979 and for 1978-1982, respectively. The results of these investigations demonstrate the following points. 1) The AIDS epidemic is a new and important cause of illness and mortality among hemophiliacs, although a very low incidence of AIDS among hemophiliacs prior to 1982 cannot be ruled out. 2) The AIDS cases who attended the surveyed hemophilia treatment centers were distributed throughout the United States and were older than hemophilia treatment center patients without AIDS. AIDS cases also used more lyophilized clotting-factor concentrate, but only a small number of cases were reported with this information. 3) Improved care for hemophilia, including the use of clotting-factor concentrates, dramatically reduced hemophilia mortality rates during the 1970s. 4) In 1982, hemorrhage was the major cause of death among hemophiliacs. Deaths from non-alcoholic liver disease were also increased. AIDS incidence among hemophilia treatment center attendees was stable at 0.6 cases per 1,000 hemophilia treatment center attendees per year during 1982 and 1983 but increased sharply to 5.4 cases per 1,000 during the first quarter of 1984. PMID:4014173

  15. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    PubMed

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies. PMID:3969698

  16. Viral protein R of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 induces retrotransposition of long interspersed element-1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral protein R (Vpr), a protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) with various biological functions, was shown to be present in the blood of HIV-1-positive patients. However, it remained unclear whether circulating Vpr in patients’ blood is biologically active. Here, we examined the activity of blood Vpr using an assay system by which retrotransposition of long interspersed element-1 (L1-RTP) was detected. We also investigated the in vivo effects of recombinant Vpr (rVpr) by administrating it to transgenic mice harboring human L1 as a transgene (hL1-Tg mice). Based on our data, we discuss the involvement of blood Vpr in the clinical symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results We first discovered that rVpr was active in induction of L1-RTP. Biochemical analyses revealed that rVpr-induced L1-RTP depended on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. By using a sensitive L1-RTP assay system, we showed that 6 of the 15 blood samples from HIV-1 patients examined were positive for induction of L1-RTP. Of note, the L1-RTP-inducing activity was blocked by a monoclonal antibody specific for Vpr. Moreover, L1-RTP was reproducibly induced in various organs, including the kidney, when rVpr was administered to hL1-Tg mice. Conclusions Blood Vpr is biologically active, suggesting that its monitoring is worthwhile for clarification of the roles of Vpr in the pathogenesis of AIDS. This is the first report to demonstrate a soluble factor in patients’ blood active for L1-RTP activity, and implies the involvement of L1-RTP in the development of human diseases. PMID:23915234

  17. Intracellular Immunization of Human Fetal Cord Blood Stem/Progenitor Cells with a Ribozyme Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mang; Leavitt, Mark C.; Maruyama, Midori; Yamada, Osamu; Young, Dennis; Ho, Anthony D.; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1995-01-01

    Successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection may ultimately require targeting of hematopoietic stem cells. Here we used retroviral vectors carrying the ribozyme gene to transduce CD34^+ cells from human fetal cord blood. Transduction and ribozyme expression had no apparent adverse effect on cell differentiation and/or proliferation. The macrophage-like cells, differentiated from the stem/progenitor cells in vitro, expressed the ribozyme gene and resisted infection by a macrophage tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1. These results suggest the feasibility of stem cell gene therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Group B

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Giovanetti, Marta; Veo, Carla; Lai, Alessia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciotti, Marco; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infections are mainly restricted to West Africa; however, in the recent years, the prevalence of HIV-2 is a growing concern in some European countries and the Southwestern region of India. Despite the presence of different HIV-2 groups, only A and B Groups have established human-to-human transmission chains. Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the phylogeographic inference of HIV-2 Group B worldwide to estimate their data of origin and the population dynamics. Materials and Methods: The evolutionary rates, the demographic history for HIV-2 Group B dataset, and the phylogeographic analysis were estimated using a Bayesian approach. The viral gene flow analysis was used to count viral gene out/in flow among different locations. Results: The root of the Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree of HIV-2 Group B dated back to 1957. The demographic history of HIV-2 Group B showed that the epidemic remained constant up to 1970 when started an exponential growth. From 1985 to early 2000s, the epidemic reached a plateau, and then it was characterized by two bottlenecks and a new plateau at the end of 2000s. Phylogeographic reconstruction showed that the most probable location for the root of the tree was Ghana. Regarding the viral gene flow of HIV-2 Group B, the only observed viral gene flow was from Africa to France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Conclusions: The study gives insights into the origin, history, and phylogeography of HIV-2 Group B epidemic. The growing number of infections of HIV-2 worldwide indicates the need for strengthening surveillance. PMID:27621561

  19. Kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus budding and assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to a large family of RNA viruses, retroviruses. Unlike budding of regular enveloped viruses, retroviruses bud concurrently with the assembly of retroviral capsids on the cell membrane. The kinetics of HIV (and other retroviruses) budding and assembly is therefore strongly affected by the elastic energy of the membrane and fundamentally different from regular viruses. The main result of this work shows that the kinetics is tunable from a fast budding process to a slow and effectively trapped partial budding process, by varying the attractive energy of retroviral proteins (call Gags), relative to the membrane elastic energy. When the Gag-Gag attraction is relatively high, the membrane elastic energy provides a kinetic barrier for the two pieces of the partial capsids to merge. This energy barrier determines the slowest step in the kinetics and the budding time. In the opposite limit, the membrane elastic energy provides not only a kinetic energy barrier, but a free energy barrier. The budding and assembly is effectively trapped at local free energy minimum, corresponding to a partially budded state. The time scale to escape from this metastable state is exponentially large. In both cases, our result fit with experimental measurements pretty well.

  20. Markers predicting progression of human immunodeficiency virus-related disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukas, C M; Bernard, N F

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts with the immune system throughout the course of infection. For most of the disease process, HIV activates the immune system, and the degree of activation can be assessed by measuring serum levels of molecules such as beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin, as well as other serum and cell surface phenotype markers. The levels of some of these markers correlate with clinical progression of HIV disease, and these markers may be useful as surrogate markers for development of clinical AIDS. Because the likelihood and timing of development of clinical AIDS following seroconversion, for any particular individual, are not readily predictable, the use of nonclinical disease markers has become critically important to patient management. Surrogate markers of HIV infection are, by definition, measurable traits that correlate with disease progression. An ideal marker should identify patients at highest risk of disease progression, provide information on how long an individual has been infected, help in staging HIV disease, predict development of opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, monitor the therapeutic efficacy of immunomodulating or antiviral treatments, and the easily quantifiable, reliable, clinically available, and affordable. This review examines the current state of knowledge and the role of surrogate markers in the natural history and treatment of HIV infection. The clinical usefulness of each marker is assessed with respect to the criteria outlined for the ideal surrogate marker for HIV disease progression. PMID:8118788

  1. Mucosal immunity in human and simian immunodeficiency lentivirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, JM

    2014-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that distinct pathological phenomenon occurs within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of progressively simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Asian macaques and HIV-infected humans compared with other anatomical sites. Massive loss of GI tract lamina propria CD4 T cells, alteration in the profile of lymphocytic cytokine production, changes in the landscape of GI tract antigen-presenting cells, and variations to the structural barrier of the GI tract are hallmarks of progressive HIV/SIV infections. The pathology within the GI tract results in translocation of microbial products from the lumen of the intestine into peripheral circulation. These translocated microbial products directly stimulate the immune system and exacerbate immune activation and, thus, disease progression. Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not restore completely the immunological abnormalities within the GI tract. This incomplete restoration within the GI tract may contribute to the increased mortality observed within HIV-infected individuals treated for decades with cART. Novel therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing GI tract anatomy and physiology may improve the prognosis of HIV-infected individuals. PMID:23549448

  2. Global Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gayle, Helene D.; Hill, Gena L.

    2001-01-01

    This review provides information on the epidemiology, economic impact, and intervention strategies for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) at the end of 1999, an estimated 34.3 million people were living with HIV/AIDS. Most of the people living with HIV, 95% of the global total, live in developing countries. Examples of the impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Newly Independent States provide insight into the demographics, modes of exposure, treatment and prevention options, and the economic effect of the epidemic on the global community. The epidemic in each region of the world is influenced by the specific risk factors that are associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS and the responses that have evolved to address it. These influences are important in developing HIV/AIDS policies and programs to effectively address the global pandemic. PMID:11292641

  3. Selective Destruction Of Cells Infected With The Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2006-03-28

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a varient of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  4. Selective destruction of cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a variant of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  5. Syphilis, leprosy, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Claudia Fd; Bornhausen-Demarch, Eduardo; Prata, Aline G; de Andrade, Felipe C; Fernandes, Mariana P; Lopes, Marcia Ra; Nery, José Ac

    2013-08-01

    The association between syphilis, leprosy, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well documented, and the emergence of isolated cases raises the interest and indicates that this triple coinfection can occur. We report the case of a 42-year-old man from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with erythematous papules on the trunk, back, and upper and lower extremities; an erythematous plaque on the upper abdomen; and an erythematous violaceous plaque on the right thigh with altered sensitivity. Laboratory investigation showed a reagent VDRL test (1:512) and positive test results for Treponema pallidum hemagglutination. Treatment with benzathine penicillin (2,400,000 U intramuscularly) was started (2 doses 1 week apart). On follow-up 40 days later, the lesions showed partial improvement with persistence of the plaques on the right thigh and upper abdomen as well as a new similar plaque on the back. Further laboratory examinations showed negative bacilloscopy, positive HIV test, and histologic findings consistent with tuberculoid leprosy. The patient was started on multidrug therapy for paucibacillary leprosy with clinical improvement; the patient also was monitored by the HIV/AIDS department. We emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion for a coinfection case despite the polymorphism of these diseases as well as the precise interpretation of laboratory and histopathology examinations to correctly manage atypical cases. PMID:24087779

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus gag and protease: partners in resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) maturation plays an essential role in the viral life cycle by enabling the generation of mature infectious virus particles through proteolytic processing of the viral Gag and GagPol precursor proteins. An impaired polyprotein processing results in the production of non-infectious virus particles. Consequently, particle maturation is an excellent drug target as exemplified by inhibitors specifically targeting the viral protease (protease inhibitors; PIs) and the experimental class of maturation inhibitors that target the precursor Gag and GagPol polyproteins. Considering the different target sites of the two drug classes, direct cross-resistance may seem unlikely. However, coevolution of protease and its substrate Gag during PI exposure has been observed both in vivo and in vitro. This review addresses in detail all mutations in Gag that are selected under PI pressure. We evaluate how polymorphisms and mutations in Gag affect PI therapy, an aspect of PI resistance that is currently not included in standard genotypic PI resistance testing. In addition, we consider the consequences of Gag mutations for the development and positioning of future maturation inhibitors. PMID:22867298

  7. Genotypic Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    There are 16 approved human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drugs belonging to three mechanistic classes: protease inhibitors, nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors, and nonnucleoside RT inhibitors. HIV-1 resistance to these drugs is caused by mutations in the protease and RT enzymes, the molecular targets of these drugs. Drug resistance mutations arise most often in treated individuals, resulting from selective drug pressure in the presence of incompletely suppressed virus replication. HIV-1 isolates with drug resistance mutations, however, may also be transmitted to newly infected individuals. Three expert panels have recommended that HIV-1 protease and RT susceptibility testing should be used to help select HIV drug therapy. Although genotypic testing is more complex than typical antimicrobial susceptibility tests, there is a rich literature supporting the prognostic value of HIV-1 protease and RT mutations. This review describes the genetic mechanisms of HIV-1 drug resistance and summarizes published data linking individual RT and protease mutations to in vitro and in vivo resistance to the currently available HIV drugs. PMID:11932232

  8. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert; Chiao, Stephanie; Wendelken, Lauren A.; Miller, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Recent publications estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) exceeds 50%, and this rate is likely higher among older patients. Cognitive impairment may impact medication adherence, and symptomatic impairment has been linked to all-cause mortality providing some impetus for early detection. There are currently insufficient data to inform solid recommendations on screening methods. Most HIV-specific tools have poor performance characteristics for all but the most severe form of impairment, which accounts for <5% of cases. Reliance on symptoms is likely to miss a substantial proportion of individuals with HAND due to poor insight, confounding mood disturbances, and lack of well-informed proxies. In the aging HIV-positive population, broader screening tools may be required to allow sensitivity for both HIV and neurodegenerative disorders. We describe the clinical presentation of HAND, review existing data related to screening tools, and provide preliminary and practical recommendations in the absence of more definitive studies. PMID:21921226

  9. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-07-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV(+) donors to HIV(+) recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV(+) to HIV(+) kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV(+) to HIV(+) liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Host Defense in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Charles, Tysheena P; Shellito, Judd E

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppression associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts all components of host defense against pulmonary infection. Cells within the lung have altered immune function and are important reservoirs for HIV infection. The host immune response to infected lung cells further compromises responses to a secondary pathogenic insult. In the upper respiratory tract, mucociliary function is impaired and there are decreased levels of salivary immunoglobulin A. Host defenses in the lower respiratory tract are controlled by alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. As HIV infection progresses, lung CD4 T cells are reduced in number causing a lack of activation signals from CD4 T cells and impaired defense by macrophages. CD8 T cells, on the other hand, are increased in number and cause lymphocytic alveolitis. Specific antibody responses by B-lymphocytes are decreased and opsonization of microorganisms is impaired. These observed defects in host defense of the respiratory tract explain the susceptibility of HIV-infected persons for oropharyngeal candidiasis, bacterial pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and other opportunistic infections. PMID:26974294

  11. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staitieh, Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Liver Disease Forum 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Thomas, David; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    In the U.S. more than 1.1 million individuals are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These patients exhibit a high frequency of coinfections with other hepatotropic viruses and ongoing fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and liver-related mortality. The etiologies of liver disease include viral hepatitis coinfections, drug-related hepatotoxicity, fatty liver disease, and direct and indirect effects from HIV infection including increased bacterial translocation, immune activation, and presence of soluble proteins that modulate the hepatic cytokine environment. New treatments for HCV using direct acting agents appear viable, though issues related to intrinsic toxicities and drug:drug interactions remain. Recent research suggests that acute HCV infection, unrecognized hepatitis D infection, and hepatitis E may all represent emergent areas of concern. Antiretroviral agents, including those used in past years may represent risk factors for hepatic injury and portal hypertension. Key issues in the future include systematic implementation of liver disease management and new treatment in HIV-infected populations with concomitant injection drug use, alcohol use, and low socioeconomic status. PMID:23904401

  13. Role of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Deepak; Agarwal, Kosh

    2015-01-01

    End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, drug-induced hepatotoxicity related to combined anti-retro-viral therapy, alcohol related liver disease and non-alcohol related fatty liver disease appear to be the leading causes. It is therefore, anticipated that more HIV-positive patients with ESLD will present as potential transplant candidates. HIV infection is no longer a contraindication to liver transplantation. Key transplantation outcomes such as rejection and infection rates as well as medium term graft and patient survival match those seen in the non-HIV infected patients in the absence of co-existing HCV infection. HIV disease does not seem to be negatively impacted by transplantation. However, HIV-HCV co-infection transplant outcomes remain suboptimal due to recurrence. In this article, we review the key challenges faced by this patient cohort in the pre- and post-transplant period. PMID:26604639

  14. Novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infectivity.

    PubMed

    Beach, Lauren B; Rawson, Jonathan M; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2014-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infects about two million people worldwide. HIV-2 has fewer treatment options than HIV-1, yet may evolve drug resistance more quickly. We have analysed several novel drugs for anti-HIV-2 activity. It was observed that 5-azacytidine, clofarabine, gemcitabine and resveratrol have potent anti-HIV-2 activity. The EC50 values for 5-azacytidine, clofarabine and resveratrol were found to be significantly lower with HIV-2 than with HIV-1. A time-of-addition assay was used to analyse the ability of these drugs to interfere with HIV-2 replication. Reverse transcription was the likely target for antiretroviral activity. Taken together, several novel drugs have been discovered to have activity against HIV-2. Based upon their known activities, these drugs may elicit enhanced HIV-2 mutagenesis and therefore be useful for inducing HIV-2 lethal mutagenesis. In addition, the data are consistent with HIV-2 reverse transcriptase being more sensitive than HIV-1 reverse transcriptase to dNTP pool alterations. PMID:25103850

  15. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by cdk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guendel, Irene; Agbottah, Emmanuel T; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2010-01-01

    Current therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection relies primarily on the administration of anti-retroviral nucleoside analogues, either alone or in combination with HIV-protease inhibitors. Although these drugs have a clinical benefit, continuous therapy with the drugs leads to drug-resistant strains of the virus. Recently, significant progress has been made towards the development of natural and synthetic agents that can directly inhibit HIV-1 replication or its essential enzymes. We previously reported on the pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (PCI) r-roscovitine as a potential inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. PCIs are among the most promising novel antiviral agents to emerge over the past few years. Potent activity on viral replication combined with proliferation inhibition without the emergence of resistant viruses, which are normally observed in HAART patients; make PCIs ideal candidates for HIV-1 inhibition. To this end we evaluated twenty four cdk inhibitors for their effect on HIV-1 replication in vitro. Screening of these compounds identified alsterpaullone as the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 with activity at 150 nM. We found that alsterpaullone effectively inhibits cdk2 activity in HIV-1 infected cells with a low IC50 compared to control uninfected cells. The effects of alsterpaullone were associated with suppression of cdk2 and cyclin expression. Combining both alsterpaullone and r-roscovitine (cyc202) in treatment exhibited even stronger inhibitory activities in HIV-1 infected PBMCs. PMID:20334651

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1993-01-01

    Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

  17. Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 RNA packageome.

    PubMed

    Eckwahl, Matthew J; Arnion, Helene; Kharytonchyk, Siarhei; Zang, Trinity; Bieniasz, Paul D; Telesnitsky, Alice; Wolin, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    All retroviruses package cellular RNAs into virions. Studies of murine leukemia virus (MLV) revealed that the major host cell RNAs encapsidated by this simple retrovirus were LTR retrotransposons and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Several classes of ncRNAs appeared to be packaged by MLV shortly after synthesis, as precursors to tRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs were all enriched in virions. To determine the extent to which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) packages similar RNAs, we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the RNAs within infectious HIV-1 virions produced in CEM-SS T lymphoblastoid cells. We report that the most abundant cellular RNAs in HIV-1 virions are 7SL RNA and transcripts from numerous divergent and truncated members of the long interspersed element (LINE) and short interspersed element (SINE) families of retrotransposons. We also detected precursors to several tRNAs and small nuclear RNAs as well as transcripts derived from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacers. We show that packaging of a pre-tRNA requires the nuclear export receptor Exportin 5, indicating that HIV-1 recruits at least some newly made ncRNAs in the cytoplasm. Together, our work identifies the set of RNAs packaged by HIV-1 and reveals that early steps in HIV-1 assembly intersect with host cell ncRNA biogenesis pathways. PMID:27247436

  18. Exercise dysfunction in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Anders, G.T.; Blanton, H.M.; Hawkes, C.E.; Bush, B.A.; McAllister, C.K.; Matthews, J.I. )

    1990-03-01

    To confirm the presence of exercise dysfunction in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 32 such patients without AIDS were evaluated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing, pulmonary function testing, bronchoalveolar lavage, chest roentgenography, and gallium scanning. No evidence of pulmonary opportunistic infection was found. When compared to an otherwise similar group of HIV-seronegative controls, the patients exercised to a significantly lower workload (195 +/- 30 versus 227 +/- 31 W, p less than 0.001). The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) values were also significantly lower for the patients (49.2 +/- 13.0 versus 61.9 +/- 9.1% of maximum predicted VO2, p less than 0.001). Nine of the patients had VAT values less than the 95% confidence interval for the controls. This subgroup exercised to a significantly lower maximum VO2 (69.9 +/- 11.2 versus 95.9 +/- 17.5% of maximum predicted VO2, p less than 0.001) and workload (165 +/- 21 versus 227 +/- 31 W) when compared to the control group. These patients demonstrated a mild tachypnea throughout exercise relative to the controls and had a significant increase in the slope of the heart rate to VO2 relationship. These findings are most consistent with a limitation of oxygen delivery to exercising muscles, which may represent occult cardiac disease in this group.

  19. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B G; Gouws, E

    2001-01-01

    We review the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in South Africa where the prevalence of HIV infection is among the highest in the world. The epidemic reached South Africa relatively recently but the prevalence of infection has increased rapidly and there are significant differences among provinces. Although few 15-year-old people are infected the prevalence increases rapidly with age thereafter, especially among women. The prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 exceeds that of HIV and curable sexually transmitted infections are common. 'Circular migration' may help to explain the high rates and rapid spread of HIV in the region. The incidence of tuberculosis has increased dramatically as a result of the HIV epidemic. Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of vertical transmission has been shown to be effective in local conditions but transmission through breast-feeding remains problematical. While some epidemiological models have been developed, much more needs to be done in this regard in order to plan, coordinate and evaluate an effective response to the epidemic. We conclude by discussing some of the research that is needed and steps that could be taken to reduce the continued spread of the infection. PMID:11516385

  20. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-01-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV+ donors to HIV+ recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV+ to HIV+ kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  1. Successful treatment with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    NAGAI, Yuya; MORI, Minako; INOUE, Daichi; KIMURA, Takaharu; SHIMOJI, Sonoko; TOGAMI, Katsuhiro; TABATA, Sumie; MATSUSHITA, Akiko; NAGAI, Kenichi; Imai, Yukihiro; Takafuta, Toshiro; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2009-11-01

    A 62-year-old man was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection while suffering from recurrent herpes zoster infection. Laboratory examination revealed CD4(+) lymphocyte count 16 cells/mul and HIV loading 150,000 copies/ml at presentation. In addition, he had multiple lymph node swelling. Histologic diagnosis of a biopsied lymph node was diffuse, large, B cell-type malignant lymphoma. The karyotype of the lymphoma cells was t(8;14)(q24;q32), which was confirmed by G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Positron emission tomography (PET)-combined CT scanning revealed systemic extranodal tumors involving the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and bone marrow. The clinical stage of the lymphoma was IVB and the international prognosis index was categorized as high. Complete remission (CR) of the lymphoma was obtained after 2 courses of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisolone) chemotherapy and 4 subsequent courses of rituximab-combined CHOP (R-CHOP). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was started at the initiation of CHOP. Because of the poor prognosis of AIDS-related lymphoma, he received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with the MEAM protocol (ranimustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) as a conditioning procedure without a severe infectious episode. He remains in CR 24 months after the transplantation. PMID:20009441

  2. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  3. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Extremely rare presentation of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Kailash Chandra; Shirolkar, Mukund S; Ghane, Vaishali R

    2014-01-01

    Acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a 10-year-old child, presenting with monoparesis, progressing to triplegia over 4 weeks is an extremely rare feature. The child had left upper motor neurone facial palsy with left hemiplegia, paralyzed right lower limb, grade zero power, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantars. Child tested positive for HIV by ELISA. CD3+ absolute count was 431. CD3+ CD4 count was 28, and CD45 absolute count was 478. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and spine showed multiple ill-defined foci of hyperintensity in white matter suggestive of ADEM. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an extremely rare presenting feature of perinatally acquired HIV infection in paediatrics. Clinically child remained same even with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, antituberculosis therapy, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and supportive therapy. Child had sudden clinical deterioration and death before antiretroviral therapy could be initiated. This case emphasizes that pediatricians and neurophysicians should suspect HIV as an etiology of ADEM in cases with atypical clinical presentation and social risk factors, in spite of its very rare occurrence. PMID:25250073

  4. Incidence and Long-term Outcomes of the HIV-Neuroretinal Disorder in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Douglas A.; Drye, Lea; Van Natta, Mark L.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Holland, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have an abnormality of retina/optic nerve function, manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity (in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity), abnormalities on automated perimetry, and loss of retinal nerve fiber layer, even among those with good visual acuity, termed the HIV-neuroretinal disorder. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of HIV-neuroretinal disorder. Design Prospective cohort study Participants 1822 patients with AIDS without ocular infections or media opacities. Methods Patients with HIV-neuroretinal disorder were identified by a contrast sensitivity < 1.50 log units in either eye in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity. Main outcome measures Incidence of HIV-neuroretinal disorder, mortality, visual impairment (visual acuity 20/50 or worse), and blindness (20/200 or worse) on logarithmic visual acuity charts. Results Sixteen percent of participants had HIV-neuroretinal disorder at enrollment. The estimated cumulative incidence by 20 years after AIDS diagnosis was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46%–55%). HIV-neuroretinal disorder was more common in women and African American persons. Risk factors for it included hepatitis C infection, low CD4+ T cells, and detectable HIV RNA in the blood. Patients with HIV neuroretinal disorder had a 70% excess mortality vs. those without it, even after adjusting for CD4+ T cells and HIV load (hazard ratio=1.7, 95% CI= 1.3–2.1, P<0.0001). Patients with HIV-neuroretinal disorder had increased risks of bilateral visual impairment (hazard ratio=6.5, 95% CI=2.6–10.6, P<0.0001) and blindness (hazard ratio=5.9, 95% CI=2.8–13.7, P=0.01) vs. those without HIV neuroretinal disorder. Conclusions HIV-neuroretinal disorder is a common finding among patients with AIDS, and it is associated with an increased mortality and an increased

  5. Pin1 liberates the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1): Must we stop it?

    PubMed

    Hou, Hai; Wang, Jing-Zhang; Liu, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Ting

    2015-07-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is mainly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). To our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on the vital role of Pin1 in the infection of HIV-1 and the development of AIDS. We and others have demonstrated that Pin1, the only known cis-to-trans isomerase recognizing the pThr/pSer-Pro motifs in proteins, plays striking roles in several human diseases. Interestingly, recent evidence gradually indicates that Pin1 regulates several key steps of the life cycle of HIV-1, including the uncoating of the HIV-1 core, the reverse transcription of the RNA genome of HIV-1, and the integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into human chromosomes. Whereas inhibiting Pin1 suppresses all of these key steps and attenuates the replication of HIV-1, at the same time different PIN1 gene variants are correlated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, Pin1 potentially promotes HIV-1 infection by activating multiple oncogenes and inactivating multiple tumor suppressors, extending the life span of HIV-infected cells. These descriptions suggest Pin1 as a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of HIV-1 and highlight the possibility of blocking the development of AIDS by Pin1 inhibitors. PMID:25913034

  6. The regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1996-09-15

    Despite 15 years of intensive research we still do not have an effective treatment for AIDS, the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent research is, however, revealing some of the secrets of the replication cycle of this complex retrovirus, and this may lead to the development of novel antiviral compounds. In particular the virus uses strategies for gene expression that seem to be unique in the eukaryotic world. These involve the use of virally encoded regulatory proteins that mediate their effects through interactions with specific viral target sequences present in the messenger RNA rather than in the proviral DNA. If there are no cellular counterparts of these RNA-dependent gene-regulation pathways then they offer excellent targets for the development of antiviral compounds. The viral promoter is also subject to complex regulation by combinations of cellular factors that may be functional in different cell types and at different cell states. Selective interference of specific cellular factors may also provide a route to inhibiting viral replication without disrupting normal cellular functions. The aim of this review is to discuss the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression and, as far as it is possible, to relate the observations to viral pathogenesis. Some areas of research into the regulation of HIV-1 replication have generated controversy and rather than rehearsing this controversy we have imposed our own bias on the field. To redress the balance and to give a broader view of HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis we refer you to a number of excellent reviews [Cullen, B. R. (1992) Microbiol. Rev. 56, 375-394; Levy, J. A. (1993) Microbiol. Rev. 57, 183-394; Antoni, B. A., Stein, S. & Rabson, A. B. (1994) Adv. Virus Res. 43, 53-145; Rosen, C. A. & Fenyoe, E. M. (1995) AIDS (Phila.) 9, S1-S3]. PMID:8856047

  7. Human Immunodeficiencies Related to Defective APC/T Cell Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kallikourdis, Marinos; Viola, Antonella; Benvenuti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    The primary event for initiating adaptive immune responses is the encounter between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the T cell area of secondary lymphoid organs and the formation of highly organized intercellular junctions referred to as immune synapses (IS). In vivo live-cell imaging of APC–T cell interactions combined to functional studies unveiled that T cell fate is dictated, in large part, by the stability of the initial contact. Immune cell interaction is equally important during delivery of T cell help to B cells and for the killing of target cells by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The critical role of contact dynamics and synapse stability on the immune response is well illustrated by human immune deficiencies in which disease pathogenesis is linked to altered adhesion or defective cross-talk between the synaptic partners. The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a severe primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), a scaffold that promotes actin polymerization and links TCR stimulation to T cell activation. Absence or mutations in WASp affects intercellular APC–T cell communications by interfering with multiple mechanisms on both sides of the IS. The warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is caused by mutations in CXCR4, a chemokine receptor that in mutant form leads to impairment of APC–T cell interactions. Present evidences suggest that other recently characterized primary immune deficiencies caused by mutation in genes linked to actin cytoskeletal reorganization, such as WIP and DOCK8, may also depend on altered synapse stability. Here, we will discuss in details the mechanisms of disturbed APC–T cell interactions in WAS and WHIM. Moreover, we will summarize the evidence pointing to a compromised conjugate formation in WIP, DOCK8, and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:26379669

  8. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, J; Cañavate, C; Gutiérrez-Solar, B; Jiménez, M; Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Molina, R; Moreno, J

    1997-01-01

    Over 850 Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases have been recorded, the majority in Europe, where 7 to 17% of HIV-positive individuals with fever have amastigotes, suggesting that Leishmania-infected individuals without symptoms will express symptoms of leishmaniasis if they become immunosuppressed. However, there are indirect reasons and statistical data demonstrating that intravenous drug addiction plays a specific role in Leishmania infantum transmission: an anthroponotic cycle complementary to the zoonotic one has been suggested. Due to anergy in patients with coinfection, L. infantum dermotropic zymodemes are isolated from patient viscera and a higher L. infantum phenotypic variability is seen. Moreover, insect trypanosomatids that are currently considered nonpathogenic have been isolated from coinfected patients. HIV infection and Leishmania infection each induce important analogous immunological changes whose effects are multiplied if they occur concomitantly, such as a Th1-to-Th2 response switch; however, the consequences of the viral infection predominate. In fact, a large proportion of coinfected patients have no detectable anti-Leishmania antibodies. The microorganisms share target cells, and it has been demonstrated in vitro how L. infantum induces the expression of latent HIV-1. Bone marrow culture is the most useful diagnostic technique, but it is invasive. Blood smears and culture are good alternatives. PCR, xenodiagnosis, and circulating-antigen detection are available only in specialized laboratories. The relationship with low levels of CD4+ cells conditions the clinical presentation and evolution of disease. Most patients have visceral leishmaniasis, but asymptomatic, cutaneous, mucocutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis can be produced by L. infantum. The digestive and respiratory tracts are frequently parasitized. The course of coinfection is marked by a high relapse rate. There is a lack

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related pulmonary complications in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saade, G R

    1997-08-01

    With changes in the demographics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, women and children are becoming the fastest growing group of newly infected patients. With longer survival after HIV infection, more women infected with HIV are becoming pregnant. Pulmonary disease is one of the most common presenting conditions in an AIDS-defining illness. Pneumocystis carini pneumonia and tuberculosis are the most common disorders that herald the onset of AIDS. They are also the most frequently encountered HIV-related pulmonary complications during pregnancy. Others have been rarely reported during pregnancy and include fungal infections (Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides immitus), bacterial infections (Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae along with Pseudomona aeruginosa), viral infections (CMV), opportunistic neoplasms (Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma) and miscellaneous conditions peculiar to HIV-infected individuals (nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, isolated pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary edema secondary to cardiac disease or drug abuse). Most of the data regarding the pulmonary complications of HIV infection come from studies in nonpregnant patients. The extent to which pregnancy affects the course of respiratory disease in HIV infection and vice versa is not well documented. Clinical presentation is usually not altered by pregnancy. Except for minor modifications mainly related to potential fetal effects, the diagnostic work-up and management are similar to those in the nonpregnant patient. The most important effect of pregnancy on these conditions remains the delay in diagnosis and treatment. A high index of suspicion should, therefore, be maintained. In addition, most prophylactic measures recommended in nonpregnant HIV-infected individuals also apply to pregnant women. PMID:9298723

  10. Antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection: Swedish recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Eric; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane; Bratt, Göran; Berglund, Torsten; Gisslén, Magnus; Lindbäck, Stefan; Morfeldt, Linda; Ståhle, Lars; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The Swedish guidelines (SwG) for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have several important roles. A major task involves the promotion of a uniformly high standard of care in all HIV treatment clinics in Sweden and the identification of strengths, weaknesses and relevance of recent research findings. CD4+ T-cell counts < 200 cells/microl are clear indications for the initiation of treatment, whereas high viral loads serve as an indication for increased vigilance rather than a criterion for therapy. It is recommended that the first regimen consists of 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with 1 protease inhibitor or 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The definition of treatment failure is rigorous. Treatment change should be considered if the viral load has not fallen by at least 1.5 log in 4 weeks or is undetectable within 3-4 months. Resistance testing is endorsed at primary infection, in the event of treatment failure and in pregnant women. Interaction with experts in HIV resistance testing is emphasized. Therapeutic drug monitoring is advocated. Patients with treatment failure should be handled individually and the decision on therapeutic strategy should be based on treatment history, resistance testing and other clinical facts. The SwG do not give recommendations for some important issues such as prolonged drug holidays and preferences in initial treatment regimens. More scientific data are likely to be available soon and the SwG will be refined accordingly. The present guidelines are translated from Swedish; they are published on the Medical Products Agency (MPA) and Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) websites (www.mpa.se and www.rav.nu.se), including 7 separate papers based on a thorough literature search. A complete reference list is available on request from the MPA. PMID:12751710

  11. Inducible human immunodeficiency virus type 1 packaging cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, H; Rabson, A B; Kaul, M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1996-01-01

    Packaging cell lines are important tools for transferring genes into eukaryotic cells. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based packaging cell lines are difficult to obtain, in part owing to the problem that some HIV-1 proteins are cytotoxic in a variety of cells. To overcome this, we have developed an HIV-1-based packaging cell line which has an inducible expression system. The tetracycline-inducible expression system was utilized to control the expression of the Rev regulatory protein, which in turn controls the expression of the late proteins including Gag, Pol, and Env. Western blotting (immunoblotting) demonstrated that the expression of p24gag and gp120env from the packaging cells peaked on days 6 and 7 postinduction. Reverse transcriptase activity could be detected by day 4 after induction and also peaked on days 6 and 7. Defective vector virus could be propagated, yielding titers as high as 7 x 10(3) CFU/ml, while replication-competent virus was not detectable at any time. Thus, the cell line should enable the transfer of specific genes into CD4+ cells and should be a useful tool for studying the biology of HIV-1. We have also established an inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line which could be used to propagate HIV-1 vectors that require only Env in trans. The env-minus vector virus titer produced from the Env-expressing cells reached 2 x 10(4) CFU/ml. The inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line should be a useful tool for the study of HIV-1 Env as well. PMID:8676479

  12. Perioperative concerns in neurosurgical patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Jyotsna; Ganjoo, Pragati; Hansda, Upendra; Sharma, Megha U.; Tandon, Monica S.; Singh, Daljit

    2016-01-01

    Background: The perioperative management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients undergoing neurosurgery is challenging due to the presence of HIV-related multi-system derangements, opportunistic infections and malignancies, history of substance abuse, and adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), together with the inherent risks of neurosurgery. The possible adverse impact of HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome due to the associated co-morbidities, and conversely, the role of surgery and anesthesia in HIV disease progression due to their immunosuppressive effects, and also, the fear of HIV transmission among the attending medical personnel are the important perioperative concerns in such surgeries. Aim: To present our experience in the perioperative management of HIV-infected patients who underwent neurosurgery at our institute in the past 5 years and highlight the relevant perioperative issues. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the records of HIV-infected neurosurgical patients was undertaken to determine their HIV status and ART, anesthesia and surgery details, perioperative complications, and instances of postoperative worsening of HIV disease or its transmission, if any. Results: Seven HIV infected patients with variable severity of HIV infection and systemic disease underwent neurosurgery for different indications. Their perioperative management was modified in accordance with the co-morbidities and the type of neurosurgery. There was no obvious adverse impact of the HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome, no obvious clinical evidence of post-surgery worsening of the HIV disease, and no instance of HIV transmission in our patients. Conclusion: A goodunderstanding of the HIV disease and its perioperative implications during neurosurgery helps in better patient management and enables a safe outcome. PMID:27057214

  13. The relationship between personality traits and AIDS in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of <0.05. The average of innovativeness variables (M:74.12), harm avoidance (M: 65.17), reward dependence (M:50.030), and self-directedness (M:35.02) in case group in comparison with control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS. PMID:27208456

  14. Factors associated with prevalent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, J S; Detels, R; Kaslow, R A; Van Raden, M; Kingsley, L A; Brookmeyer, R

    1987-10-01

    Interviews regarding medical history, life-style, specific drug taking and sexual activities, and physical examinations were administered to 4,955 homosexual men who volunteered for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Pittsburgh. Overall, the prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in these men was 38.0%. The factor most strongly associated with prevalent HIV infection according to a multiple logistic regression model was rectal trauma, a composite variable which included receptive anal fisting, enemas before sex, reporting of blood around the rectum, and the observation of scarring, fissures or fistulas on rectal examination. Receptive anal intercourse also was strongly associated with HIV infection in the model. The multivariate relative odds for HIV antibody positivity was 7.72 for the highest level of rectal trauma and 3.04 for receptive anal intercourse. Symptoms reported to occur in some persons who subsequently develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were frequent among HIV seropositive men (12.9%) but were reported in 8.4% of seronegative men as well. Generalized lymphadenopathy was observed significantly more often in seropositive men (48.8%) compared with seronegative men (11.4%). The prevalence of HIV antibodies was inversely related to the number of T-helper cells and directly related (to a lesser extent) to the number of T-suppressor cells. The results suggest that disruption of the rectal mucosa provides access by HIV to the blood stream and to specific immunologic cells. Since symptoms and generalized lymphadenopathy were often reported among seronegative men, they probably also occur among some seropositive men not currently progressing to AIDS. PMID:3651095

  15. Identical rearranged forms of JC polyomavirus transcriptional control region in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Cesare Giovanni; Ciardi, Maria Rosa; Delia, Salvatore; Contreras, Gerardo; Perez, José Luis; De Oña, Maria; Vidal, Elisa; Tenorio, Antonio

    2003-10-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human polyomavirus JC (JCV). JCV has a hypervariable noncoding transcriptional control region (TCR) that spans the origin of replication of the JCV genome through to the first ATG start codon for late gene transcription. The archetype form of TCR is frequently found in the urine and kidneys of healthy and immunocompromised subjects. However the rearranged forms, whose prototype is Mad-1, possibly generated by deletion and duplication of segments of the archetype sequence, are found in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PML patients. In this study the authors compared JCV TCR detected in paired CSF, plasma, and urine samples of 11 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients affected by PML to try to determine where the rearranged JCV TCRs are selected. In one patient, it was also possible to amplify and sequence the TCR in the brain and lymphocytes. Moreover, in 5/11 patients, the CSF, plasma, and urine samples corresponding to 2 months after PML development were available; and in another patient, it was possible to sequence the TCR in plasma and lymphocytes sampled 8 months before the onset of PML. The presence of the same TCR sequences in all the CSF and plasma samples taken from individual patients could strengthen the hypothesis that the blood is a compartment where JCV may replicate and undergo rearrangement of the TCR. This further supports the hypothesis that JCV reaches the brain by a hematogenous route and indicates that the JCV TCR sequences detected in plasma could be used as an early marker of JCV pathogenicity before the clinical appearance of PML in immunocompromised patients. PMID:13129769

  16. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis in a human immunodeficiency negative-virus patient.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Kilani, Houda; Bouassida, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Chalbi, Emna; Siai, Karima; Ezzine, Heykel; Touinsi, Hassen; Azzouz, Mohamed M'saddak; Sassi, Sadok

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of immunomodulator therapy in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative heterosexual man. PMID:24396560

  17. Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Cepeda, Javier; Wu, Johnny; Trestman, Robert L.; Altice, Frederick L.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined. OBJECTIVE To evaluate HIV treatment outcomes throughout incarceration, including jail and prison. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of longitudinally linked demographic, pharmacy, and laboratory data on 882 prisoners within the Connecticut Department of Correction (2005–2012) with confirmed HIV infection, who were continually incarcerated 90 days or more, had at least 2 HIV-1 RNA and CD4 lymphocyte measurements, and were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Three electronic databases (correctional, laboratory, and pharmacy) were integrated to assess HIV viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA levels, <400 copies/mL) on intake and release. Secondary outcomes were mean change in log-transformed HIV-1 RNA levels and mean change in CD4 lymphocyte count during incarceration. Demographic characteristics, prescribed pharmacotherapies, receipt of directly observed therapy, and duration of incarceration were analyzed as possible explanatory variables for HIV viral suppression in logistic regression models. RESULTS Among 882 HIV-infected prisoners with 1185 incarceration periods, mean HIV-1 RNA level decreased by 1.1 log10 and CD4 lymphocyte count increased by 98 cells/μL over time, with a higher proportion achieving viral suppression by release compared with entry (70.0% vs 29.8%; P < .001); 36.9% of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens were changed during incarceration. After adjusting for baseline HIV-1 RNA level, prerelease viral suppression correlated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26–2.59) and psychiatric disorder severity below the sample median (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12–1.99), but not race/ethnicity, incarceration duration, ART regimen or dosing strategy, or directly observed therapy

  18. Chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fabian, J; Katz, I; Gerntholtz, T; Goetsch, S; Naicker, S

    2007-06-01

    The number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide was estimated to be 39.5 million in 2006, 2.6 million more than in 2004. The manifestations of HIV infection in the kidney are multiple and varied, highlighting the complexity of the disease process. There is a wide spectrum of renal disease that occurs in the course of HIV infection. Biopsy studies reveal varying frequencies of histological patterns. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is most common. A biopsy study at Chris Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa showed that HIVAN was present in 27% and immune complex disease in 21%. Han et al. studied HIV-positive patients in Durban, South Africa and screened for proteinuria, including microalbuminuria. They found persistent proteinuria in 6%; HIVAN in 21/30 (72.4%) and the prevalence of HIVAN in patients with persistent microalbuminuria was 85.7%. Studies in black patients have shown a higher prevalence of both severe glomerular lesions (focal glomerulosclerosis) and nephrotic range proteinuria with renal dysfunction in the presence of normo-hypotension. There have been no prospective randomised controlled studies with any form of therapy for HIVAN to date. Therapy of HIVAN has included corticosteroids, cyclosporine and antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART appears to be a logical choice in the management of HIV-associated renal disease. Regimens containing protease inhibitors have been shown to be associated with significant slowing of the decline in creatinine clearance. Both peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis are appropriate treatment modalities for HIV-infected patients with end stage renal disease. The choice of dialysis modality between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is not a factor in predicting survival, if patients are stable on ART. Preliminary short-term data in case reports and small cohorts of liver, kidney, and heart transplant recipients suggest that patient survival rates may be similar to those in HIV

  19. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Seropositive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kittleson, Michelle M.; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W. David; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus—accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation. PMID:27047290

  20. Generation and Characterization of Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Emmanuel; Hoebeke, Johan; Zagury, Daniel; Muller, Sylviane; Desgranges, Claude

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus Tat regulatory protein is essential for virus replication and pathogenesis. From human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three Tat toxoid-immunized volunteers, we isolated five Tat-specific human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs): two full-length immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and three single-chain fragment-variable (scFv) antibodies. The two IgGs were mapped to distinct epitopes within the basic region of Tat, and the three scFvs were mapped to the N-terminal domain of Tat. The three scFvs were highly reactive with recombinant Tat in Western blotting or immunoprecipitation, but results were in contrast to those for the two IgGs, which are sensitive to a particular folding of the protein. In transactivation assays, scFvs were able to inhibit both active recombinant Tat and native Tat secreted by a transfected CEM cell line while IgGs neutralized only native Tat. These HMAbs were able to reduce viral p24 production in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain IIIB chronically infected cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:15016898

  1. Use of V(D)J recombination excision circles to identify T- and B-cell defects and to monitor the treatment in primary and acquired immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) are circular DNA segments generated in T and B cells during their maturation in the thymus and bone marrow. These circularized DNA elements persist in the cells, are unable to replicate, and are diluted as a result of cell division, thus are considered markers of new lymphocyte output. The quantification of TRECs and KRECs, which can be reliably performed using singleplex or duplex real-time quantitative PCR, provides novel information in the management of T- and B-cell immunity-related diseases. In primary immunodeficiencies, when combined with flow cytometric analysis of T- and B-cell subpopulations, the measure of TRECs and KRECs has contributed to an improved characterization of the diseases, to the identification of patients’ subgroups, and to the monitoring of stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy. For the same diseases, the TREC and KREC assays, introduced in the newborn screening program, allow early disease identification and may lead to discovery of new genetic defects. TREC and KREC levels can also been used as a surrogate marker of lymphocyte output in acquired immunodeficiencies. The low number of TRECs, which has in fact been extensively documented in untreated HIV-infected subjects, has been shown to increase following antiretroviral therapy. Differently, KREC number, which is in the normal range in these patients, has been shown to decrease following long-lasting therapy. Whether changes of KREC levels have relevance in the biology and in the clinical aspects of primary and acquired immunodeficiencies remains to be firmly established. PMID:23656963

  2. Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus: serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Nara, P L; Robey, W G; Arthur, L O; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Fischinger, P J

    1987-01-01

    was common to LAV-1 as well as to HTLV-IIIB reisolated from infected chimpanzees. It thus appears that a group-specific neutralizing antibody response as well as a group-specific cytotoxic response can develop in chimpanzees after an inoculation of a single HIV variant. This finding suggests that a common, less immunodominant determinant(s) is present on a single HIV strain which could induce group-specific antibodies during viral infection and replication. The identification of this group-specific epitope and the induction of analogous immunity may be relevant to vaccine development against human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images PMID:2442411

  3. Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus: serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.

    PubMed

    Nara, P L; Robey, W G; Arthur, L O; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Fischinger, P J

    1987-10-01

    was common to LAV-1 as well as to HTLV-IIIB reisolated from infected chimpanzees. It thus appears that a group-specific neutralizing antibody response as well as a group-specific cytotoxic response can develop in chimpanzees after an inoculation of a single HIV variant. This finding suggests that a common, less immunodominant determinant(s) is present on a single HIV strain which could induce group-specific antibodies during viral infection and replication. The identification of this group-specific epitope and the induction of analogous immunity may be relevant to vaccine development against human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:2442411

  4. Profound CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in human immunodeficiency virus negative individuals, improved with anti-human herpes virus treatment

    PubMed Central

    Klínger Hernández, Julio César; Niño Castaño, Victoria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia can be associated with many bacterial, fungal, parasite and viral infections. They can also be found in autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, common variable immunodeficiency syndrome, physical, psychological and traumatic stress, malnutrition and immunosuppressive therapy. Besides, they can also be brought into relation, without a known cause, with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. Among viral infections, the Retrovirus, specially the human immunodeficiency virus, is the most frequently cause. However, many acute viral infections, including cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus can be associated with transient lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. As is well known, transient lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia are temporary and overcome when the disease improves. Nonetheless, severe CD4+ T Lymphocytopenia associated with chronic infections by human herpes virus has not been reported. We describe 6 cases of human immunodeficiency virus negative patients, with chronic cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus infections and profound lymphocytopenia with clinical symptoms of cellular immunodeficiency. These patients improved rapidly with ganciclovir or valganciclovir treatment. We claim here that it is important to consider the chronic human herpes virus infection in the differential diagnosis of profoundly CD4+ T lymphocytopenia etiology, when human immunodeficiency virus is absent, in order to start effective treatment and to determine, in future studies, the impact of chronic human herpes virus infection in human beings' health. PMID:24893304

  5. Pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in North India

    PubMed Central

    Kore, Sachin D.; Kanwar, Amrinder J.; Vinay, Keshavamurthy; Wanchu, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mucocutaneous diseases are among the first-recognized clinical manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. They function as visual markers in assessing the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Given the relative ease of examination of skin, its evaluation remains an important tool in the diagnosis of HIV infection. Objective: To determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-positive patients and to correlate their presence with CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 352 HIV-infected patients seen at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, over a period of 1 year. The patients were screened for mucocutaneous disorders by an experienced dermatologist. The patients were classified into different stages according to the World Health Organization clinical and immunological staging system. Results: The most prevalent infection was candidiasis, seen in 57 patients (16.2%). Prevalence of candidiasis, dermatophytosis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, molluscum contagiosum (MC), seborrheic dermatitis, adverse drug reaction, nail pigmentation, xerosis and diffuse hair loss differed statistically according to the clinical stages of HIV infection. There was a statistically significant association between immunological stages of HIV infection and dermatophytosis. Conclusion: Results of our study suggest that mucocutaneous findings occur throughout the course of HIV infection. Dermatoses like MC and dermatophytosis show an inverse relation with CD4 cell count, and these dermatoses can be used as a proxy indicator of advanced immunosuppression to start highly active anti-retroviral therapy in the absence of facilities to carry out CD4 cell count. PMID:23919050

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure in a medical school hospital in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hiransuthikul, N; Hiransuthikul, P; Kanasuk, Y

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective review of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and subsequent postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH), Bangkok, Thailand. From January 2002 to December 2004, data were collected from incident reports, the hospital's infectious diseases unit and the emergency department. There were 315 reported episodes of occupational exposure among 306 HCWs. Nurses (34.0%) were the HCWs most frequently exposed and percutaneous injury (91.4%) was the most common type of exposure. One-third of the source patients tested were infected with HIV. PEP was initiated following 200 (63.5%) of the 315 exposures and was started within 24h in >95% of cases. The most commonly prescribed PEP regimen was zidovudine, lamivudine and nelfinavir. Fifty-six percent of HCWs given PEP completed a four-week course but the remainder discontinued PEP prematurely due to side-effects, or after negative results from the source, or following informed risk reassessment or from their own accord. No exposed HCW acquired HIV during the study period. Appropriate counselling and careful risk assessment are important in achieving effective HIV PEP among HCWs. PMID:18023920

  7. C5A Protects Macaques from Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei

    2015-01-01

    A safe and effective vaginal microbicide could decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in women. Here, we evaluated the safety and microbicidal efficacy of a short amphipathic peptide, C5A, in a rhesus macaque model. We found that a vaginal application of C5A protects 89% of the macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-162P3) challenge. We observed no signs of lesions or inflammation in animals vaginally treated with repeated C5A applications. With its noncellular cytotoxic activity and rare mechanism of action, C5A represents an attractive microbicidal candidate. PMID:26552985

  8. C5A Protects Macaques from Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei; Gallay, Philippe A

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective vaginal microbicide could decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in women. Here, we evaluated the safety and microbicidal efficacy of a short amphipathic peptide, C5A, in a rhesus macaque model. We found that a vaginal application of C5A protects 89% of the macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-162P3) challenge. We observed no signs of lesions or inflammation in animals vaginally treated with repeated C5A applications. With its noncellular cytotoxic activity and rare mechanism of action, C5A represents an attractive microbicidal candidate. PMID:26552985

  9. Cocaine-mediated enhancement of virus replication in macrophages: implications for human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navneet K; Williams, Rachel; Peng, Fuwang; Tsai, Yi-Jou; Dhillon, Sukhbir; Nicolay, Brandon; Gadgil, Milind; Kumar, Anil; Buch, Shilpa J

    2007-12-01

    Injection drug use has been recognized as a major risk factor for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from the outset of the epidemic. Cocaine, one of the most widely abused drugs in the United States, can both impair the functions of macrophages and CD4(+) lymphocytes and also activate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 expression in these cells. Because the brain is the target organ for both cocaine and HIV, the objective of the present study was to explore the effects of cocaine on virus replication in macrophages, the target cells for the virus in the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine markedly enhanced virus production in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and in U1 cells, a chronically infected promonocytic cell line as monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry. Cocaine treatment also resulted in the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B and transcriptional activation of the HIV-LTR (long terminal repeat) gag-GFP (green fluorescent protein). Analyses of chemokines in cocaine-treated macrophages by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Luminex assays suggested increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that is known to promote HIV replication in MDMs. In addition to enhancing IL-10 expression, cocaine also caused an up-regulation of the macrophage activation marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, in MDMs. The synergistic effect of cocaine on virus replication and its enhancement of host activation markers suggest that cocaine functions at multiple pathways to accelerate HIV-associated dementia (HAD). PMID:18097880

  10. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  11. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  12. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  13. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  14. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  15. Hydroxychloroquine treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Sperber, K; Louie, M; Kraus, T; Proner, J; Sapira, E; Lin, S; Stecher, V; Mayer, L

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an antimalarial agent used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases, has been shown to suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro in T cells and monocytes by inhibiting posttranscriptional modification of the virus. These in vitro observations have been expanded into an in vivo study of HCQ as a potential anti-HIV-1 agent in HIV-1-infected patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 40 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients who had CD4+ counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either HCQ 800 mg/d or placebo for 8 weeks. Virologic and immunologic parameters, including HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) via use of polymerase chain reaction, viral culture, antigen and mitogen responses, and proinflammatory cytokine levels were measured at the beginning and end of the study. The amount of recoverable HIV-1 RNA in plasma declined significantly in the HCQ group over the 8-week period (P = 0.022), while it increased in the placebo group. The percentage of CD4+ T cells remained stable in the HCQ-treated group (18.1 +/- 9.2% before treatment vs 18.6 +/- 10.5% after treatment) and fell significantly in the placebo group (21 +/- 7% before treatment vs 19.3 +/- 6.3% after treatment; P = 0.032). However, this was not reflected as a change in absolute CD4+ counts for either group (HCQ, 262.8 +/- 166 cells/mm3 vs 251 +/- 163 cells/mm3; placebo, 312 +/- 121 cells/mm3 vs 321 +/- 124 cells/mm3). Mitogen- and antigen-specific responses remained constant in the HCQ group while T cell proliferative responses to Candida decreased in the placebo group (4.8 +/- 3.6 x 10(3) SI [stimulation index] vs 3.0 +/- 3.0 x 10(3) SI; P = 0.032). Lastly, serum interleukin 6 levels declined in the HCQ group (14.3 +/- 13.5 U/mL vs 12.0 +/- 16.7 U/mL; P = 0.023) but not in the placebo group (11.3 +/- 8.8 U/mL vs 7.0 +/- 11.7 U/mL); this was coincident with a decrease in

  16. CD4-independent infection of human neural cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Harouse, J M; Kunsch, C; Hartle, H T; Laughlin, M A; Hoxie, J A; Wigdahl, B; Gonzalez-Scarano, F

    1989-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that central nervous system-derived cells can be infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To determine whether CD4, the receptor for HIV-1 in lymphoid cells, was responsible for infection of neural cells, we characterized infectable human central nervous system tumor lines and primary fetal neural cells and did not detect either CD4 protein or mRNA. We then attempted to block infection with anti-CD4 antibodies known to block infection of lymphoid cells; we noted no effect on any of these cultured cells. The results indicate that CD4 is not the receptor for HIV-1 infection of the glioblastoma line U373-MG, medulloblastoma line MED 217, or primary human fetal neural cells. Images PMID:2786088

  17. Acquired immune heterogeneity and its sources in human helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    BOURKE, C. D.; MAIZELS, R. M.; MUTAPI, F.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Similarities in the immunobiology of different parasitic worm infections indicate that co-evolution of humans and helminths has shaped a common anti-helminth immune response. However, recent in vitro and immuno-epidemiological studies highlight fundamental differences and plasticity within host-helminth interactions. The ‘trade-off’ between immunity and immunopathology inherent in host immune responses occurs on a background of genetic polymorphism, variable exposure patterns and infection history. For the parasite, variation in life-cycle and antigen expression can influence the effector responses directed against them. This is particularly apparent when comparing gastrointestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths. Furthermore, insights into the impact of anti-helminthic treatment and co-infection on acquired immunity suggest that immune heterogeneity arises not from hosts and parasites in isolation, but also from the environment in which immune responses develop. Large-scale differences observed in the epidemiology of human helminthiases are a product of complex host-parasite-environment interactions which, given potential for exposure to parasite antigens in utero, can arise even before a parasite interacts with its human host. This review summarizes key differences identified in human acquired immune responses to nematode and trematode infections of public health importance and explores the factors contributing to these variations. PMID:20946693

  18. Molecular Evolution Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope in Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques: Implications for Challenge Dose Selection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Mariana; Landskron, Lisa; Lai, Rachel P. J.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Bogers, Willy M.; Verschoor, Ernst J.; Dubbes, Rob; Barnett, Susan W.; Frost, Simon D. W.; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the demonstration that almost 80% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections result from the transmission of a single variant from the donor, biological features similar to those of HIV mucosal transmission have been reported for macaques inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Here we describe the early diversification events and the impact of challenge doses on viral kinetics and on the number of variants transmitted in macaques infected with the chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVsf162p4. We show that there is a correlation between the dose administered and the number of variants transmitted and that certain inoculum variants are preferentially transmitted. This could provide insight into the viral determinants of transmission and could aid in vaccine development. Challenge through the mucosal route with high doses results in the transmission of multiple variants in all the animals. Such an unrealistic scenario could underestimate potential intervention measures. We thus propose the use of molecular evolution analysis to aid in the determination of challenge doses that better mimic the transmission dynamics seen in natural HIV-1 infection. PMID:21795341

  19. Limited Protection from a Pathogenic Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge following Immunization with Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Mark G.; Yalley-Ogunro, Jake; Greenhouse, Jack J.; Brennan, Terry P.; Jiang, Jennifer Bo; VanCott, Thomas C.; Lu, Yichen; Eddy, Gerald A.; Birx, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    Two live attenuated single-deletion mutant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) constructs, SIV239Δnef and SIVPBj6.6Δnef, were tested for their abilities to stimulate protective immunity in macaques. During the immunization period the animals were examined for specific immune responses and virus growth. Each construct generated high levels of specific immunity in all of the immunized animals. The SIV239Δnef construct was found to grow to high levels in all immunized animals, with some animals remaining positive for virus isolation and plasma RNA throughout the immunization period. The SIVPBj6.6Δnef was effectively controlled by all of the immunized animals, with virus mostly isolated only during the first few months following immunization and plasma RNA never detected. Following an extended period of immunization of over 80 weeks, the animals were challenged with a pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) isolate, SIV89.6PD, by intravenous injection. All of the SIV239Δnef-immunized animals became infected with the SHIV isolate; two of five animals eventually controlled the challenge and three of five animals, which failed to check the immunizing virus, progressed to disease state before the unvaccinated controls. One of five animals immunized with SIVPBj6.6Δnef totally resisted infection by the challenge virus, while three others limited its growth and the remaining animal became persistently infected and eventually died of a pulmonary thrombus. These data indicate that vaccination with attenuated SIV can protect macaques from disease and in some cases from infection by a divergent SHIV. However, if animals are unable to control the immunizing virus, potential damage that can accelerate the disease course of a pathogenic challenge virus may occur. PMID:9882330

  20. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  1. Statin Effects to Reduce Hepatosteatosis as Measured by Computed Tomography in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Janet; Lu, Michael T.; Kim, Elli A.; Nou, Eric; Hallett, Travis R.; Park, Jakob; Hoffmann, Udo; Grinspoon, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatosteatosis is highly prevalent among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus. In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind trial of atorvastatin or placebo, atorvastatin increased liver/spleen ratio among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, indicating a reduction in hepatosteatosis. This reduction in hepatosteatosis is associated with reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statin therapy. PMID:27419149

  2. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Associated Risk Factors in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Olivia; Wu, Qishan; Ickes, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study documents the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in a sample of college students and examines associated demographic and behavioral characteristics. Participants: College students aged 18 or older were randomly selected to participate in a health behavior survey at a southeastern university in September…

  3. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  4. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  5. 76 FR 72417 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) through Solid Organ Transplantation'' (76 FR 58517). Written and electronic comments were to be received on or before November 21, 2011... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus...

  6. Case Study: Delirium in an Adolescent Girl with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharko, Alexander M.; Baker, Eva H.; Kothari, Priti; Khattak, Hina; Lancaster, Duniya

    2006-01-01

    Delirium and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia are well recognized neuropsychiatric consequences of HIV infection in adults. Almost nothing is known regarding the management of delirium in HIV-infected children and adolescents. HIV-related progressive encephalopathy is thought to represent the pediatric form of HIV-associated…

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing and False Disclosures in Heterosexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marelich, William D.; Clark, Tonya

    2004-01-01

    The authors assessed factors that motivate individuals to report negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test results, although they had never been tested. In particular, they investigated sexual intimacy motives associated with the needs for affiliation, sex, and dominance as contributing factors for faulty disclosures. Participants…

  8. Statin Effects to Reduce Hepatosteatosis as Measured by Computed Tomography in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Lo, Janet; Lu, Michael T; Kim, Elli A; Nou, Eric; Hallett, Travis R; Park, Jakob; Hoffmann, Udo; Grinspoon, Steven K

    2016-04-01

    Hepatosteatosis is highly prevalent among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus. In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind trial of atorvastatin or placebo, atorvastatin increased liver/spleen ratio among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, indicating a reduction in hepatosteatosis. This reduction in hepatosteatosis is associated with reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statin therapy. PMID:27419149

  9. Syphilis? An Unusual Cause of Surgical Emergency in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Man

    PubMed Central

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A.; Koch, Lisa L.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Charmie Godornes, B.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a human immunodeficiency virus-infected man undergoing urgent anorectal surgery, with multi-centimeter fungating masses discovered inside the anus. Initial pathology was inconclusive. After the patient developed a disseminated rash postoperatively determined to be secondary syphilis, the anorectal pathology was reviewed and Treponema pallidum DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the mass. PMID:26213693

  10. Interaction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Vpx and Invariant Chain

    PubMed Central

    Pancio, Heather A.; Vander Heyden, Nancy; Kosuri, Kavitha; Cresswell, Peter; Ratner, Lee

    2000-01-01

    Vpx is a virion-associated protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency viruses. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify invariant chain (Ii) as a cellular protein that interacts with HIV-2 Vpx. Vpx-Ii interaction was confirmed in cell-free reactions using bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins and by coimmunoprecipitation in transfected and infected cells. In chronically infected cells expressing Vpx, Ii levels were markedly decreased, presumably due to enhanced degradation. These findings suggest that Vpx may disrupt major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation. PMID:10846101

  11. Human cytotrophoblasts acquire aneuploidies as they differentiateto an invasive phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Jung, Christine J.; Gormley, Matthew; Zhou, Yuan; Chu, Lisa W.; Genbacev, Olga; Wright, AlexiA.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2004-12-15

    Through an unusual differentiation process, human trophoblast progenitors (cytotrophoblasts) give rise to tumor-like cells that invade the uterus. By an unknown mechanism, invasive cytotrophoblasts exhibit permanent cell cycle withdrawal. Here we report molecular cytogenetic data showing that {approx} 20 to 60 percent of these interphase cells had acquired aneusomies involving chromosomes X, Y, o r16. The incidence positively correlated with gestational age and differentiation to an invasive phenotype. Scoring 12 chromosomes in flow-sorted cytotrophoblasts showed that more than 95 percent of the cells were hyperdiploid. Thus, aneuploidy appears to be an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of cytotrophoblasts within the uterus.

  12. Human colon epithelial cells productively infected with human immunodeficiency virus show impaired differentiation and altered secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, J; Yahi, N; Baghdiguian, S; Chermann, J C

    1992-01-01

    Selected strains of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are able to infect human colon epithelial cells in vitro, suggesting a mechanism for the anal route of HIV transmission. In some cases, HIV is not produced by infected colon cells but can be rescued after coculture with T-lymphoid cells. One of the HIV strains (HIV1-NDK) replicated well in colonic cells. A transmission electron microscope study demonstrated two major structural perturbations in producer colon cells: an unusual number of secretion bodies and the appearance of intracellular lumina with disorganized microvilli, indicating a defect in brush border assembly and differentiation. Either abnormality could account for HIV-induced enteropathy consisting of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in the absence of enteric pathogens. Moreover, HT29 cells infected with HIV provide a unique model for selection of enterotropic HIV strains. Images PMID:1727501

  13. Species-specific metastasis of human tumor cells in the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse engrafted with human tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Shtivelman, E; Namikawa, R

    1995-01-01

    We have attempted to model human metastatic disease by implanting human target organs into the immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency; SCID) mouse, creating SCID-hu mice. Preferential metastasis to implants of human fetal lung and human fetal bone marrow occurred after i.v. injection of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells into SCID-hu mice; the homologous mouse organs were spared. Clinically more aggressive variant SCLC cells metastasized more efficiently to human fetal lung implants than did cells from classic SCLC. Metastasis of variant SCLC to human fetal bone marrow was enhanced in SCID-hu mice exposed to gamma-irradiation or to interleukin 1 alpha. These data indicate that the SCID-hu mice may provide a model in which to study species- and tissue-specific steps of the human metastatic process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7753860

  14. Species-Specific Metastasis of Human Tumor Cells in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse Engrafted with Human Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Namikawa, Reiko

    1995-05-01

    We have attempted to model human metastatic disease by implanting human target organs into the immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency; SCID) mouse, creating SCID-hu mice. Preferential metastasis to implants of human fetal lung and human fetal bone marrow occurred after i.v. injection of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells into SCID-hu mice; the homologous mouse organs were spared. Clinically more aggressive variant SCLC cells metastasized more efficiently to human fetal lung implants than did cells from classic SCLC. Metastasis of variant SCLC to human fetal bone marrow was enhanced in SCID-hu mice exposed to γ-irradiation or to interleukin 1α. These data indicate that the SCID-hu mice may provide a model in which to study species- and tissue-specific steps of the human metastatic process.

  15. Spectrum of Adrenal Dysfunction in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Evaluation of Adrenal and Pituitary Reserve with ACTH and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Testing.

    PubMed

    Freda, P U; Papadopoulos, A D; Wardlaw, S L; Goland, R S

    1997-07-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported to develop abnormalities of the endocrine system and in particular of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To define the abnormalities of HPA function in AIDS patients better, we performed ACTH and ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH) testing in a group of AIDS patients and oCRH testing in a group of healthy subjects. Our study found that in AIDS patients with normal ACTH testing, oCRH testing revealed a variety of subclinical abnormalities of ACTH and cortisol responses. Although we did not find frank adrenal insufficiency in any of these AIDS patients, it remains to be determined if any of the subclinical abnormalities we identified are predictive of clinically significant adrenal insufficiency; it may be that as AIDS patients live longer, the subclinical abnormalities will progress to adrenal insufficiency. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:173-180). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. PMID:18406803

  16. Comparison of depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mina; Behboodi, Zahra M.; Saadat, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To compare depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: In this cross-sectional survey conducted between November and September 2013, 200 participants with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) attending Consultation Centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants with HIV/AIDS were interviewed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales questionnaire (DASS21 ). RESULTS: There were significant associations between marital status of women and the level of depression (P < 0.05). However, the mean depression and anxiety in women are greater than men (P < 0.05), and the mean stress in men is greater than women (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection is related with psychiatric disorders. According to the results, women are more vulnerable to depression and anxiety and they need more care. Management of these psychiatric disorders is very important and requires innovative comprehensive approaches. PMID:25838749

  17. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: III. Reduction in human immunodeficiency virus transmission among homosexual/bisexual men, 1982-86.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelstein, W; Samuel, M; Padian, N S; Wiley, J A; Lang, W; Anderson, R E; Levy, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been under study in a cohort of 1,034 single men recruited by area probability sampling from a six kilometer square area of San Francisco where the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been most severe. Prevalence of infection among homosexual/bisexual study subjects increased from an estimated 22.8 per cent during the last half of 1982 to 48.6 per cent during the period July through December 1984. During three subsequent six-month periods, prevalence remained stable at approximately 50 per cent. Annual infection rates, measured by seroconversion among seronegative study subjects, decreased from an estimated 18.4 per cent per year from 1982 to 1984, to 5.4 and 3.1 per cent during the first and second halves of 1985, and to 4.2 per cent during the first six months of 1986. These declines were associated with reductions of 60 per cent or more in the prevalence of high-risk sexual practices associated with both acquiring and disseminating infection by the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:3646848

  18. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  19. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  20. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  1. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  2. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  3. 75 FR 22814 - Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... (70 FR 43439), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance of the same title. FDA received...: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): Testing, Product Disposition, and Donor...

  4. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  5. Nonrandom development of immunologic abnormalities after infection with human immunodeficiency virus: implications for immunologic classification of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Zolla-Pazner, S; Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Spira, T J; Marmor, M; Holzman, R; Mildvan, D; Yancovitz, S; Mathur-Wagh, U; Garber, J

    1987-01-01

    Blood specimens from 165 intravenous drug users who were seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), from 158 seropositive homosexual men with lymphadenopathy, and from 77 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were assessed immunologically. Immunologic parameters were analyzed by the Guttman scalogram technique to determine if immunologic abnormalities occurred in a nonrandom pattern. The following four patterns emerged: (i) seropositivity for HIV with no immunologic abnormalities; (ii) seropositivity for HIV with a depressed T4/T8 cell ratio; (iii) seropositivity with a depressed T4/T8 cell ratio and T4-cell depletion; and (iv) seropositivity with a depressed T4/T8 cell ratio, T4-cell depletion, and lymphopenia. Ninety-two to 100% of subjects in each of the three groups of patients were found "to scale" because the abnormalities occurred in the cumulative, ordered fashion described. This nonrandom occurrence of abnormalities indicates an ordered progression of immunologic abnormalities in individuals infected with HIV, a finding useful in the staging of both symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV-seropositive subjects. PMID:3496603

  6. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody complexes on platelets of seropositive thrombocytopenic homosexuals and narcotic addicts.

    PubMed Central

    Karpatkin, S; Nardi, M; Lennette, E T; Byrne, B; Poiesz, B

    1988-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection develop an immunologic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with markedly elevated platelet IgG, IgM, and C3C4 as well as serum immune complexes determined by the polyethylene glycol (PEG) method. Analysis of their serum PEG-precipitable immune complexes as well as platelet acid eluates revealed the presence of anti-HIV-1 antibody existing as a complex that eluted in the void volume of a Sephadex G-200 gel-filtration column. The complex binds to washed normal platelets, whereas affinity-purified anti-HIV-1 (gp120) antibody does not. HIV-1 antigen or proviral DNA was not detectable in the immune complexes or platelet extracts. However, anti-antibodies directed against anti-HIV-1 antibody were detectable in the immune complexes as well as platelet eluates. Approximately 50% of eluted platelet IgG contained anti-HIV-1 antibody. Thus the markedly elevated platelet immunoglobulin is partly due to the presence of anti-HIV-1 antibody complexes. This may be responsible for the enhanced platelet clearance and thrombocytopenia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related immunologic thrombocytopenia. Images PMID:3200854

  7. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  8. The Potential of Sub-Saharan African Plants in the Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chingwaru, Walter; Vidmar, Jerneja; Kapewangolo, Petrina T

    2015-10-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Southern Africa. Phytomedicines are an integral part of African health care. The Southern African flora is composed of at least 23 400 taxa. Despite this richness, only a handful of botanical products have been assessed for activities against HIV. This study aimed to summarize the potential of Sub-Saharan African plants, based on their composition and the established bioactivities, as sources of agents to manage HIV symptoms and as retroviral therapy. At least 109 plant species from 42 families and 94 genera that are found in Southern Africa were shown to have potential or actual activities against HIV. Only 12 of these plant species from 6 families and 10 genera were shown to harbour anti-HIV properties. Phytochemicals that include β-sitosterols, terpenoids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannins and alkaloids, which harbour anti-HIV properties, were found to have a near cosmopolitan presence across the plant families in the region. Bioactivities of multiple phytochemicals are comparable to those for standard allopathic antiretroviral drugs. Research to determine the anti-HIV activities of the identified and other plants, including clinical trials, is long overdue. PMID:26337608

  9. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  10. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Enrolled Student: A Model Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    In the nearly 4 years since the initial publication of the model policy "Communicable Diseases and the Enrolled Student" in January 1986, the statistics, recommendations, and even the terminology of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have changed significantly. In light of the new information, the model policy, recommended for…

  12. Generation of Immunodeficient Mice Bearing Human Immune Systems by the Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hasgur, Suheyla; Aryee, Ken Edwin; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice are being used as recipients of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for in vivo analyses of human immune system development and function. The development of several stocks of immunodeficient Prkdc (scid) (scid), or recombination activating 1 or 2 gene (Rag1 or Rag2) knockout mice bearing a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the IL2 receptor gamma chain (IL2rγ), has greatly facilitated the engraftment of human HSC and enhanced the development of functional human immune systems. These "humanized" mice are being used to study human hematopoiesis, human-specific immune therapies, human-specific pathogens, and human immune system homeostasis and function. The establishment of these model systems is technically challenging, and levels of human immune system development reported in the literature are variable between laboratories. The use of standard protocols for optimal engraftment of HSC and for monitoring the development of the human immune systems would enable more direct comparisons between humanized mice generated in different laboratories. Here we describe a standard protocol for the engraftment of human HSC into 21-day-old NOD-scid IL2rγ (NSG) mice using an intravenous injection approach. The multiparameter flow cytometry used to monitor human immune system development and the kinetics of development are described. PMID:27150084

  13. Factors Associated with Student Nurses' Intent to Provide Physical and Psychosocial Care to Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Frank L.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 125 of 290 nursing undergraduates indicated their attitudes ranged from most to least positive regarding people with AIDS acquired through blood transfusion, heterosexual activity, homosexual activity, and needle sharing. Homophobia, fear of AIDS, and perceived susceptibility were inversely related with intention to care for AIDS…

  14. Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infections in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect many people in Asian countries, although there are geographic differences. Both HBV and HIV (HBV/HIV) and HCV/HIV co-infections are highly prevalent in Asia. Hetero- and homosexual, injection drug use, and geographic area are strong predictors of HBV, HCV, and HIV serostatus. In HBV endemic regions, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV/HIV co-infection is almost comparable with that in the general population. In Japan, where HBV has low endemicity, the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection is approximately 10-fold higher than that in the general population, and HBV Ae is the most common subgenotype among HIV infected individuals. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective treatment for HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Lamivudine, a component of HAART, is an effective treatment for HBV, HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infection; however, cost, emerging drug resistance, antiretroviral-associated liver toxicity and liver-related morbidity due to HCV progression are particular concerns. HCV/HIV co-infection may accelerate the clinical progression of both HCV and HIV. The high prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections in Asia underscores the need to improve prevention and control measures, as fewer evidence-based prevention strategies are available (compared with Western countries). In this review, the most recent publications on the prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections and related issues, such as therapy and problems in Asia, are updated and summarized. PMID:25964874

  15. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Minoru; Yanagisawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related deaths and opportunistic infectious diseases. This has resulted in prolonged survival of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, this improvement in survival has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. CKD is now epidemic among HIV-infected populations in both Western and Eastern countries. Risk factors associated with CKD in HIV-infected populations include aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, co-infection with hepatitis C virus, a low CD4 cell count, and a high HIV viral load. Clinical experience has shown that HIV-infected individuals often have one or more concurrent risk factors for CKD. The cumulative effect of multiple risk factors on the development of CKD should be noted in this population. Glomerular disease directly related to HIV infection, so-called HIV-associated nephropathy, remains an important cause of CKD among a limited HIV population of African descent, but is less likely to be common among other urban HIV populations. The impact of exposure to nephrotoxic antiretroviral agents on the development of kidney disease is both an old and a new concern. In particular, the association of tenofovir with kidney tubular injury has been an area of great interest. The findings regarding tenofovir’s adverse effect on long-term kidney function vary among studies. The early identification and treatment of CKD is recommended for reducing the burden of patients requiring dialysis in HIV-infected populations. Periodic monitoring of urinary concentrations of albumin, protein, and tubular injury markers such as low-molecular-weight proteins may be useful for the early diagnosis of patients at risk for incident CKD. This review focuses on recent epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of CKD in a contemporary HIV-infected population. PMID:26167463

  16. Molecular biology of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Haseltine, W.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The immunodeficiency virus type 1 ia a complex retrovirus. In addition to genes that specify the proteins of the virus particle and the replicative enzymes common to all retroviruses, HIV-1 specifies at least six additional proteins that regulate the virus cycle. Two of these regulatory genes, tat and rev, specify proteins essential for replication. These proteins bind to specific sequences of newly synthesized virus RNA and profoundly affect virus protein expression. Tat and rev appear to be prototypes of novel eukaryotic regulatory proteins. These two genes may play a central role in regulating the rate of virus replication. Three other viral genes, vif, vpu, and vpr, affect the assembly and replication capacity of newly made virus particles. These genes may play a critical role in spread of the virus from tissue to tissue and from person to person. Our understanding of the contribution of each of the virus structural proteins and regulatory genes to the complex life cycle of the virus in natural infections is incomplete. However, enough insight has been gained into the structure and function of each of these components to provide a firm basis for rational antiviral drug development.

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with HIV Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neera; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Dutta, Deep; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Anand, Atul; Gaurav, Kumar; Mukherjee, Sabyasachi; Bansal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV are not well determined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV infected Indians. Methods. Consecutive HIV patients, 18–70 years of age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least 1-year follow-up at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. Results. From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients (61.44 ± 39.42 months' disease duration), having good immune function [CD4 count >200 cell/mm3: 90.25%; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): 88.58%], were analyzed. Subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) was the commonest thyroid dysfunction (14.76%) followed by sick euthyroid syndrome (SES) (5.29%) and isolated low TSH (3.1%). Anti-TPO antibody (TPOAb) was positive in 3.90%. Baseline CD4 count had inverse correlation with TPOAb after adjusting for age and body mass index. Stepwise linear regression revealed baseline CD4 count, TPOAb, and tuberculosis to be best predictors of ScH after adjusting for age, weight, duration of HIV, and history of opportunistic fungal and viral infections. Conclusion. Burden of thyroid dysfunction in chronic HIV infection with stable immune function is lower compared to pre-HAART era. Thyroid dysfunction is primarily of nonautoimmune origin, predominantly ScH. Severe immunodeficiency at disease onset, TPOAb positivity, and tuberculosis were best predictors of ScH. PMID:26798547

  18. Effects of long terminal repeat mutations on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Stenzel, M; Sodroski, J G; Haseltine, W A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of deletions within three functional regions of the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 upon the ability of the long terminal repeat to direct production of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene product and upon the ability of viruses that carry the mutations to replicate in human cell lines was investigated. The results show that the enhancer and TATAA sequences were required for efficient virus replication. Deletion of the negative regulatory element (NRE) yielded a virus that replicated more rapidly than did an otherwise isogeneic NRE-positive virus. The suppressive effect of the NRE did not depend upon the negative regulatory gene (nef), as both NRE-positive and NRE-negative viruses were defective for nef. We conclude that factors specified by the cell interact with the NRE sequences to retard human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. PMID:2760991

  19. Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5′-3′-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of mi

  20. Infectious Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C from an African Isolate: Rhesus Macaque Model

    PubMed Central

    Ndung'u, Thumbi; Lu, Yichen; Renjifo, Boris; Touzjian, Neal; Kushner, Nicholas; Pena-Cruz, Victor; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Lee, Tun-Hou; Essex, Max

    2001-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is responsible for more than 56% of all infections in the HIV and AIDS pandemic. It is the predominant subtype in the rapidly expanding epidemic in southern Africa. To develop a relevant model that would facilitate studies of transmission, pathogenesis, and vaccine development for this subtype, we generated SHIVMJ4, a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) chimera based on HIV-1 subtype C. SHIVMJ4 contains the majority of env, the entire second exon of tat, and a partial sequence of the second exon of rev, all derived from a CCR5-tropic, primary isolate envelope clone from southern Africa. SHIVMJ4 replicated efficiently in human, rhesus, and pig-tailed macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro but not in CEMx174 cells. To assess in vivo infectivity, SHIVMJ4 was intravenously inoculated into four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). All four animals became infected as determined through virus isolation, PCR analysis, and viral loads of 107 to 108 copies of viral RNA per ml of plasma during the primary infection phase. We have established a CCR5-tropic SHIVMJ4/rhesus macaque model that may be useful in the studies of HIV-1 subtype C immunology and biology and may also facilitate the evaluation of vaccines to control the spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa and elsewhere. PMID:11689623

  1. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, S.; Kamine, J.; Markovitz, D.; Fenrick, R.; Pagano, J.

    1988-03-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses.

  2. Pneumocystis pneumonia associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection without elevated (1 → 3)-β-D glucan: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Takahiro; Furuta, Kenjiro; Tomioka, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii is one of the most common opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients, particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan is a component of the cell wall of P. jirovecii and other fungi such as Candida sp., Aspergillus sp. and Histoplasma sp. The measurement of serum (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan has been reported to be a highly sensitive test for PCP related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-PCP). We report a case of HIV-PCP not associated with elevated serum (1 → 3)-β-D glucan and highlight how HIV-PCP cannot be completely ruled out if (1 → 3)-β-D glucan is negative. PMID:27330956

  3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) in a multi transfused child with thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Goyal, R S; Kumar, A; Pande, I; Khare, S D; Chattopadhya, D; Malaviya, A N

    1992-11-01

    The case of a 10.5-year-old girl, who was diagnosed with a case of thalassemia major at the age of 8 months and had been on regular blood transfusions since then, is related. Donor screening for HIV was started in mid-1988, thus she had received unscreened blood for a number of years. In February 1991, she presented with a dry persistent cough, moderate grade continuous fever, and breathlessness on exertion for over 2 weeks. Chest X-ray showed bilateral infiltrations. She was put on penicillin and chloramphenicol with a provisional diagnosis of bronchopneumonia. In March 1991, she had to be hospitalized for impending respiratory failure. After treatment with intravenous fluids and parenteral antimicrobials, her condition stabilized and she was discharged. In April 1991, she was readmitted because of complaints of difficulty in swallowing and weight loss. Her chest signs had persisted and she had developed oropharyngeal candidiasis with ulcerations. She also had alopecia, a generalized lymphadenopathy, digital clubbing, and bilateral parotid enlargement. Candidiasis responded to vigorous therapy with clotrimazole. Fine needle aspiration of lymph node showed a reactive hyperplasia. HIV antibodies were detected in the serum with ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. Immunologic tests showed evidence of severe immunodeficiency. The Multitest CMI, which simultaneously tests delayed skin hypersensitivity to seven common recall antigens, was totally nonreactive. She was classified as having AIDS according to World Health Organization criteria for children under 13 years of age. The diagnosis of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) was also made based on the symptoms. Oral prednisolone was given 2 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses for a month. The cough and dyspnea showed great improvement and the parotid swellings disappeared; lymphadenopathy, clubbing, and alopecia, however, persisted. The child was kept on maintenance therapy of prednisolone and on alternate day co

  4. The genetic immunodeficiency disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, in humans, dogs, cattle, and mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu-Chen; Bauer, Thomas R; Ackermann, Mark R; Smith, C Wayne; Kehrli, Marcus E; Starost, Matthew F; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2004-08-01

    This review highlights the genotype-phenotype relationship of the genetic immunodeficiency disease leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) in humans, dogs, cattle, and mice, and provides assessment of the opportunities that each animal species provides in the understanding of leukocyte biology and in developing new therapeutic approaches to LAD in humans. This comparison is important since animal models of genetic diseases in humans provide the opportunity to test new therapeutic approaches in an appropriate, disease-specific model. The success of this approach is dependent on the relationship of the phenotype in the animal to the phenotype of the disease in humans. PMID:15357315

  5. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that potently and specifically block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, D L; Busso, M; Tan, C K; Reusser, F; Palmer, J R; Poppe, S M; Aristoff, P A; Downey, K M; So, A G; Resnick, L

    1991-01-01

    Certain bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) are potent inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) at concentrations lower by 2-4 orders of magnitude than that which inhibits normal cellular DNA polymerase activity. Combination of a BHAP with nucleoside analog HIV-1 RT inhibitors suggested that together these compounds inhibited RT synergistically. In three human lymphocytic cell systems using several laboratory and clinical HIV-1 isolates, the BHAPs blocked HIV-1 replication with potencies nearly identical to those of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine or 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine; in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, concentrations of these antiviral agents were lower by at least 3-4 orders of magnitude than cytotoxic levels. The BHAPs do not inhibit replication of HIV-2, the simian or feline immunodeficiency virus, or Rauscher murine leukemia virus in culture. Evaluation of a BHAP in HIV-1-infected SCID-hu mice (severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with human fetal lymph node) showed that the compound could block HIV-1 replication in vivo. The BHAPs are readily obtained synthetically and have been extensively characterized in preclinical evaluations. These compounds hold promise for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Images PMID:1717988

  6. Breastfeeding: breast milk banks and human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Choto, R G

    1990-12-01

    HIV in infants and children in Zimbabwe is virtually limited to vertical transmission. Less than 5 cases of transfusion acquired HIV infections have been documented to date. Zimbabwe was the third country in the world after the United States, to screen transfusion blood and blood products. The controversy of HIV transmission through breast milk is still far from resolved. In developing countries, breast-milk substitutes for formulae are not only prohibitively expensive but dangerous because of unhygienic and economic constraints. The paper argues the case for continued breast-feeding of infants by their HIV seropositive mothers. PMID:2092885

  7. kappa opioid receptors in human microglia downregulate human immunodeficiency virus 1 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, C C; Gekker, G; Hu, S; Sheng, W S; Shark, K B; Bu, D F; Archer, S; Bidlack, J M; Peterson, P K

    1996-01-01

    Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the brain, play an important role in the neuropathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and recent studies suggest that opioid peptides regulate the function of macrophages from somatic tissues. We report herein the presence of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in human fetal microglia and inhibition of HIV-1 expression in acutely infected microglial cell cultures treated with KOR ligands. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analyses, we found that mRNA for the KOR was constitutively expressed in microglia and determined that the nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame was identical to that of the human brain KOR gene. The expression of KOR in microglial cells was confirmed by membrane binding of [3H]U69,593, a kappa-selective ligand, and by indirect immunofluorescence. Treatment of microglial cell cultures with U50,488 or U69,593 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of expression of the monocytotropic HIV-1 SF162 strain. This antiviral effect of the kappa ligands was blocked by the specific KOR antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine. These findings suggest that kappa opioid agonists have immunomodulatory activity in the brain, and that these compounds could have potential in the treatment of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8755601

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human macrophages modulates the cytokine response to Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, O; Fishman, J A; Koziel, H; Pinkston, P; Rose, R M; Remold, H G

    1994-01-01

    The present studies examined production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 by human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and the impact of concurrent macrophage infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on these cytokine responses. Macrophages were infected with the HIV-1 BaL monocytotropic strain for 10 to 14 days and then exposed to P. carinii. At various times following P. carinii treatment, culture supernatants were harvested to assess the cytokine profile. Addition of P. carinii to HIV-uninfected macrophages resulted in augmented production of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta protein. By contrast, in HIV-infected macrophages exposed to P. carinii, only the release of IL-6 was increased compared with that for HIV-uninfected macrophages, while the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta decreased. This altered response was confirmed at the molecular level for TNF-alpha mRNA. Preventing physical contact between P. carinii and macrophages by a membrane filter inhibited all cytokine release. Substituting P. carinii with a preparation of P. carinii 95- to 115-kDa major membrane glycoprotein A yielded a response similar to that obtained by addition of intact P. carinii. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of human macrophages modulates cytokine responses to P. carinii. Images PMID:8300221

  9. Trans-activation of human immunodeficiency virus gene expression is mediated by nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Hauber, J.; Perkins, A.; Heimer, E.P.; Cullen, B.R.

    1987-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus encodes a gene product termed tat that is able to activate viral gene expression when present in trans. The mechanism of action of the tat gene product appears to be bimodal, resulting in both an increase in the steady-state level of viral mRNA and the enhanced translation of that RNA. In this report, the authors have examined the mechanism by which tat elevates viral mRNA levels. Data are presented demonstrating that tat acts by increasing the rate of viral transcription, rather than by modulating the stability of viral mRNA. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to show that tat is predominantly localized in the nucleus of expressing cells, a location consistent with a role in the regulation of viral transcription. These results suggest that tat could play a role in human immunodeficiency virus replication essentially similar to that proposed for the trans-acting nuclear gene products described for several other virus species.

  10. Primary Neuritic Hansen's Disease presenting as Ulnar Nerve Abscess in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patient.

    PubMed

    Karjigi, S; Herakal, K; Murthy, S C; Bathina, A; Kusuma, M R; Nikhil, K R Y

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy has been increasingly known to have an enigmatic relationship with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Co-infection may result in atypical manifestations of leprosy. A 45-year old human immunodeficiency virus-positive male; agricultural laborer presented with a swelling over right elbow, right hand deformity, generalized itching and recurrent vesicles overthe perinasal area. Clinical and investigational findings were consistent with mononeuritic type of Hansen's disease with right sided silent ulnar nerve abscess, partial claw hand. CD4+ count of the patientwas 430 cells/cmm. This patient also hadherpes simplex labialis, with HIV-associated pruritus. To the best of our knowledge such an atypical presentation has not been reported earlier. PMID:26999990

  11. A Case of Long-Term Seronegative Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: The Importance of the Humoral Response to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Siemieniuk, Reed A. C.; van der Meer, Frank; van Marle, Guido; Gill, M. John

    2016-01-01

    Background. Seronegative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are exceedingly rare but might inform HIV-host physiology. Methods. We investigate the cause and consequences of a patient infected with HIV who did not mount a humoral response to HIV for 4 years. Results. The patient was confirmed HIV-uninfected by nucleic acid testing 4 months before rapidly progressing to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The patient's humoral deficit was specific to HIV: he mounted robust humoral responses to all challenge vaccines including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and all T cell-dependent and -independent serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The virus had similar gp120 antigenicity to HIV-positive control serum as NL4-3 and YU2 prototype strains. Two human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with rapid progression were identified (B*08 and B*35), and a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope site variant was noted: E277K. Viral decay (t1/2 ≈ 39 weeks) suggested that relatively long-lived cells were the source of ongoing viremia. Human immunodeficiency virus viremia was not suppressed until after the patient developed a humoral immune response, despite therapeutic antiretroviral levels. No resistance was detected by virtual phenotyping of virus obtained from serum or from gastrointestinal biopsies despite considerable antiretroviral selection pressure. Conclusions. Ineffective antibody production may be associated with a subgroup of extremely rapid HIV progressors. Although antiretroviral therapy may be sufficient to slow propagation of infection, it appears to be ineffective for HIV viral clearance in the absence of a humoral response. PMID:26858962

  12. Genetic Diversity of Pneumocystis carinii Isolated from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients in Turin, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Gisella; Sbaiz, Luca; Avanzini, Claudio; Caramello, Pietro; Savoia, Dianella

    2001-01-01

    By DNA sequence analysis we identified two new strain types and five novel sporadic variations among 25 isolates of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis obtained from 19 human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Of these, 13 were infected with a single strain and 6 were coinfected. Fifteen different combination types were identified among the 18 strains for which complete molecular typing was accomplished. PMID:11474032

  13. Minimal Requirement for a Lentivirus Vector Based on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, V. Narry; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos; Kingsman, Susan M.; Kingsman, Alan J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of human immunodeficiency virus vectors for gene therapy is hampered by concern over their safety. This concern might be ameliorated, in part, if the viral accessory genes and proteins could be eliminated from the vector genomes and particles. Here we describe a minimal vector system that is capable of transducing nondividing cells and which does not contain tat, vif, vpr, vpu, and nef. PMID:9420292

  14. Minimal requirement for a lentivirus vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Kim, V N; Mitrophanous, K; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1998-01-01

    The use of human immunodeficiency virus vectors for gene therapy is hampered by concern over their safety. This concern might be ameliorated, in part, if the viral accessory genes and proteins could be eliminated from the vector genomes and particles. Here we describe a minimal vector system that is capable of transducing nondividing cells and which does not contain tat, vif, vpr, vpu, and nef. PMID:9420292

  15. Crusted Scabies: Presenting as erythroderma in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Shruti; Shah, Hiral; Patel, Bharti; Bhuptani, Neela

    2016-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. It is common in patients with sensory neuropathy, mentally retarded persons and in patients who are immunosuppressed. Further, crusted scabies can rarely present as erythroderma (<0.5% cases) necessitating a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis. Because of its rare occurrence, we are reporting a case of crusted scabies presenting as erythroderma, in a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient. PMID:27190417

  16. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-05-12

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a "Mayo Model" of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coat Protein Neurotoxicity Mediated by Nitric Oxide in Primary Cortical Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Uhl, George R.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1993-04-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coat protein, gp120, kills neurons in primary cortical cultures at low picomolar concentrations. The toxicity requires external glutamate and calcium and is blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to gp120 toxicity, since nitroarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, prevents toxicity as does deletion of arginine from the incubation medium and hemoglobin, which binds NO. Superoxide dismutase also attenuates toxicity, implying a role for superoxide anions.

  18. Crusted Scabies: Presenting as erythroderma in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shruti; Shah, Hiral; Patel, Bharti; Bhuptani, Neela

    2016-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. It is common in patients with sensory neuropathy, mentally retarded persons and in patients who are immunosuppressed. Further, crusted scabies can rarely present as erythroderma (<0.5% cases) necessitating a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis. Because of its rare occurrence, we are reporting a case of crusted scabies presenting as erythroderma, in a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient. PMID:27190417

  19. Sweat gland carcinoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Toi, M; Kauffman, L; Peterson, L; Golitz, L; Myers, A

    1995-02-01

    Eccrine (sweat gland) carcinoma is a rare form of skin cancer that may be locally destructive. It is known to recur after resection and can metastasize to regional or distant lymph nodes. There have been two reported cases in association with patients immunocompromised as the result of organ transplantation (I. Penn: Prog Allergy. 37: 259, 1986). We report here the first case of sweat gland carcinoma in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:7539911

  20. Spectrum of false positivity for the fourth generation human immunodeficiency virus diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter; Jackson, Patrick; Shaw, Nathan; Heysell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Novel fourth generation screening and confirmatory human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) assays are now commercially available and incorporated into new diagnostic algorithms. We report two cases involving a total of three patients which highlight the spectrum of false positivity for both the Abbott Architect p24 antigen/antibody assay and the confirmatory Multispot antibody differentiation test. We then discuss the mechanisms for false positivity and the associated clinical conditions or laboratory scenarios that may predispose to inaccurate interpretation. PMID:26734067

  1. Bifunctional Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Small Molecules with Two Novel Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Yuan, Xiong; Aiken, Christopher; Chen, Chin Ho

    2004-01-01

    A class of betulinic acid derivatives was synthesized to target two critical steps in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication cycle, entry and maturation. Each mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition is distinct from clinically available anti-HIV therapeutics. The viral determinants of the antientry and antimaturation activities are the bridging sheet of HIV-1 gp120 and the P24/p2 cleavage site, respectively. PMID:14742233

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus testing for patient-based and population-based diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Albritton, W L; Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Laboratory testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been introduced for individual patient-based diagnosis as well as high-risk and low-risk population-based screening. The choice of test, confirmatory algorithm, and interpretative criteria used depend on the clinical setting. In the context of general population-based testing, factors affecting test performance will have to be considered carefully in the development of testing policy. PMID:8843247

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated disruption of mucosal barriers and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS disease.

    PubMed

    Tugizov, Sharof

    2016-01-01

    Oral, intestinal and genital mucosal epithelia have a barrier function to prevent paracellular penetration by viral, bacterial and other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV can overcome these barriers by disrupting the tight and adherens junctions of mucosal epithelia. HIV-associated disruption of epithelial junctions may also facilitate paracellular penetration and dissemination of other viral pathogens. This review focuses on possible molecular mechanisms of HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelial junctions and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:27583187

  4. A human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor is a novel functional inhibitor of human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Healan-Greenberg, Christine; Waring, Jeffrey F; Kempf, Dale J; Blomme, Eric A G; Tirona, Rommel G; Kim, Richard B

    2008-03-01

    Drug-drug interactions involving induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) can lead to loss of drug efficacy. Certain drugs, particularly those used to treat mycobacterial and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, are especially prone to induce P450s. During studies to examine drug-interaction potential of compounds in cultured human hepatocytes, exposure with (S)-1-[(1S,3S,4S)-4-[(S)-2-(3-benzyl-2-oxo-imidazolidin-1-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-butyrylamino]-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-(4-pyridin-2-yl-benzyl)-pentylcarbamoyl]-2,2-dimethyl-propyl-carbamic acid methyl ester (A-792611), a novel HIV protease inhibitor (PI) previously under investigation for the treatment of HIV infection, resulted in significant down-regulation of constitutive CYP3A4 expression. Furthermore, coadministration of A-792611 was found to attenuate CYP3A4 induction mediated by known inducers rifampin and efavirenz. A-792611 also attenuated the rifampin and ritonavir-mediated activation of the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in luciferase reporter assays. Microarray analysis on cultured human hepatocytes revealed that A-792611 treatment down-regulated the expression of PXR target genes CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9, whereas there was a lack of inductive effect observed in treated rat hepatocytes. A-792611 did not interact with other ligand-activated nuclear receptors that regulate P450 expression such as constitutive androstane receptor, farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. These data suggest that A-792611 is a functional and effective human PXR inhibitor. Among the class of HIV-PIs, which are typically PXR activators, A-792611 seems to have a unique property for PXR antagonism and could be a useful tool for studying nuclear receptor pathway regulation. PMID:18096673

  5. From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pérès, Eléonore; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; This, Sébastien; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed. PMID:26690200

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Selective inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus with subpicosecond near-infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsen, K. T.; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2008-06-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be inactivated by irradiation with subpicosecond near-infrared laser pulses at a moderate laser power density. By comparing the threshold laser power density for the inactivation of HIV with those of human red blood cells and mouse dendritic cells, we conclude that it is plausible to use the ultrashort pulsed laser to selectively inactivate blood-borne pathogens such as HIV while leaving sensitive materials like human red blood cells unharmed. This finding has important implications in the development of a new laser technology for disinfection of viral pathogens in blood products and in the clinic.

  7. From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pérès, Eléonore; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; This, Sébastien; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed. PMID:26690200

  8. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T.; Perkins, Simon; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Fischer, William M.; Theiler, James; Letvin, Norman; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Yusim, Karina; Kuiken, Carla

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  9. Structure of a human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment against gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, X. M.; Ruker, F.; Casale, E.; Carter, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a human monoclonal antibody (Fab), which binds specifically to a major epitope of the transmembrane protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, has been determined by crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.7 A. It has been previously determined that this antibody recognizes the epitope SGKLICTTAVPWNAS, belongs to the subclass IgG1 (kappa), and exhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The quaternary structure of the Fab is in an extended conformation with an elbow bend angle between the constant and variable domains of 175 degrees. Structurally, four of the hypervariable loops can be classified according to previously recognized canonical structures. The third hypervariable loops of the heavy (H3) and light chain (L3) are structurally distinct. Hypervariable loop H3, residues 102H-109H, is unusually extended from the surface. The complementarity-determining region forms a hydrophobic binding pocket that is created primarily from hypervariable loops L3, H3, and H2.

  10. Human Discs Large Is a New Negative Regulator of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Perugi, Fabien; Muriaux, Delphine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Chabani, Sabah; Decroly, Etienne; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Blot, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication is positively or negatively regulated through multiple interactions with host cell proteins. We report here that human Discs Large (Dlg1), a scaffold protein recruited beneath the plasma membrane and involved in the assembly of multiprotein complexes, restricts HIV-1 infectivity. The endogenous Dlg1 and HIV-1 Gag polyprotein spontaneously interact in HIV-1-chronically infected T cells. Depleting endogenous Dlg1 in either adherent cells or T cells does not affect Gag maturation, production, or release, but it enhances the infectivity of progeny viruses five- to sixfold. Conversely, overexpression of Dlg1 reduces virus infectivity by ∼80%. Higher virus infectivity upon Dlg1 depletion correlates with increased Env content in cells and virions, whereas the amount of virus-associated Gag or genomic RNA remains identical. Dlg1 knockdown is also associated with the redistribution and colocalization of Gag and Env toward CD63 and CD82 positive vesicle-like structures, including structures that seem to still be connected to the plasma membrane. This study identifies both a new negative regulator that targets the very late steps of the HIV-1 life cycle, and an assembly pathway that optimizes HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:18946087

  11. Human herpesvirus 8-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Fardet, L; Blum, L; Kerob, D; Agbalika, F; Galicier, L; Dupuy, A; Lafaurie, M; Meignin, V; Morel, P; Lebbé, C

    2003-07-15

    We retrospectively reviewed 5 cases of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HL) associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) reactivation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All patients had clinical and biological features characteristic of HL. Pulmonary symptoms were present in all patients and were frequently life threatening. The mean number of HL episodes was 6. Four patients had HL-associated Kaposi sarcoma, and 3 had multicentric Castleman disease. The mean CD4 cell count was 200 cells/mm(3). HIV loads were stable in all patients. All patients had high levels of HHV-8 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during attacks, and a significant increase in this parameter before the attacks was seen in 3 patients. Although 2 patients died of HL, 3 are still alive and receiving etoposide therapy (mean follow-up, 3 years). HHV-8-related HL is associated with life-threatening symptoms and biological HHV-8 reactivation, and it may be controlled in the long term by etoposide therapy combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:12856221

  12. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kevin O.; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M. Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B.; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T.; Kwong, Peter D.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 μg/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled. IMPORTANCE Sustained interventions that can prevent HIV-1 infection are needed to halt the spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. The protective capacity of anti-HIV antibody gene therapy has been established in mouse models of HIV-1 infection but has not been established for primates. We show here a proof-of-concept that gene transfer of anti-HIV antibody genes can protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when host immune responses are controlled. PMID:26041300

  13. Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics to Identify a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Inhibitor from Alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Priya, R.; Sumitha, Rajendrarao; Doss, C. George Priya; Rajasekaran, C.; Babu, S.; Seenivasan, R.; Siva, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an immunosuppressive disease. Over the past decades, it has plagued human health due to the grave consequences in its harness. Objective: For this reason, anti-HIV agents are imperative, and the search for the same from natural resources would assure the safety. Materials and Methods: In this investigation we have performed molecular docking, molecular property prediction, drug-likeness score, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to develop a novel anti-HIV drug. We have screened 12 alkaloids from a medicinal plant Toddalia asiatica for its probabilistic binding with the active site of the HIV-1-reverse transcriptase (HIV-1-RT) domain (the major contributor to the onset of the disease). Results: The docking results were evaluated based on free energies of binding (ΔG), and the results suggested toddanol, toddanone, and toddalenone to be potent inhibitors of HIV-1-RT. In addition, the alkaloids were subjected to molecular property prediction analysis. Toddanol and toddanone with more rotatable bonds were found to have a drug-likeness score of 0.23 and 0.11, respectively. These scores were comparable with the standard anti-HIV drug zidovudine with a model score 0.28. Finally, two characteristic protein-ligand complexes were exposed to MD simulation to determine the stability of the predicted conformations. Conclusion: The toddanol-RT complex showed higher stability and stronger H-bonds than toddanone-RT complex. Based on these observations, we firmly believe that the alkaloid toddanol could aid in efficient HIV-1 drug discovery. SUMMARY In the present study, the molecular docking and MD simulations are performed to explore the possible binding mode of HIV 1 RT with 12 alkaloids of T. asiatica. Molecular docking by AutoDock4 revealed three alkaloids toddanol, toddanone, and toddalenone with highest binding affinity towards HIV 1 RT. The drug likeness model score revealed

  14. The Transmission Dynamics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, R. M.; Anderson, R. M.

    1988-10-01

    The paper first reviews data on HIV infections and AIDS disease among homosexual men, heterosexuals, intravenous (IV) drug abusers and children born to infected mothers, in both developed and developing countries. We survey such information as is currently available about the distribution of incubation times that elapse between HIV infection and the appearance of AIDS, about the fraction of those infected with HIV who eventually go on to develop AIDS, about time-dependent patterns of infectiousness and about distributions of rates of acquiring new sexual or needle-sharing partners. With this information, models for the transmission dynamics of HIV are developed, beginning with deliberately oversimplified models and progressing - on the basis of the understanding thus gained - to more complex ones. Where possible, estimates of the model's parameters are derived from the epidemiological data, and predictions are compared with observed trends. We also combine these epidemiological models with demographic considerations to assess the effects that heterosexually-transmitted HIV/AIDS may eventually have on rates of population growth, on age profiles and on associated economic and social indicators, in African and other countries. The degree to which sexual or other habits must change to bring the `basic reproductive rate', R_0, of HIV infections below unity is discussed. We conclude by outlining some research needs, both in the refinement and development of models and in the collection of epidemiological data.

  15. Effect of Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Viral Load on Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death In Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Moyers, Brian S.; Secemsky, Eric A.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wong, Joseph K.; Havlir, Diane V.; Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Tseng, Zian H.

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Whether left ventricular (LV) dysfunction predicts SCD in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of LV on SCD in patients with HIV. We previously characterized all SCDs and AIDS deaths in 2860 consecutive patients in a public HIV clinic between 2000 and 2009. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) performed during the study period were identified. The effect of ejection fraction (EF), diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary artery pressure, and LV mass on SCD and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) death were evaluated: 423 patients had at least one TTE; 13 SCDs and 55 AIDS deaths had at least one TTE. In the propensity-adjusted analysis, EF 30–39% and EF <30% predicted SCD (HR 9.5, 95% CI 1.7–53.3, p=0.01 and HR 38.5, 95% CI 7.6–195.0, p<0.001, respectively) but not AIDS death. Diastolic dysfunction also predicted SCD (HR 14.8, 95% CI 4.0–55.4, p<0.001) but not AIDS death, even after adjusting for EF. The association between EF<40% and SCD was greater in subjects with detectable vs. undetectable HIV-RNA (adjusted HR 11.7, 95% CI 2.9–47.2, p=0.001 vs. HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.3–27.6, p=0.41; p=0.07 for interaction). In conclusion, LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction predict SCD but not AIDS death in a large HIV cohort, with greater effect in those with detectable HIV RNA. Further investigation is needed to thoroughly evaluate the effect of low EF and HIV factors on SCD incidence and the potential benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in this high-risk population. PMID:24521717

  16. Comparative analysis of genetically engineered immunodeficient mouse strains as recipients for human myoblast transplantation.

    PubMed

    Silva-Barbosa, Suse D; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Di Santo, James P; Mouly, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The development of an optimized animal model for the in vivo analysis of human muscle cells remains an important goal in the search of therapy for muscular dystrophy. Here we examined the efficiency of human myoblast xenografts in three distinct immunodeficient mouse models. We found that different conditioning regimes used to provoke host muscle regeneration (i.e., cardiotoxin versus cryodamage) had a marked impact on xenograft success. Tibialis anterior muscle of Rag2-, Rag-/gammac-, and Rag-/gammac-/C5- mice was treated by cardiotoxin or cryodamage, submitted to enzymatic digestion, and analyzed by cytofluorometry to quantitate inflammatory cells. Human myoblasts were injected into pretreated muscles from immunodeficient recipients and the cell engraftment evaluated by immunocytochemistry, 4-8 weeks after transplantation. Donor cell differentiation and dispersion within the host muscles was also investigated. Host regeneration in cardiotoxin-treated mice was accompanied by a higher inflammatory cell infiltration when compared to that induced by cryodamage. Accordingly, when compared to the cardiotoxin group, more human myogenic cells were found after cryodamage. When the distinct immunodeficient mice were compared, we found that the alymphoid strain lacking the complement component C5 (Rag-/gammac-/C5- mice) was the most efficient host for human muscle xenografts, when compared with C5(+)Rag-/gammac- mice or Rag- mice. Our results demonstrate that cryolesion-conditioned muscles of Rag-/gammac-/C5- mice provide the best environment for long-term in vivo human myoblast differentiation, opening the way for a novel approach to study the pathophysiology of human muscle disorders. PMID:16285254

  17. Primary Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Head and Neck in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Clinicopathologic Study of 24 Patients in a Single Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María; Bistmans, Alicia; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%). Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients. PMID:25992103

  18. Primary extranodal non-hodgkin lymphoma of the head and neck in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinicopathologic study of 24 patients in a single hospital of infectious diseases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María; Bistmans, Alicia; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%). Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients. PMID:25992103

  19. Disseminated vaccine-strain varicella as initial presentation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maves, Ryan C; Tripp, Michael S; Dell, Trevor G; Bennett, Jason W; Ahluwalia, Jaspal S; Tamminga, Cindy; Baldwin, James C; Starr, Clarise Rivera; Grinkemeyer, Michael D; Dempsey, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections have declined in many industrialized countries due to vaccination with the attenuated Oka strain virus. Rare cases of severe, disseminated vaccine-strain VZV infection have occurred in the immunocompromised, although rarely in HIV-infected persons. We describe a man with previously-undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who received VZV vaccination and subsequently presented to a combat hospital in Afghanistan with disseminated varicella, respiratory failure, and sepsis. The patient recovered with ventilator and hemodynamic support, intravenous acyclovir, and empiric antibiotic therapy. DNA sequencing detected Oka strain virus from patient blood specimens. Although safe in most populations, the VZV vaccine may cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Improved detection of HIV infection may be useful in preventing such cases. PMID:24257110

  20. Clonal analysis of T lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence for an abnormality affecting individual helper and suppressor T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margolick, J B; Volkman, D J; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S

    1985-01-01

    Purified helper-inducer (T4+) and suppressor-cytotoxic (T8+) lymphocytes from eight patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and eight healthy heterosexual donors were examined by limiting dilution analysis for their ability to be clonally expanded. It was demonstrated that viable T4+ and T8+ lymphocytes from patients with AIDS had markedly reduced proportions of clonable cells compared to the healthy donors (T4 = 1:255 vs. 1:34, P = 0.06; T8 = 1:355 vs. 1:55, P = 0.01). However, the cloned T cells that were obtained from the patients with AIDS demonstrated normal proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and alloantigen, and normal ability to help or suppress pokeweed mitogen-driven IgG synthesis. These results strongly suggest that, in addition to a quantitative diminution of T4+ lymphocytes in AIDS, there is an intrinsic functional defect in the surviving T4+ and T8+ lymphocytes, which is reflected by a severe decrease in their potential for clonal expansion. PMID:3161909

  1. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, P.D.; Sarin, P.S.; Humphreys, J.C.; Eubanks, W.G.; Sun, D.; Hocken, D.G.; Thornton, A.; Adams, D.E.; Simic, M.G. )

    1989-11-01

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing.

  2. A rare case of verrucous carcinoma of penis in an human immunodeficiency virus- infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Tonita Mariola; Girisha, Banavasi S.; Bhat, Shubha P.; Christy, Carol M.; Handattu, Sripathi; Fernandes, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Verrucous carcinoma is a peculiarly slow evolving, but relentlessly expanding variant of epidermoid carcinoma that is extremely reluctant to metastasize. A 60-year-old unmarried male patient presented with urethral discharge of 3 weeks duration. Dorsal slit of the prepuce revealed an ulceroproliferative growth measuring 3 cm × 3 cm arising from prepuce and involving glans. Biopsy from the growth in the prepuce showed histopathological features of verrucous carcinoma. Partial amputation of the penis was done. Human papillomavirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction was negative. The patient was started on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26692616

  3. Restoration of Viral Immunity in Immunodeficient Humans by the Adoptive Transfer of T Cell Clones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddell, Stanley R.; Watanabe, Kathe S.; Goodrich, James M.; Li, Cheng R.; Agha, Mounzer E.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1992-07-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells to establish immunity is an effective therapy for viral infections and tumors in animal models. The application of this approach to human disease would require the isolation and in vitro expansion of human antigen-specific T cells and evidence that such T cells persist and function in vivo after transfer. Cytomegalovirus-specific CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clones could be isolated from bone marrow donors, propagated in vitro, and adoptively transferred to immunodeficient bone marrow transplant recipients. No toxicity developed and the clones provided persistent reconstitution of CD8^+ cytomegalovirus-specific CTL responses.

  4. Burden Among Caregivers of Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Kant, Shashi; Lodha, Rakesh; Kumar, Nand; Singh, Neelima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA) places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS). Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9%) of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4%) reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients’ behavior, and caregivers’ strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as caregivers did

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  7. Viricidal effect of stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, M J; Klebanoff, S J

    1992-01-01

    Human monocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or opsonized zymosan in vitro were viricidal to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as measured by the inability of the virus to replicate in CEM cells. Monocytes, when stimulated, release myeloperoxidase (MPO) and produce H2O2; MPO reacts with H2O2 and chloride to form hypochlorous acid, a known microbicidal agent. The viricidal activity of stimulated monocytes was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitor azide, implicating MPO, and by catalase but not heated catalase or superoxide dismutase, implicating H2O2. Stimulated monocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) or hereditary MPO deficiency were not viricidal to HIV-1 unless they were supplemented with the H2O2-generating enzyme glucose oxidase or MPO, respectively. The viricidal activity of stimulated, glucose oxidase-supplemented CGD monocytes and MPO-supplemented MPO-deficient monocytes, like that of normal stimulated monocytes, was inhibited by azide and catalase. Monocytesmaintained in culture differentiate into macrophages with loss of MPO and decreased H2O2 production. The viricidal activity of 3- to 9-day monocyte-derived macrophages was decreased unless MPO was added, whereas the loss of viricidal activity by 12-day-old monocyte-derived macrophages was not reversed by MPO unless the cells were pretreated with gamma-interferon. These findings suggest that stimulated monocytes can be viricidal to HIV-1 through the release of the MPO/H2O2/chloride system and that the decreased viricidal activity on differentiation to macrophages results initially from the loss of MPO and, with more prolonged culture, also from a decreased respiratory burst that can be overcome by gamma-interferon. PMID:1319066

  8. Increased alpha-9 human papillomavirus species viral load in human immunodeficiency virus positive women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR-HPV viral load are associated with the development of cancer. This study investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, HIV viral load and CD4 count on the HR-HPV viral load; and also investigated the predictors of cervical abnormalities. Methods Participants were 292 HIV-negative and 258 HIV-positive women. HR-HPV viral loads in cervical cells were determined by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results HIV-positive women had a significantly higher viral load for combined alpha-9 HPV species compared to HIV-negative women (median 3.9 copies per cell compared to 0.63 copies per cell, P = 0.022). This was not observed for individual HPV types. HIV-positive women with CD4 counts >350/μl had significantly lower viral loads for alpha-7 HPV species (median 0.12 copies per cell) than HIV-positive women with CD4 ≤350/μl (median 1.52 copies per cell, P = 0.008), but low CD4 count was not significantly associated with increased viral load for other HPV species. High viral loads for alpha-6, alpha-7 and alpha-9 HPV species were significant predictors of abnormal cytology in women. Conclusion HIV co-infection significantly increased the combined alpha-9 HPV viral load in women but not viral loads for individual HPV types. High HR-HPV viral load was associated with cervical abnormal cytology. PMID:24484380

  9. The gut microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Zmora, Niv; Itav, Shlomik; Bashiardes, Stavros; Elinav, Hila; Elinav, Eran

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS causes severe dysfunction of the immune system through CD4+ T cell depletion, leading to dysregulation of both the adaptive and innate immune arms. A primary target for viral infection is the gastrointestinal tract, which is a reservoir of CD4+ T cells. In addition to being a major immune hub, the human gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, the microbiota, which have recently been shown to play critical roles in health. Alterations in the composition and function of microbiota have been implicated in a variety of 'multi-factorial' disorders, including infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, and neoplastic disorders. It is widely accepted that, in addition to its direct role in altering the gastrointestinal CD4+ T cell compartment, HIV infection is characterized by gut microbiota compositional and functional changes. Herein, we review such alterations and discuss their potential local and systemic effects on the HIV-positive host, as well as potential roles of novel microbiota-targeting treatments in modulating HIV progression and associated adverse systemic manifestations. PMID:27256449

  10. Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients by ratio of antibodies to gp41 and p24.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, G; Amiraian, K; Frey, H; Wethers, J; Stevens, R W; Berns, D S

    1989-01-01

    Antibody responses of 85 patients to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antigens were quantitated by densitometric analysis of Western blot (immunoblot) assays. All patients had been classified into the following three clinical categories: asymptomatic (ASY), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC), or AIDS. Fifty of the patients were monitored for 6 to 29 months. The gp41/p24 antibody ratio was examined in three studies. In the first study, initial specimens from each patient were analyzed. The mean gp41/p24 antibody ratios were 1.5 (ASY), 3.2 (ARC), and 5.4 (AIDS). Of ASY patients, 79% had antibody ratios of less than 2.0. In contrast, 72% of patients with AIDS had ratios of greater than or equal to 2.0. In the second study, serially obtained specimens from ASY, ARC, and AIDS patients were analyzed. These patients were further grouped according to progression of their clinical condition. Of ASY patients whose clinical condition progressed to ARC, 80% consistently had ratios of greater than or equal to 2.0. Of ARC patients whose clinical condition progressed to AIDS, 71% consistently had ratios of greater than or equal to 2.0. Of AIDS patients who died during the study, 100% consistently had ratios of greater than or equal to 2.0. No patients were treated with azidothymidine during the first two studies. In the third study, AIDS patients were monitored before and during treatment with azidothymidine. During treatment, ratios stabilized or improved transiently in five of seven patients. In these three studies, a gp41/p24 antibody ratio of less than 2.0 correlated with a benign clinical state and a ratio of greater than or equal to 2.0 correlated with AIDS or progression to AIDS. Images PMID:2501350

  11. Densitometric analysis of Western blot (immunoblot) assays for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies and correlation with clinical status.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, G; Amiraian, K; Frey, H; Stevens, R W; Berns, D S

    1987-01-01

    Western blot assays for antibodies directed against components of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were examined with a densitometer and integrator. Antibody responses to seven HIV proteins were determined from the areas under the peaks of bands on blots from 430 seropositive individuals. Antibody responses corresponded qualitatively and quantitatively with clinical status. The Western blot assays examined were done on single specimens from individuals in one of four clinical states: asymptomatic with no risk factor identified, asymptomatic with risk factor(s) identified, AIDS-related complex, and AIDS. The ratios of gp41 antibody to p24 antibody and of gp41 antibody to total HIV antibodies increased, and the number of total HIV antibodies decreased progressively in these populations. Parameters were assigned to characterize the typical response found in AIDS: gp41 antibody/p24 antibody ratio, greater than or equal to 2.0; gp41 antibody/total HIV antibodies ratio, greater than or equal to 0.30; and number of total HIV antibodies, less than or equal to 25.0 signal units. Parameter match increased with progression of clinical status. These parameters were applied in a brief follow-up study of 34 HIV-infected asymptomatic individuals who developed AIDS-related complex or AIDS. Initial specimens showed a stronger correlation than our population data base had predicted, suggesting that the parameters have prognostic value. Densitometric analysis of antibody responses on Western blot assays of single or serial specimens should prove useful to physicians in staging and monitoring HIV-infected individuals and in predicting which individuals will progress to AIDS. Images PMID:2444624

  12. Effect of left ventricular dysfunction and viral load on risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Moyers, Brian S; Secemsky, Eric A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wong, Joseph K; Havlir, Diane V; Hsue, Priscilla Y; Tseng, Zian H

    2014-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Whether left ventricular (LV) dysfunction predicts SCD in those with HIV is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of LV dysfunction on SCD in patients with HIV. We previously characterized all SCDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) deaths in 2,860 consecutive patients in a public HIV clinic from 2000 to 2009. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) performed during the study period were identified. The effect of ejection fraction (EF), diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary artery pressure, and LV mass on SCD and AIDS death were evaluated: 423 patients had at least 1 TTE; 13 SCDs and 55 AIDS deaths had at least 1 TTE. In the propensity-adjusted analysis, EF 30% to 39% and EF<30% predicted SCD (hazard ratio [HR] 9.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 53.3, p=0.01 and HR 38.5, 95% CI 7.6 to 195.0, p<0.001, respectively) but not AIDS death. Diastolic dysfunction also predicted SCD (HR 14.8, 95% CI 4.0 to 55.4, p<0.001) but not AIDS death, even after adjusting for EF. The association between EF<40% and SCD was greater in subjects with detectable versus undetectable HIV RNA (adjusted HR 11.7, 95% CI 2.9 to 47.2, p=0.001 vs HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.3 to 27.6, p=0.41; p=0.07 for interaction). In conclusion, LV systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction predict SCD but not AIDS death in a large HIV cohort, with greater effect in those with detectable HIV RNA. Further investigation is needed to thoroughly evaluate the effect of low EF and HIV factors on SCD incidence and the potential benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in this high-risk population. PMID:24521717

  13. Sexual practices and condom usage in a cohort of homosexual men in relation to human immunodeficiency virus status.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B; Swanson, C; Donovan, B; Cooper, D A

    1989-09-18

    Between January 1, and October 31, 1987, 420 homosexual men who participated in a cohort study of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) completed a questionnaire that examined their sexual practices during the previous six months. Of the subjects, 205 (48.8%) men were HIV-seropositive and 215 (51.2%) men were HIV-seronegative. Although there was an appreciable level of condom usage in both groups, 13.5% of the HIV-seronegative men had engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse and 6.3% of the HIV-seropositive men had engaged in unprotected insertive anal intercourse. Condom breakage was reported on approximately 6% of occasions by a minority of subjects. Among subjects who were in a relationship with a regular male sexual partner, the most commonly reported sexual practices were deep kissing, mutual masturbation and receptive oral intercourse without ejaculation. No HIV-seronegative man engaged in unprotected receptive and/or insertive anal intercourse, receptive oral intercourse with ejaculation or receptive and/or insertive "fisting" with a regular partner who was HIV-seropositive. No HIV-seropositive man engaged in unprotected insertive anal intercourse to ejaculation with an HIV-seronegative partner, although they did so with partners who were HIV-seropositive or of unknown status. On multivariate analyses the subject's antibody status was found to be associated with receptive anal intercourse with a condom (P = 0.007) and mutual masturbation (P = 0.001), with HIV-seronegative men being more likely to practise either; no significant independent effect was associated with the partner's antibody status. These findings provide important information on the types and levels of sexual practices in a group of homosexual men after the recognition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in this country. PMID:2593942

  14. Recent trends in the spectrum of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in South India

    PubMed Central

    Shahapur, Praveen R.; Bidri, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opportunistic infections (OI) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The pattern of OIs differs widely, hence it is necessary to correlate spectrum of OIs and CD4 counts among HIV infected individuals in specific localities. Materials and Methods: The present study describes the clinical and laboratory profiles of different OIs among 55 HIV seropositive patients. CD4 count was estimated and antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 27 patients as per National Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Control Organization guidelines. These 27 patients were classified into stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3 based on CD4 counts of >500 cells/μl, 200-499 cells/μl and <200 cells/μl respectively. The OIs presented by respective groups were documented. Results: Pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be the most common OI constituting 43.6% of all cases followed by candidiasis (30.9%), cryptosporidial diarrhea (21.8%), herpes zoster (16.3%), cryptococcal meningitis (3.63%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (1.81%), and other miscellaneous infections (23.6%). Only 1 patient was found in stage I while 13 patients each were grouped in stage II or stage III. The mean CD4 count in our study population who were on ART was 230 ± 150 cells/µl. Conclusion: The pattern of OIs among our study group did not differ significantly from patients not receiving ART. The effect of ART on CD4 count differs from patient to patient based on the degree of depletion of CD4 count before the initiation of ART, drug adherence, concomitant OIs and their treatment. PMID:25097422

  15. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activities of U-90152 and U-75875 in human brain cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, P K; Gekker, G; Hu, S; Chao, C C

    1994-01-01

    Antiviral activities of the reverse transcriptase inhibitors U-90152 and 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine and the protease inhibitor U-75875 were compared in two culture models of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 brain infection. In a model involving acutely infected microglial cells, U-90152 was the most active, whereas in a model using chronically infected promonocytes, U-75875 was the most active. PMID:7530933

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization epitope with conserved architecture elicits early type-specific antibodies in experimentally infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed Central

    Goudsmit, J; Debouck, C; Meloen, R H; Smit, L; Bakker, M; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C

    1988-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to infection by divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none of which cause clinical or immunological abnormalities. Chimpanzees were inoculated with one of four strains of HIV-1: human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type IIIB, lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) type 1, HTLV type IIIRF, or an isolate from the brain of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Within 6 months after inoculation with the closely related strains HTLV-IIIB or LAV-1, six chimpanzees developed serum antibodies to the C-terminal half (amino acids 288-467) of the HTLV-IIIB external envelope glycoprotein gp120. Sera from five of those chimpanzees had HTLV-IIIB cell-fusion-inhibiting antibody titers greater than or equal to 20 at that time, indicating that they neutralized the infecting strain of HIV-1 in vitro. No antibodies to the carboxyl terminus of HTLV-IIIB gp120 were observed in sera of chimpanzees inoculated with HTLV-IIIRF or with the brain-tissue strain, and those sera did not neutralize HTLV-IIIB. A rabbit immunized with the C-terminal portion of gp120 acquired neutralizing antibodies that bound to four domains of the HTLV-IIIB external envelope as analyzed by reactivity to 536 overlapping nonapeptides of gp120. One of these domains in the variable region V3, with the amino acid sequence IRIQRGPGRAFVTIG (amino acids 307-321), bound to all chimpanzee sera that neutralized HTLV-IIIB but not to the serum of the HTLV-IIIRF-inoculated chimpanzee that did not neutralize HTLV-IIIB. The HTLV-IIIRF sequence at the same location, ITKGPGRVIYA, was recognized by the serum of the HTLV-IIIRF-inoculated chimpanzee but not by any sera of the HTLV-IIIB-inoculated or LAV-1-inoculated chimpanzees. The HTLV-IIIB residues RIQR and AFV and the HTLV-IIIRF residues lysine and VIYA, flanking a highly conserved beta-turn (GPGR), appear to be critical for antibody binding and subsequent type-specific virus neutralization. This neutralization epitope

  17. Severe combined immunodeficiency mouse and human psoriatic skin chimeras. Validation of a new animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, B. J.; Kunkel, S. L.; Burdick, M.; Strieter, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Research into the cause and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying expression of psoriatric skin lesions has been hampered by lack of an appropriate animal model for this common and enigmatic cutaneous disease. These studies characterize normal skin, pre-psoriatic skin, and psoriatic plaque skin samples transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. In this report we document that 1), normal, prepsoriatic, and psoriatic plaque keratome skin samples can be transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice reliably with high rates of graft survival (> 85%) and with reproducible changes consistently observed over prolonged periods of engraftment; 2), after transplantation, by clinical assessment and routine light microscopy, normal skin remained essentially normal whereas pre-psoriatic skin became thicker, and psoriatic plaque skin retained its characteristic plaque-type elevation and scale; 3), by using a panel of antibodies and immunohistochemical analysis, the overall phenotype of human cell types (including immunocytes) that persisted in the transplanted skin was remarkably similar to the immunophenotype of pretransplanted skin samples; 4), clearly recognized interface zones between human and murine skin within the epidermal and dermal compartments could be identified by routine microscopy and immunostaining, with focal areas of chimerism; and 5), elevated interleukin 8 cytokine levels were present in transplanted pre-psoriatic and psoriatic plaque skin samples. We conclude that there are many similarities between pre- and post-transplanted human samples of normal and psoriatic skin that are grafted onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Thus, we propose that this new animal model is appropriate for additional mechanistic-type studies designed to reveal the underlying genetic/etiological abnormality, as well as better illuminate the pathophysiological basis, for this important skin disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7887440

  18. Temporal patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcripts in human fetal astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tornatore, C; Meyers, K; Atwood, W; Conant, K; Major, E

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the developing central nervous system results in a dementing process in children, termed HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. Infection of astroglial elements of the pediatric nervous system has been demonstrated and suggests that direct infection of some astrocytes may contribute to the neurologic deficit. In this model, HIV-1 establishes a persistent state of infection in astrocytes, which can be reactivated by the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). To better understand the natural history of viral persistence in astroglial cells, we characterized infection at the transcriptional level. The most abundant viral transcript during the establishment of persistence was the subgenomic multiply spliced 2-kb message, similar to mononuclear cell models of HIV-1 latency. Following reactivation with TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta the multiply spliced 2-kb message remained the most abundant viral transcript, in contrast to infected mononuclear cells in which reactivation leads to the reemergence of the 9- and 4-kb transcripts. Further characterization of the persistent 2-kb transcript by PCR amplification of in vitro-synthesized viral cDNA showed that, in the absence of cytokine stimulation, the most abundant multiply spliced transcripts were the Nef- and Rev-specific messages. However, following cytokine stimulation, double- and triple-spliced Tat-, Rev-, and Nef-specific messages could be identified. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that, during viral persistence, astrocytes expressed Nef protein but few or no viral structural proteins. These results demonstrate that viral persistence in astrocytes at the transcriptional level is fundamentally different from that seen in mononuclear cells and could account for the virtual absence of astroglial expression of viral structural antigens in vivo. Images PMID:8254781

  19. Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Luis M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Egido, Jesús; García-Puig, Juan; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection. PMID:25609975

  20. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  1. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Shima; Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial. PMID:26516417

  2. Neurobehavioral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Singer, Elyse J; Thames, April D

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral disorders are common in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The differential includes preexisting psychiatric diseases, substance abuse, direct effects of HIV infection, opportunistic infection, and the adverse effects of medical therapies. Many patients have more than one contributing or comorbid problem to explain these behavioral changes. The differential should always include consideration of psychosocial, genetic, and medical causes of disease. Treatment strategies must take into account the coadministration of antiretroviral therapy and the specific neurologic problems common in patients infected with HIV. PMID:26613994

  3. Bilateral Peripheral Facial Palsy in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Hee Jung; Kim, Hai Jin; Nam, Ji Sun; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, June Myung

    2006-01-01

    Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported. In this paper, we present the first case in Korea, of a bilateral facial palsy occurring as the first clinical manifestation of HIV infection. PMID:17066521

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and diffuse polyneuropathy. Implications for rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Mukand, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Patients at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require rehabilitation services. These patients present problems for each of the disciplines in a rehabilitation team, and all team members must confront the psychosocial and ethical issues involved with the disease. Patients with HIV infection may have polyneuropathy with multisystem involvement, including dysphagia, autonomic dysfunction, respiratory failure, bowel and bladder dysfunction, generalized weakness, a painful sensory neuropathy, and depression. Guidelines are presented for determining if inpatient rehabilitation or other settings are appropriate. Case management is a valuable strategy for the rehabilitation of patients with this complicated disorder. PMID:1866948

  5. [Non-dermatophytic moulds: onychomycosis in four patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    de Magalhães Lima, Kedma; Machado Barbosa de Castro, Célia Maria; Fonsêca Nogueira Cambuim, Idalina Inês; Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Jeferson; Delgado, Marília; Sette de Melo Rego, Rossana

    2008-03-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a risk group for onychomycosis, fungal infections caused mainly by dermatophytes and yeast. However, non-dermatohytic moulds are becoming common agents for nail infections in this population of patients. We report four cases of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophytic moulds (Aspergillus niger, Scytalidium hyalinum, Scytalidium dimidiatum and Fusarium solani) in patients infected with HIV from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Onychomicosis by non-dermatophytic species in HIV-positive patients requires special attention in the clinical and the laboratory. A proper diagnosis is necessary to establish the specific and adequate treatment, preventing fungal invasion. PMID:18338928

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ara, M; Maillo, C; Peón, G; Clavel, A; Cuesta, J; Grasa, M P; Carapeto, F J

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous papules on the legs. Biopsy of one lesion showed abundant Leishmania amastigotes within epithelial cells of an eccrine sweat gland in the dermis. Leishmania organisms were also found in a blood smear. Rapid and complete clearance of the cutaneous lesions was achieved after antimony therapy. Cutaneous lesions in VL are being reported increasingly frequently in patients with HIV infection and their significance remains in discussion. PMID:9764161

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus among people who inject drugs: is risk increasing in Europe?

    PubMed

    Hedrich, D; Kalamara, E; Sfetcu, O; Pharris, A; Noor, A; Wiessing, L; Hope, V; Van de Laar, M

    2013-01-01

    In most European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries, between 2010 and 2012, reports of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses among people who inject drugs have been stable or declining. HIV outbreaks in Greece and Romania, first reported in 2011, continue and economic conditions hinder provision of effective response coverage. When measured against some established thresholds, prevention coverage remains inadequate in at least one-third of EU/EEA countries. Urgent consideration to scale up prevention efforts is merited. PMID:24308980

  8. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  9. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  10. Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 15.1 million children have been orphaned because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They face significant vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination, trauma and stress, illness, food insecurity, poverty, and difficulty accessing education. Millions of additional children who have living parents are vulnerable because their parents or other relatives are infected. This article reviews the current situation of orphans and vulnerable children, explores the underlying determinants of vulnerability and resilience, describes the response by the global community, and highlights the challenges as the HIV pandemic progresses through its fourth decade. PMID:26613693

  11. Action of uracil analogs on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Piras, G; Dutschman, G E; Im, G J; Pan, B C; Chu, S H; Cheng, Y C

    1995-01-01

    Three structural analogs of 5-ethyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-6-(phenylthio)uracil (E-BPU) inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication without cytotoxicity in vitro and were more potent than azidothymidine and were as potent as E-BPU. The target of these compounds is HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Reverse transcriptases resistant to nevirapine (tyrosine at position 181 to cysteine) and TIBO R82150 (leucine at position 100 to isoleucine) are cross resistant to E-BPU analogs. Nevirapine- or TIBO R82150-resistant HIV-1 were cross resistant to E-BPU analogs but were inhibited at concentrations 11- to 135-fold lower than the cytotoxic doses. PMID:7537030

  12. Mechanism of selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus by ingenol triacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, M; Ijichi, K; Tokuhisa, K; Katsuura, K; Shigeta, S; Konno, K; Wang, G Y; Uemura, D; Yokota, T; Baba, M

    1996-01-01

    Ingenol 3,5,20-triacetate (ITA), one of the ingenol derivatives, is a selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vitro. ITA inhibited the replication of HIV strains in MT-4 cells at concentrations of 0.051 to 0.65 microM. This concentration was approximately 10(3)-fold lower than its cytotoxic threshold. The mechanism of action of ITA is primarily attributed to the inhibition of viral adsorption to the host cells, but it is distinct from the mechanism of inhibition by other adsorption inhibitors. PMID:8787923

  13. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  14. Triterpene derivatives that block entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 into cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mayaux, J F; Bousseau, A; Pauwels, R; Huet, T; Hénin, Y; Dereu, N; Evers, M; Soler, F; Poujade, C; De Clercq, E

    1994-01-01

    A series of triterpene compounds characterized by a stringent structure-activity relationship were identified as potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Currently studied botulinic derivatives have 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against HIV-1 strain IIIB/LAI in the 10 nM range in several cellular infection assays but are inactive against HIV-2. These compounds did not significantly inhibit the in vitro activities of several purified HIV-1 enzymes. Rather, they appeared to block virus infection at a postbinding, envelope-dependent step involved in the fusion of the virus to the cell membrane. PMID:8170948

  15. Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by fluconazole in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    George, Jacob; Sharma, Arun; Dixit, Ramakant; Chhabra, Naveen; Sharma, Smita

    2012-07-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but serious dermatologic disorders. These grave conditions present as medical emergency, requiring prompt diagnosis and management. These are often drug induced and various groups of drugs, such as sulfa drugs, NSAIDS, etc., have been implicated as to cause TEN. Fluconazole is a commonly used drug with mild side effects. TEN caused by fluconazole is rare, and till now only few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of TEN in a human immunodeficiency virus infected man following fluconazole therapy in view of its rare occurrence. PMID:23129968

  16. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected infant

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, E. D.; Smith, A.; Golitko, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY World Health Organization-classified very severe pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is recognized as a life-threatening condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected infants. We recount the use of nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) in an HIV-infected African infant with very severe pneumonia and treatment failure due to suspected infection with P. jirovecii. We also examine the potential implications of BCPAP use in resource-poor settings with a high case index of acute respiratory failure due to HIV-related pneumonia, but limited access to mechanical ventilation. PMID:21396221

  17. Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection of cells lacking PDZD8.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    PDZD8 can bind the capsid proteins of different retroviruses, and transient knockdown of PDZD8 results in a decrease in the efficiency of an early, post-entry event in the retrovirus life cycle. Here we used the CRISPR-CAS9 system to create cell lines in which PDZD8 expression is stably eliminated. The PDZD8-knockout cell lines were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus as efficiently as the parental PDZD8-expressing cells. These results indicate that PDZD8 is not absolutely necessary for HIV-1 infection and diminishes its attractiveness as a potential target for intervention. PMID:25771112

  18. De Novo Belatacept in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Kidney Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Cohen, E A; Mulligan, D; Kulkarni, S; Tichy, E M

    2016-09-01

    Benefits of belatacept-based immunosuppressive regimens in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive renal transplant recipients include avoidance of drug interactions between calcineurin inhibitors and highly active antiretroviral agents and decreased likelihood or severity of nonimmune toxicities such as new-onset diabetes after transplant, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. We report a successful case of de novo belatacept at >18 mo from transplant in an HIV-positive black man aged 50 years who received his first transplant from a living related kidney donor. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported of belatacept use in an HIV-positive renal transplant recipient. PMID:27137752

  19. Protein structure-based design of potent orally bioavailable, nonpeptide inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus protease.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, S H; Melnick, M; Davies, J F; Appelt, K; Lewis, K K; Fuhry, M A; Pino, M; Trippe, A J; Nguyen, D; Dawson, H

    1995-01-01

    A class of potent nonpeptidic inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus protease has been designed by using the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme as a guide. By employing iterative protein cocrystal structure analysis, design, and synthesis the binding affinity of the lead compound was incrementally improved by over four orders of magnitude. An inversion in inhibitor binding mode was observed crystallographically, providing information critical for subsequent design and highlighting the utility of structural feedback in inhibitor optimization. These inhibitors are selective for the viral protease enzyme, possess good antiviral activity, and are orally available in three species. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7724556

  20. Inhibition of growth of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro by crude extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Chang, R S; Yeung, H W

    1988-04-01

    Twenty-seven medicinal herbs reputed in ancient Chinese folklore to have anti-infective properties were extracted by boiling under reflux. The extracts were tested for inhibitory activity against the human immunodeficiency virus in the H9 cell line at concentrations nontoxic to growth of the H9 cells. Using a significant reduction (greater than 3 S. D. below the mean) in the percentage of cells positive for specific viral antigens in three successive assays as indicative of activity against the virus, 11 of the 27 extracts were found to be active. One of the extracts (Viola yedoensis) was studied in greater depth. At a subtoxic concentration, this extract shut off completely the growth of HIV in virtually all experiments. It did not inactivate HIV extracellularly, did not induce interferon and did not inhibit the growth of herpes simplex, polio or vesicular stomatitis viruses in human fibroblast culture. Chinese medicinal herbs appeared to be a rich source of potentially useful materials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. PMID:2840849

  1. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 33 Final Diagnosis: Tuberculous meningitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Lumbar puncture Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. Case Report: A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while antiretroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Conclusions: A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  2. Active and Selective Transcytosis of Cell-Free Human Immunodeficiency Virus through a Tight Polarized Monolayer of Human Endometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hocini, Hakim; Becquart, Pierre; Bouhlal, Hicham; Chomont, Nicolas; Ancuta, Petronela; Kazatchkine, Michel D.; Bélec, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    We report that both primary and laboratory-adapted infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates in a cell-free form are capable of transcytosis through a tight and polarized monolayer of human endometrial cells. Trancytosis of cell-free HIV occurs in a strain-selective fashion and appears to be dependent on interactions between HIV envelope glycoproteins and lectins on the apical membrane of the epithelial cells. These findings provide new insights into the initial events occurring during heterosexual transmission of the virus. PMID:11333919

  3. Human papillomavirus genotypes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with anal pathology in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied anal specimens to determine the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and co-infection occurrence. This information will contribute to the knowledge of HPV genotype distributions and provide an estimate of the prevalence of different oncogenic HPV genotypes found in patients in Madrid (Spain). Methods We studied a total of 82 anal biopsies from the Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón of Madrid. These included 4 specimens with benign lesions, 52 specimens with low-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesion, 24 specimens with high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and 2 specimens with invasive anal carcinoma. HPV genotyping was performed with PCR amplification and reverse dot blot hybridization. Results We detected 33 different HPV genotypes, including 16 HPVs associated with a high risk of carcinogenesis, 3 HPVs associated with a highly likely risk of carcinogenesis and 14 HPVs associated with a low-risk of carcinogenesis. In two specimens, an uncharacterized HPV genotype was detected. The most frequent HPV genotypes found were HPV-16 (10.3%; 95% CI: 6.6%-15.1%), HPV-52 (8.5%; 95% CI: 5.2%-13%) and HPV-43/44 (7.6%; 95% CI: 4.5%-11.9%). HPV-18 was only detected in 0.9% (95% CI: 0.1%-3.2%) of the total viruses detected in all lesions. HPV co-infections were found in 83.9% of all types of lesions. The majority of cases (90.2%) were concomitantly infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conclusion The prevalence of high-risk carcinogenic genotypes in anal pathological samples was remarkable. Therefore, further studies that include a greater number of samples, particularly invasive carcinoma cases are needed to evaluate the potential influence of these HPV genotypes in the appearance of anal carcinomas. Also, the influence of other accompanying infections should be evaluated clarify the appearance of this type of carcinoma. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here

  4. Selective inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus with an ultrashort pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsen, K. T.; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, femtosecond laser technology has been shown to be effective in the inactivation of non-pathogenic viruses. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that infectious numbers of pathogenic viruses such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) can be reduced by irradiation with subpicosecond near infrared laser pulses at a moderate laser power density. By comparing the threshold laser power density for the inactivation of HIV with those of human red blood cells and mouse dendritic cells, we conclude that it is plausible to use the ultrashort pulsed laser to selectively inactivate blood-borne pathogens such as HIV while leaving the sensitive materials like human red blood cells unharmed. This finding has important implications in the development of a new laser technology for disinfection of viral pathogens in blood products and in the clinic.

  5. Characterization to species level of Mycobacterium avium complex strains from human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakopoulos, A M; Tassios, P T; Matsiota-Bernard, P; Marinis, E; Tsaousidou, S; Legakis, N J

    1997-01-01

    Forty human clinical Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains isolated in Greece were characterized to the species level by PCR with three sets of primers specific for one or both species. M. avium predominated in both human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients, but the frequency of M. intracellulare isolation appeared to be higher in the latter. PMID:9350780

  6. Immunophenotypic and genotypic analysis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Correlation with histologic features in 36 cases. French Study Group of Pathology for HIV-Associated Tumors.

    PubMed

    Raphael, M M; Audouin, J; Lamine, M; Delecluse, H J; Vuillaume, M; Lenoir, G M; Gisselbrecht, C; Lennert, K; Diebold, J

    1994-06-01

    High-grade B-cell-type non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are observed in 5% to 8% of patients positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Nearly all cases belong to one of the three major histologic types: centroblastic or large noncleaved cell, immunoblastic and Burkitt's lymphoma, or small noncleaved cell. Some cases that are polymorphic are termed high-grade B-cell, not otherwise specified (NOS). The authors determined the immunophenotype of each histologic category of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkins' lymphoma and sought a relationship with the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). B-cell differentiation antigens, activation marker expression (human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD30, CD38), and epithelial membrane antigen were analyzed. The clonality was determined by the detection of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin, surface immunoglobulin, and the analysis of joining region (JH) immunoglobulin gene configuration by Southern blot. Epstein-Barr virus was detected either by Southern blot analysis using BamHI W probe fragment or by in situ hybridization with EBV-encoded RNA transcripts-1 specific probe. The immunophenotypic and genotypic results were compared with the morphology results and with the presence or absence of EBV. Burkitt's lymphomas were associated with EBV in 50% of cases, were monoclonal, and expressed mostly immunoglobulin (Ig) MK, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD38. This immunophenotypic profile closely resembled those of the centroblastic cases (large noncleaved cell), in which EBV was absent. Epstein-Barr virus was associated with 90% of immunoblastic cases, and only CD10, CD20, and CD38 were expressed. CD71 was expressed in all categories of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and CD21 and CD23 were rarely expressed. Two cases of immunoblastic lymphoma and one case of high-grade B-NOS were polyclonal regarding JH rearrangement, but EBV tested with 1.9-Kb Xhol fragment was clonal. No significant

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Monoclonal Antibodies Suppress Acute Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viremia and Limit Seeding of Cell-Associated Viral Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Pegu, Amarendra; Wang, Keyun; McGinnis, Kathleen; Nason, Martha; Foulds, Kathryn; Letukas, Valerie; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Chen, Xuejun; Todd, John Paul; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Rao, Srinivas; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.; Mascola, John R.; Koup, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) administered shortly after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can suppress viremia and limit seeding of the viral reservoir, but lifelong treatment is required for the majority of patients. Highly potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can reduce plasma viremia when administered during chronic HIV-1 infection, but the therapeutic potential of these antibodies during acute infection is unknown. We tested the ability of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-specific broadly neutralizing MAbs to suppress acute simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) replication in rhesus macaques. Four groups of macaques were infected with SHIV-SF162P3 and received (i) the CD4-binding-site MAb VRC01; (ii) a combination of a more potent clonal relative of VRC01 (VRC07-523) and a V3 glycan-dependent MAb (PGT121); (iii) daily cART, all on day 10, just prior to expected peak plasma viremia; or (iv) no treatment. Daily cART was initiated 11 days after MAb administration and was continued for 13 weeks in all treated animals. Over a period of 11 days after a single administration, MAb treatment significantly reduced peak viremia, accelerated the decay slope, and reduced total viral replication compared to untreated controls. Proviral DNA in lymph node CD4 T cells was also diminished after treatment with the dual MAb. These data demonstrate the virological effect of potent MAbs and support future clinical trials that investigate HIV-1-neutralizing MAbs as adjunctive therapy with cART during acute HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Treatment of chronic HIV-1 infection with potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 MAbs has been shown to significantly reduce plasma viremia. However, the antiviral effect of MAb treatment during acute HIV-1 infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that MAbs targeting the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein both suppress acute SHIV plasma viremia and limit CD4 T cell-associated viral DNA. These

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase: effect on viral replication of mutations at highly conserved residues.

    PubMed

    Cannon, P M; Wilson, W; Byles, E; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1994-08-01

    Sequence comparisons of the integrase (IN) proteins from different retroviruses have identified several highly conserved residues. We have introduced mutations at 16 of these sites into the integrase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and analyzed the phenotypes of the resulting viruses. The viruses were all normal for p24 content and reverse transcriptase activity. In addition, all of the mutants could infect T-cell lines and undergo reverse transcription, as assessed by PCR analysis. Most of the mutant viruses also had normal Western blot (immunoblot) profiles, although three of the mutations resulted in reduced signals for IN relative to the wild type on the immunoblots and mutation of residue W235 completely abolished recognition of the protein by pooled sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive patients. Mutations that have previously been shown to abolish activity in in vitro studies produced noninfectious viruses. The substitution of W235 was notable in producing a noninfectious virus, despite previous reports of this residue being nonessential for IN activity in vitro (A.D. Leavitt, L. Shiue, and H.E. Varmus, J. Biol. Chem. 268:2113-2119, 1993). In addition, we have identified four highly conserved residues that can be mutated without any affect on viral replication in T-cell lines. PMID:8035478

  9. Prediction of optimal peptide mixtures to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, L H; Goudsmit, J; Karplus, M

    1991-01-01

    Sequences of the principal neutralizing determinant (PND) of the external envelope protein, gp120, from 245 isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are analyzed. The minimal set of peptides that would elicit antibodies to neutralize a majority of U.S. and European isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is determined with the assumption that peptides of a given length including the central Gly-Pro-Gly triad are required. In spite of the hypervariability of the PND, 90% of these 245 sequences include peptides from a set of 7 pentapeptides, 13 hexapeptides, or 17 heptapeptides. Tests of these peptide sets on 78 additional PND sequences show that 95% are covered by the 7 pentapeptides, 94% by the 13 hexapeptides, and 86% by the 17 heptapeptides. To anticipate variants not yet observed, single amino acid mutation frequencies from the 245 isolates are used to calculate an expanded set of the 10,000 most probable PND sequences. These sequences cover 86% of the total distribution expected for the central portion of the PND. Peptide lists derived from this expanded set when tested on the 78 additional sequences show that 7 pentapeptides cover 95%, 13 hexapeptides cover 94%, and 17 heptapeptides cover 94%. These results suggest that peptide cocktails of limited size with the potential to cover a large fraction of PND sequence variation may be feasible vaccine candidates. PMID:1862103

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution in vivo tracked by DNA heteroduplex mobility assays.

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, E L; Sheppard, H W; Walker, B D; Goudsmit, J; Mullins, J I

    1994-01-01

    High mutation rates and strong selective pressures imposed on human immunodeficiency viruses in vivo result in the formation of pools of genetic variants known as quasispecies. DNA heteroduplex mobility and tracking analyses were used to monitor the generation of HIV sequence diversity, to estimate quasispecies complexity, and to assess the turnover of genetic variants to approach an understanding of the relationship between viral quasispecies evolution in vivo and disease progression. Proviral DNA pools were nearly homogeneous soon after sexual transmission. The emergence and clearance of individual variants then occurred at different rates in different individuals. High quasispecies complexity was found in long-term-infected, asymptomatic individuals, while rapid CD4+ cell decline and AIDS were often, but not always, associated with lower quasispecies complexity. Proviral genetic variation was often low following in vitro culture, because of the outgrowth of one or a few variants that often became more abundant only later as proviruses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These studies provide insight into the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus sequence changes in vivo and illustrate the utility of heteroduplex analysis for the study of phenomena associated with rapid genetic changes. Images PMID:8084001

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Tat Induces Nitric-oxide Synthase in Human Astroglia*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Jana, Malabendu; Dasgupta, Subhajit; Koka, Sreenivas; He, Jun; Wood, Charles; Pahan, Kalipada

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is known to cause neuronal injury and dementia in a significant proportion of patients. However, the mechanism by which HIV-1 mediates its deleterious effects in the brain is poorly defined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the HIV-1 tat gene on the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in human U373MG astroglial cells and primary astroglia. Expression of the tat gene as RSV-tat but not that of the CAT gene as RSV-CAT in U373MG astroglial cells led to the induction of NO production and the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA. Induction of NO production by recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein and inhibition of RSV-tat-induced NO production by anti-Tat antibodies suggest that RSV-tat-induced production of NO is dependent on Tat and that Tat is secreted from RSV-tat-transfected astroglia. Similar to U373MG astroglial cells, RSV-tat also induced the production of NO in human primary astroglia. The induction of human iNOS promoter-derived luciferase activity by the expression of RSV-tat suggests that RSV-tat induces the transcription of iNOS. To understand the mechanism of induction of iNOS, we investigated the role of NF-κB and C/EBPβ, transcription factors responsible for the induction of iNOS. Activation of NF-κB as well as C/EBPβ by RSV-tat, stimulation of RSV-tat-induced production of NO by the wild type of p65 and C/EBPβ, and inhibition of RSV-tat-induced production of NO by Δp65, a dominant-negative mutant of p65, and ΔC/EBPβ, a dominant-negative mutant of C/EBPβ, suggest that RSV-tat induces iNOS through the activation of NF-κB and C/EBPβ. In addition, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in RSV-tat induced production of NO. Interestingly, PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway, and ΔERK2, a dominant-negative mutant of ERK2, inhibited RSV-tat-induced production of NO

  12. Type-specific neutralization of the human immunodeficiency virus with antibodies to env-encoded synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Palker, T J; Clark, M E; Langlois, A J; Matthews, T J; Weinhold, K J; Randall, R R; Bolognesi, D P; Haynes, B F

    1988-01-01

    A synthetic peptide (SP-10-IIIB) with an amino acid sequence [Cys-Thr-Arg-Pro-Asn-Asn-Asn-Thr-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ile-Arg-Ile-Gln-Arg-Gly-Pro -Pro-Gly-(Tyr); amino acids 303-321] from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolate human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) HTLV-IIIB envelope glycoprotein gp120 was coupled to tetanus toxoid and used to raise goat antibodies to HIV gp120. Goat anti-SP-10-IIIB serum bound to the surface of HTLV-IIIB-infected CEM T cells but not to the surface of HTLV-IIIRF-infected or uninfected CEM T cells. Anti-SP-10-IIIB antibodies also selectively bound to gp120 from lysates of HTLV-IIIB cells in immunoblot assays. Twenty-one percent of sera (28 of 175) from patients seropositive for HIV contained antibodies that reacted with SP-10-IIIB in RIA. Human anti-SP-10-IIIB antibodies affinity purified from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient serum bound to HTLV-IIIB-infected cells and immunoprecipitated gp120. Goat antibodies to SP-10-IIIB neutralized HTLV-IIIB (80% neutralization titer of 1/600), inhibited HTLV-IIIB-induced syncytium formation, but did not neutralize HIV isolates HTLV-IIIRF or HTLV-IIIMN or inhibit syncytium formation with these isolates. Also, goat antiserum to an homologous synthetic peptide [SP-10-IIIRF(A), (Cys)-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ile-Thr-Lys-Gly-Pro-Gly-Arg-Val-Ile-Tyr] from gp120 of HIV isolate HTLV-IIIRF inhibited syncytium formation by HTLV-IIIRF, but did not inhibit syncytium formation by HTLV-IIIB or by HTLV-IIIMN. Thus, the amino acid sequences of SP-10-IIIB and SP-10-IIIRF(A) define homologous regions of gp120 that are important in type-specific virus neutralization. The identification of these type-specific neutralizing epitopes should facilitate the design of a polyvalent, synthetic vaccine for AIDS. Images PMID:2450351

  13. Toxoplasmosis and Toxocariasis: An Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Comorbidity and Health-Care Costs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schurer, Janna M; Rafferty, Ellen; Schwandt, Michael; Zeng, Wu; Farag, Marwa; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are zoonotic parasites with potentially severe long-term consequences for those infected. We estimated incidence and investigated distribution, risk factors, and costs associated with these parasites by examining hospital discharge abstracts submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information (2002-2011). Annual incidence of serious toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis was 0.257 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.254-0.260) and 0.010 (95% CI: 0.007-0.014) cases per 100,000 persons, respectively. Median annual health-care costs per serious case of congenital, adult-acquired, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated toxoplasmosis were $1,971, $763, and $5,744, respectively, with an overall cost of C$1,686,860 annually (2015 Canadian dollars). However, the total economic burden of toxoplasmosis is likely much higher than these direct health-care cost estimates. HIV was reported as a comorbidity in 40% of toxoplasmosis cases and accounted for over half of direct health-care costs associated with clinical toxoplasmosis. A One Health approach, integrating physician and veterinary input, is recommended for increasing public awareness and decreasing the economic burden of these preventable zoonoses. PMID:27139453

  14. Mental health of patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Japan: a comparative analysis of employed and unemployed patients.

    PubMed

    Omiya, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Shimada, Megumi; Ikeda, Kazuko; Ishiuchi-Ishitani, Seiko; Tsuno, Yoko Sumikawa; Ohira, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease. The aims of this study were to clarify the physical, social, and psychological factors affecting Japanese HIV patients in a stable condition and to identify factors related to mental health of employed and unemployed HIV patients. The target subjects were people with HIV infection who were treated as outpatients at core hospitals for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment in Japan. A questionnaire including items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was sent to each medical facility with a request for participation from the HIV-infected outpatients. Responses from 1199 patients were analyzed. Mental health was reportedly better in the employed patients than in the unemployed patients. The unemployed patients were more likely to have resigned from their jobs because of poor health, to have resigned voluntarily, or to have been unfairly dismissed. Once the patients stopped working because of HIV, returning to work became difficult. In the employed patients, a good workplace environment was strongly related to lower scores on HADS. Higher HADS scores were recorded for employed patients infected with HIV for six years or more. For the unemployed patients, a relationship was observed between strong feelings of stigmatization and HADS scores. Quitting a job because of an experience related to HIV status may be related to feelings of stigmatization. PMID:24839867

  15. Chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1/type 2 reverse transcriptases display reversed sensitivity to nonnucleoside analog inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Shih, C K; Rose, J M; Hansen, G L; Wu, J C; Bacolla, A; Griffin, J A

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT), an important therapeutic target in the treatment of AIDS, is effectively inhibited by a class of nonnucleoside analog compounds that includes nevirapine (BI-RG-587) and tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk]-[1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione. We show that both tyrosine residues at positions 181 and 188 flanking the putative catalytic site of HIV-1 RT are required for sensitivity of the enzyme to these compounds. HIV-2 RT, which does not have tyrosines at these positions, is resistant to these nonnucleoside analog inhibitors. Substitution of the HIV-2 RT amino acid residues at position 181 or 188 into HIV-1 RT results in an enzyme that is resistant to these compounds while retaining sensitivity to 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine triphosphate. HIV-2 RT substituted with amino acids 176-190 from HIV-1 RT acquires sensitivity to these nonnucleoside analog inhibitors. Images PMID:1719542

  16. Identification of cis-acting repressive sequences within the negative regulatory element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y C; Touzjian, N; Stenzel, M; Dorfman, T; Sodroski, J G; Haseltine, W A

    1990-01-01

    The negative regulatory element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a 260-nucleotide-long sequence that decreases the rate of RNA transcription initiation specified by the long terminal repeat. This region has the potential to bind several cellular transcription factors. Here it is shown that sequences which recognize the NFAT-1 and USF cellular transcription factors contribute to this negative regulatory effect. The sequences within the negative regulatory element which resemble the AP-1 site and the URS do not negatively regulate human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat transcription initiation. PMID:2398545

  17. Alternating versus continuous drug regimens in combination chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mazzulli, T; Rusconi, S; Merrill, D P; D'Aquila, R T; Moonis, M; Chou, T C; Hirsch, M S

    1994-01-01

    We compared the in vitro efficacies of two-, three-, and four-drug combinations given continuously or in alternating regimens against a clinical isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In H9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, at the drug concentrations used in this study, there was greater suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection as the number of drugs in the regimen was increased from one to four simultaneously administered agents. Although alternating drug regimens were effective, they were not better than continuous administration of either single drugs or combinations of agents and were less effective than giving all drugs of an alternating regimen simultaneously. PMID:8031028

  18. Human papillomavirus detection in women with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection leads to a decreasing immune response, thereby facilitating the appearance of other infections, one of the most important ones being HPV. However, studies are needed for determining associations between immunodeficiency caused by HIV and/or the presence of HPV during the course of cervical lesions and their degree of malignancy. This study describes the cytological findings revealed by the Papanicolaou test, laboratory characteristics and HPV molecular profile in women with and without HIV infection. Methods A total of 216 HIV-positive and 1,159 HIV-negative women were invited to participate in the study; PCR was used for the molecular detection of HPV in cervical samples. Statistical analysis (such as percentages, Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test when applicable) determined human papillomavirus (HPV) infection frequency (single and multiple) and the distribution of six types of high-risk-HPV in women with and without HIV infection. Likewise, a logistic regression model was run to evaluate the relationship between HIV-HPV infection and different risk factors. Results An association was found between the frequency of HPV infection and infection involving 2 or more HPV types (also known as multiple HPV infection) in HIV-positive women (69.0% and 54.2%, respectively); such frequency was greater than that found in HIV-negative women (44.3% and 22.7%, respectively). Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups (p = 0.001) regarding HPV presence (both in infection and multiple HPV infection). HPV-16 was the most prevalent type in the population being studied (p = 0.001); other viral types had variable distribution in both groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative). HPV detection was associated with <500 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.004) and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001). HPV-DNA detection, <200 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.001), and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001) were associated with

  19. Productive Infection of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for Vector Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James; Power, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 101.3 to 102.1 50% tissue culture infective doses/106 cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy. PMID:9971834

  20. Allergen-induced migration of human cells in allergic severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

    PubMed

    Duez, C; Akoum, H; Marquillies, P; Cesbron, J Y; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J

    1998-02-01

    Recently, we have shown that severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, intraperitoneally reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt)-sensitive patients, produced human IgE and developed a pulmonary inflammatory-type reaction after exposure to allergen aerosol. In order to understand the potential mechanisms involved in the human cell migration in SCID mice, we analysed their phenotypic profile in the lungs, spleen and thymus, 2 months after Dpt inhalation. The human cell recruitment in these organs was found to be allergen-dependent as CD45+ human cells were only detected in hu-SCID mice after Dpt exposure. The composition of the pulmonary human T-cell infiltrate, preferentially memory (CD45RO), activated (human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR) and CD4+ cells, was similar to that described in asthmatic patients. However, CD20+ B cells were predominately recruited in the spleen and thymus and may be IgE-producing cells in the spleen. In the lungs, the percentage of human leucocytes expressing the alpha-chain of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (CD11a) was higher than those of CD49d+ or CD54+ cells, in contrast to the spleen and thymus, suggesting a potential role of LFA-1 in the human cell migration towards SCID mice lung. In conclusion, this model could be useful in the study of factors implicated in the cellular migration towards the lymphoid organs during an allergic reaction. PMID:9496684

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis Treated with Antimonials/Paromomycin followed by Itraconazole/Miltefosine after Standard Therapy Failures in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Barragán, Patricia; López-Velez, Rogelio; Olmo, Montserrat; Podzamczer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an opportunistic infection that affects human immunodeficiency virus–infected persons in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. The standard treatment may not be effective and relapses are common. We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-1–infected patient who had several relapses of visceral leishmaniasis after treatment with standard therapies and responded to a combined therapy. PMID:20595469

  2. Quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected and human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus co-infected individuals in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri, Sarah; Delavar, Ali; Jabbari, Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) of people infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study design was a cross sectional descriptive survey, using self administered questionnaires. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 242 patients (131 of them HIV/HCV), Iranian adults (aged 18–57) living with HIV/AIDS, was recruited from outpatient referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital behavioral counseling center in Tehran city, Iran. The instruments included the Multidimensional QOL HIV (MQoL HIV) and a demographic section. Results: The majority of the samples were male and single. The mean age was 36.52 years (standard deviation = 8.5). HIV mono infected patients reported higher scores in social support and physical functioning, but lower scores in physical health compared with HIV/HCV co infected individuals. There was no significant difference in overall MQOL HIV score between HIV and HIV/HCV patients. Conclusion: Future studies will need to explore the impact of HCV on HIV infected individuals' QOL.

  3. Sophorolipids, Microbial Glycolipids with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sperm-Immobilizing Activities

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Seyoum, Theodoros; Eaton, Kristin M.; Zalenskaya, Irina; Hagver, Rena; Azim, Abul; Gross, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS disease in women aged 15 to 49 years has identified the urgent need for a female-controlled, efficacious, and safe vaginal topical microbicide. To meet this challenge, sophorolipid (SL) produced by Candida bombicola and its structural analogs have been studied in this report for their spermicidal, anti-HIV, and cytotoxic activities. The sophorolipid diacetate ethyl ester derivative is the most potent spermicidal and virucidal agent of the series of SLs studied. Its virucidal activity against HIV and sperm-immobilizing activity against human semen are similar to those of nonoxynol-9. However, it also induced enough vaginal cell toxicity to raise concerns about its applicability for long-term microbicidal contraception. Its structure-activity relationship has been established for creating new analogs with less cytotoxicity and higher activity. PMID:16189085

  4. Thrombotic microangiopathy and human immunodeficiency virus in the era of eculizumab

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Anna; Boroujerdi-Rad, Laleh; Shah, Gaurang; Chen, Joline L.T.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) include thrombotic thromobocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Among these conditions, atypical HUS is now recognized to be a disease of alternative complement pathway dysregulation. Eculizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the complement protein C5 and prevents the cleavage of C5 to C5a and C5b. Eculizumab has been used as a novel treatment for complement-mediated TMA. We present a case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed TMA and was successfully treated with eculizumab. The effect of long-term treatment with this new medication is unknown, and further studies are needed to establish guidelines in the management of this condition. PMID:27478600

  5. Passive immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J M; Colman, N; Ostrow, N A; Simson, R W; Tomesch, D; Marlin, L; Rao, M; Mills, J L; Clemens, J; Prince, A M

    1993-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of passive immunotherapy for advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of human anti-HIV hyperimmune plasma was conducted. Sixty-three subjects with stage IV HIV disease (AIDS) were randomized to received 250 mL of either HIV-immune plasma or HIV antibody-negative plasma every 4 weeks. Although nonsignificant trends toward improved survival and delayed occurrence of a new opportunistic infection were noted, no significant effects on absolute CD4 lymphocyte counts or quantitative HIV viremia were seen. The only notable toxicity was the allergenicity to be expected from infusing plasma products, usually manifesting as urticaria. Thus, results do not rule out the potential usefulness of passive immunization with different preparations, but did fail to demonstrate clinical benefit of the product studied. PMID:8101550

  6. Thrombotic microangiopathy and human immunodeficiency virus in the era of eculizumab.

    PubMed

    Jin, Anna; Boroujerdi-Rad, Laleh; Shah, Gaurang; Chen, Joline L T

    2016-08-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) include thrombotic thromobocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Among these conditions, atypical HUS is now recognized to be a disease of alternative complement pathway dysregulation. Eculizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the complement protein C5 and prevents the cleavage of C5 to C5a and C5b. Eculizumab has been used as a novel treatment for complement-mediated TMA. We present a case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed TMA and was successfully treated with eculizumab. The effect of long-term treatment with this new medication is unknown, and further studies are needed to establish guidelines in the management of this condition. PMID:27478600

  7. Infection of human fetal dorsal root ganglion glial cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves an entry mechanism independent of the CD4 T4A epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Kunsch, C; Hartle, H T; Wigdahl, B

    1989-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been implicated in the generation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated neurological dysfunction, and it is believed that the presence of CD4 in the nervous system may be involved in the susceptibility of selected neural cell populations to HIV-1 infection. We previously demonstrated (B. Wigdahl, R. A. Guyton, and P. S. Sarin, Virology 159:440-445, 1987) that glial cells derived from human fetal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection and subsequently express at least a fraction of the virus genome. In contrast to HIV-1 infection of CD4+ lymphocytes, which can be blocked by treatment with monoclonal antibodies directed against the HIV-1-binding region of CD4 (T4A epitope), treatment of human fetal DRG glial cells with similar antibodies resulted in only a slight reduction in HIV-1-specific gag antigen expression. In addition, preincubation of the HIV-1 inoculum prior to infection with HIV-1-neutralizing antiserum did not reduce HIV-1 gag antigen expression in these cells. Furthermore, we were unable to detect the synthesis or accumulation of the CD4 molecule in neural cell populations derived from DRG. However, a protected CD4-specific RNA fragment was detected in RNA isolated from human fetal DRG and spinal cord tissue by an RNase protection assay with a CD4-specific antisense RNA probe. RNA blot hybridization analysis of total cellular RNA isolated from human fetal DRG and spinal cord demonstrated specific hybridization to an RNA species that comigrated with the mature 3.0-kilobase CD4 mRNA as well as two unique CD4 RNA species with relative molecular sizes of approximately 5.3 and 6.7 kilobases. Furthermore, all three CD4-related RNA species were polyadenylated when isolated from human fetal spinal cord tissue. These data suggest that HIV-1 infection of human fetal DRG glial cells may proceed via a mechanism of viral entry independent of the T4A epitope of CD4. Images PMID:2479771

  8. In Vitro Characterization of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Chimera Expressing HIV Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase To Study Antiviral Resistance in Pigtail Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Zandrea; Boltz, Valerie; Palmer, Sarah; Coffin, John M.; Hughes, Stephen H.; KewalRamani, Vineet N.

    2004-01-01

    Antiviral resistance is a significant obstacle in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Because nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) specifically target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and do not effectively inhibit simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RT, the development of animal models to study the evolution of antiviral resistance has been problematic. To facilitate in vivo studies of NNRTI resistance, we examined whether a SIV that causes immunopathogenesis in pigtail macaques could be made sensitive to NNRTIs. Two simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) were derived from the genetic background of SIVmne: SIV-RT-YY contains RT substitutions intended to confer NNRTI susceptibility (V181Y and L188Y), and RT-SHIVmne contains the entire HIV-1 RT coding region. Both mutant viruses grew to high titers in vitro but had reduced fitness relative to wild-type SIVmne. Although the HIV-1 RT was properly processed into p66 and p51 subunits in RT-SHIVmne particles, the RT-SHIVmne virions had lower levels of RT per viral genomic RNA than HIV-1. Correspondingly, there was decreased RT activity in RT-SHIVmne and SIV-RT-YY particles. HIV-1 and RT-SHIVmne were similarly susceptible to the NNRTIs efavirenz, nevirapine, and UC781. However, SIV-RT-YY was less sensitive to NNRTIs than HIV-1 or RT-SHIVmne. Classical NNRTI resis tance mutations were selected in RT-SHIVmne after in vitro drug treatment and were monitored in a sensitive allele-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Collectively, these results indicate that RT-SHIVmne may be a useful model in macaques for the preclinical evaluation of NNRTIs and for studies of the development of drug resistance in vivo. PMID:15564466

  9. In Vivo Replication Capacity Rather Than In Vitro Macrophage Tropism Predicts Efficiency of Vaginal Transmission of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus or Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher J.; Marthas, Marta; Greenier, Jennifer; Lu, Ding; Dailey, Peter J.; Lu, Yichen

    1998-01-01

    We used the rhesus macaque model of heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission to test the hypothesis that in vitro measures of macrophage tropism predict the ability of a primate lentivirus to initiate a systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation. A single atraumatic intravaginal inoculation with a T-cell-tropic molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVmac239, or a dualtropic recombinant molecular clone of SIV, SIVmac239/1A11/239, or uncloned dualtropic SIVmac251 or uncloned dualtropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6-PD produced systemic infection in all rhesus macaques tested. However, vaginal inoculation with a dualtropic molecular clone of SIV, SIVmac1A11, resulted in transient viremia in one of two rhesus macaques. It has previously been shown that 12 intravaginal inoculations with SIVmac1A11 resulted in infection of one of five rhesus macaques (M. L. Marthas, C. J. Miller, S. Sutjipto, J. Higgins, J. Torten, B. L. Lohman, R. E. Unger, H. Kiyono, J. R. McGhee, P. A. Marx, and N. C. Pedersen, J. Med. Primatol. 21:99–107, 1992). In addition, SHIV HXBc2, which replicates in monkey macrophages, does not infect rhesus macaques following multiple vaginal inoculations, while T-cell-tropic SHIV 89.6 does (Y. Lu, P. B. Brosio, M. Lafaile, J. Li, R. G. Collman, J. Sodroski, and C. J. Miller, J. Virol. 70:3045–3050, 1996). These results demonstrate that in vitro measures of macrophage tropism do not predict if a SIV or SHIV will produce systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques. However, we did find that the level to which these viruses replicate in vivo after intravenous inoculation predicts the outcome of intravaginal inoculation with each virus. PMID:9525652

  10. Mouse strain and conditioning regimen determine survival and function of human leucocytes in immunodeficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Tournoy, K G; Depraetere, S; Pauwels, R A; Leroux-Roels, G G

    2000-01-01

    The innate immune system of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice represents an important barrier to the successful engraftment of human cells. Different genetic and pharmacological strategies improve the graft survival. Non-obese diabetic (NOD)-SCID mice are better hosts for reconstitution with human peripheral blood leucocytes (Hu-PBL) because of their reduced natural killer cell and macrophage activity next to defective T and B cell functions. We investigated effects of TM-β1, a rat monoclonal antibody recognizing the mouse IL-2 receptor β-chain, on Hu-PBL survival and function in NOD-SCID and SCID mice. Relative to untreated littermates, TM-β1 improved Hu-PBL survival in SCID and NOD-SCID mice. Moreover, TM-β1-pretreated NOD-SCID mice displayed significantly better Hu-PBL survival and tissue distribution than TM-β1-pretreated SCID mice. Irradiation of NOD-SCID mice further enhanced the effects of TM-β1. However, these animals died within 3 weeks post-grafting due to graft-versus-host disease. Secondary immune responses were evaluated with Hu-PBL from a donor immune to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). In TM-β1-pretreated NOD-SCID mice, human HBsAg-specific memory B cells produced high titres of anti-HBsAg immunoglobulin irrespective of the administration of a secondary antigen booster dose. This contrasts with secondary immune responses in TM-β1-pretreated SCID mice where high titred antigen-specific immunoglobulins were produced when the appropriate antigen booster was given. In conclusion, reducing the function of the innate immune system in immunodeficient mice improves survival of the human graft and can result in an activation of the memory B cells without the need for recall antigen exposure. PMID:10606988

  11. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while anti-retroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CONCLUSIONS A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  12. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef gene sequences present in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Shugars, D C; Smith, M S; Glueck, D H; Nantermet, P V; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, F; Swanstrom, R

    1993-01-01

    The nef genes of the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) encode a protein (Nef) whose role in virus replication and cytopathicity remains uncertain. As an attempt to elucidate the function of nef, we characterized the nucleotide and corresponding protein sequences of naturally occurring nef genes obtained from several HIV-1-infected individuals. A consensus Nef sequence was derived and used to identify several features that were highly conserved among the Nef sequences. These features included a nearly invariant myristylation signal, regions of sequence polymorphism and variable duplication, a region with an acidic charge, a (Pxx)4 repeat sequence, and a potential protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Clustering of premature stop codons at position 124 was noted in 6 of the 54 Nef sequences. Further analysis revealed four stretches of residues that were highly conserved not only among the patient-derived HIV-1 Nef sequences, but also among the Nef sequences of HIV-2 and the SIVs, suggesting that Nef proteins expressed by these retroviruses are functionally equivalent. The "Nef-defining" sequences were used to evaluate the sequence alignments of known proteins reported to share sequence similarity with Nef sequences and to conduct additional computer-based searches for similar protein sequences. A gene encoding the consensus Nef sequence was also generated. This gene encodes a full-length Nef protein that should be a valuable tool in further studies of Nef function. Images PMID:8043040

  13. Antiviral properties of palinavir, a potent inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarre, D; Croteau, G; Wardrop, E; Bourgon, L; Thibeault, D; Clouette, C; Vaillancourt, M; Cohen, E; Pargellis, C; Yoakim, C; Anderson, P C

    1997-01-01

    Palinavir is a potent inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) proteases. Replication of laboratory strains (HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus) and HIV-1 clinical isolates is inhibited by palinavir with 50% effective concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 30 nM. The average cytotoxic concentration of palinavir (35 microM) in the various target cells indicates a favorable therapeutic index. Potent antiviral activity is retained with increased doses of virus and with clinical isolates resistant to zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), or nevirapine. Combinations of palinavir with either AZT, ddI, or nevirapine demonstrate synergy or additivity in the inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Palinavir retains anti-HIV-1 activity when administered postinfection until times subsequent to the reverse transcription step. In chronically infected CR-10 cells, palinavir blocks Gag precursor polyprotein processing completely, reducing greater than 99% of infectious particle production. The results indicate that the antiviral activity of palinavir is specific to inhibition of the viral protease and occurs at a late stage in the replicative cycle of HIV-1. On the basis of the potent in vitro activity, low-level cytotoxicity, and other data, palinavir was selected for in-depth preclinical evaluation. PMID:9145853

  14. Comparison of Talaromyces marneffei Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative Patients from Fujian, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Ru; Cai, Shao-Xi; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Yu, Mei-E; Xu, Neng-Luan; Xie, Bao-Song; Lin, Ming; Hu, Xin-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (TM) is an emerging dimorphic human pathogenic fungus that is endemic to Southeast Asia. TM mostly occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with TM infections who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative and to assess therapies and outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with disseminated TM infection from September 2005 to April 2014 at Fujian Provincial Hospital, China. Results: Patients with TM infection tend to present with fever, weight loss, and anemia. The time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was greater for HIV-negative patients (n = 7; median: 60 days, range: 14–365 days) than for HIV-positive patients (n = 19; median: 30 days, range: 3–90 days, Mann–Whitney U = 31.50, P = 0.041). HIV-negative patients were more likely to have dyspnea (57.1% vs. 5.3%, χ2 = 8.86, P = 0.010), low neutrophil count (Mann–Whitney U = 27.00, P = 0.029), high CD4 count (Mann–Whitney U = 0.00, P = 0.009), and high lymphocyte count (Mann–Whitney U = 21.00, P = 0.009). There were no significant differences in other demographic, clinical, or biochemical characteristics. Among all the patients, 12 HIV-positive patient and 1 HIV-negative patient received amphotericin and fluconazole treatment, 9 of whom improved, 1 died, 2 had kidney damage, 1 had hypokalemia due to exceeded doses. Conclusions: HIV-negative patients with TM infections tend to have a longer diagnostic interval, a higher percentage of dyspnea, higher levels of CD4 and lymphocytes, and lower neutrophil counts than TM infection in HIV-positive patients. Treatment programs with amphotericin and fluconazole are mostly effective. PMID:27098791

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin. cap alpha. /sub 1/ and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, P.H.; Naylor, C.W.; Badamchian, M.; Wada, S.; Goldstein, A.L.; Wang, S.S.; Sun, D.K.; Thornton, A.H.; Sarin, P.S.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ (which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus) effectively neutralized the AIDs virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells. Using HPLC and immunoblot analysis, they have identified from a clone B, type III human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-IIIB) extracts a protein with a molecular weight of 17,000 that is immunoreactive with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was found in retroviral extracts from a number of nonhuman species including feline, bovine, simian, gibbon, and murine retroviruses. Heterologous antiserum prepared against a 30-amino acid synthetic peptide analogue (HGP-30) does not cross-react with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ but does react specifically with the p17 protein of the AIDS virus in a manner identical to that seen with an HTLV-IIIB p17-specific monoclonal antibody. The demonstration that this synthetic analogue is immunogenic and that antibodies to HGP-30 cross-react not only with synthetic peptide but also with the HTLV-IIIB p17 viral protein provides an additional, and potentially more specific, candidate for development of a synthetic peptide vaccine for AIDS. In addition, the p17 synthetic peptide (HGP-3) may prove to be useful in a diagnostic assay for the detection of AIDS virus infection in seronegative individuals.

  16. Activation pathways and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication are not altered in CD4+ T cells expressing the nef protein.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, O; Arenzana-Seisdedos, F; Heard, J M; Danos, O

    1992-05-01

    While recent studies in Rhesus monkeys have pointed out the importance of an intact nef gene for the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), no biological function has been so far unambiguously attributed to its product. Since Nef has been described to possess GTP-binding properties and to down-regulate CD4 cell surface expression, we looked for evidences of Nef interfering with the transduction of activating signals in human CD4+ T cells. We used a murine leukemia retroviral vector to express the HIV-1BRU nef gene in two permanent tumoral T-cell lines (CEM and Jurkat) and in two nonimmortalized, interleukin-2 (IL2)-dependent, T-cell clones. The single copy recombinant provirus integrated in the genome of these cells directed the synthesis of a 27-kD protein with a half-life greater than 5 h. The levels of expression of cell surface molecules involved in T-cell functions (CD4, CD3, CD28, CD29, IL-2 receptor) were not modified in cell populations expressing Nef. In immunocompetent T-cell clones, cell proliferation and lymphokine production in response to activating stimuli (IL-2, alloantigens, phorbol esters, or antibodies directed against CD2, CD3, CD4, CD28) remained unmodified. Moreover, the presence of Nef did not change the kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:1355346

  17. Use of Murine CXCR-4 as a Second Receptor by Some T-Cell-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Cristina; Borsetti, Alessandra; Choe, Hyeryun; Farzan, Michael; Kolchinsky, Peter; Heesen, Michael; Ma, Qing; Gerard, Craig; Palú, Giorgio; Dorf, Martin E.; Springer, Timothy; Sodroski, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    The human CXCR-4 molecule serves as a second receptor for primary, T-cell-tropic, and laboratory-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. Here we show that murine CXCR-4 can support the entry of some of these HIV-1 isolates. Differences between mouse and human CXCR-4 in the ability to function as an HIV-1 receptor are determined by sequences in the second extracellular loop of the CXCR-4 protein. PMID:9445072

  18. Identification of Light-independent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection through Bioguided Fractionation of Hypericum perforatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not. Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (...

  19. Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…

  20. Construction and Use of a Replication-Competent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) that Expresses the Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwilliger, E. F.; Godin, B.; Sodroski, J. G.; Haseltine, W. A.

    1989-05-01

    The construction and properties of an infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that expresses the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase are described. This virus can be used in vitro to screen for drugs that inhibit HIV infection. The marked virus may also be used to trace the routes of infection from the site of inoculation in animal experiments.

  1. A One-Session Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk-Reduction Intervention in Adolescents with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurstone, Christian; Riggs, Paula D.; Klein, Constance; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore change in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among teens in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: From December 2002 to August 2004, 50 adolescents (13-19 years) with major depressive disorder, conduct disorder, and one or more non-nicotine SUD completed the Teen Health Survey (THS) at the…

  2. Human immunoglobulin production in immunodeficient mice: enhancement by immunosuppression of host and in vitro activation of human mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cavacini, L A; Kennel, M; Lally, E V; Posner, M R; Quinn, A

    1992-01-01

    The affect of host and donor related factors on successful engraftment of human cells into mice was examined to minimize the variability that has been observed in successful development of human-mouse chimera for the study of human disease and immune physiology and regulation. Human immunoglobulin production in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was augmented by immunosuppressing recipient mice and activating donor PBMC. Immunosuppression of recipient mice with 3 Gy of gamma-irradiation induced a 10-fold increase in human IgG in the sera of engrafted SCID mice. Variation in production of human IgG in recipient mice correlated with preinjection phenotype and activation status of injected PBMC. Mice injected with PBMC with a low CD4/CD8 ratio (less than 0.5) produced no detectable circulating human immunoglobulin. When the CD4/CD8 ratio was greater than 1.5, human IgG was detected in sera of PBMC-recipient SCID mice. Serum IgG increased 10-fold following in vitro activation of donor PBMC with anti-CD3, IL-2 and Staphylococcus aureus. Successful engraftment and serum IgG production was evidenced by an increase in the recovery of activated human IgG+ cells in the spleens of mice with maximal IgG production. Optimization of functional engraftment required modification of both the host (SCID mice) and the donor cells. PMID:1395094

  3. Cofactor requirement for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into a CD4-expressing human cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, R D; Geballe, A P

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) receptor CD4 on many nonhuman and some human cell lines is not sufficient to permit HIV-1 infection. We describe a human glioblastoma cell line (U373-MG) which remains resistant to HIV-1 despite the added expression of an authentic CD4 molecule. The block to HIV-1 infection of these cells is strain independent and appears to be at viral entry. Heterokaryons of CD4-expressing U373-MG (U373-CD4) cells fused to HeLa cells allow HIV-1 entry. A U373-CD4/HeLa hybrid clone allows efficient HIV-1 replication. These results suggest that HeLa cells express a factor(s) that can complement the viral entry defect of U373-CD4 cells and is necessary for efficient CD4-mediated HIV-1 infection. Images PMID:7690415

  4. Involvement of human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in human immunodeficiency virus infection of CD4-positive cells.

    PubMed Central

    Benkirane, M; Blanc-Zouaoui, D; Hirn, M; Devaux, C

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the putative roles of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated and cell surface-expressed major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules in the course of the HIV life cycle by the combined use of MHC-I molecule-positive and MHC-I molecule-negative virus particles and MHC-I molecule-positive and MHC-I molecule-negative CD4+ human cells. We found (i) that several anti-MHC-I monoclonal antibodies neutralize cell infection by direct interaction with HIV-associated MHC-I antigens, (ii) that these HIV-associated MHC-I antigens are however dispensable for cell infection, and (iii) that the cell surface-expressed MHC-I molecules are unnecessary for productive infection of CD4+ human cells. These results clarify further the functions of MHC-I molecules during the HIV life cycle. PMID:7916059

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C co-infection in sub-Saharan West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mboto, C I; Davies, A; Fielder, M; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is becoming a major global problem, leading to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Co-existence in sub-Saharan West Africa of a high prevalence of HIV and HCV, which share similar behavioural risk factors and modes of transmission, must be seen in the broader context of an emerging third epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection, as many factors that may affect the spread of HIV and HCV co-infection are endemic in the continent, including host factors such as sexual behaviour, presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, female and male circumcision status, percutaneous and perinatal exposure, and poverty. This review examines the epidemiology, risk factors and transmission of HIV and HCV co-infection and draws attention to the possible emergence of an epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection in the region. PMID:16613141

  6. Bispecific Antibodies that Mediate Killing of Cells Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus of Any Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Jorg; Lotscher, Erika; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Capon, Daniel J.; Baenziger, Jurg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1991-06-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro.

  7. Iron supplementation during human immunodeficiency virus infection: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Semba, R D

    2001-10-01

    Although iron supplementation is considered beneficial for groups at risk for anemia, concern has been raised that it could be harmful during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies suggest: (1) faster HIV disease progression in thalassemia major patients receiving inadequate doses of iron-chelating drug; (2) higher mortality among patients receiving iron supplementation with dapsone compared with aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis against Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia; (3) higher iron stores and mortality among patients with haptoglobin Hp 2-2 phenotype; and (4) shorter survival among patients with high bone marrow iron deposition. These studies largely involved men in developed countries. Among HIV-infected pregnant women in Africa with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, no relationship was found between indicators of iron status and HIV disease severity. The available data do not contraindicate the current practice of iron supplementation in developing countries where there is a high prevalence of both HIV infection and iron deficiency. PMID:11601873

  8. A Hairpin Ribozyme Inhibits Expression of Diverse Strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mang; Ojwang, Joshua; Yamada, Osamu; Hampel, Arnold; Rapapport, Jay; Looney, David; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1993-07-01

    Ribozymes have enormous potential as antiviral agents. We have previously reported that a hairpin ribozyme expressed under the control of the β-actin promoter that cleaves human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the leader sequence can inhibit HIV-1 (pHXB2gpt) expression. For such a ribozyme in a retroviral vector delivery system to be useful in gene therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, it must be able to inhibit the expression of multiple HIV-1 strains. We have now cloned this ribozyme into various regular expression vectors (including retroviral vectors) by using various gene expression control strategies. Here we show by transient transfection that inhibition of expression of diverse strains of HIV-1 can be achieved by this ribozyme expressed in the proper vectors. These data further support the potential of this hairpin ribozyme as a therapeutic agent for HIV-1.

  9. Single-photon emission computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Masdeu, J.C.; Yudd, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Grundman, M.; Hriso, E.; O'Connell, R.A.; Luck, D.; Camli, U.; King, L.N. )

    1991-08-01

    Depression or psychosis in a previously asymptomatic individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be psychogenic, related to brain involvement by the HIV or both. Although prognosis and treatment differ depending on etiology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually unrevealing in early HIV encephalopathy and therefore cannot differentiate it from psychogenic conditions. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) with HIV encephalopathy had single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings that differed from the findings in 15 patients with non-HIV psychoses and 6 controls. SPECT showed multifocal cortical and subcortical areas of hypoperfusion. In 4 cases, cognitive improvement after 6-8 weeks of zidovudine (AZT) therapy was reflected in amelioration of SPECT findings. CT remained unchanged. SPECT may be a useful technique for the evaluation of HIV encephalopathy.

  10. Innate and Adaptive Factors Regulating Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genomic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Wigdahl, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, antiretroviral therapy targeting the viral entry process, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease, has prolonged the lives of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, despite the development of more effective therapeutic strategies, reservoirs of viral infection remain. This review discusses molecular mechanisms surrounding the development of latency from the site of integration to pre- and post-integration maintenance of latency, including epigenetic factors. In addition, an overview of innate and adaptive cells important to HIV-1 infection are examined from the viewpoint of cytokines released and cytokines that act on these cells to explore an overall understanding of HIV-1 proviral genome activation. Finally, this review is discussed from the viewpoint of how an understanding of the interplay of all of these factors will help guide the next generation of therapies. PMID:20387125

  11. Rifampin Reduces Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Serum in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, Esteban; Pou, Leonor; Fernandez-Sola, Antoni; Campos, Francisco; Lopez, Rosa M.; Ocaña, Imma; Ruiz, Isabel; Pahissa, Albert

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether rifampin reduces concentrations of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in serum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, levels of these agents were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography before and after more than 12 days of standard antituberculosis treatment for 10 patients who had been taking one double-strength tablet of co-trimoxazole once daily for more than 1 month. Statistically significant, 47 and 23% decreases in TMP and SMX mean areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24), respectively, were observed after administration of rifampin. N-Acetyl-SMX profiles without and with rifampin were similar. The steady-state AUC0–24 metabolite/parent drug ratio increased by 32% with rifampin administration. Our study shows that rifampin reduces profiles of TMP and SMX in serum of HIV-infected patients. PMID:11600390

  12. Mycobacterium avium Complex Osteomyelitis in Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brian R.; Buitrago, Martha O.; Patel, Sugat; Hachey, David H.; Haneuse, Sebastien; Harrington, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In persons with advanced immunosuppression, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) typically causes disseminated disease with systemic symptoms. We report 2 cases in which MAC caused localized osteomyelitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy with rising CD4 counts. We summarize 17 additional cases of HIV-associated MAC osteomyelitis from the literature and compare CD4 count at presentation for vertebral cases versus nonvertebral cases, which reveals a significantly higher CD4 at presentation for vertebral cases (median 251 cells/µL vs 50 cells/µL; P = .043; Mann–Whitney U test). The literature review demonstrates that the majority of cases of MAC osteomyelitis, especially vertebral, occurs in individuals with CD4 counts that have increased to above 100 cells/µL on antiretroviral therapy. Among HIV-infected individuals with osteomyelitis, MAC should be considered a possible etiology, particularly in the setting of immune reconstitution. PMID:26180837

  13. CD4+ T Cell Depletion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Role of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Février, Michèle; Dorgham, Karim; Rebollo, Angelita

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is principally a mucosal disease and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the major site of HIV replication. Loss of CD4+ T cells and systemic immune hyperactivation are the hallmarks of HIV infection. The end of acute infection is associated with the emergence of specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and the establishment of a chronic phase of infection. Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite a low steady state level of viremia. Although the causes of persistent immune hyperactivation remain incompletely characterized, physiological alterations of gastrointestinal tract probably play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) might impair the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier. This review discusses recent advances on understanding the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:21994747

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Melia, Michael T.; Silhan, Leann L.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) results from a hypersensitivity response to airways colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus, and it occurs most often in individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an indolent, but potentially progressive, disease in patients. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ABPA is rare, and its description in the literature is limited to case reports. We describe the occurrence of ABPA in a 37-year-old woman with well controlled HIV infection. This represents the first documented case of ABPA in an HIV-infected patient whose only pulmonary comorbidity included the ramifications of prior acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We also review prior case reports of ABPA in HIV-infected patients and consider risk factors for its development. PMID:27419184

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a child presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tullu, Milind S; Patil, Dhananjay P; Muranjan, Mamta N; Kher, Archana S; Lahiri, Keya R

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an extremely rare occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe an 8-year-old male child who presented with weakness of both lower limbs for 10 days and focal convulsions for 2 days. The child had left, upper motor neuron facial palsy, lower limb hypotonia, and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies for HIV tested positive and the CD4 count was 109 cells/µL. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, brain) revealed extensive confluent hyperintensities (on T2-weighted images) in left parietal, right temporal, and right occipital regions of the white matter, and similar signals were seen in right lentiform nucleus and right posterior thalami, suggesting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. There was transient improvement with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient succumbed to the illness. Perinatally transmitted pediatric HIV infection presenting with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has not yet been reported in the medical literature. PMID:20656677

  16. Antiretroviral regimen and suboptimal medication adherence are associated with low-level human immunodeficiency virus viremia.

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulos, Christina; Ribaudo, Heather; Ragland, Kathleen; Bangsberg, David R; Li, Jonathan Z

    2015-01-01

    Episodes of human immunodeficiency virus low-level viremia (LLV) are common in the clinical setting, but its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen and adherence remains unclear. Antiretroviral therapy adherence was evaluated in participants of the Research on Access to Care in the Homeless cohort by unannounced pill counts. Factors associated with increased risk of LLV include treatment with a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen (ritonavir-boosted PI vs nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor: adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; P = .01) and lower ART adherence over the past 3 months (HR, 1.1 per 5% decreased adherence, adjusted; P = .050). Patients with LLV may benefit from ART adherence counseling and potentially regimen modification. PMID:25884007

  17. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted. PMID:26560977

  18. Associations among depression, suicidal behavior, and quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991

  19. Alternative nucleophilic substrates for the endonuclease activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase

    SciTech Connect

    Ealy, Julie B.; Sudol, Malgorzata; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Katzman, Michael

    2012-11-10

    Retroviral integrase can use water or some small alcohols as the attacking nucleophile to nick DNA. To characterize the range of compounds that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase can accommodate for its endonuclease activities, we tested 45 potential electron donors (having varied size and number or spacing of nucleophilic groups) as substrates during site-specific nicking at viral DNA ends and during nonspecific nicking reactions. We found that integrase used 22 of the 45 compounds to nick DNA, but not all active compounds were used for both activities. In particular, 13 compounds were used for site-specific and nonspecific nicking, 5 only for site-specific nicking, and 4 only for nonspecific nicking; 23 other compounds were not used for either activity. Thus, integrase can accommodate a large number of nucleophilic substrates but has selective requirements for its different activities, underscoring its dynamic properties and providing new information for modeling and understanding integrase.

  20. Absence of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in "natural" eccrine sweat.

    PubMed

    Wormser, G P; Bittker, S; Forseter, G; Hewlett, I K; Argani, I; Joshi, B; Epstein, J S; Bucher, D

    1992-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been found in numerous body fluids, there are no reports of attempts to demonstrate this virus in eccrine sweat, a fluid frequently encountered during person-to-person interactions. "Natural" eccrine sweat samples and blood from 50 HIV-1-seropositive patients and 2 HIV-1-seronegative controls were cultured for HIV-1 by a cocultivation method. Polymerase chain reaction for HIV-1 RNA and proviral DNA was done on 40 sweat samples (39 patients, 1 control). HIV-1 was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 (78%) of 50 patients but from none of 52 sweat samples. No HIV-1 viral DNA or RNA was detected in the 40 sweat samples tested. With present methodology, infectious HIV-1 cannot be demonstrated in "natural" eccrine sweat samples from HIV-infected patients. PMID:1345794

  1. Properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase recombination upon infection.

    PubMed

    Sakuragi, Sayuri; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sakuragi, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcription (RT) is one of the hallmark features of retroviruses. During RT, virus encoded reverse transcriptase (RTase) must transfer from one end to the other end of the viral genome on two separate occasions to complete RT and move on to the production of proviral DNA. In addition, multiple strand-transfer events between homologous regions of the dimerized viral genome by RTase are also observed, and such recombination events serve as one of the driving forces behind human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome sequence diversity. Although retroviral recombination is widely considered to be important, several features of its mechanism are still unclear. We constructed an HIV-1 vector system to examine the target sequences required for virus recombination, and elucidated other necessary prerequisites to harbor recombination, such as the length, homology and the stability of neighbouring structures around the target sequences. PMID:26282329

  2. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Patient

    PubMed Central

    Regeti, Kalyani; Khan, Rafay; Jehangir, Waqas; Zafar, Shoaib; Yousif, Abdalla; Sen, Shuvendu

    2016-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a relatively common disease of adulthood characterized by a typical combination of clinical and radiological findings. In this report, we discuss a 54-year-old female presenting with symptoms suggestive of NPH and found to have a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. She was not treated as she was in denial state and developed NPH as a possible complication. In the literature, there has only been one reported case of HIV type 2 causing NPH; however, no relationship has been properly documented with HIV type 1. These findings bring about a question on whether NPH is associated or a complication of HIV with awareness of this association. Earlier screening of HIV can be done in patients presenting with such symptoms, thus to prevent further progression of its complications. PMID:27222676

  3. Retinal blood flow indices in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yung, C W; Harris, A; Massicotte, S; Chioran, G; Krombach, G; Danis, R; Wolf, S

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow dynamics are believed to contribute to the development of retinal microvascular disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) was used, combined with fluorescein angiography, to measure retinal blood flow indices in HIV seropositive patients. METHODS: Arteriovenous passage time (AVP) and perifoveal capillary blood flow velocity (CFV) were measured in 23 HIV infected patients and 23 control subjects with SLO fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: No significant difference in AVP was found between the two groups. However, CFV was significantly reduced in HIV infected patients (p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Patients infected with HIV show abnormal haemodynamics at the level of the perifoveal capillaries. PMID:8949717

  4. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Patient.

    PubMed

    Regeti, Kalyani; Khan, Rafay; Jehangir, Waqas; Zafar, Shoaib; Yousif, Abdalla; Sen, Shuvendu

    2016-06-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a relatively common disease of adulthood characterized by a typical combination of clinical and radiological findings. In this report, we discuss a 54-year-old female presenting with symptoms suggestive of NPH and found to have a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. She was not treated as she was in denial state and developed NPH as a possible complication. In the literature, there has only been one reported case of HIV type 2 causing NPH; however, no relationship has been properly documented with HIV type 1. These findings bring about a question on whether NPH is associated or a complication of HIV with awareness of this association. Earlier screening of HIV can be done in patients presenting with such symptoms, thus to prevent further progression of its complications. PMID:27222676

  5. Antibodies to CD4 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, M; Ardman, B; Basiripour, L; Lu, Y C; Blohm, D; Haseltine, W; Sodroski, J

    1989-01-01

    The attachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to target cells is mediated by a specific interaction between the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and the CD4 receptor. Here we report that approximately 10% of HIV-1-infected individuals produce antibodies that recognize the extracellular portion of the CD4 molecule. Carboxyl-terminal deletions of CD4 that do not affect HIV-1 gp120 binding eliminate recognition of CD4 by patient antisera. In contrast, mutations in the amino-terminal domain of CD4 that attenuate HIV-1 gp120 binding do not diminish CD4 recognition by patient antisera. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection can generate antibodies directed against a region of the viral receptor distinct from the virus-binding domain. Images PMID:2541442

  6. Vaginal transmission of chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Brosio, P; Lafaile, M; Li, J; Collman, R G; Sodroski, J; Miller, C J

    1996-01-01

    Chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that express the env genes derived from distinct HIV type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for the ability to infect rhesus macaques following intravaginal inoculation. SHIVs containing either the HIV-1 HXBc2 or the HIV-1 89.6 envelope glycoproteins were capable of replicating in intravenously inoculated rhesus macaques. However, intravaginal inoculation of animals with these two SHIVs resulted in infection only with the SHIV containing the HIV-1 89.6 glycoprotein. Thus, properties conferred by the envelope glycoproteins in the chimeric virus affect the ability of particular SHIVs to initiate a systemic infection following vaginal inoculation. These results provide indirect support for the hypothesis that the selection of specific viral variants occurs in the genital tracts of individuals exposed to HIV by sexual contact. PMID:8627782

  7. Isolated and bilateral simultaneous facial palsy disclosing early human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sathirapanya, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral lower motor neuron type facial palsy is an unusual neurological disorder. There are few reports that associate it with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on initial presentation. A 51-year-old married woman, who was previously healthy and had no risk of HIV infection, presented solely with bilateral simultaneous facial palsy. A positive HIV serology test was confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Following a short course of oral prednisolone, the patient recovered completely from facial palsy in three months, even though an antiretroviral treatment was suspended. Exclusion of HIV infection in patients with bilateral facial palsy is essential for early diagnosis and management of HIV. PMID:26106247

  8. ADAR2 editing enzyme is a novel human immunodeficiency virus-1 proviral factor.

    PubMed

    Doria, Margherita; Tomaselli, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Michienzi, Alessandro; Gallo, Angela

    2011-05-01

    The adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes catalyse conversion of adenosine to inosine in dsRNA. A positive effect of ADAR1 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication has recently been reported. Here, we show that another ADAR enzyme, ADAR2, positively affects the replication process of HIV-1. We found that, analogously to ADAR1, ADAR2 enhances the release of progeny virions by an editing-dependent mechanism. However, differently from the ADAR1 enzyme, ADAR2 does not increase the infectious potential of the virus. Importantly, downregulation of ADAR2 in Jurkat cells significantly impairs viral replication. Therefore, ADAR2 shares some but not all proviral functions of ADAR1. These results suggest a novel role of ADAR2 as a viral regulator. PMID:21289159

  9. Evaluation of the disinfectant effect of Solprogel against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Hernández, A; Belda, F J; Domínguez, J; Matas, L; Gimenez, M; Caraballo, M; Ramil, C; Ausina, V

    1996-11-01

    The antiviral activities of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and a commercial product (Solprogel 2%) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were investigated using a quantitative suspension test method. Solprogel is a compound that contains NaDCC and a biodegradable polymer of acrylic acid. Viral suspensions were prepared containing 3.2 x 10(6) tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) in culture media. Syncytium formation in the MT-2 line and HIV antigen p24 on the supernatant of the cultures were used to determine viral titre. Results indicate that satisfactory disinfection (1000-fold reduction in 5 min) can be achieved using NaDCC and Solprogel at concentrations of 100 and 120 ppm available chlorine, respectively. PMID:8923278

  10. Epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous drug users (IVDU).

    PubMed Central

    D'Aquila, R. T.; Williams, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is epidemic among intravenous drug users (IVDU), particularly in the northeastern United States. IVDU are playing a critical role in the spread of HIV by infecting their heterosexual partners and children, as well as their needle-sharing partners. The epidemiology of HIV infection among IVDU is reviewed here, including a compilation of seroprevalence data. Relevant determinants of the future spread of HIV among IVDU are discussed, including the major risk factors for HIV seropositivity, the modes of HIV transmission, and aspects of the natural history of HIV infection in IVDU. The public health policy implications of these issues include the need for education of adolescents and the general public about the risks of drug injection and heterosexual intercourse with IVDU, as well as motivation of IVDU to stop injecting, never share injection paraphernalia, or, at least, clean needles effectively. PMID:3324506

  11. Current Issues and Considerations Regarding Trichomoniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Shira C.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Smith, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis has long been recognized as one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections. However, it is only in recent years that it has been appreciated that Trichomonas may play a critical role in amplifying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Given the evidence that T. vaginalis likely promotes HIV infection, the apparent high level of Trichomonas infection in the African-American community is cause for concern. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small or modest amount, it translates into a sizable population effect since Trichomonas is so common in this community. Therefore, control of trichomoniasis may represent an important avenue of control for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly among African-Americans. PMID:19136432

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Melia, Michael T; Silhan, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) results from a hypersensitivity response to airways colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus, and it occurs most often in individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an indolent, but potentially progressive, disease in patients. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ABPA is rare, and its description in the literature is limited to case reports. We describe the occurrence of ABPA in a 37-year-old woman with well controlled HIV infection. This represents the first documented case of ABPA in an HIV-infected patient whose only pulmonary comorbidity included the ramifications of prior acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We also review prior case reports of ABPA in HIV-infected patients and consider risk factors for its development. PMID:27419184

  13. Role of the cytoskeleton in cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce-Pratt, R; Malamud, D; Phillips, D M

    1994-01-01

    We previously observed that when human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T lymphocytes are added to epithelial cells, they adhere, polarize, and secrete virions unidirectionally onto the epithelium. Epithelial cells subsequently take up virus and become productively infected. We report here that colchicine treatment of T-lymphocyte suspensions induced lymphocyte polarization, redistribution of F-actin into a pseudopod, and secretion of HIV from the pseudopod. Immobilization of T lymphocytes on negatively charged plastic also caused redistribution of F-actin and unidirectional secretion of HIV onto the plastic. As neither colchicine nor adhesion caused an increase in HIV secretion, they apparently act by focusing secretion to the tip of the pseudopod. We speculate that adhesion-induced polar secretion of HIV, from activated mononuclear cells onto epithelia, is a cytoskeleton-mediated process which may be involved in HIV transmission in vivo. Images PMID:8151760

  14. Nef Does Not Affect the Efficiency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Fusion with Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tobiume, Minoru; Lineberger, Janet E.; Lundquist, Christopher A.; Miller, Michael D.; Aiken, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Nef stimulates viral infectivity by an unknown mechanism. Recent studies have suggested that Nef may act by regulating the efficiency of virus entry into cells. Here we provide evidence to the contrary. Using a quantitative assay of HIV-1 virus-cell fusion, we observed equivalent rates and extents of fusion of wild-type and Nef-defective HIV-1 particles with MT-4 cells and CD4-expressing HeLa cells. In studies using soluble CD4 (sCD4) to inhibit infection, wild-type and Nef-defective HIV-1 escaped the sCD4 block with similar kinetics. We conclude that Nef acts at a postentry step in infection, probably by facilitating intracellular transport of the HIV-1 ribonucleoprotein complex. PMID:12970449

  15. Safety, tolerance, and efficacy of atevirdine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Been-Tiktak, A M; Williams, I; Vrehen, H M; Richens, J; Aldam, D; van Loon, A M; Loveday, C; Boucher, C A; Ward, P; Weller, I V; Borleffs, J C

    1996-01-01

    Atevirdine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study we investigated the effect of atevirdine in asymptomatic antiretroviral naive HIV-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts of between 200 and 750 cells per mm3. Patients were randomized to receive 600 mg of atevirdine (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) three times a day for 12 weeks. There was no statistically significant effect of atevirdine on viral loads (HIV p24 antigen and HIV-1 RNA levels by PCR) or CD4+ cell counts. The data do not support the use of atevirdine as a monotherapy in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. PMID:8913487

  16. Long-term survivor of human immunodeficiency virus-associated plasmablastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Atul; Tilak, T V S V G K; Lodha, Rakesh; Sharma, M C; Dabkara, Deepak

    2013-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL) is a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) having a strong association with immunosuppression, especially, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It generally has a poor prognosis with most patients dying within 2 years from initial presentation, and long-term survivors are very few. We report the case of a 10-years-old child, presenting in 2003 with swelling on the right side of the face and fever of 2 months. Evaluation revealed a mass in the right palatal and upper alveolar region with extensive spread and bone destruction, regional adenopathy, mass lesion in the liver and hepatosplenomegaly without bone marrow involvement. Histopathology was suggestive of the PL and patient tested positive for HIV. He was started on high grade NHL chemotherapy protocol along with highly-active anti-retroviral therapy HAART. He responded well and is in complete remission since 8 years of completion of treatment and is on HAART. PMID:24049295

  17. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted. PMID:26560977

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 envelope glycoproteins oligomerize through conserved sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Center, R J; Kemp, B E; Poumbourios, P

    1997-01-01

    Hetero-oligomerization between human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope glycoprotein (Env) truncation mutants and epitope-tagged gp160 is dependent on the presence of gp41 transmembrane protein (TM) amino acids 552 to 589, a putative amphipathic alpha-helical sequence. HIV-2 Env truncation mutants containing this sequence were also able to form cross-type hetero-oligomers with HIV-1 Env. HIV-2/HIV-1 hetero-oligomerization was, however, more sensitive to disruption by mutagenesis or increased temperature. The conservation of the Env oligomerization function of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 alpha-helical sequences suggests that retroviral TM alpha-helical motifs may have a universal role in oligomerization. PMID:9188654

  19. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia. PMID:24182418

  20. Transcription factor AP-2 regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, N D; Agranoff, A B; Duckett, C S; Nabel, G J

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression is regulated by an enhancer region composed of multiple potential cis-acting regulatory sites. Here, we describe binding sites for the transcription factor AP-2 in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat which modulate HIV enhancer function. One site is embedded within the two previously described kappa B elements, and a second site is detected further downstream. DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments demonstrated that AP-2 binds to the site between the kappa B elements. Interestingly, AP-2 and NF-kappa B bind to this region in a mutually exclusive manner. Mutations which disrupt this AP-2-binding site lower basal levels of transcription but do not affect NF-kappa B-mediated induction by tumor necrosis factor alpha in Jurkat T leukemia cells. Images PMID:8084021