Padelford, Harold E.
The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)
Marcus, Gary F
Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct.
Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein
The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…
Ivey, Gay; Fisher, Douglas
A popular response among high school teachers and leaders facing students reading far below grade level, the authors claim, is to adopt back-to-basics packaged programs that focus on discrete skills with little attention to critical reading and writing. The authors express concern that reliance on such programs keeps older struggling readers from…
Rude, Robert L.
There is mixed evidence regarding the ability of students to retain reading ability over long, non-instructional periods such as the summer recess. In some instances there are significant losses in reading ability, while in other cases the losses fail to reach significance. However, in some cases, such as with basic visual discrimination tasks,…
van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F
Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes.
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
In an examination of the relationship between language skill and reading achievement in adults, measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Moderate correlations were found for language skill and reading achievement, with students reading at or below the fourth grade…
Tyler, Emily Jehanne; Hughes, John Carl; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard Patrick
Many children fail to acquire basic reading skills. The current evidence base for supplementary reading instruction indicates that explicit, systematic and intensive instruction in the early years for children considered to be "at-risk" of reading difficulties can have significant and preventative effects on reading skills. However,…
Conklin, Suzanne; Wilkins, Katherine
This study describes a program for improving student's reading skills. The targeted population consisted of students in a self-contained inclusion fourth grade classroom in a rural community, located in the Midwest. The lack of reading skills had been demonstrated through standardized achievement tests and the Developmental Reading Assessment.…
No. 5295 I i A Componential Approach to Training I Reading Skills Final Report John R. Frederiksen, Phyllis A. Weaver, Beth M. Warren, Helen P...OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A Componential Approach to Training Reading Final Report Skills 10/1/79 through 9/30/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...Contract No. N00014-79-C-5014 to Harvard University. 19. KEY WORDS (Continan roeree oide iI noeeoeryM .Idenfillp b eek numbov) Reading Skills
Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy
We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…
This study investigated whether transfer from L2 to L1 in reading occurs, and if so, which reading sub-skills are transferred into L1 reading. The aim is to identify the role of second language reading skills in L1 reading skills by means of transfer. In addition, the positive effects of the second language transfer to the first language in the…
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This document contains a competency-based workplace literacy curriculum that is intended to develop workers' reading comprehension skills by building on their prior knowledge and integrating job-related reading materials actually used by workers on the job with other academic reading materials and textbooks. Designed to be used in conjunction with…
Davila, Sonia I.
The Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development (WDRS) is primarily an instructional management model in reading, which can be used in both English and bilingual classrooms. The Design, which presents an objective-based, skill-centered approach to reading instruction, conforms to the concept of individually guided education. It is organized in…
Houston, Suzanne M; Lebel, Catherine; Katzir, Tami; Manis, Franklin R; Kan, Eric; Rodriguez, Genevieve G; Sowell, Elizabeth R
Reading is a learned skill that is likely influenced by both brain maturation and experience. Functional imaging studies have identified brain regions important for skilled reading, but the structural brain changes that co-occur with reading acquisition remain largely unknown. We investigated maturational volume changes in brain reading regions and their association with performance on reading measures. Sixteen typically developing children (5-15 years old, eight boys, mean age of sample=10.06 ± 3.29) received two MRI scans (mean interscan interval=2.19 years), and were administered a battery of cognitive measures. Volume changes between time points in five bilateral cortical regions of interest were measured, and assessed for relationships to three measures of reading. Better baseline performances on measures of word reading, fluency, and rapid naming, independent of age and total cortical gray matter volume change, were associated with volume decrease in the left inferior parietal cortex. Better baseline performance on a rapid naming measure was associated with volume decrease in the left inferior frontal region. These results suggest that children who are better readers, and who perhaps read more than less skilled readers, exhibit different development trajectories in brain reading regions. Understanding relationships between reading performance, reading experience, and brain maturation trajectories may help with the development and evaluation of targeted interventions.
Berg, Rober M.
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,'' the social studies inquiry model, reading comprehension skills, and the law-focused education case study methods can be seen as functionally related. (Author)
Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G.; Blaye, Agnès
An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842
Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.
The purpose of this study was to examine how executive function skills in verbal and nonverbal auditory tasks are related to early reading skills in beginning readers. Kindergarteners (N = 41, aged 5 years) completed verbal (phonemes) and nonverbal (environmental sounds) Continuous Performance tasks yielding measures of executive function (misses,…
Blosser, Patricia E.
Described is a technique for the development of survival reading activity packets for the science classroom. The reading packets described include labels from different food and medicine products and from magazine and newspaper articles. Three types of questions were used with each packet: factual, interpretive, and application. (DS)
Priya, J.; Ponniah, R. Joseph
The paper claims that free reading is a crucial ingredient in acquiring a second or foreign language. It contributes to the development of all measures of language competence which include grammar, vocabulary, spelling, syntax, fluency and style. The review supports the claim that readers acquire language subconsciously when they receive…
Abdelrasoul, Mohamed Mahmoud Ibrahim
The present study aimed at developing the necessary critical reading skills and social skills of the Egyptian EFL second year preparatory school students, through a proposed program based on using reading circles strategy. The study participants were 44 students from Sohag Experimental Preparatory School in Sohag Governorate. Instruments of the…
Liu, I-Fang; Ko, Hwa-Wei
Perspectives from reading and information fields have identified similar skills belong to two different kind of literacy being online reading abilities and ICT skills. It causes a conflict between two research fields and increase difficult of integrating study results. The purpose of this study was to determine which views are suitable for…
Harrison, S. J.; Grieve, T.
Describes a project that developed software for the production of skills profiles for individual students as an appendix to the curriculum vitae submitted with employment applications. The software is specifically designed for students in modular degree programs in environmental education. (DDR)
Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang
Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning environments, implement educational policies or funding models and specify future fields of research. However, there has been little research into the prevalence and variation of their reading skills. The present study assessed the reading stages of 1629 school-aged students with ID regardless of aetiology (age 6-21) in Bavaria, one of the largest regions in Germany within a randomly chosen and representative sample. Teachers described the reading and writing stages of their students in a questionnaire following the developmental model of Frith. Results indicate that 29.3% do not read at all, 6.8% read at a logographic stage, 31.9% at an alphabetic and 32% at an orthographic level. Writing achievements are lower on average. We analyze and discuss the determinants of literacy in this sample with regard to the sociocultural background of students with ID and draw conclusions for teaching and school policies.
Gonzales, Lisa A.
The purpose of this phenomenological bound case study was to explore the effect of acquiring sight words on reading fluency and comprehension skills for early literacy learners during a summer reading camp at one elementary campus in south Texas. Study findings indicated that through prescribed learning experiences with sight words that included…
Nevo, Einat; Brande, Sigalit; Shaul, Shelley
It has been well established that poor reading skills in the first grades of primary school can lead to poor reading skills in all coming years. A reading acceleration program (RAP) known to improve reading skills in adults and children with and without reading difficulties (RD) was tested for its effect on children in second grade with standard…
Higgs, Karyn; Magliano, Joseph P.; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martínez, Tomas; McNamara, Danielle S.
Some individual difference factors are more strongly correlated with performance on postreading questions when the text is not available than when it is. The present study explores if similar interactions occur with bridging skill, which refers to a reader's propensity to establish connections between explicit text during reading. Undergraduates…
According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…
Higgs, Karyn; Magliano, Joseph P.; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martínez, Tomas; McNamara, Danielle S.
Some individual difference factors are more strongly correlated with performance on postreading questions when the text is not available than when it is. The present study explores if similar interactions occur with bridging skill, which refers to a reader's propensity to establish connections between explicit text during reading. Undergraduates…
The purposes of the study were to determine whether phonic analysis training could be used to prepare children to be successful on the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) of phonic skills and to then relate phonic knowledge to reading performance. Subjects were 40 first graders in suburban Pittsburgh who had attended kindergarten together. A group of 16…
Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…
Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Wandell, Brian A
White matter tissue properties are highly correlated with reading proficiency; we would like to have a model that relates the dynamics of an individual's white matter development to their acquisition of skilled reading. The development of cerebral white matter involves multiple biological processes, and the balance between these processes differs between individuals. Cross-sectional measures of white matter mask the interplay between these processes and their connection to an individual's cognitive development. Hence, we performed a longitudinal study to measure white-matter development (diffusion-weighted imaging) and reading development (behavioral testing) in individual children (age 7-15 y). The pattern of white-matter development differed significantly among children. In the left arcuate and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, children with above-average reading skills initially had low fractional anisotropy (FA) that increased over the 3-y period, whereas children with below-average reading skills had higher initial FA that declined over time. We describe a dual-process model of white matter development comprising biological processes with opposing effects on FA, such as axonal myelination and pruning, to explain the pattern of results.
Lesaux, Nonie K; Crosson, Amy C; Kieffer, Michael J; Pierce, Margaret
English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that L2 oral language skills had a large, significant effect on L2 reading comprehension, whereas students' word-level reading skills, whether in L1 or L2, were not significantly related to English reading comprehension in three of four models fitted. The results converge with findings from studies with monolinguals demonstrating the influence of oral language on reading comprehension outcomes, and extend these findings by showing that, for language minority learners, L2 oral language exerts a stronger influence than word reading in models of L2 reading.
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret
English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that L2 oral language skills had a large, significant effect on L2 reading comprehension, whereas students' word-level reading skills, whether in L1 or L2, were not significantly related to English reading comprehension in three of four models fitted. The results converge with findings from studies with monolinguals demonstrating the influence of oral language on reading comprehension outcomes, and extend these findings by showing that, for language minority learners, L2 oral language exerts a stronger influence than word reading in models of L2 reading. PMID:21243117
Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas
Young children who enjoy reading do it more often and they tend to become skilled at it. Poor readers, by contrast, often display low motivation to read. One possible explanation of this is that reading skill and reading motivation influence each other. 15 studies were reviewed addressing the relationship between young children's reading and…
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret
English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…
Dittman, Cassandra K.
Concurrent associations between teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity and pre-reading skills were examined in 64 pre-schoolers who had not commenced formal reading instruction and 136 school entrants who were in the first weeks of reading instruction. Both samples of children completed measures of pre-reading skills, namely phonological…
Polkinghorne, Frederick W.; Hagler, Barbara; Anderson, Marcia
Background: According to research, adolescent reading skills tend to be poor, and increased pressure from Federal legislation has been placed on educators to improve these skills. Research lacks on business teacher educators' preparation to provide reading skill instruction. Purpose: The research purpose was to better understand the perceptions of…
A teacher used classics of children's literature to teach critical reading skills. Although scoring above the national average on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), the teacher's fourth-grade gifted students exhibited problems with critical reading skills. A literature unit involving whole language strategies and using Beverly Cleary's…
White, Hazel L.
To be successful in nursing courses, students must be able to read and comprehend a large volume of information. This requires different types of reading and study skills from other courses to which they have been exposed. The formal teaching of these skills in a nursing course takes second place to the teaching of required nursing skills. Because…
Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G; Wadsworth, Sally J
Individual differences in word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension for 324 children at a mean age of 16 were predicted from their reading-related skills (phoneme awareness, phonological decoding, rapid naming and IQ) at a mean age of 10 years, after controlling the predictors for the autoregressive effects of the correlated reading skills. There were significant and longitudinally stable individual differences for all four reading-related skills that were independent from each of the reading and spelling skills. Yet the only significant longitudinal prediction of reading skills was from IQ at mean age 10 for reading comprehension at mean age 16. The extremely high longitudinal latent-trait stability correlations for individual differences in word recognition (.98) and spelling (.95) left little independent outcome variance that could be predicted by the reading-related skills. We discuss the practical and theoretical importance of these results and why they differ from studies of younger children.
Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun; Crassas, Maria Elliker; Doyle, Brie
How can we best contribute to our students' reading development and achievement? What are the hallmarks of successful, independent student readers? An examination of reading curricula, reading assessment, and related Federal education policy reveals the ongoing emphasis on the cognitive strategies and skills of reading. The teaching and learning…
Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Westmoreland, Matthew R.; Benjamin, Rebekah George
The purposes of the study were to determine whether third grade children mark linguistic focus features in their reading prosody and whether strong marking of these linguistic focus features might comprise an aspect of expressive reading typical of skilled, fluent reading. Children read a passage targeting information focusing aspects of prosody…
A small change in how teachers and parents read aloud to preschoolers may provide a big boost to their reading skills later on, a new study found. That change involves making specific references to print in books while reading--such as pointing out letters and words on the pages, showing capital letters, and showing how they read from left to…
Kirnan, Jean; Siminerio, Steven; Wong, Zachary
An existing school program in which therapy dogs are integrated into the reading curriculum was analyzed to determine the effect on student reading. Previous literature suggests an improvement in both reading skills and attitudes towards reading when students read in the presence of a therapy dog. Using a mixed method model, the researchers…
Flaherty, Joseph A.; And Others
A three-year study compared entry-level and junior-level clinically oriented reading and writing skills of 231 medical students. Entry-level skills were found to be the best predictors of clinical skills. Inclusion of communication skills training in admission criteria and/or medical curriculum are recommended. (Author/MSE)
Cole, Randy Drue
This study investigated the effects of hypnosis on the learning of reading skills and academic skills. The general hypothesis was that hypnotic suggestions related to the curriculum of a course for improvement of academic and study skills would facilitate students' academic skill learning. Ninety-three male and female students enrolled in a course…
Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.
Introduction Reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual impairment. This study examined the literacy profile of FXS and tested phonological awareness and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms as predictors of literacy. Methods Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental-age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Results Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Conclusion Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919
Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.
There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…
Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…
Stojanovik, Vesna; Riddell, Patricia
Despite ample research into the language skills of children with specific reading disorder no studies so far have investigated whether there may be a difference between expressive and receptive language skills in this population. Yet, neuro-anatomical models would predict that children who have specific reading disorder which is not associated…
Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana
Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers…
Walters, George Lewis
The primary purpose of this study was to provide a partial basis for business education teachers to give relevance and direction to individual student learning by developing and improving student reading and study skills. The professional literature from the past fifteen years that dealt with reading and study skills improvement of students in…
Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.
Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Anne Marie; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Stahl, Steven A.
Prosodic reading, or reading with expression, is considered one of the hallmarks of fluent reading. The major purpose of the study was to learn how reading prosody is related to decoding and reading comprehension skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured in 2nd- and 3rd-grade children (N = 123) and 24 adults. Reading comprehension and word decoding skills were assessed. Children with faster decoding speed made shorter and less variable intersentential pauses, shorter intrasentential pauses, larger sentence-final fundamental frequency (F0) declinations, and better matched the adult prosodic F0 profile. Two structural equation models found evidence of a relationship between decoding speed and reading prosody as well as decoding speed and comprehension. There was only minimal evidence that prosodic reading was an important mediator of reading comprehension skill. PMID:19777077
Prinz, Philip M.; Nelson, Keith E.
Reports research which investigated the effects of microcomputer technology on the acquisition of writing and reading skills in 32 deaf children. The learning mechanism underlying the instructional system used is responsive, interactional and exploratory, reflective of the way most children acquire a first language. (SED)
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana
Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers scored significantly higher on the visual task than did less good readers. In Study 2, we followed 215 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners across 1year, with word reading and visual skills tested twice. In this study, word reading at Time 1 by itself predicted 13% of unique variance in visual skill at Time 2. Together, these results underscore the potential importance of the process of learning to read for shaping one's visual spatial skill development.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.
We examined the associations between components of temperament and children’s word and pseudo-word reading skills, in a school-age sample using a within-family internal-replication design. We estimated the statistical prediction of word and pseudo-word reading in separate regression equations that included the main effects of, and two-way interaction between, Surgency and Effortful Control. Children with better Effortful Control scores showed better reading skills. Surgency was unrelated to reading skills, but moderated the effect of Effortful Control. The positive association between reading skills and Effortful Control was present only for children who were low in Surgency. Thus, reading achievement in school-age children is optimized by strong Effortful Control, but these processes may be disrupted for those children who are high in Surgency. PMID:20526377
Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma
Reading bestows enjoyment and enlightenment. It unlocks the unknown. It is a complex cognitive activity that is indispensable for the kind of knowledge society. So the students of today's world must know how to learn from reading and to enter the present literate society. One who reads can lead others to light. People who read can be free because…
Martin, Wanda; And Others
Designed to help vocational teachers aid students in reading vocational education class materials, this handbook contains six sections of background information and suggested activities geared to various aspects of reading and a section of ideas for use in improving the reading skills of vocational students. While most of the examples in the…
Computer-based reading programs have been used at the City Educational Clinic in Canberra, Australia, to improve the reading skills of children who are "reading disabled." Children interacted with the computer via a graphic display, touch sensitive screen, and synthesized speech. The first program taught a basic sight vocabulary and…
Through a process of refinement and field testing, a working committee of seven states, under the direction of the National Committee of State Directors of Migrant Education Programs, developed a list of reading skills/concepts that are both generic and universal. Each skill is a base, essential concept. Most skills or subskills in any reading…
Gibb, Jennifer, Ed.
Possessing generic or employability skills is vital in the current labour market. The vocational education and training (VET) sector, like other education sectors, must ensure its clients gain and develop generic skills. This volume of readings summarises NCVER managed research into generic skills undertaken in 2001 and 2002. The work covers four…
The aim of this paper is to determine relation between PISA Reading Skills and ICT use skills of Turkish students. In this study are four variables such as joy/like Reading, use of Libraries, Online Reading and Plausible value in reading which are dealt with as indications of reading skills. It constitutes six variables such as attitude towards…
AD-AO9 689 BOLT BERANEK AND NEWMAN INC CAMBRIDGE MA FIG 5/9 COMPONENTIAL THEORY OF READING SKILLS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS.(U) APR 81 J R FREDERIKSEN...A099 689 A Componential Theory of Reading Skills and Their Interactions Final Report DTIC John R. Frederiksen E Q w..’ i ""JUN .3 1981. April 1981...anto R. EPORT MUM....GOTACSN O IIIET9ma A Componential Theory of Reading Skills Final Rep t.A S and Their Interactions, I Jo-,-hn R. Frederiksen /N00014
Eskenazi, Michael A.; Folk, Jocelyn R.
We investigated whether high-skill readers skip more words than low-skill readers as a result of parafoveal processing differences based on reading skill. We manipulated foveal load and word length, two variables that strongly influence word skipping, and measured reading skill using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. We found that reading skill did…
Sesma, Heather Whitney; Mahone, E. Mark; Levine, Terry; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.
Although word recognition deficits (WRD) are a known cause of reading comprehension deficits (RCD), other contributions to RCD, including executive function (EF), have not been fully explored. We examined the contribution of EF (working memory and planning), along with attention, decoding, fluency, and vocabulary to reading comprehension in 60 children (including 16 WRD and 10 RCD), ages 9–15 years. After controlling for commonly accepted contributors to reading comprehension (i.e., attention, decoding skills, fluency, and vocabulary), EF continued to make a significant contribution to reading comprehension but not to word recognition skills. These findings highlight the need for consideration of the role of EF in RCD. PMID:18629674
Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher
The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…
Peterson, Joseph M.; Knight, Diana
A system designed to provide a framework for the individualization of reading instruction is discussed. The heart of the system is a mastery checklist of reading skills for each child which provides teachers with a means for discovering the specific skill needs of their students. Initially, the system depended upon individual assessment exercises…
Van Camp, Debbie; Van Camp, Wesley
Liberal arts students are expected to graduate college with fully developed critical reading and writing skills. However, for a variety of reasons these skills are not always as well developed as they might be--both during and upon completion of college. This paper describes a reading assignment that was designed to increase students'…
Schonlau, Matthias; Martin, Laurie; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rudd, Rima
Limited literacy contributes to suboptimal care and outcomes for patients. The Institute of Medicine noted that future work in health literacy should consider multiple literacy skills. However, lacking empirical evidence of the relationship between different literacy skills, reading skills are often used as proxies of literacy in research and practice. Using a community-based sample of 618 individuals residing in Boston, MA and Providence, RI, we conducted a principal component analysis on measures of four literacy skills: reading, numeracy, oral (speaking) and aural (listening) to examine whether and to what extent literacy can, or should, be represented by a single measure. The first principal component represented overall literacy and could only explain 60% of the total variation in literacy skills within individuals. The second principal component differentiated between numeracy/reading and the oral/aural exchange. While reading and numeracy best represent overall literacy, patients’ relative strengths may vary. Those with moderate reading ability may have high oral and aural language skills. Conversely, people who have difficulties speaking with or understanding a provider may read well. Effective communication with patients should rely on both the oral exchange and written health information, and not rely on a single literacy skill. PMID:21916699
Schonlau, Matthias; Martin, Laurie; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rudd, Rima
Limited literacy contributes to suboptimal care and outcomes for patients. The Institute of Medicine noted that future work in health literacy should consider multiple literacy skills. However, lacking empirical evidence of the relationship between different literacy skills, reading skills are often used as proxies of literacy in research and practice. Using a community-based sample of 618 individuals residing in Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, the authors conducted a principal component analysis on measures of four literacy skills--reading, numeracy, oral (speaking), and aural (listening)--to examine whether and to what extent literacy can, or should, be represented by a single measure. The first principal component represented overall literacy and could only explain 60% of the total variation in literacy skills among individuals. The second principal component differentiated between numeracy/reading and the oral/aural exchange. While reading and numeracy best represent overall literacy, patients' relative strengths may vary. Those with moderate reading ability may have high oral and aural language skills. Conversely, people who have difficulties speaking with or understanding a provider may read well. Effective communication with patients should rely on the oral exchange and written health information, and not rely on a single literacy skill.
FAME is an acronym for a four-course program titled Foundations, Adventures, Mastery, and Explorations. Reading Is FAME is a research-based, developmental reading program for adolescents reading below grade level. The program incorporates a series of four courses designed for students in grades 7-12. The FAME curriculum helps students by…
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
Measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Adults reading at or below fourth-grade level showed significantly less knowledge of syntax than adults at higher levels, even though the language test involved neither reading nor writing. (Author/CT)
This study examined how knowledge of metacognitive strategies and navigation skills mediate the relationship between online reading activities and printed reading assessment (PRA) and electronic reading assessment (ERA) across 19 countries using the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 database. Participants were 34?104…
McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.
This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…
Dogan, Enis; Ogut, Burhan; Kim, Young Yee
The relationship between reading skills in earlier grades and achieving "Proficiency" on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 8 reading assessment was examined by establishing a statistical link between NAEP and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) grade 8 reading assessments using data from a common…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Jakobsons, Lara J.; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Meadows, Jane Granger
This study explored first-, second-, and third-grade reading instruction and students' (n = 1,586) reading skill growth in Florida Reading First (RF) classrooms (n = 95). The goal of RF is to improve students' literacy outcomes through the use of research-based instruction, assessment, teacher training, and program evaluation. Whereas survey data…
Akyol, Hayati; Çakiroglu, Ahmet; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül
The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-baseline levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from…
Hornery, Samantha; Seaton, Marjorie; Tracey, Danielle; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.
This article describes the need for, and the structure and contents of, a reading program to help support children disadvantaged by reading difficulties. The program, delivered by trained and supported volunteers, lasts for 15 weeks. It uses a novel dual approach which aims to improve students' reading skills and simultaneously enhance their…
Cullen, Jennifer M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Schnell, Senny T.; Wheaton, Joe E.
Reading comprehension is a critical skill for school success. Struggling readers can benefit from computer-assisted instruction that utilizes components of effective instruction (e.g., frequent practice, immediate feedback). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Headsprout Comprehension, a computer-assisted reading program, on…
Papatga, Erdal; Ersoy, Ali
The aim of this study was to reveal how reading comprehension skills of elementary fourth graders who have problems in reading comprehension can be improved by means of the SCRATCH program. The study was designed as a participant action research. It was carried out within a 15- week process at an elementary school with middle socio-economic level…
Suggests a way to overcome the difficulty of teaching effective reading skills to students with diverse interests. The approach is based on four specifications: (1) each student studies a text on a topic in his own specialty; (2) reading practice images students' academic contexts; (3) classes are learner centered; and (4) students are evaluated…
Hampton City School Board, VA.
This handbook, designed as part of the Right to Read Program in Hampton, Virginia, focuses on the development of reading skills within the content area classroom. Sections discussing the instructional and organizational strategies are followed by specific units of study. These individual units include learning objectives or concepts, materials,…
Talcott, Joel B; Witton, Caroline; Stein, John F
Emerging evidence of the high variability in the cognitive skills and deficits associated with reading achievement and dysfunction promotes both a more dimensional view of the risk factors involved, and the importance of discriminating between trajectories of impairment. Here we examined reading and component orthographic and phonological skills alongside measures of cognitive ability and auditory and visual sensory processing in a large group of primary school children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. We identified clusters of children with pseudoword or exception word reading scores at the 10th percentile or below relative to their age group, and a group with poor skills on both tasks. Compared to age-matched and reading-level controls, groups of children with more impaired exception word reading were best described by a trajectory of developmental delay, whereas readers with more impaired pseudoword reading or combined deficits corresponded more with a pattern of atypical development. Sensory processing deficits clustered within both of the groups with putative atypical development: auditory discrimination deficits with poor phonological awareness skills; impairments of visual motion processing in readers with broader and more severe patterns of reading and cognitive impairments. Sensory deficits have been variably associated with developmental impairments of literacy and language; these results suggest that such deficits are also likely to cluster in children with particular patterns of reading difficulty.
Junior high school teacher Mary Rice designs a consumer research unit that cultivates students' critical reading and thinking skills. As students learn how to develop and revise criteria for evaluating the reliability of online information, they read customer reviews, research products, and present their findings orally.
McKown, Brigitte A.; Barnett, Cynthia L.
This action research project report documents the action research project that was conducted to improve reading comprehension with second grade and third grade students. The teacher researchers intended to improve reading comprehension by using higher-order thinking skills such as predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring,…
Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Siegel, Linda S.
Although many children with reading difficulty (RD) are reported to struggle with mathematics, little research has empirically investigated whether this is the case for different types of RD. This study examined the mathematics skills of third graders with one of two types of RD: dyslexia (n = 18) or specific reading comprehension difficulty (n =…
This article features FAST-R, or Formative Assessments of Student Thinking in Reading, a new assessment tool that measures critical-reading skills. FAST-R was developed by the the nonprofit Boston Plan for Excellence (BPE), a local education foundation, to provide teachers with information about what students are thinking when they try to find…
This guide outlines a model that adult educators can use to construct a test for their adult students, regardless of subject area, that is written at the students' reading level. The problems that written tests pose for trade and technical students in further education (FE) who have poor reading skills and the drawbacks of using commercially…
Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; Hatano, Giyoo
A study examined whether the reading comprehension of students with rich domain-specific knowledge will be better than that of students without it and whether assessed general skills will be correlated significantly with reading comprehension performance for students without specific knowledge, but negligible for the students with much specific…
Burman, Tiffany N.; Evans, Deborah C.
This report describes an action research project designed to improve reading skills of first grade students. The targeted population consisted of two elementary classrooms located in a small, rural Mid-Western town. The problem of difficulty memorizing reading vocabulary words was documented through parent and student surveys and a document…
Hoogeveen, Frans R.; And Others
Four moderately mentally retarded students, aged 8-13, were instructed in a basic skills reading program which emphasized a phonemic alphabet, pictorial cueing, and stimulus manipulation techniques. The training improved the Dutch students' ability to read one- and two-syllable words, and was generalizable to untrained words of the same…
Mourgues, Catalina; Tan, Mei; Hein, Sascha; Ojanen, Emma; Reich, Jodi; Lyytinen, Heikki; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Associative learning has been identified as one of several non-linguistic processes involved in reading acquisition. However, it has not been established whether it is an independent process that contributes to reading performance on its own or whether it is a process that is embedded in other linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness or phonological memory) and, therefore, contributing to reading performance indirectly. Research has shown that performance on tasks assessing associative learning, e.g., paired-associate learning (PAL) tasks, is lower in children with specific reading difficulties compared to typical readers. We explored the differential associations of two distinct verbal-visual PAL tasks (the Bala Bbala Graphogame, BBG, and a Foreign Language Learning Task, FLLT) with reading skills (word reading and pseudo-word decoding), controlling for phonological awareness, rapid naming, and letter and digit span in children at risk for reading disabilities and their typically developing peers. Our study sample consisted of 110 children living in rural Zambia, ranging in age from 7 to 18 years old (48.1% female). Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to explore the group differences in reading performance. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine children’s learning across the PAL tasks. The differential relationships between both PAL tasks and reading performance were explored via structural equation modeling. The main result was that the children at risk for reading difficulties had lower performance on both PAL tasks. The BBG was a significant predictor for both word reading and pseudo-word decoding, whereas the FLLT—only for word reading. Performance on the FLLT partially mediated the association between phonological awareness and word reading. These results illustrate the partial independence of associative learning from other reading-related skills; the specifics of this relationship vary based on the type of PAL task administered
Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…
This project describes a program designed to improve the music reading abilities of second grade children. The intention is to discover the best possible method of teaching students basic rhythmic and melodic skills. When combined, these skills will not only increase students' understanding of the language of music, but will also increase…
Hulme, Charles; Goetz, Kristina; Brigstocke, Sophie; Nash, Hannah M.; Lervag, Arne; Snowling, Margaret J.
There appears to be a close and probably causal relationship between early variations in phoneme skills and later reading skills in typically developing children, though the pattern in children with Down Syndrome is less clear. We present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 49 children with Down Syndrome (DS) and 61 typically developing…
Many gifted preschoolers are self-taught readers. This was confirmed by more than 200 parents in a 2011 study at Oregon State University focusing on young children's reading experiences. The purpose of the study was to determine how parents of gifted children and gifted students perceived the children's learning-to-read process, their early school…
Fremer, John; Dwyer, Carol A.
State and school district testing activities involving basic reading competency requirements are discussed. The purposes of minimum competency testing in reading include the identification of students who need remedial assistance, and the evaluation of secondary school students regarding graduation requirements. Important considerations regarding…
Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Michigan Educational Assessment Program.
Background information is provided about the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) reading test, a test developed to meet the objectives specified by the State Board of Education in 1986. The revised test measures reading in a more interactive manner than did previous tests. The rationale of the test is presented, the revised reading…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings.
reading tasks. Additionally, the material has likely grown more d i f f i cu l t due to the increasing use of high technology pervading the Navy . Not all...were fa i r ly comparable up to the 8th grade level. For purposes of this report , we derived a general index of reading abi lity by taking the average...Chisom , B. S. Derivation of new readability formulas for Navy enlisted personnel (Automated Readability Index , Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease
Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio
In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.
Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio
In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525
Boerma, Inouk E; Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures. Analyses showed an interaction between mental imagery and book version: children with higher mental imagery skills outperformed children with lower mental imagery skills on story comprehension after reading the experimental narrative. This was not the case for both control conditions. This suggests that children's mental imagery skills significantly contributed to the mental representation of the story that they created, by successfully integrating information from both words and pictures. The results emphasize the importance of mental imagery skills for explaining individual variability in reading development. Implications for educational practice are that we should find effective ways to instruct children how to "read" pictures and how to develop and use their mental imagery skills. This will probably contribute to their mental models and therefore their story comprehension.
Duncan, Lynne G; McGeown, Sarah P; Griffiths, Yvonne M; Stothard, Susan E; Dobai, Anna
This study investigates the concurrent predictors of adolescent reading comprehension (literal, inferential) for fiction and non-fiction texts. Predictors were examined from the cognitive (word identification, reading fluency), psychological (gender), and ecological (print exposure) domains. Print exposure to traditional and digital texts was surveyed using a diary method of reading habits. A cross-sectional sample of 312 students in early (11-13 years) or middle adolescence (14-15 years) participated from a range of SES backgrounds. Word identification emerged as a strong predictor of reading comprehension across adolescence and text genres. Gender effects favouring female students were evident for reading frequency but not for reading skill itself. Reading habits also differed, and comprehension advantages were observed among females for fiction and males for non-fiction. Age effects emerged for reading frequency, which was lower in middle adolescence. Although more time was spent on digital than on traditional texts, traditional extended text reading was the only reading habit to predict inference-making in comprehension and to distinguish skilled from less skilled comprehenders. The theoretical and educational implications of these results are discussed.
Kennedy, Esther J; Flynn, Mark C
Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5.6-8.10 years) participated in this investigation. Due to the paucity of standardised phonological awareness measures for children with special needs, in particular children with Down syndrome, a variety of tasks were adapted from the literature. The assessment battery examined the skills of phonological awareness, literacy, speech production, expressive language, hearing acuity, speech perception, and auditory-visual memory. The results suggest that children with Down syndrome are at risks for reading acquisition difficulties due to reduced phonological awareness skills. These deficits are in addition to delays caused by reduced cognitive skills. Only one of the participants was able to demonstrate rhyme awareness, which may have been due to task effects. Written word recognition ability was correlated with tests of phonemic awareness, and error analysis of the spelling and non-word reading tasks suggested grapheme-phoneme connections deficits. Further research is needed to determine the best methods of assessment and intervention for phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome.
Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk
Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…
Pilotti, Maura; Martinez, Edward; Broderick, Tyler; Caballero, Sharon; LaGrange, Linda
A well-established principle in the literature on learning, which maintains that variability of practice enhances long-term retention, served as the foundation of a summer program intended to ameliorate reading skills in incoming freshmen. During a 4-week period, students received reading instruction in the context of four areas: humanities,…
Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen
It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…
Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah
Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…
Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.
Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…
Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
The beneficial effects of musical training are not limited to enhancement of musical skills, but extend to language skills. Here, we review evidence that musical training can enhance reading ability. First, we discuss five subskills underlying reading acquisition-phonological awareness, speech-in-noise perception, rhythm perception, auditory working memory, and the ability to learn sound patterns-and show that each is linked to music experience. We link these five subskills through a unifying biological framework, positing that they share a reliance on auditory neural synchrony. After laying this theoretical groundwork for why musical training might be expected to enhance reading skills, we review the results of longitudinal studies providing evidence for a role for musical training in enhancing language abilities. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that musical training can provide an effective developmental educational strategy for all children, including those with language learning impairments.
Holloway, John H.
A 1996 study attributed adolescent remedial readers' low comprehension to poor motivation, lack of experience, and egocentricity. Secondary teachers can help by connecting reading assignments to real-world learning experiences, providing self-directed activities, and inviting collaborative learning and varied self-expression. A San Diego program…
Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Marsiglia, Cheryl S.; Johns, Amanda K.; Bryan, Keli S.
The compensatory-encoding model (CEM) postulates that readers whose decoding of words or verbal working memory capacities is inefficient can compensate so that literal comprehension of text is not deleteriously affected. However, the use of compensations may draw cognitive resources away from higher level reading activities such as comprehension…
Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.
This article presents a five-step sequence for teaching children with disabilities to read pictures. Steps are sequenced for content and complexity of picture, student response requirement, and language demands. They include: (1) identify person, (2) identify object, (3) identify person and object, (4) identify action, and (5) identify sequence.…
Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.
Rogowsky, Beth A.; Papamichalis, Pericles; Villa, Laura; Heim, Sabine; Tallal, Paula
This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language), who demonstrated poor writing skills, participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks) with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L) and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3–5). The comparison group (n = 28) selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training. PMID:23533100
Rogowsky, Beth A; Papamichalis, Pericles; Villa, Laura; Heim, Sabine; Tallal, Paula
This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students' reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students' foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language), who demonstrated poor writing skills, participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks) with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L) and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3-5). The comparison group (n = 28) selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.
Wills, Jeremiah B.; Atkinson, Maxine P.
The American Institutes for Research (2006) recently reported that 20% of U.S. students graduating from four-year colleges and universities and 30% of those completing two-year degrees have quantitative literacy skills at only a basic level. Sociologists are currently working on a variety of approaches to incorporate quantitative literacy into…
Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.; Hay, Sarah E.
Purpose: This study examined relationships between 3rd graders' metalinguistic skills (phonological and morphological awareness), reading skills (decoding and word identification), and accurate stress production in derived words with stress-changing suffixes. Method: Seventy-six typically developing 3rd-grade children (M = 8;8[years;months])…
McKenney, Ruth Smith
Analyzed was the performance of 36 third grade children with various reading and articulation skills in blending selected syllables across three modes of presentation. Ss were divided into three groups: one with normal reading and speech skills, one with below grade-level reading skills and normal speech skills, and one with grade-level reading…
Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle
We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures. Analyses showed an interaction between mental imagery and book version: children with higher mental imagery skills outperformed children with lower mental imagery skills on story comprehension after reading the experimental narrative. This was not the case for both control conditions. This suggests that children’s mental imagery skills significantly contributed to the mental representation of the story that they created, by successfully integrating information from both words and pictures. The results emphasize the importance of mental imagery skills for explaining individual variability in reading development. Implications for educational practice are that we should find effective ways to instruct children how to “read” pictures and how to develop and use their mental imagery skills. This will probably contribute to their mental models and therefore their story comprehension. PMID:27822194
McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.
The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…
The oral Red Cloud Reading Test provides a complete analysis of reading level and skills for American Indian students in grades 1-7 or for high school and adult students reading at or below high school levels. The test determines the basic and recreational reading levels, identifies reading problems, determines reading speeds, and analyzes the…
Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon
Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392
Roberts, Garrett J; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W; Vaughn, Sharon
Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes.
Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Stanwick, John, Ed.; Beddie, Francesca, Ed.
This book of readings on innovation was commissioned by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) and looks at the relationship between skills, innovation and industry. In November 2010, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) held a forum in Sydney on the relationship between innovation and…
Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith
This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…
Radebaugh, Muriel Rogie; Kazemek, Francis E.
Describes how current insights into literacy, teaching, and learning as social, collaborative processes can be incorporated into college reading and study skills classes. Suggests several cooperative activities and strategies, including small group discussion, forming permanent study groups, and sharing study habits. (MM)
Brown, Donald R.; Ottinger, D. R.
Four studies with infants and preschool-age children examined various pattern perception tasks considered to be related to the perceptual basis of the development of reading skills. Study 1 used 28 neonates to test the hypothesis that supplemental stimulation (rocking, patting, holding) has measurable effects upon attention to visual patterns.…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range…
Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine
Eighty-five Hong Kong Chinese children were tested across both the 2nd and 3rd years of kindergarten (ages 4-5 years) on tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and word reading. With age, vocabulary knowledge, and metalinguistic skills statistically controlled, the…
Mayer, Connie; Watson, Linda; Archbold, Sue; Ng, Zheng Yen; Mulla, Imran
Thirty-three young people with cochlear implants, aged between 9 and 16 years, were assessed for use of their implant system, cognitive abilities, vocabulary, reading, and writing skills. The group came from throughout England and included 26 born deaf, six deafened by meningitis, one with auditory neuropathy, and five with additional needs.…
Curry, Robert L.; Geis, Lynna
A sample of 175 students, constituting grades 10, 11, and 12 of two high schools, was used in the validation of a new Syllabication Skills Test. On the first day, the students completed four forms of the syllabication test; on the second, they completed Survey F of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. Means and standard deviations were similar for…
Shankman, Albert L.
An optometrist hypothesizes that poor reading skills stem from a child's inability to discern relationships among objects, people, concepts or instructional materials and suggests that physical problem-solving tasks that utilize several sense modalities simultaneously provide effective remedial treatment. (LH)
Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie
The purpose of this research was to assess the development of phonological skills before and during learning to read. Thirty-four children were tested twice, in nursery school and in first grade with an epiphonological task (E), e.g. judgment of similarity, and two metaphonological tasks, one requiring the extraction of common units (M1) and one…
Hansen, Laura Birke; Morales, Julia; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa
The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion…
Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem
The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…
Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.
Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…
Howard, Walter J., III
A program was developed to improve the reading scores and communication skills of ninth-grade students from multicultural backgrounds. The students' socioeconomic status ranges from below the poverty level to upper middle class. The population of the high school in suburban Chicago (Illinois) is multiethnic, the English is not always the primary…
Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S
Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26874939
Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S
Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia.
Hansen, Laura Birke; Morales, Julia; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J; Bajo, M Teresa
The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion bilinguals, 72 controls). Using principal component analysis, a nuanced pattern of results was observed: although emergent bilinguals lag behind their monolingual counterparts on measures of linguistic processing, they showed enhanced performance on a memory and reasoning component. For reading comprehension, no between-group differences were evident, suggesting that selective benefits compensate costs at the level of underlying cognitive components. Overall, the results seem to indicate that literacy skills may be modulated by emerging bilingualism even when no between-group differences are evident at the level of complex skill, and the detection of such differences may depend on the focus and selectivity of the task battery used.
Massaro, Dominic W
I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.
Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet
Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Fast ForWord Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method: A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills…
Tillman, Chester E.
A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…
Research on early linguistic precursors and enabling skills of reading acquisition among young children is reviewed. Language development starts early in infancy when the child learns to categorize the speech sounds according to the pattern typical of the mother tongue. Equipped with these sound categories the child is ready to learn to segment words from the sound stream and to understand and to use words. The precise phonological representation of words will facilitate the important development of phonological awareness, a basic prerequisite for reading acquisition. This paper reviews some of my longitudinal research and training studies indicating the causal direction of the relation between phonological awareness and reading and includes some ongoing studies, where gender differences, socio-economic factors, dose-response-effects and motivational factors are explored. Preventive and remedial implications of the findings are pointed out. Finally, the complexity of the causal relationships between different aspects of early language development, including genetic influences and later reading is pointed out.
Goffman, Lisa; Brentari, Diane
Orthographic experience during the acquisition of novel words may influence production processing in proficient readers. Previous work indicates interactivity among lexical, phonological, and articulatory processing; we hypothesized that experience with orthography can also influence phonological processing. Phonetic accuracy and articulatory stability were measured as adult, proficient readers repeated and read aloud nonwords, presented in auditory or written modalities and with variations in orthographic neighborhood density. Accuracy increased when participants had read the nonwords earlier in the session, but not when they had only heard them. Articulatory stability increased with practice, regardless of whether nonwords were read or heard. Word attack skills, but not reading comprehension, predicted articulatory stability. Findings indicate that kinematic and phonetic accuracy analyses provide insight into how orthography influences implicit language processing. PMID:27057073
Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Brentari, Diane
Orthographic experience during the acquisition of novel words may influence production processing in proficient readers. Previous work indicates interactivity among lexical, phonological, and articulatory processing; we hypothesized that experience with orthography can also influence phonological processing. Phonetic accuracy and articulatory stability were measured as adult, proficient readers repeated and read aloud nonwords, presented in auditory or written modalities and with variations in orthographic neighborhood density. Accuracy increased when participants had read the nonwords earlier in the session, but not when they had only heard them. Articulatory stability increased with practice, regardless of whether nonwords were read or heard. Word attack skills, but not reading comprehension, predicted articulatory stability. Findings indicate that kinematic and phonetic accuracy analyses provide insight into how orthography influences implicit language processing.
Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane R.; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Scarborough, Hollis S.
In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the Simple View of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the Simple View needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy. PMID:20179307
Natural animals are renowned for their ability to acquire a diverse and general skill set over the course of their lifetime. However, research in artificial intelligence has yet to produce agents that acquire all or even most of the available skills in non-trivial environments. One candidate algorithm for encouraging the production of such individuals is Novelty Search, which pressures organisms to exhibit different behaviors from other individuals. However, we hypothesized that Novelty Search would produce sub-populations of specialists, in which each individual possesses a subset of skills, but no one organism acquires all or most of the skills. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called Curiosity Search, which is designed to produce individuals that acquire as many skills as possible during their lifetime. We show that in a multiple-skill maze environment, Curiosity Search does produce individuals that explore their entire domain, while a traditional implementation of Novelty Search produces specialists. However, we reveal that when modified to encourage intra-life behavioral diversity, Novelty Search can produce organisms that explore almost as much of their environment as Curiosity Search, although Curiosity Search retains a significant performance edge. Finally, we show that Curiosity Search is a useful helper objective when combined with Novelty Search, producing individuals that acquire significantly more skills than either algorithm alone. PMID:27589267
Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas; Soodla, Piret
This study examined the effects of children's reading skills and interest in reading-related tasks on teacher perceptions of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) and the respective individualized support for children during the first two years of formal schooling. The participants were 334 children and their classroom teachers.…
Murrah, William M., III
The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.
The main purpose of this study is to define the effect of the juvenile fiction on secondary school students' reading skills. In the study; 6th grade students', reading juvenile fiction, attitudes to reading, reading speed, comprehension ability of what's read are examined. The group of students reading juvenile fiction is compared to the ones not…
Ablinger, Irene; von Heyden, Kerstin; Vorstius, Christian; Halm, Katja; Huber, Walter; Radach, Ralph
Due to their brain damage, aphasic patients with acquired dyslexia often rely to a greater extent on lexical or segmental reading procedures. Thus, therapy intervention is mostly targeted on the more impaired reading strategy. In the present work we introduce a novel therapy approach based on real-time measurement of patients' eye movements as they attempt to read words. More specifically, an eye movement contingent technique of stepwise letter de-masking was used to support sequential reading, whereas fixation-dependent initial masking of non-central letters stimulated a lexical (parallel) reading strategy. Four lexical and four segmental readers with acquired central dyslexia received our intensive reading intervention. All participants showed remarkable improvements as evident in reduced total reading time, a reduced number of fixations per word and improved reading accuracy. Both types of intervention led to item-specific training effects in all subjects. A generalisation to untrained items was only found in segmental readers after the lexical training. Eye movement analyses were also used to compare word processing before and after therapy, indicating that all patients, with one exclusion, maintained their preferred reading strategy. However, in several cases the balance between sequential and lexical processing became less extreme, indicating a more effective individual interplay of both word processing routes.
Griffiths, Gina G.
Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…
Loudermill, Chenell Smith
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between reading comprehension and morphological awareness skills. Researchers have documented a wide range of skills that influence reading comprehension ability at different times to different degrees. One of the skills identified as having an influence on reading comprehension ability…
Loucky, John Paul
This article summarizes software which can help to enhance both local and specific reading skills (often done through what is known as intensive reading) and global or general reading skills (known as extensive reading). Although the use of computerized bilingual dictionaries (CBDs) and translation websites of various types does not appear to…
Calhoon, Mary Beth
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a peer-mediated instructional approach on the teaching of phonological skills and reading comprehension for middle school (sixth- to eighth-grade) students with reading disabilities. All students (n = 38) were identified as having learning disabilities and reading at the third-grade level or below. One group was taught using a peer-mediated phonological skill program, Linguistics Skills Training (LST), and a peer-mediated reading comprehension program, Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS). The contrast group was taught in the more traditional whole-class format using a widely implemented remedial reading program. The results showed significant differences between conditions, with students receiving the LST/PALS instruction outperforming the contrast group on Letter-Word Identification, Word Attack, and Passage Comprehension using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement-III. Furthermore, large effect sizes for growth were found on Letter-Word Identification, Word Attack, and Passage Comprehension for the LST/PALS treatment group. No differences were found between conditions for reading fluency. Findings are discussed in regard to instruction delivery format (peer tutoring vs. whole class) with respect to best practices for middle school students with reading disabilities.
Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami
The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…
Leyva, Diana; Hopson, Sarah; Nichols, Ashley
Are children's understanding of mental states (understanding of mind) related to their notating skills, that is, their ability to produce and read written marks to convey information about objects and number? Fifty-three preschoolers and kindergarteners were presented with a dictation task where they produced some written marks and were later…
Research consistently indicates the importance of phonological processing in early reading development, yet the role of phonology in skilled reading is still not well understood. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments investigated the nature and time course of phonological processing during skilled visual word recognition using a masked priming paradigm. Phonological syllable priming was examined by presenting prime-target pairs either with the same first syllable, or with one letter more or fewer. In this visually matched design, items like po## -PONY and pon### -PONDER appeared in the congruent condition. Conversely, pon# -PONY and po#### -PONDER appeared in the incongruent condition. In both experiments, the magnitude of the first negative peak (N1) was reduced in the phonologically congruent condition as compared to the incongruent condition. This syllable congruency effect is the first neurophysiological evidence for phonological syllable activation in the initial moments of visual word recognition. The early time course of this activation indicates that suprasegmental phonological processing is fundamental to skilled reading.
Watter, Kerrin; Copley, Anna; Finch, Emma
Purpose Reading comprehension can change following acquired brain injury (ABI), impacting independence and participation. This review aims to identify and evaluate the interventions used for rehabilitation of discourse level reading in adults with ABI. Methods A systematic review was conducted of published journal articles. Methodological quality of studies was reviewed using formal and informal rating scales. Inclusion criteria involved adults with non-progressive ABI who experienced discourse level reading deficits related to aphasia or cognitive-communication disorders. Results A total of 23 studies were identified; these included randomized controlled trials, cohort and case studies. Six different types of reading interventions were found, overall results of these interventions were mixed. Reading deficits were reportedly related to language (aphasia) and/or cognitive deficits, with assessment processes varying. Questions arose regarding comparability of assessment methods and diagnostic issues across the studies. Conclusions Interventions for discourse level reading comprehension can make positive changes to reading function. However, no intervention was identified as a gold standard. A trend toward strategy-based reading was found, with these offering a potential for (comparatively) cost-effective lower-dosage reading treatments with positive-trend results. Cognitive and language features should be considered for assessment and intervention planning for discourse reading in ABI. Implications for Rehabilitation Six different types of discourse reading comprehension interventions for people with ABI were identified, with mixed evidence for each intervention. Clinicians need to consider both the linguistic and cognitive features of reading for assessment and intervention planning for discourse level reading. There is a research trend toward strategy-based reading interventions, which use a lower treatment dosage.
Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen
This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…
La Marca, Marilyn Tierney
A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…
Tobin, Kevin G.
This study is a follow-up on a previous study of the effects of 2 beginning reading programs implemented in 1st grade. In the previous study, 40 1st-grade students who were matched based on their Concepts About Print Test (Clay, 1979) and Phonological Segmentation Fluency from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Good…
Yeo, Lay See; Ong, Winston W.; Ng, Charis M.
Research Findings: This study explored the association between the home literacy environment (HLE), conceptualized as comprising parents' reading beliefs and home literacy practices, and preschoolers' reading skills and reading interest. It also identified factors in the HLE that predict emerging reading competence and motivation to read. A total…
Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia
Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study
Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C
Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.
Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina
Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.
Mellard, Daryl F; Woods, Kari L; Md Desa, Z Deana; Vuyk, M Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in the research literature to identify a smaller set of generally uncorrelated constructs. The four underlying factors of the 18 measures explained 62.7% of the variance. We labeled these factors Encode/Decode (44.5%), Vocabulary (9.5%), Processing Speed (5.2%), and Working Memory (3.5%). Regression analysis demonstrated Working Memory, Encode/Decode, and Vocabulary collectively predicted 45.9% functional reading as measured by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System. Alternatively, when measured by the Test of Adult Basic Education, Vocabulary and Encode/Decode predicted 47.1% of variance in reading. Differences in predictive utility of the factors by fluency group suggest approaches to tailoring instruction for each group. Future research might examine the optimal mix of instructional approaches that support the identified factors.
The present study investigates the effects of syllable awareness on the word-reading process of students reading in a highly transparent orthography (Turkish). The participants were 90 second graders belonging to one of two distinct levels of syllable-awareness skills (50 with poor syllable-awareness skills and 40 with proficient…
Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne
This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences.
Omori, Mikimasa; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi
Japanese students with developmental disabilities often exhibit difficulties in reading, particularly in Kanji (ideogram) reading, and in acquiring the equivalence relations between pictures, written words, and sounds. Previous research suggested that one student with autism could acquire Kanji reading along with equivalence relations through…
Christopher, Micaela E; Keenan, Janice M; Hulslander, Jacqueline; DeFries, John C; Miyake, Akira; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce; Olson, Richard K
Although previous research has shown cognitive skills to be important predictors of reading ability in children, the respective roles for genetic and environmental influences on these relations is an open question. The present study explored the genetic and environmental etiologies underlying the relations between selected executive functions and cognitive abilities (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) with 3 components of reading ability (word reading, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension). Twin pairs drawn from the Colorado Front Range (n = 676; 224 monozygotic pairs; 452 dizygotic pairs) between the ages of 8 and 16 (M = 11.11) were assessed on multiple measures of each cognitive and reading-related skill. Each cognitive and reading-related skill was modeled as a latent variable, and behavioral genetic analyses estimated the portions of phenotypic variance on each latent variable due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. The covariance between the cognitive skills and reading-related skills was driven primarily by genetic influences. The cognitive skills also shared large amounts of genetic variance, as did the reading-related skills. The common cognitive genetic variance was highly correlated with the common reading genetic variance, suggesting that genetic influences involved in general cognitive processing are also important for reading ability. Skill-specific genetic variance in working memory and processing speed also predicted components of reading ability. Taken together, the present study supports a genetic association between children's cognitive ability and reading ability.
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2008
This newsletter focuses on the importance of reading and writing skills in all educational and career pathways. It includes a variety of strategies for integrating reading and writing skills across the curriculum--in academic, career/technical and fine arts courses--in ways that improve student achievement in reading and writing and in the content…
Morgan, Paul L; Meier, Catherine R
Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be "doubly disadvantaged." Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic Reading is a scientifically-validated shared storybook reading intervention that is known to boost at risk children's oral vocabulary skills. As such, use of Dialogic Reading is one potential way to help children avoid both later reading failure and the negative outcomes associated with poor behavior. In this article, we detail both (a) a research-based rationale for using Dialogic Reading and (b) Dialogic Reading's set of procedures and prompts.
Lopez-Emslie, Julia Rosa
A study to determine the role of oral language and reading skills in the transfer from two years of reading in Spanish to reading in English had as subjects 191 fourth grade students in a bilingual education program. Students were tested and classified as efficient and non-efficient readers. It was found that: (1) there is a relationship between…
Bell, Athene Cooper
A formative design experiment methodology was employed to investigate the acquisition of early reading skills for high school English language learners (ELLs) beginning to read English. A fundamental challenge facing high school ELLs entering schools in the United States for the first time is learning how to read. While there is considerable…
Bouton, Sophie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Serniclaes, Willy; Cole, Pascale
We assessed the reading and reading-related skills (phonemic awareness and phonological short-term memory) of deaf children fitted with cochlear implants (CI), either exposed to cued speech early (before 2 years old) (CS+) or never (CS-). Their performance was compared to that of 2 hearing control groups, 1 matched for reading level (RL), and 1…
Duran, Richard P.
Recent cognitive research concerned with training of word recognition skills and vocabulary skills in English monolinguals has implications for second language learning theory and the teaching of English reading skills to native Spanish speakers. Researchers in reading development, cognitive psychology, and second language proficiency assessment…
Since its opening in the spring of 1972, the General College Reading/Writing Skills Center has provided students with tutorial help in reading and writing, and communication skills courses for credit. During its three years of operation, the Skills Center has extended its services through satellite centers to student populations other than those…
Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…
Many low-skill readers have problems with visual word recognition. In particular, low-skill readers show a substantial nonword reading deficit that is attributed to deficits in sub-lexical processing. In this study, I examined whether the nonword deficits of German 14-year-old low-skill readers were associated with inefficient use of multi-letter…
Nadolski, Rob J.; Kirschner, Paul A.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
Whole tasks for acquiring complex skills are often too difficult for novices. To solve this problem, "process support" divides the problem solving into phases, offers driving questions, and provides feedback. A multimedia program was used to teach sophomore law students ("N"=82) to prepare and carry out a plea. In a randomised 2x2 design with the…
Wylie, Ken; Cummins, Brian
Part-time employment among university students has become commonplace internationally. Research has largely focused on the impact of part-time employment on academic performance. This research takes an original approach in that it poses the question whether students can acquire core skills relevant to teaching from their part-time employment. The…
Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan
This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly less well than the CA controls but similarly to RL controls in most measures. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that word-level reading-related skills like oral vocabulary and word semantics were found to be strong predictors of reading comprehension among typically developing junior graders and dyslexic readers of senior grades, whereas morphosyntax, a text-level skill, was most predictive for typically developing senior graders. It was concluded that discourse and morphosyntax skills are particularly important for reading comprehension in the non-inflectional and topic-prominent Chinese system.
van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Bree, Elise H
This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties.
Ripamonti, E; Aggujaro, S; Molteni, F; Zonca, G; Frustaci, M; Luzzatti, C
In this study we investigated the neural correlates of acquired reading disorders through an anatomo-correlative procedure of the lesions of 59 focal brain damaged patients suffering from acquired surface, phonological, deep, undifferentiated dyslexia and pure alexia. Two reading tasks, one of words and nonwords and one of words with unpredictable stress position, were used for this study. We found that surface dyslexia was predominantly associated with left temporal lesions, while in phonological dyslexia the lesions overlapped in the left insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) and that pure alexia was associated with lesions in the left fusiform gyrus. A number of areas and white matter tracts, which seemed to involve processing along both the lexical and the sublexical routes, were identified for undifferentiated dyslexia. Two cases of deep dyslexia with relatively dissimilar anatomical correlates were studied, one compatible with Coltheart's right-hemisphere hypothesis (1980) whereas the other could be interpreted in the context of Morton and Patterson's (1980), multiply-damaged left-hemisphere hypothesis. In brief, the results of this study are only partially consistent with the current state of the art, and propose new and stimulating challenges; indeed, based on these results we suggest that different types of acquired dyslexia may ensue after different cortical damage, but white matter disconnection may play a crucial role in some cases.
Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve
This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Jarvis, Mary I.; Hale, Yulonda
This course is designed to enhance reading and writing skills. It is tied to an interactive computer program (The New Reading Disc) that provides opportunities for reading, hearing sentences read, and writing letters and memos. Special emphasis is placed on workers' understanding of the importance of their jobs and how they fit into the total…
Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène
Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…
Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk
Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words.
Hamilton, A Cris; Coslett, H Branch
We report two patients with acquired phonological dyslexia who have great difficulty reading affixed words. Experiment 1 demonstrates that both patients' reading performance is influenced by the apparent morphological status of words by comparing the patients' reading of suffixed and pseudo-suffixed words. Experiment 2 was designed to examine reading performance of both regularly and irregularly inflected words. Experiment 3 examines the patients' reading of derivational forms with particular emphasis of the role of 'semantic transparency'. Experiment 4 tested both patients' reading of prefixed words. Finally, Experiment 5 examined performance on a lexical decision task using affixed words. These data support models in which regularly formed inflections and semantically transparent derived forms are subjected to decomposition during processing, whereas irregularly inflected forms and semantically opaque forms may be represented independently. Data are discussed with regard to current 'dual mechanism' models of morphological processing as well as connectionist perspectives, with particular emphasis of the types of data that will ultimately be necessary to arbitrate between the rival theories.
Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Denton, Carolyn A; Vaughn, Aaron J; Peugh, James; Willcutt, Erik G
Linkages between neuropsychological functioning (i.e., response inhibition, processing speed, reaction time variability) and word reading have been documented among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with Reading Disorders. However, associations between neuropsychological functioning and other aspects of reading (i.e., fluency, comprehension) have not been well-documented among children with comorbid ADHD and Reading Disorder. Children with ADHD and poor word reading (i.e., ≤25th percentile) completed a stop signal task (SST) and tests of word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Multivariate multiple regression was conducted predicting the reading skills from SST variables [i.e., mean reaction time (MRT), reaction time standard deviation (SDRT), and stop signal reaction time (SSRT)]. SDRT predicted word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. MRT and SSRT were not associated with any reading skill. After including word reading in models predicting reading fluency and reading comprehension, the effects of SDRT were minimized. Reaction time variability (i.e., SDRT) reflects impairments in information processing and failure to maintain executive control. The pattern of results from this study suggest SDRT exerts its effects on reading fluency and reading comprehension through its effect on word reading (i.e., decoding) and that this relation may be related to observed deficits in higher-level elements of reading.
Binder, Katherine S.; Tighe, Elizabeth; Jiang, Yue; Kaftanski, Katharine; Qi, Cynthia; Ardoin, Scott P.
The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between prosody, which is the expressive quality of reading out loud, and reading comprehension in adults with low literacy skills compared to skilled readers. All participants read a passage orally, and we extracted prosodic measures from the recordings. We examined pitch changes and how long readers paused at various points while reading. Finally, for the adults with low literacy skills, we collected information on decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension. We found several interesting results. First, adults with low literacy skills paused longer than skilled readers and paused at a substantially greater number of punctuation marks. Second, while adults with low literacy skills do mark the end of declarative sentences with a pitch declination similar to skilled readers, their readings of questions lack a change in pitch. Third, decoding and word recognition skills were related to pauses while reading; readers with lower skills made longer and more frequent and inappropriate pauses. Finally, pausing measures explained a significant amount of variance in reading comprehension among the adults with low literacy skills. PMID:23687406
Mother's formal schooling-even at the primary level-is associated with lower risk of child mortality, although the reasons why remain unclear. This study examines whether mother's reading skills help to explain the association in Nigeria. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey, the analysis demonstrates that women's reading skills increase linearly with years of primary school; however, many women with several years of formal school are unable to read at all. The results further show that mother's reading skills help to explain the relationship between mother's formal schooling and child mortality, and that mother's reading skills are highly associated with child mortality. The study highlights the need for more data on literacy and for more research on whether and how mother's reading skills lower child mortality in other contexts.
Xu, M; De Beuckelaer, A; Wang, X; Liu, L; Song, Y; Liu, J
Individuals' reading skills are critical for their educational development, but variation in reading skills is known to be large. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the role of spontaneous brain activity at rest in individual differences in reading skills in a large sample of participants (N=263). Specifically, we correlated individuals' word-reading skill with their fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the whole brain at rest and found that the fALFFs of both the bilateral precentral gyrus (PCG) and superior temporal plane (STP) were positively associated with reading skills. The fALFF-reading association observed in these two regions remained after controlling for general cognitive abilities and in-scanner head motion. A cross-validation confirmed that the individual differences in word-reading skills were reliably correlated with the fALFF values of the bilateral PCG and STP. A follow-up task-based fMRI experiment revealed that the reading-related regions overlapped with regions showing a higher response to sentences than to pseudo-sentences (strings of pseudo-words), suggesting the resting-state brain activity partly captures the characteristics of task-based brain activity. In short, our study provides one of the first pieces of evidence that links spontaneous brain activity to reading behavior and offers an easy-to-access neural marker for evaluating reading skill.
Used as an integral part of the migrant student skills system operated by the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), the reading skills list contains a catalog of reading skills typical of the K-12 grade range. This catalog includes a sample of the MSRTS transmittal record which permits teachers to report the reading skills being worked…
Bekius, Annike; Cope, Thomas E; Grube, Manon
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a "roughly" regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, -0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the "mirror image" task of irregularity detection, i.e., the ability to detect ongoing small deviations from a regular beat. The correlation between RAN and regularity detection remained significant after partialling out performance on the irregularity detection task (rho, -0.41, p, 0.022), non-verbal IQ (rho, -0.37, p < 0.05), or musical expertise (rho, -0.31, p < 0.05). Whilst being consistent with the "shared resources model" in terms of rhythm as a common basis of language and music, evolutionarily as well as in individual development, the results also document how two related rhythm processing abilities relate differently to language skill. Specifically, the results support a universal relationship between rhythmic regularity detection and reading skill that is robust to accounting for differences in fluid intelligence and musical expertise, and transcends language-specific differences in speech rhythm.
Bekius, Annike; Cope, Thomas E.; Grube, Manon
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a “roughly” regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, −0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the “mirror image” task of irregularity detection, i.e., the ability to detect ongoing small deviations from a regular beat. The correlation between RAN and regularity detection remained significant after partialling out performance on the irregularity detection task (rho, −0.41, p, 0.022), non-verbal IQ (rho, −0.37, p < 0.05), or musical expertise (rho, −0.31, p < 0.05). Whilst being consistent with the “shared resources model” in terms of rhythm as a common basis of language and music, evolutionarily as well as in individual development, the results also document how two related rhythm processing abilities relate differently to language skill. Specifically, the results support a universal relationship between rhythmic regularity detection and reading skill that is robust to accounting for differences in fluid intelligence and musical expertise, and transcends language-specific differences in speech rhythm. PMID:27630551
Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia
Working memory (WM) plays a crucial role in supporting learning, including reading. This study investigated the influence of reading acceleration and WM training programs on improving reading skills and WM abilities. Ninety-seven children in third grade were divided into three study groups and one control group. The three study groups each received a different combination of two training programs: only reading acceleration, WM followed by reading acceleration, and reading acceleration followed by WM. All training programs significantly improved reading skills and WM abilities. Compared with the control group, the group trained with only the reading acceleration program improved word accuracy, whereas the groups trained with a combination of reading and WM programs improved word and pseudo-word fluency. The reading-acceleration-alone group and the WM-program-followed-by-reading-acceleration group improved phonological complex memory. We conclude that a training program that combines a long reading acceleration program and a short WM program is the most effective for improving the abilities most related to scholastic achievement.
Jenkins, Joseph R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine; Deno, Stanley L.
Twenty-four students with reading difficulties (grade 4) and 85 skilled readers completed a reading comprehension test, read aloud a folktale, and read aloud a list of the folktale's words. Skilled readers read three times more correct words per minute in context and showed higher accuracy and rates on all measures. (Contains references.)…
Register, Dena; Darrow, Alice-Ann; Standley, Jayne; Swedberg, Olivia
The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of using music as a remedial strategy to enhance the reading skills of second-grade students and students who have been identified as having a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. First, an intensive short-term music curriculum was designed to target reading comprehension and vocabulary skills at the second grade level. The curriculum was then implemented in classrooms at two public schools in the Southeast. Reading skills were evaluated pre and post curriculum intervention via the vocabulary and reading comprehension subtests of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test for second grade. Analysis of pre/posttest data revealed that students with a specific disability in reading improved significantly from pre to post on all three subtests: word decoding (p = .04), word knowledge (p = .01), reading comprehension (p = .01), and test total (p = .01). Paired t-tests revealed that for 2nd grade students, both treatment and control classes improved significantly from pre to post on the subtests word decoding, word knowledge, and test total. While both classes made gains from pre to post on the subtest, reading comprehension, neither improved significantly. Analysis of Covariance revealed that the treatment class made greater gains pre to post than the control class on all 3 subtests (Including reading comprehension), and significantly greater gains on the subtest, word knowledge (p = .01).
Magi, Katrin; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
A latent profile analysis approach was used to examine the developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills in Grades 1 and 2, as well as their antecedents in kindergarten. The participants in this study were 448 children. Four different developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills were identified. Our…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…
Albdour, Waddah Mahmoud
The study aims at identifying the difficulties affecting the student in the area of reading comprehension skill in English language curricula, measuring the differences in English language teachers' attitudes towards difficulties that seventh grade students face in reading comprehension skill for English language according to personal variables.…
Marcolini, Stefania; Traficante, Daniela; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina
A previous study reported that, similar to young and adult skilled readers, Italian developmental dyslexics read pseudowords made up of a root and a derivational suffix faster and more accurately than simple pseudowords. Unlike skilled readers, only dyslexic and reading-matched younger children benefited from morphological structure in reading…
Stein, Roger D.
Describes a reading-skill-building curriculum that prepares students to handle the reading in the Advanced Placement Spanish Literature course, a course that treats the works of Borges, Garcia Lorca, Matute, Neruda, and Unamuno. Suggests techniques and texts that aid in the teaching of these skills. (SED)
Scales, Alice M.
A reading and study skills course for college students, based on concepts of metacognition and schema, was organized around a management system and an instructional process to ensure that students would make use of their self-knowledge, their learned study reading skills, and their understanding of things, people, language, etc. to make sense from…
Carson, Cynthia J.
The purpose of this study was to examine if there was a difference between mean measures of preliteracy skills of preschool children who participated in Creating Young Readers, a volunteer based reading program, and a control group who had not. Unpaid community volunteers were trained in a modified dialogic reading technique, focusing on…
Sabatini, John P.; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Halderman, Laura K.; Bruce, Kelly
In recent years, researchers, educators, and policy makers have called for a new generation of reading comprehension assessments (e.g., Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008). Advocates of this movement argue for a deeper type of reading assessment, one that captures students' ability to not only understand single texts in isolation but also…
The purpose of this study was to reveal whether the technique of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) in Turkish Language teaching had influence on students' skills in reading and writing. In the study, the mixed method, which included quantitative and qualitative dimensions together, was used. The study group was made up of 16…
Huang, Jiuhuan; Newbern, Claudia
This article reports on a study that examines the effects of metacognitive reading strategy instruction on reading performance of adult ESL learners with limited English and literacy skills. The strategy instruction was implemented over a period of four months with a group of 18 learners who were enrolled in a high beginning literacy course in an…
Feldman, Jean R.
Designed to be useful for teachers, students, and parents, this resource book contains skill-appropriate, easy-to-follow activities for emergent readers. Noting that helping children become successful readers by developing reading readiness skills and a love for literature requires careful planning and instruction, the book states that children…
Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.
This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy-one non-college-bound 16-24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye-movements were monitored.…
Fleming, Dan B.; Weber, Larry J.
Stresses the importance of critical reading skills for high school students in social studies courses. Suggests that educators develop social studies materials dealing with critical reading and that they undertake research to develop better methods of instruction in critical reading. (DB)
Petrill, Stephen A.; Hart, Sara A.; Harlaar, Nicole; Logan, Jessica; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Thompson, Lee; DeThorne, Laura S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie
Background: Studies have suggested genetic and environmental influences on overall level of early reading whereas the larger reading literature has shown environmental influences on the rate of growth of early reading skills. This study is the first to examine the genetic and environmental influences on both initial level of performance and rate…
Botting, N.; Simkin, Z; Conti-Ramsden, G.
A large cohort of 200 eleven-year-old children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) were assessed on basic reading accuracy and on reading comprehension as well as language tasks. Reading skills were examined descriptively and in relation to early language and literacy factors. Using stepwise regression analyses in which age and nonverbal IQ…
Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.
This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…
Studies on L2 reading have provided extensive evidence for the significant contribution of lower-level processing skills in learning to read and the critical impact on the overall development of L2 reading of more accurate and fluent connections between three sub-lexical components: phonology, orthography and semantics. The broad consensus among…
Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying
This study examined the effects of an early reading intervention on preschool-age dual language learners' (DLL) early literacy skills. Instruction in phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge was embedded in interactive reading strategies, also known as dialogic reading. A single subject multiple baseline across subjects design was applied to…
Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…
Watson, G.; And Others
The Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test was assessed as a measure of reading ability with meaningful text in 38 adults with macular degeneration; scores were compared with assessment made using the Gray Oral Reading Test, a previously standardized assessment. The test's validity was confirmed. (Author/JDD)
Cupples, Linda; Iacono, Teresa
Twenty-two children (ages 6-10) with Down syndrome were tested for receptive language, cognitive function, oral reading, and phonological awareness. Re-assessment 9 months later found better oral reading was associated with superior phoneme segmentation skills. Also, early segmentation ability appeared to predict later nonword reading, but not the…
Boland, Theodoor; Mommers, Martin J. C.
From l979 to l985, data were gathered from approximately 600 students in 24 Dutch elementary schools to determine changes occurring in the interrelationships among the reading skill components of decoding, reading comprehension, and spelling ability. Information for each student was obtained from reading performance test scores recorded at the end…
Shippen, Margaret E.; Morton, Rhonda Collins; Flynt, Samuel W.; Houchins, David E.; Smitherman, Tracy
Despite the importance of literacy skill training for incarcerated youth, a very limited number of empirically based research studies have examined reading instruction in correctional facilities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fast ForWord computer-assisted reading program improved the reading and spelling abilities of…
Karademir, Ersin; Ulucinar, Ufuk
The purpose of this study is to verify the causal relationship between middle school students' critical reading skills, science literacy skills and attitudes towards science literacy with research data according to the default model. Through the structural equation modeling, path analysis has been applied in the study which was designed in…
Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet
Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439
Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno
Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.
Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Luan, Hui; Lo, Lap-yan; Lau, Wendy Suet-yee
The present study examined the role of syntactic skills for reading comprehension in Chinese. Two hundred and seventy-two Chinese children were tested on their phonological processing, orthographic, morphological, syntactic, and literacy skills at Grades 1 and 2. Hierarchical multiple regression results showed that syntactic skills, in terms of…
van Daal, Victor; van der Leij, Aryan; Ader, Herman
The aim of this study was to examine unique and common causes of problems in reading and arithmetic fluency. 13- to 14-year-old students were placed into one of five groups: reading disabled (RD, n = 16), arithmetic disabled (AD, n = 34), reading and arithmetic disabled (RAD, n = 17), reading, arithmetic, and listening comprehension disabled…
van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth
The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills, which is important to establish given the key role problem solving plays in, for instance, math and science education. Worked examples are an effective and efficient way of acquiring problem-solving skills. Forty students either only studied worked examples (SSSS) or engaged in testing after studying an example by solving an isomorphic problem (STST). Surprisingly, results showed equal performance in both conditions on an immediate retention test after 5 min, but the SSSS condition outperformed the STST condition on a delayed retention test after 1 week. These findings suggest the testing effect might not apply to acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.
Santoro, Julie Kay
There are a high number of students who struggle with reading comprehension beyond the primary grades and understanding the skills involved in successful reading comprehension continues to be a topic of investigation. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is a viable theory of reading that suggests reading comprehension results from developing skills…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983
Al Ghanem, Reem; Kearns, Devin M.
Current Arabic reading instruction places strong emphasis on orthographic skills and little emphasis on phonological and morphological skills. Yet, the role of each skill in reading development in Arabic is not well understood. The purpose of this literature review was to examine the degree to which children learning to read in Arabic use…
Lovio, Riikka; Halttunen, Anu; Lyytinen, Heikki; Näätänen, Risto; Kujala, Teija
This study aimed at determining whether an intervention game developed for strengthening phonological awareness has a remediating effect on reading skills and central auditory processing in 6-year-old preschool children with difficulties in reading-related skills. After a 3-hour training only, these children made a greater progress in reading-related skills than did their matched controls who did mathematical exercises following comparable training format. Furthermore, the results suggest that this brief intervention might be beneficial in modulating the neural basis of phonetic discrimination as an enhanced speech-elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) was seen in the intervention group, indicating improved cortical discrimination accuracy. Moreover, the amplitude increase of the vowel-elicited MMN significantly correlated with the improvement in some of the reading-skill related test scores. The results, albeit obtained with a relatively small sample, are encouraging, suggesting that reading-related skills can be improved even by a very short intervention and that the training effects are reflected in brain activity. However, studies with larger samples and different subgroups of children are needed to confirm the present results and to determine how children with different dyslexia subtypes benefit from the intervention.
Brown, Heather M; Oram-Cardy, Janis; Johnson, Andrew
This meta-analysis examined 36 studies comparing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and control groups in reading comprehension. Three moderators (semantic knowledge, decoding skill, PIQ) and two text types (high vs. low social knowledge) were examined as predictors of reading comprehension in ASD. The overall standardized mean difference for reading comprehension was g = -0.7 SD. The strongest individual predictors of reading comprehension were semantic knowledge (explaining 57 % of variance) and decoding skill (explaining 55 % of variance). Individuals with ASD were significantly worse at comprehending highly social than less social texts. Having ASD alone does not predict reading comprehension deficits. Instead, individual skills, especially language ability, must be considered before one can accurately predict whether a given individual with ASD will experience difficulties in reading comprehension.
Mockovak, William P.
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a methodology which could be used to estimate the reading skills of Air Force personnel and the reading requirements of different career fields in an attempt to determine the extent of the difference between the reading skills of personnel and the reading requirements of the training materials in a…
Clemens, Nathan H; Oslund, Eric L; Simmons, Leslie E; Simmons, Deborah
Early reading and spelling development share foundational skills, yet spelling assessment is underutilized in evaluating early reading. This study extended research comparing the degree to which methods for scoring spelling skills at the end of kindergarten were associated with reading skills measured at the same time as well as at the end of first grade. Five strategies for scoring spelling responses were compared: totaling the number of words spelled correctly, totaling the number of correct letter sounds, totaling the number of correct letter sequences, using a rubric for scoring invented spellings, and calculating the Spelling Sensitivity Score (Masterson & Apel, 2010b). Students (N=287) who were identified at kindergarten entry as at risk for reading difficulty and who had received supplemental reading intervention were administered a standardized spelling assessment in the spring of kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, decoding, word recognition, and reading fluency were administered concurrently and at the end of first grade. The five spelling scoring metrics were similar in their strong relations with factors summarizing reading subskills (phonological awareness, decoding, and word reading) on a concurrent basis. Furthermore, when predicting first-grade reading skills based on spring-of-kindergarten performance, spelling scores from all five metrics explained unique variance over the autoregressive effects of kindergarten word identification. The practical advantages of using a brief spelling assessment for early reading evaluation and the relative tradeoffs of each scoring metric are discussed.
Kim, Esther S; Lemke, Shannon F
Text-based reading treatments, such as Multiple Oral Rereading (MOR) and Oral Reading for Language in Aphasia (ORLA) have been used successfully to remediate reading impairments in individuals with acquired alexia, but the mechanisms underlying such improvements are not well understood. In this study, an individual with acquired alexia who demonstrated reliance on a sub-lexical reading strategy (i.e., presence of spelling regularity effect and phonologically plausible errors) underwent 12 weeks of text-based reading treatment combining MOR and ORLA procedures. Behavioural assessments of single-word and text reading, along with eye-tracking assessments were conducted pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 5 month follow-up. Improved reading fluency (rate, accuracy) was observed for both trained and untrained passages. Evidence from behavioural and eye-tracking assessment suggested text-based reading treatment facilitated use of a lexical-semantic reading strategy. Increased frequency and lexicality effects, as well as a shift in initial landing position towards the centre of the word (the "optimal viewing position") were observed at post-treatment and follow-up assessments. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using eye movements as a parameter of interest in addition to traditional behavioural outcomes when investigating response to reading treatment.
The importance of reading skills to academic achievement, job acquisition and future success is well documented. Most of the research on reading interventions focuses on children in primary schools but many children start secondary school with very poor reading skills and schools require evidence-based interventions to support these children. The…
Teo, Adeline; Shaw, Yun F.; Chen, Jimmy; Wang, Derek
Many English as a foreign language (EFL) students fail to be effective readers because they lack knowledge of vocabulary and appropriate reading strategies. We believe that teaching proper reading strategies can help second-language learners overcome their reading problems, especially when the instruction begins in elementary school. Effective…
Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…
Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso
Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…
Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R
We investigated whether high-skill readers skip more words than low-skill readers as a result of parafoveal processing differences based on reading skill. We manipulated foveal load and word length, two variables that strongly influence word skipping, and measured reading skill using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. We found that reading skill did not influence the probability of skipping five-letter words, but low-skill readers were less likely to skip three-letter words when foveal load was high. Thus, reading skill is likely to influence word skipping when the amount of information in the parafovea falls within the word identification span. We interpret the data in the context of visual-based (extended optimal viewing position model) and linguistic based (E-Z Reader model) accounts of word skipping. The models make different predictions about how and why a word and skipped; however, the data indicate that both models should take into account the fact that different factors influence skipping rates for high- and low-skill readers.
Travis, Katherine E; Leitner, Yael; Feldman, Heidi M; Ben-Shachar, Michal
Reading is a critical life skill in the modern world. The neural basis of reading incorporates a distributed network of cortical areas and their white matter connections. The cerebellum has also been implicated in reading and reading disabilities. However, little is known about the contribution of cerebellar white matter pathways to major component skills of reading. We used diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) with tractography to identify the cerebellar peduncles in a group of 9- to 17-year-old children and adolescents born full term (FT, n = 19) or preterm (PT, n = 26). In this cohort, no significant differences were found between fractional anisotropy (FA) measures of the peduncles in the PT and FT groups. FA of the cerebellar peduncles correlated significantly with measures of decoding and reading comprehension in the combined sample of FT and PT subjects. Correlations were negative in the superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles and positive in the middle cerebellar peduncle. Additional analyses revealed that FT and PT groups demonstrated similar patterns of reading associations within the left superior cerebellar peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle, and left inferior cerebellar peduncle. Partial correlation analyses showed that distinct sub-skills of reading were associated with FA in segments of different cerebellar peduncles. Overall, the present findings are the first to document associations of microstructure of the cerebellar peduncles and the component skills of reading.
Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel
The hypothesis that different subcomponents of auditory working memory are differentially related to early reading skills was tested in 63 Hebrew speaking 4-year-old children, using a battery of early reading (phonological processing and familiarity with written language) and memory (simple and complex spans) tasks. Complex spans accounted for significant amounts of variance on both facets of early reading even after the contribution of simple spans was accounted for. These findings suggest that the unique contribution of complex working memory to early reading can be identified as early as preschool and that the structure of correlations between reading and memory is similar across ages.
Giess, SallyAnn; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Kennedy, Kelly; Lombardino, Linda J.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an Orton-Gillingham-based reading instruction system, the Barton Reading and Spelling System (BRSS; Barton 2000), that was used as a supplemental reading instruction program for increasing the lower-level reading skills of a group of adolescents with persistent reading problems. Nine…
Hricová, Marianna; Weekes, Brendan Stuart
The first reports of phonological, surface and deep dyslexia come from orthographies containing quasi-regular mappings between orthography and phonology including English and French. Slovakian is a language with a relatively transparent orthography and hence a mostly regular script. The aim of this study was to investigate impaired oral reading in Slovakian. A novel diagnostic procedure was devised to determine whether disorders of Slovakian reading resemble characteristics in other languages. Slovakian speaking aphasics showed symptoms similar to phonological dyslexia and deep dyslexia in English and French, but there was no evidence of surface dyslexia. The findings are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis.
Hricová, Marianna; Weekes, Brendan Stuart
The first reports of phonological, surface and deep dyslexia come from orthographies containing quasi-regular mappings between orthography and phonology including English and French. Slovakian is a language with a relatively transparent orthography and hence a mostly regular script. The aim of this study was to investigate impaired oral reading in Slovakian. A novel diagnostic procedure was devised to determine whether disorders of Slovakian reading resemble characteristics in other languages. Slovakian speaking aphasics showed symptoms similar to phonological dyslexia and deep dyslexia in English and French, but there was no evidence of surface dyslexia. The findings are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis. PMID:22713384
Carrasquillo, Angela; Nunez, Dulcinea
With the advent of the computer as an instructional tool many curriculum specialists have been designing software for reading instruction. However, most of the software designed to help develop reading comprehension skills does not consider the inclusion of monitoring comprehension strategies, therefore limiting the instructional potential of the…
Voogt, Joke; McKenney, Susan
This study examines how technology can support the development of emergent reading and writing skills in four- to five-year-old children. The research was conducted with PictoPal, an intervention which features a software package that uses images and text in three main activity areas: reading, writing, and authentic applications. This article…
Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz
In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…
Çakir, Abdulvahit; Ünaldi, Ihsan; Arslan, Fadime Yalçin; Kiliç, Mehmet
Within the framework of foreign language teaching and learning, reading strategies, depth of vocabulary knowledge and text inferencing skills have not been researched extensively. This study tries to fill this gap by analyzing the effects of reading strategies used by Turkish EFL learners and their depth of vocabulary knowledge on their text…
Koskinen, Patricia S.; And Others
The measured effects of captioned television upon the sight vocabulary, comprehension, and oral reading performance of 77 learning disabled students from 4 Maryland schools suggest that both captioned television with sound and conventional television enhance the reading skills of learning disabled students. (7 references) (MLF)
Schmidt, B. June
A test was given that (1) assessed business students' ability to read materials from microcomputer database software manuals and (2) assessed their knowledge of technical vocabulary terms from the manuals. Test results revealed that the students' technical reading and vocabulary skills were considerably below those they would need to use…
Brenneman, Michele H.; Morris, Robin D.; Israelian, Marlyne
A dearth of research has investigated the language preference of bilingual childhood populations and its subsequent relationship to reading skills. The current study evaluated how a sequential bilingual student's choice of language, in a particular environmental context, predicted reading ability in English and Spanish. The participants were…
Baratta, Anthony N.
This document presents a description and evaluation of the Skills Remediation in Reading for Optional Assignment Program (TOPS) conducted for 4,569 students in 27 high schools in New York City. The participants were Title I optional assignment students in grades 9 through 12, whose reading ability was a minimum of two years below grade level based…
Roy, Sylvie; Schafer, Paul-Christophe
This paper looks at reading in French immersion and how learning French is seen more as a skill rather than a social practice that could be examined through a more critical lens. Most of the teachers often teach students how to read but rarely will they discuss the role of French in Canadian society and how this is manifested in the texts they…
This paper describes a project for improving the reading and decoding skills of 23 high school students with reading learning disabilities. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a suburban community in the Midwest. The project used Auditory Discrimination in Depth, which is a multisensory program that develops…
Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Melby-Lervag, Monica; Hulme, Charles; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas
The authors examine the reading profile in children with Down syndrome by comparing the nonword decoding skills in children with Down syndrome and typically developing children matched for word recognition level. Journal articles published before 04.05.2010 were identified by using the keyword Down* cross-referenced to "reading", "literacy",…
Barth, Amy Elizabeth; Catts, Hugh W.; Anthony, Jason L.
This study investigated the component skills underlying reading fluency in a heterogeneous sample of 527 eighth grade students. Based on a hypothetical measurement model and successive testing of nested models, structural equation modeling revealed that naming speed, decoding, and language were uniquely associated with reading fluency. These…
This paper evaluates three teaching approaches to improving sight-reading skills against a control in a large-scale study of advanced pianists. One hundred pianists in four equal groups participated in newly developed training programmes (accompanying, rhythm, musical style and control), with pre- and post-sight-reading tests analysed using…
Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti; Canneti, Laura
The present study examined the relationship between reading (i.e., rapidity and accuracy) and writing competences (i.e., fluency, accuracy, and composition skills) of Italian children in the first and second grade. The performance of seventy-five children was longitudinally assessed over a 2-year period. Results demonstrated that reading and…
Omar, Ainon; Saufi, Maizatulliza Mohd.
The effectiveness of using storybooks during read-alouds to develop children's comprehension skills as well as in understanding the story has been widely studied. The reading aloud strategy has also been proven through numerous researches to be the most highly recommended activity for encouraging language and literacy. The study identified the…
Knopf, Herman T.; Brown, H. Mac
In this article, the authors reexamine and duplicate research conducted more than 20 years ago to learn if the simple act of sharing literature with kindergarten children through a nurturing dialogic approach will support children's development of literacy skills, including a love of reading. Dialogic reading is based on: (1) child participation;…
Flynn, Kylie S.
Early childhood and special educators are under growing demands to develop children's language and literacy skills through evidence-based practices. One promising research-based strategy for vocabulary and language development is dialogic reading (DR), which is an interactive picture book reading technique developed in the late 1980's by…
Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison
This study examined whether boys and girls in the early school years differed in reading and related skills, and their rates of progress. Gender ratios were calculated to ascertain whether there were more boys than girls who struggle with different facets of reading, and whether the variability of boys' scores resulted in more boys being…
Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Purpose: To examine the etiology of the relationship between preschool speech and language, and later reading skills. Method: One thousand six hundred seventy-two children from the Twins Early Development Study (B. R. Oliver & R. Plomin, 2007) were given a comprehensive speech and language assessment at 4 1/2 years. Reading was assessed at 7, 9,…
Frederiksen, John R.
A project was organized to understand and identify basic variations in reading ability by its information processing components. Focusing on three major processing levels in reading--word analysis, discourse analysis, and integration of word/discourse analysis--preliminary research identified perceptual and cognitive skill components of reading…
Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.
This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…
Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Wurtz
Using a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark, we show that the immigrant concentration in the school influences reading and math skills for both immigrant children and native children. Overall, children in schools with a high immigrant concentration score lower on reading and math test scores. The negative effects associated with…
Vescial, Ann; And Others
A computer-assisted reading program was implemented in the VESL (Vocational English as a Second Language) Center at Hacienda La Puente Adult Schools (California), which provides support services to adult special needs vocational students. The purpose of the program was to improve the technical reading skills of the vocational students. The basic…
Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel
This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…
Huffstetter, Mary; King, James R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Schneider, Jenifer J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
This study examined the effects of a computer-based early reading program (Headsprout Early Reading) on the oral language and early reading skills of at-risk preschool children. In a pretest-posttest control group design, 62 children were randomly assigned to receive supplemental instruction with Headsprout Early Reading (experimental group) or…
Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for…
King, James R.; And Others
A college-level integrated study skills and orientation course is described. The unique aspect of the course is that learning/teaching occurs in the context of the university environment. Learning experiences generally utilized with this approach to reading and study skills instruction are illustrated by the following projects: an organized…
Akdal, Deniz; Sahin, Ayfer
Problem Statement: The aim of the first five years of primary school is to teach and help the students develop basic skills as stated in the Primary School Language Program and Guide. Creative thinking and intertextual reading are among these skills, and it is important to give these to the students during language courses. Purpose of Study: The…
Leytham, Patrick Allen
Students diagnosed with autism demonstrate a deficit in communication skills, which affects their literacy skills. Federal legislation mandates that students with disabilities receive a free appropriate public education, be taught how to read, and have access to the general education curriculum. Students with autism are being included more in the…
This practicum study evaluated a non-basal, multidisciplinary, multisensory approach to teaching higher order reading comprehension skills to eight fifth-grade learning-disabled students from low socioeconomic minority group backgrounds. The four comprehension skills were: (1) identifying the main idea; (2) determining cause and effect; (3) making…
Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.
Two studies examined the viability of assessing reading strategies using a think-aloud protocol combined with latent semantic analysis (LSA). Findings demonstrated that the responses of less-skilled readers semantically overlapped more with focal sentences than with causal antecedent sentences, whereas skilled readers' responses overlapped with…
Morgan, Paul L.; Meier, Catherine R.
Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be doubly disadvantaged. Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic reading (DR) is a scientifically validated shared storybook reading…
Montori, Laura; Lally, Julia
A topic of student interest, earthquakes, is used as a vehicle for teaching reading and research skills in a California junior high school. Students develop geography skills by labeling fault lines on maps of the Pacific Basin, California, and San Francisco; develop their vocabulary by preparing a list of words about earthquakes; and practice word…
Yang, Ling-Yan; Guo, Jian-Peng; Richman, Lynn C.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Gerken, Kathryn C.; Ding, Yi
This paper used meta-analysis to synthesize the relation between visual skills and Chinese reading acquisition based on the empirical results from 34 studies published from 1991 to 2011. We obtained 234 correlation coefficients from 64 independent samples, with a total of 5,395 participants. The meta-analysis revealed that visual skills as a…
Naumann, Johannes; Salmerón, Ladislao
This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation, relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on…
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
As part of the special education curriculum developed by the Puerto Rico Department of Public Instruction, this teacher's guide (in Spanish) presents a basic curriculum for reading skills. The curriculum is designed so that the defined skills will meet the needs of children with disabilities. The form in which teachers and other professionals will…
Kendeou, Panayiota; van den Broek, Paul; White, Mary Jane; Lynch, Julie S.
The authors examined the development of oral language and decoding skills from preschool to early elementary school and their relation to beginning reading comprehension using a cross-sequential design. Four- and 6-year-old children were tested on oral language and decoding skills and were retested 2 years later. In all age groups, oral language…
Margolis, Leonard; And Others
The curriculum manual provides objectives and suggested activities for intermediate grade handicapped children in the areas of reading, mathematics, written language, and study skills. Within each area objectives are correlated with one or more instructional activities. Objectives are provided for such skills as the following: vocabulary, context…
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults.
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff’s, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model’s estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803
Richlan, Fabio; Sturm, Denise; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz
Background We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters) on response time for words and pseudowords. Results Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT) regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which—corresponding to the onological deficit explanation—is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases. Conclusions The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions. PMID:20711448
Farmer, Jeanie; Morse, Stephen E.
Modeled after Project PAVE (Corn et al., 2003) in Tennessee, Project Magnify is designed to test the idea that students with low vision who use individually prescribed magnification devices for reading will perform as well as or better than students with low vision who use large-print reading materials. Sixteen students with low vision were…
Schatschneider, Christopher; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Foorman, Barbara R.
There is considerable focus in public policy on screening children for reading difficulties. Sixty years of research have not resolved questions of what constructs assessed in kindergarten best predict subsequent reading outcomes. This study assessed the relative importance of multiple measures obtained in a kindergarten sample for the prediction…
Harold Herber's self-paced, self-teaching book, "Teaching Reading in the Content Area," can be used by social studies teachers to develop lessons that help students read, write, and think. A sample U.S. history lesson which uses techniques from Herber's book to help students learn about the Declaration of Independence is presented. (RM)
Arnold, Richard D.
Thirty-two Afro-American and 50 Mexican-American seventh graders were randomly selected from a school located in a central Texas low socioeconomic environment. The subjects were administered the New Developmental Reading Tests, The Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests, and The California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity. When the two groups were…
Howard County Board of Education, Clarksville, MD.
GRADES OR AGES: All elementary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Critical reading. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The six short introductory sections are 1) foreword; 2) background of workshop; 3) comprehension--a constellation of many facts; 4) sample story; 5) critical comprehension exercises; and 6) critical reading lesson plan critiques. There…
Grant, Amy; Wood, Eileen; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Phillips, Linda; Savage, Robert
The current study developed a taxonomy of reading skills and compared this taxonomy with skills being trained in 30 commercially available software programs designed to teach emergent literacy or literacy-specific skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and Grade 1. Outcomes suggest that, although some skills are being trained in a…
Powell, William R.
Drawing on results from informal reading inventories and studies of oral reading behavior, a theory is presented to describe the process of learning to read. Reading is seen to be broader than a skill and more like a repertoire with many abilities, aptitudes, and special accomplishments performing in concert. This repertoire is acquired in four…
Giuliano, Helen Solana; And Others
This Taxonomy was designed to assist the instructor or reading specialist in the identification and location of specific instructional materials that can be used for remediation of skill deficiencies. The Taxonomy was developed by the White Plains Adult Education Center, and a description of the Center's program and method of integrating the…
Nelson, J. Ron; Stage, Scott; Trout, Alex; Duppong-Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.
Multinomial stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to establish the most robust set of risk factors that would best predict low basic reading skills (i.e., a standard score less than 85 on the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised Basic Reading Skills cluster) of kindergarten and first-grade children at risk for emotional and behavioral…
Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen
Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These
Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.; Ben-Shachar, Michal
For more than a century, neurologists have hypothesized that the arcuate fasciculus carries signals that are essential for language function; however, the relevance of the pathway for particular behaviors is highly controversial. The primary objective of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between individual variation in the microstructural properties of arcuate fibers and behavioral measures of language and reading skills. A second objective was to use novel fiber-tracking methods to reassess estimates of arcuate lateralization. In a sample of 55 children, we found that measurements of diffusivity in the left arcuate correlate with phonological awareness skills and arcuate volume lateralization correlates with phonological memory and reading skills. Contrary to previous investigations that report the absence of the right arcuate in some subjects, we demonstrate that new techniques can identify the pathway in every individual. Our results provide empirical support for the role of the arcuate fasciculus in the development of reading skills. PMID:21568636
As computer technology developed, hypertexts emerged as an influential environment for developing language skills. This study aims to evaluate a text prepared in a hypertextual environment and its effects on academic success and comprehension skills. In this study, "preliminary test final test control group experimental pattern" was used…
Shea, Chi-Kwan; Siu, Andrew M H
This study describes how occupational therapists in a community-based programme, Occupational Therapy Training Program (OTTP), use play activities to facilitate the acquisition of life skills by youth in detention. This pilot study explored the extent of engagement of male and female inmates aged 14 to 18 years old in structured play activities on topics such as interpersonal relationships, self-awareness, cultural celebrations and the transition to community. Retrospective analysis of data collected from surveys using the Engagement in OTTP Activities Questionnaire (EOAQ), completed by youth participants at the end of each group session, was used to measure the extent of occupational engagement. Worksheets and artworks produced by OTTP participants during those group sessions were also analysed. The participants reported very high engagement in OTTP. Engagement scores for male participants were higher than those for female participants, and male and female participants had higher engagement scores for different activities. Over 90% of the worksheets and artworks were found to be complete and relevant to the topic of the session. Play activities could be an appropriate way for occupational therapists to encourage youth in detention to acquire life skills. Demographic information and the actual number of participants are unknown because of how the existing data were collected. Future studies examining the potential gender-related preferences for specific topics deserve further investigation as well as research comparing the youth's engagement in OTTP interventions using play activities to other group interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bonacina, Silvia; Cancer, Alice; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro
The core deficit underlying developmental dyslexia (DD) has been identified in difficulties in dynamic and rapidly changing auditory information processing, which contribute to the development of impaired phonological representations for words. It has been argued that enhancing basic musical rhythm perception skills in children with DD may have a positive effect on reading abilities because music and language share common mechanisms and thus transfer effects from the former to the latter are expected to occur. A computer-assisted training, called Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), was designed in which reading exercises are combined with rhythm background. Fourteen junior high school students with DD took part to 9 biweekly individual sessions of 30 min in which RRT was implemented. Reading improvements after the intervention period were compared with ones of a matched control group of 14 students with DD who received no intervention. Results indicated that RRT had a positive effect on both reading speed and accuracy and significant effects were found on short pseudo-words reading speed, long pseudo-words reading speed, high frequency long words reading accuracy, and text reading accuracy. No difference in rhythm perception between the intervention and control group were found. Findings suggest that rhythm facilitates the development of reading skill because of the temporal structure it imposes to word decoding. PMID:26500581
Bonacina, Silvia; Cancer, Alice; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro
The core deficit underlying developmental dyslexia (DD) has been identified in difficulties in dynamic and rapidly changing auditory information processing, which contribute to the development of impaired phonological representations for words. It has been argued that enhancing basic musical rhythm perception skills in children with DD may have a positive effect on reading abilities because music and language share common mechanisms and thus transfer effects from the former to the latter are expected to occur. A computer-assisted training, called Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), was designed in which reading exercises are combined with rhythm background. Fourteen junior high school students with DD took part to 9 biweekly individual sessions of 30 min in which RRT was implemented. Reading improvements after the intervention period were compared with ones of a matched control group of 14 students with DD who received no intervention. Results indicated that RRT had a positive effect on both reading speed and accuracy and significant effects were found on short pseudo-words reading speed, long pseudo-words reading speed, high frequency long words reading accuracy, and text reading accuracy. No difference in rhythm perception between the intervention and control group were found. Findings suggest that rhythm facilitates the development of reading skill because of the temporal structure it imposes to word decoding.
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pokorny, Florian B.; Zhang, Dajie; Landerl, Karin; Körner, Christof; Pernkopf, Franz; Pock, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B.
The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants’ age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants’ reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6–12). The results show that (i) reading mode significantly influenced both spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movement patterns; (ii) articulation decreased the consistency of intraindividual reading performances with regard to a significant number of eye movement parameters; (iii) reading skills predicted the majority of eye movement parameters during silent reading, but influenced only a restricted number of eye movement parameters when reading orally; (iv) differences with respect to a subset of eye movement parameters increased with reading skills; (v) an overall preschool cognitive performance score predicted reading skills at the age of 13;6 (years;months), but not eye movement patterns during either silent or oral reading. However, we found a few significant correlations between preschool performances on subscales of sequential and simultaneous processing and eye movement parameters for both reading modes. Overall, the findings suggest that eye movement patterns depend on the reading mode. Preschool cognitive abilities were more closely related to eye movement patterns of oral than silent reading, while reading skills predicted eye movement patterns during silent reading, but less so during oral reading. PMID:28151950
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Pokorny, Florian B; Zhang, Dajie; Landerl, Karin; Körner, Christof; Pernkopf, Franz; Pock, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B
The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants' age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants' reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12). The results show that (i) reading mode significantly influenced both spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movement patterns; (ii) articulation decreased the consistency of intraindividual reading performances with regard to a significant number of eye movement parameters; (iii) reading skills predicted the majority of eye movement parameters during silent reading, but influenced only a restricted number of eye movement parameters when reading orally; (iv) differences with respect to a subset of eye movement parameters increased with reading skills; (v) an overall preschool cognitive performance score predicted reading skills at the age of 13;6 (years;months), but not eye movement patterns during either silent or oral reading. However, we found a few significant correlations between preschool performances on subscales of sequential and simultaneous processing and eye movement parameters for both reading modes. Overall, the findings suggest that eye movement patterns depend on the reading mode. Preschool cognitive abilities were more closely related to eye movement patterns of oral than silent reading, while reading skills predicted eye movement patterns during silent reading, but less so during oral reading.
Passig, David; Maidel-Kravetsky, Jenny
The aim of this study was to determine whether, as a result of collaborative-online reading of a chapter from a book of an academic nature, the quality of the collaborative summary that the readers would write would be higher than that written by readers who would both read the same chapter and write a summary in a face-to-face setting. In this…
Fluency instruction has had limited effects on reading comprehension relative to reading rate and prosodic reading (Dowhower, 1987; Herman, 1985; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000a). More specific components (i.e., error detection) of comprehension may yield larger effects through exposure to a wider range of materials…
Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina
According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade. PMID:26379592
Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina
According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.
Mancheva, Lyuba; Reichle, Erik D.; Lemaire, Benoît; Valdois, Sylviane; Ecalle, Jean; Guérin-Dugué, Anne
Previously reported simulations using the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control suggest that the patterns of eye movements observed with children versus adult readers reflect differences in lexical processing proficiency (Reichle et al., 2013). However, these simulations fail to specify precisely what aspect(s) of lexical processing (e.g., orthographic processing) account for the concurrent changes in eye movements and reading skill. To examine this issue, the E-Z Reader model was first used to simulate the aggregate eye-movement data from 15 adults and 75 children to replicate the finding that gross differences in reading skill can be accounted for by differences in lexical processing proficiency. The model was then used to simulate the eye-movement data of individual children so that the best-fitting lexical-processing parameters could be correlated to measures of orthographic knowledge, phonological-processing skill, sentence comprehension, and general intelligence. These analyses suggest that orthographic knowledge accounts for variance in the eye-movement measures that is observed with between-individual differences in reading skill. The theoretical implications of this conclusion will be discussed in relation to computational models of reading and our understanding of reading skill development. PMID:27148437
In the current research we investigate the role of early phonological awareness skills on reading development in diglossic Arabic. Two-hundred and six Arabic speaking first graders, composed of 25 at-linguistic risk pupils (LR group) and 181 normally developing readers, representing the found heterogeneity in the classroom participated in this study. For this purpose, phonological training program was developed where we followed the pupils' development in both phonological awareness skills and reading development in second grade. As indicated by the study results, higher achievements in phonological awareness measures was noted among HG group in first grade. After Training, significant improvement in phonological awareness was noted among both groups, where LR group was able to close the gaps in phonological awareness skills with HG group. When examining the relationship between phonological awareness and reading performance, moderate positive correlation was found within HG group whereas strong positive relationship was encountered with the LR group. Despite the progress in phonological awareness skills and its strong relationship with reading, LR group showed lower reading performance when compared to HG group. The study results are discussed in relation to its scientific and didactic implications on Arabic reading acquisition.
McCollough, Debra; Weber, Kimberly; Derby, K. Mark; McLaughlin, T. F.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons" (Engelmann, Haddox, & Bruner, 1983), on the acquisition and maintenance of reading skills by a six-year-old female with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cognitive Disorder, and Mixed Receptive Language Disorder. The skills evaluated for…
Discusses several ways to evaluate reading and writing skills in a whole language classroom, including evaluation checklists, holistic evaluation of writing, and miscue analysis. Provides a literacy development checklist for reading and writing. (MM)
Johnston, Rhona; McGeown, Sarah; Moxon, Gerri Elizabeth
This study examined, in 180 children aged from 6 to 9?years, to what extent irregular word reading and spelling were predicted by vocabulary knowledge, reading frequency, orthographic processing and nonword reading skill. Consistent with models of reading highlighting the quasi-regular nature of irregular words, it was found that nonword reading…
Holden, John G.; Greijn, Lieke T.; van Rooij, Marieke M. J. W.; Wijnants, Maarten L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.
The shape of a word pronunciation time distribution supplies information about the dynamic interactions that support reading performance. Speeded word-naming pronunciation and response time distributions were collected from 20 sixth grade Dutch students with dyslexia and 23 age-matched controls. The participants' pronunciation times were modeled…
Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally
The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…
Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav
The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…
Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis
Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav
The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.
Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.
The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed…
Warnick, Kristan; Caldarella, Paul
This study examined the effectiveness of a multisensory phonics-based reading remediation program for adolescent delinquents classified as poor readers living at a residential treatment center. We used a pretest--posttest control group design with random assignment. The treatment group participated in a 30-hr multisensory phonics reading…
Explores issues arising from a research project which studied ways of meeting the reading needs of trainee primary school teachers (from Malawi and Tanzania) of English as a foreign language. Topics discussed include: the classroom teaching situation; teaching "quality"; and integration of materials and methods. (CB)
Sight-reading while playing a mallet instrument can present serious obstacles for the developing percussionist. Many young players who have solid snare drum technique usually cite fear of playing the wrong note as the number-one hurdle to overcome in order to begin making real progress. Greg Byrne, associate director of bands at the University of…
Bongratz, Karen M.; Bradley, Julie C.; Fisel, Kimberly L.; Orcutt, Jennifer A.; Shoemaker, Amy J.
This study describes a program designed to increase student academic performance through the use of reading strategies. The targeted population consists of third and fourth grade students in three separate communities located in northern Illinois. All three communities are part of one major metropolitan area, and the status of family income ranges…
Mourgues, Catalina V; Preiss, David D; Grigorenko, Elena L
Studies of the relationship between creativity and specific reading disabilities have produced inconclusive results. We explored their relationship in a sample of 259 college students (age range: 17 to 38 years-old) from three Chilean universities. The students were tested on their verbal ability, creativity, and insight. A simple linear regression was performed on the complete sample, and on high- and low-achievement groups that were formed based on reading test scores. We observed a significant correlation in the total sample between outcomes on the verbal ability tasks, and on the creativity and insight tasks (range r =. 152 to r =. 356, ps <.001). Scores on the reading comprehension and phonological awareness tasks were the best predictors of performance on creativity and insight tasks (range β = .315 to β = .155, ps <.05). A comparison of the low- and high-scoring groups on verbal ability tasks yielded results to the same effect. These findings do not support the hypothesis that specific reading disability is associated with better performance on creative tasks. Instead, higher verbal ability was found to be associated with higher creativity and insight.
Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han
This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…
Bremer, Christine D.; Vaughn, Sharon; Clapper, Ann T.; Kim, Ae-Hwa
This brief introduces a research-based practice, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). This reading comprehension practice, designed to improve secondary students reading comprehension skills, combines two instructional elements: modified reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning or student pairing. In reciprocal teaching, teachers and…
Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare
Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of shared reading (SR) and dialogic reading (DR) on young children's language and literacy development. This exploratory study compared the relative impact of parental DR and shared reading interventions on 4-year-old children's early literacy skills and parental attitudes to reading…
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Pokorny, Florian B; Einspieler, Christa; Langmann, Andrea; Körner, Christof; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Marschik, Peter B
Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12). We found that (a) reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pokorny, Florian B.; Einspieler, Christa; Langmann, Andrea; Körner, Christof; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Marschik, Peter B.
Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6−12). We found that (a) reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency. PMID:26727255
Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele
There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873
Poldrack, R A; Gabrieli, J D
The changes in brain activity related to skill learning and repetition priming in a mirror-reading task were examined using functional MRI. Subjects exhibited significant learning across five training sessions and this learning generalized significantly to different spatial transformations (inverted-mirror reversed text and normal letters spelled backwards). Mirror reading, compared with reading normal text, was associated with extensive activation in occipital, temporal, parietal and frontal regions. Learning to read mirror-reversed (MR) text was associated with increased activation in left inferior temporal, striatal, left inferior prefrontal and right cerebellar regions and with decreased activity in the left hippocampus and left cerebellum. Short-term repetition priming was associated with reduced activity in many of the regions active during mirror reading and extensive item-specific practice (long-term repetition priming) resulted in a virtual elimination of activity in those regions. Short- and long-term repetition priming thus appeared to rely upon common neural mechanisms. Nearly all of the regions exhibiting significant learning-related changes also exhibited increased repetition priming effects, suggesting common neural substrates for priming and skill learning in this task. Comparison of MR items with other spatially transformed typographies showed that the learning-related changes were general to all of the spatial transformations. The results confirm the importance of striatofrontal neural networks for the acquisition of skills, and suggest that skill learning and repetition priming may have common substrates within a particular task.
Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele
There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873 PMID:26407242
Burt, Jennifer S
One hundred and twelve university students completed 7 tests assessing word-reading accuracy, print exposure, phonological sensitivity, phonological coding and knowledge of English morphology as predictors of spelling accuracy. Together the tests accounted for 71% of the variance in spelling, with phonological skills and morphological knowledge emerging as strong predictors of spelling accuracy for words with both regular and irregular sound-spelling correspondences. The pattern of relationships was consistent with a model in which, as a function of the learning opportunities that are provided by reading experience, phonological skills promote the learning of individual word orthographies and structural relationships among words.
Calvo-Merino, B; Glaser, D E; Grèzes, J; Passingham, R E; Haggard, P
When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and an action that one has not, in order to assess whether the brain processes of action observation are modulated by the expertise and motor repertoire of the observer. Experts in classical ballet, experts in capoeira and inexpert control subjects viewed videos of ballet or capoeira actions. Comparing the brain activity when dancers watched their own dance style versus the other style therefore reveals the influence of motor expertise on action observation. We found greater bilateral activations in premotor cortex and intraparietal sulcus, right superior parietal lobe and left posterior superior temporal sulcus when expert dancers viewed movements that they had been trained to perform compared to movements they had not. Our results show that this 'mirror system' integrates observed actions of others with an individual's personal motor repertoire, and suggest that the human brain understands actions by motor simulation.
Cristancho, Sayra M; Hodgson, Antony J; Panton, Neely; Meneghetti, Adam; Qayumi, Karim
The objective of this paper is to present the initial results of a study aimed at showing the feasibility of using kinematic measures to distinguish skill levels in manipulating surgical tools. Through a simulated surgical task (dissection of a mandarin orange), we acquired motor performance data from three sets of subjects representing different stages of surgical training. We computed the average lateral, axial and vertical tooltip velocities for each of the two main subtasks ('Peel Skin' and 'Detach Segment'). For each subject, we defined a 6-element vector to describe the kinematic measures extracted from the two tasks and used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to extract the two dominant contributors to overall variability to simplify the presentation of the data to the trainer. We found that the first two principal components accounted for approximately 90% of the variance across all subjects and tasks. Moreover, the PCA plot showed good intrasubject repeatability, consistency within subjects with similar levels of training, and good separation between the subject groups. The results of this pilot study will allow us to design a future intraoperative study.
Beaver, Melanie S.
This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.
Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments.
Darus, Faridah Binti; Saat, Rohaida Mohd
Science education in Malaysia emphasizes three components: namely knowledge, scientific skills which include science process skills and manipulative skills; scientific attitudes; and noble values. The science process skills are important in enhancing students' cognitive development and also to facilitate students' active participation during the…
Ulu, Hacer; Akyol, Hayati
Problem Statements: It is a fact that there are individual differences in education and it would be wrong to expect every individual to learn at the same speed. Certain individuals have difficulty in some subjects such as reading, writing and mathematics, yet the most common such problem is difficulty in reading. Particularly, the students who…
These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…
Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.
The present study explored the environmental and genetic etiologies of the longitudinal relations between prereading skills and reading and spelling. Twin pairs (n = 489) were assessed before kindergarten (M = 4.9 years), post-first grade (M = 7.4 years), and post-fourth grade (M = 10.4 years). Genetic influences on five prereading skills (print…
Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa A.; Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon
This study investigated how measures of decoding, fluency, and comprehension in middle school students overlap with one another, whether the pattern of overlap differs between struggling and typical readers, and the relative frequency of different types of reading difficulties. The 1,748 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students were oversampled for struggling readers (n = 1,025) on the basis of the state reading comprehension proficiency measure. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses showed partial invariance among struggling and typical readers (with differential loadings for fluency and for comprehension), and strict invariance for decoding and a combined fluency/comprehension factor. Among these struggling readers, most (85 %) also had weaknesses on nationally standardized measures, particularly in comprehension; however, most of these also had difficulties in decoding or fluency. These results show that the number of students with a specific comprehension problem is lower than recent consensus reports estimate and that the relation of different reading components varies according to struggling versus proficient readers. PMID:24000271
Chamberlain, Charlene; Mayberry, Rachel I.
We tested the hypothesis that syntactic and narrative comprehension of a natural sign language can serve as the linguistic basis for skilled reading. Thirty-one adults who were deaf from birth and used American Sign Language (ASL) were classified as skilled or less skilled readers using an eighth-grade criterion. Proficiency with ASL syntax, and…
Nortvedt, Guri A.
This article discusses how 13-year-old students with above-average numeracy skills and below-average reading skills cope with comprehending word problems. Compared to other students who are proficient in numeracy and are skilled readers, these students are more disadvantaged when solving single-step and multistep arithmetic word problems. The…
Eisenman, Gordon; Payne, Beverly D.
Contrasted effects of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) program to those of Chapter 1 programs on fourth and fifth graders' reading achievement, self-concept, and higher-order thinking skills. Found that HOTS is more effective in raising self-concept and some higher-order thinking skills in fifth grade and after two years of treatment, with…
Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József; Nemeth, Dezso
Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such learning across the lifespan, between 4 and 85 years of age with an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, and we found that the difference in implicitly learning high- vs. low-probability events--measured by raw reaction time (RT)--exhibited a rapid decrement around age of 12. Accuracy and z-transformed data showed partially different developmental curves, suggesting a re-evaluation of analysis methods in developmental research. The decrement in raw RT differences supports an extension of the traditional two-stage lifespan skill acquisition model: in addition to a decline above the age 60 reported in earlier studies, sensitivity to raw probabilities and, therefore, acquiring new skills is significantly more effective until early adolescence than later in life. These results suggest that due to developmental changes in early adolescence, implicit skill learning processes undergo a marked shift in weighting raw probabilities vs. more complex interpretations of events, which, with appropriate timing, prove to be an optimal strategy for human skill learning.
Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.
This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy one non-college-bound 16–24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye movements were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed to establish what tests of reading abilities were predictive of eye-movement patterns across this population and how strong the effects were. We found that individual scores in rapid automatized naming and word identification tests (i) were the only participant variables with reliable predictivity throughout the time-course of reading; (ii) elicited effects that superceded in magnitude the effects of established predictors like word length or frequency; and (iii) strongly modulated the influence of word length and frequency on fixation times. We discuss implications of our findings for testing reading ability, as well as for research of eye-movements in reading. PMID:21709808
Perea, Manuel; Giner, Lourdes; Marcet, Ana; Gomez, Pablo
A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants' eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading.
Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J
This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students' third-grade behavioral engagement on students' third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students' third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students' first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J.
This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students’ third-grade behavioral engagement on students’ third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students’ third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students’ first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21779272
Lloyd, Bruce A.
Noting that many preservice teachers enter required courses believing that the course is something to endure or overcome for certification, a study examined whether a reading methods course would convince students to view teaching the reading process as a vital and necessary function of content area teachers. Six classes of students (three…
Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han
This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses.
Miniscalco, Carmela; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren
Reading skills at age 7-8 years were examined in a community-representative sample of 21 screened and clinically examined children with language delay (LD) followed prospectively from 2.5 years of age. The present study aimed to (1) determine whether these children with a history of LD had deficits in basic reading skills, i.e. decoding and…
Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.
This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…
Holden, John G; Greijn, Lieke T; van Rooij, Marieke M J W; Wijnants, Maarten L; Bosman, Anna M T
The shape of a word pronunciation time distribution supplies information about the dynamic interactions that support reading performance. Speeded word-naming pronunciation and response time distributions were collected from 20 sixth grade Dutch students with dyslexia and 23 age-matched controls. The participants' pronunciation times were modeled and contrasted with a lognormal inverse power-law mixture distribution. Identical contrasts were also conducted on the same participants' response time distributions derived from flanker, color-naming, and arithmetic tasks. Results indicated that children with dyslexia yield slower, broader, and more variable pronunciation time distributions than their age-matched counterparts. This difference approximated a self-similar rescaling between the two group's aggregate pronunciation time distributions. Moreover, children with dyslexia produced similar, but less prominent trends toward slower and more variable performance across the three non-reading tasks. The outcomes support a proportional continuum rather than a localized deficit account of dyslexia. The mixture distribution's success at describing the participants' pronunciation and response time distributions suggests that differences in proportional contingencies among low-level neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive processes likely play a prominent role in the etiology of dyslexia.
Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Briggs, Teinye; Kpolovie, Peter James; Ezindu, Salome Uwaoma
This study dwells upon communicative approach as a tool for relating reading and writing skills in early childhood education in a developing economy. The quantitative data was gathered through the use of structured questionnaires and was analysed using SPSS version 17. This study confirms that teachers in the selected early childhood education…
Chang, Wan-Chen; Ku, Yu-Min
The authors investigated the effects of a 5-week note-taking skills instructional program on note-taking and reading comprehension performance of elementary students. The participants included 349 fourth-grade students from 2 elementary schools in Taiwan. The Note-Taking Instruction group received approximately 40 min of note-taking skills…
Mayfield, Craig K.
This paper describes the development of a reading and study skills course for law students at Brigham Young University. A study technique called the "FAIR Method" helps students look for the following common elements in all law cases: the facts on which resolution of the dispute turns, the action or classification of the dispute (such as assault…
Ortiz, Robert W.; Stile, Stephen W.
The potential benefits of father participation in their children's reading and writing activities include improved literacy skills, increased bonding, and heightened self-esteem of both fathers and children. This paper identifies a training model for working with fathers--Project DADS. Using this model, early childhood professionals can foster…
Stancel-Piatak, Agnes; Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Desa, Deana
This article gives a short overview based on the "EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy" (HLWG) report to address issues and challenges in Europe on improving literacy competencies in schools. Furthermore, an analysis is conducted focusing on the promotion of reading and early literacy skills in schools taking into account…
Lynch, Julie S.; van den Broek, Paul; Kremer, Kathleen E.; Kendeou, Panayiota; White, Mary Jane; Lorch, Elizabeth P.
The first goal of this study was to examine young children's developing narrative comprehension abilities using theory-based, authentic measures of comprehension processes. The second goal was to examine the relations among young children's comprehension abilities and other early reading skills. Children ages 4 and 6 listened to or watched two…
Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Ormel, Ellen; Verhoeven, Ludo
This paper reports on one experiment in which we investigated the relationship between reading and signing skills. We administered a vocabulary task and a story comprehension task in Sign Language of the Netherlands and in written Dutch to a group of 87 deaf children from bilingual education programs. We found a strong and positive correlation…
Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse
This study, conducted in Finnish private and Montessori child care centres, aimed at investigating the development of the phonological awareness (PA) of two- to five-year-old preschool children within a six-month period in relation to emerging letter knowledge and reading skills. The children (N = 72) performed five phonological tasks and a…
Goetz, Kristina; Hulme, Charles; Brigstocke, Sophie; Carroll, Julia M.; Nasir, Louise; Snowling, M.
The authors report a short-term reading intervention study involving 15 children with Down syndrome (DS) who attended mainstream schools. The intervention programme taught children phoneme segmentation and blending skills in the context of learning letter-sounds and working with words in books. The children were taught by their learning support…
O'Brocki, Catherine M.; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Erford, Bradley T.
The technical characteristics of scores on the Reading Essential Skills Screener-Upper Elementary Version (B. T. Erford, G. Vitali, R. Hass. & R. R. Boykin, 1995) were studied using 4 independent samples of boys and girls in Grades 4-6. Decision efficiency, principal axis factor analysis, internal consistency, 30-day test-retest reliability,…
Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…
Fard-Kashani, Alireza; Jahromi, Abdol Hossein Zahedi; Javadi, Ali; Fallahi, Ali Mohammad
The current study aimed at diagnosing the language needs of Iranian undergraduate students of computer engineering in order to find out whether there is any significant difference in perceptions between the students and their ESAP (English for Specific Academic Purpose) teachers, concerning their Reading skill needs. To conduct the intended…
Stanchfield, Jo M.
Kindergarten children from 17 Los Angeles, California, schools were the subjects in a research project designed to measure the effects of a structured prereading program. The program emphasized six types of reading skills: (1) listening for comprehension, (2) listening for auditory discrimination, (3) visual discrimination, (4) oral language…
Betts, Steven L.; Cassidy, Jane W.
Explores the development of sight-reading and harmonization skills among 39 nonkeyboard music majors enrolled in six intact sections of class piano. Indicates that the right hand was more accurate and consistent, made less improvement on all tasks, and was slightly more accurate on harmonization tasks than the left hand. Includes references. (CMK)
Good, Joy E.; Lance, Dee M.; Rainey, Jacquie
This study was designed to examine the effects of an intervention program aimed at improving reading, spelling, and vocabulary skills through linguistically explicit instruction in morphological awareness. Sixteen children, diagnosed with language impairment, participated in this study. Instruction for the experimental group focused on increasing…
Kopiez, Reinhard; Lee, Ji In
Sight reading is a functional skill which is essential for all musicians involved in particular fields of western classical music culture. In the last decade, expertise theory has shown that time spent on activities is a good predictor for later achievement in a domain. However, this study is based on the hypothesis that general and elementary…
The manual is designed to serve as a guideline for teachers and child study teams who have the primary responsibility for the education of handicapped children in four areas--learning skills, oral language, reading, and mathematics. Sections for each of the above areas are subdivided into the following objectives and activities: gross motor…
Özsoy, Gökhan; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül; Çakiroglu, Ahmet
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between students' reading levels and mathematical problem solving skills. The present study was conducted in line with a qualitative research method, i.e., the phenomenological method. The study group of the current research is composed of six third grade students with different…
Muller, Douglas G.
Two experiments aimed at extending the principles of paired-associates learning transfer to the acquisition of reading skills are reported. Approximately 15 first graders were randomly assigned to each of the 10 treatment conditions. In the first experiment, four types of letter training were compared to two control conditions. The experimental…
Erford, Bradley T.; Stephens, Vicki M.
Technical characteristics of the Reading Essential Skills Screener-Elementary Version (RESS-E; B. T. Erford, G. Vitali, R. Haas, & R. R. Boykin, 1995) were studied using 4 independent samples of boys and girls between the ages of 6 and 8 years. Evidence of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, decision efficiency, factorial validity,…
Deacon, S. Helene; Benere, Jenna; Castles, Anne
There is increasing evidence of a relationship between orthographic processing skill, or the ability to form, store and access word representations, and reading ability. Empirical research to date has not, however, clarified the direction of this relationship. We examined this question in a three-year longitudinal study of children from Grades 1…
Newman, Randy Lynn; Jared, Debra; Haigh, Corinne A.
We used event-related brain potentials to clarify the role of phonology in activating the meanings of high-frequency words during skilled silent reading. Target homophones ("meet") in sentences such as "The students arranged to meet in the library to study" were replaced on some trials by either a high-frequency homophone mate…
Nation, Kate; Hulme, Charles
Gives children (ages 5+ to 9+) four tests of phonological skill to investigate relationships between these measures and their predictive relationship with reading and spelling ability. Finds performance at phonemic segmentation, rhyme sound categorization, and alliteration sound categorization improved with age, but all groups performed onset-rime…
Erford, Bradley T.
Technical characteristics of the Reading Essential Skill Screener--Preschool Version (RESS-P) were studied using four independent samples of boys and girls aged 3-5 years. A decision efficiency study (N = 91) resulted in a total predictive value (TPV) of .85 when compared with the criterion of teacher report/judgment of emerging literacy at-risk…
Pope, H. Lawrence
This study examined relationships between pre-tested early literacy skills and post-tested reading achievement in 52 kindergarten and 39 first-grade children. An archival data set was available for statistical analysis. Data analysis was completed in three stages: Participants' entry-level literacy and language scores were compared on two…
Channell, Marie Moore; Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.
Reading-related skills of youth with intellectual disability (ID) were compared with those of typically developing (TD) children of similar verbal ability level. The group with ID scored lower than the TD group on word recognition and phonological decoding, but similarly on orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming (RAN). Further,…
Çer, Erkan; Sahin, Ertugrul
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of metacognitive strategy in improving reading comprehension skills through children's literature of literary quality. A quasi-experimental study was carried out in a private secondary school in a city located Middle Black Sea region of Turkey. Two classes were randomly chosen as the study group, and…
Gullick, Margaret M.; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is…
Saint-Aubin, Jean; Klein, Raymond M.
When skilled readers search for a target letter while reading for comprehension, they miss the target letter more often when it is embedded in high-frequency function words than in less frequent content words. The magnitude of this "missing-letter-effect" (MLE) was investigated among 180 first- to fifth-grade students as a function of…
Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C
We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading.
Davis, Dawn H.
Students with moderate intellectual disabilities (MoID) typically are not taught decoding skills because they have difficulty mastering critical blending skills. In response to this skill deficit among students with MoID, an "Initial Phonics" instructional sequence was created that included student development of rapid and automatic retrieval of…
Reading is a complex process involving numerous skills and abilities contributing to acquiring meaning from text. Individuals without the requisite reading skills will have difficulty not only in school but throughout their lifetimes. The purpose of the study was to compare the reading ability of incoming college freshmen with that of adults with…
Sukhram, Diana Patricia; Hsu, Amy
Early reading exposure is important in setting a foundation for students to acquire the basic literacy skills that set them up for school and life success. More importantly, parent involvement at an early age is a critical component of reading skills development. This report presents an overview of the Reading Together Program that introduced…
Pendergast, Meghan; May, Laura; Bingham, Gary; Kurumada, Katie Simon
As U.S. schools continue to grow more culturally and linguistically diverse, it is important for teacher-educator programs to include pedagogy that promotes engaging learning opportunities for all children. One way these learning opportunities can occur is through interactive read-alouds. Interactive read-alouds provide the teacher and child an…
Loveall, Susan J; Conners, Frances A
The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed that individuals with DS performed similarly to controls on 2 measures of orthographic knowledge, but more poorly on phonological recoding and a third measure of orthographic knowledge. The first two orthographic tasks included real words as stimuli; the third task used letter patterns, not real words. These results suggest that individuals with DS may have a relative strength in word-specific orthographic knowledge but not in general orthographic knowledge.
Josephs, Nikki L.; Jolivette, Kristine
This study examined the effects of peer-mediated oral reading fluency instruction and narrative texts on the reading fluency and comprehension skills of adolescent struggling readers in an alternative high school setting over a period of 10 weeks. The results of this study indicate that peer-mediated repeated reading appears to be the most…
Geudens, Astrid; Sandra, Dominiek; Van den Broeck, Wim
This study explored developmental differences in children's segmentation skills of VC and CV syllables (e.g., /af/ and /fa/) in relation to their early reading abilities. To this end, we followed a subgroup of Dutch speaking prereaders who participated in, and replicated the segmentation task in first grade, at the outset of phonics reading instruction. Reading abilities were assessed after 6 and 9 months. First, we confirmed that VCs offer an easier context to isolate phonemes than CVs. Second, matching analyses showed that this development from VC to CV segmentation posed comparatively increasing difficulties for poor segmenters. Third, this qualitatively different development was reflected in early reading performance. Our data emphasize the importance of phonetic factors and instruction-based experiences in phonological development.
Grant, Amy; Wilson, Alexander M.; Gottardo, Alexandra
Exposure to print is a significant predictor of vocabulary growth and declarative knowledge in normally achieving readers (Stanovich, West, & Harrison, 1995). Research has also shown that initial differences in print exposure can be used to predict differences in reading comprehension in children studied ten years after initial assessment…
Jones, Cindy D.; Reutzel, D. Ray
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the code-related features used in current methods of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms transfer reading outcomes for kindergarten students. We randomly assigned kindergarten students to 3 instructional groups: a writing workshop group, an interactive writing group, and a control group.…
Mothers' literacy skills are emerging as a key determinant of children's health and survival in low-income contexts, with emphasis on the cognitive and psychological agency that literacy skills provide. This work has clearly established a strong association between mothers' reading skills--a key subcomponent of broader literacy and language skills--and child mortality. However, this relatively nascent literature has not yet considered how broader social structures condition the process. In Nigeria and in sub-Saharan Africa more broadly, gender-based social inequality constrains many mothers' decision-making power over children's health matters; this structural feature may condition the association between mothers' reading skills and child mortality. This paper uses data from the 2003 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (N = 12,076) to test the conditionality of the relationship between mothers' reading skills and child survival on mothers' decision-making power, highlighting how structural realities should factor more heavily into this individual-action-oriented literature. Among Nigerian children whose mothers have decision-making power, mothers' reading skills convey a 27 percent lower risk of child mortality; however, for children whose mothers lack decision-making power, mothers' reading skills do not yield a significant survival advantage. Overall, these findings support the need for future work to further analyze how broader social structures condition the benefits of mothers' reading skills for children's health.
Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate
This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…
developing skills needed to perform complex, cognitively-loaded tasks . The method addresses problem solving skills when critical thinking might be... developed as a result of experience, trial and error, or creative thinking . We will take a Knowledge Audit approach in order to elicit a collection of...need for innovative training approaches to develop the required Soldier knowledge , skills , abilities, and attitudes (KSAAs). The primary goal of this
Costa, Hugo Câmara; Perdry, Hervé; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salomé; Cusin, Françoise; Dellatolas, Georges
This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of concurrent relations between behavioral, familial and emergent literacy measures in a sample of 812 preschoolers, and their predictive power in explaining word reading achievement in a sub-sample of 150 children followed from kindergarten to fifth grade. Word reading at fifth grade was predicted by kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and letter knowledge. Teachers' reports of inattention symptoms at each grade level were associated with early reading skills and with subsequent word reading. Fa/Rd were concurrently and longitudinally associated with emergent literacy skills, teachers' reported inattention and word reading. These results indicate that children with a family history of reading difficulties are at increased risk for the co-occurrence of reading difficulties and attention problems from kindergarten onward. These findings confirm the shared influence of Fa/Rd on the comorbidity between inattention symptoms and reading difficulties in a non-diagnosed community sample of preschool children followed through late elementary school.
McKoon, Gai; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from…
Sáez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher
The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, the authors focused on the role of one of these factors, which they labeled attention-memory, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention-memory predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors found significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task redirections. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed.
Sáez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher
The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using SWAN behavior rating scores, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, we focused on the role of one of these factors, which we labeled attention-memory behaviors, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using HLM, significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction were found. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, by mid-year, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task- orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task re-directions. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed. PMID:22207616
McGeown, Sarah P.; Medford, Emma
This study examined the skills predicting early reading development when children were taught by a synthetic phonics approach. Eighty five children taught to read by systematic synthetic phonics were assessed on reading and cognitive assessments prior to reading instruction (average age 4 years, 7 months), 6 months later (5 years, 1 month), and 73…
Prater, Mary Anne; Bruhl, Susan; Serna, Loretta A.
A study compared three procedures for teaching social skills with 13 intermediate-age students with learning disabilities, emotional disturbances, or visual impairments who also participated in cooperative-learning groups. Students who received teacher-directed instruction improved in listening, problem solving, and negotiating skills during…
Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah; Hamzah, Ramlah
This study was performed to identify the employability skills of technical students from the Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) and Indigenous People's Trust Council (MARA) Skills Training Institutes (IKM) in Malaysia. The study sample consisted of 850 final year trainees of IKM and ITI. The sample was chosen by a random sampling procedure from…
PENROSE, ROBERT; AND OTHERS
THIS TEACHING GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH GIFTED PUPILS AT GRADES FIVE AND SIX WHO ARE READING TWO OR MORE LEVELS ABOVE THEIR GRADE PLACEMENT. THE GUIDE ALSO PROVIDES GUIDANCE FOR THE STUDY OF BIOGRAPHY THROUGH SCIENCE LITERATURE. SUCH READING SKILLS AS ANALYZING THE AUTHOR'S PURPOSE, HIS ORGANIZATION, PERSONALITY AND STYLE, UNDERSTANDING…
Burns, Matthew K.; Senesac, Barbara J.; Silberglitt, Benjamin
There is a recent interest in volunteer tutoring programs and research has suggested effectiveness in improving reading skills. Previous research found that the Help One Student to Succeed (HOSTS) volunteer tutoring program increased reading fluency and comprehension over a 5-month interval (Burns, Senesac, & Symington, 2004). The current…
Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul
The findings of a meta-analysis of the effect of reading instruction on the reading skills of students with or at risk of behavioral disorders (BD) are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Coleman and Vaughn by (a) detailing independent variables and outcome measures for each study, (b)including studies sampling from…
This program evaluation is a study of the effectiveness of a core reading program, Journeys, by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH), on the early literacy skills and oral reading fluency (ORF) of kindergarten through second grade students in a rural elementary school. The scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to scores of…
Costa, Hugo Camara; Perdry, Herve; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salome; Cusin, Francoise; Dellatolas, Georges
This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of…
DesJardin, Jean L; Ambrose, Sophie E; Eisenberg, Laurie S
The goal of this study was to longitudinally examine relationships between early factors (child and mother) that may influence children's phonological awareness and reading skills 3 years later in a group of young children with cochlear implants (N = 16). Mothers and children were videotaped during two storybook interactions, and children's oral language skills were assessed using the "Reynell Developmental Language Scales, third edition." Three years later, phonological awareness, reading skills, and language skills were assessed using the "Phonological Awareness Test," the "Woodcock-Johnson-III Diagnostic Reading Battery," and the "Oral Written Language Scales." Variables included in the data analyses were child (age, age at implant, and language skills) and mother factors (facilitative language techniques) and children's phonological awareness and reading standard scores. Results indicate that children's early expressive oral language skills and mothers' use of a higher level facilitative language technique (open-ended question) during storybook reading, although related, each contributed uniquely to children's literacy skills. Individual analyses revealed that the children with expressive standard scores below 70 at Time 1 also performed below average (<85) on phonological awareness and total reading tasks 3 years later. Guidelines for professionals are provided to support literacy skills in young children with cochlear implants.
Goddard, Yvonne; Rinderknecht, Laura
Literacy expectations for persons with cognitive impairments, including impairments caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI), have remained quite low. Some researchers have suggested that educators move from a focus on teaching functional skills to teaching basic reading skills in a manner similar to instruction for nondisabled learners. The purpose…
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact.
Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying
Examines how alphabetic readers learn to read Chinese. Explores the effect of the frequency of the characters in their curriculum on performance of a lexical decision and naming task. Finds that the beginning learners were sensitive to the structural complexity and composition of characters. Suggests that perceptual learning plays an important…
Jones, Jan; And Others
This packet contains five lesson plans designed to teach reading and writing skills to grocery store employees. The lesson plans were developed, using the Laubach literacy method, for a workplace literacy project at Carr Grocery Store in Anchorage, Alaska. The lesson plans, which are correlated with Laubach skills books levels 1-2, include…
Aid Assessment and Revision Because the two training aids were specifically developed to benefit different types of learners , predictions about the...107. Hammond, J., & Gibbons, P. (2001). What is scaffolding? In J. Hammond (Ed.), Scaffolding: Teaching and learning in language and literacy ...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1941 Training Aids for Basic Combat Skills: Developing Map
Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt
Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students
Conrad, Amy L.; McCoy, Thomasin E.; DeVolder, Ian; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg
Objective Evaluate speech, hearing, and neuropsychological correlates to reading among children, adolescents and young adults with non-syndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). Method All testing was completed in one visit at a Midwestern university hospital. Subjects in both the NSCL/P (n = 80) and control group (n = 62) ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (average age = 17.60 and 17.66, respectively). Subjects completed a battery of standardized tests evaluating intelligence, neuropsychological skills, and word reading. Subjects with NSCL/P also underwent speech assessment and past audiology records were evaluated. Results After controlling for age and SES, subjects with cleft performed significantly worse on a test of word reading. For subjects with cleft, word reading deficits were not associated with measures of speech or hearing, but were correlated with impairments in auditory memory. Conclusions These findings show poorer reading among subjects with NCL/P compared to those without. Further work needs to focus on correlates of reading among subjects with cleft to allow early identification and appropriate intervention/accommodation for those at risk. PMID:24188114
Mowbray, Susan; Halse, Christine
In the past decade there has been a marked push for the development of employability skills to be part of the PhD process. This push is generally by stakeholders from above and outside the PhD process, i.e. government and industry, who view skills as a "summative product" of the PhD. In contrast, our study interviewed stakeholders inside…
Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.
Two adaptations of Success for All, a comprehensive instructional reform program for elementary schools, have been used with students acquiring English as a second language. One is a Spanish bilingual version called "Exito para Todos," in which students are taught to read in Spanish and then transitioned to English reading, usually in…
Hoeft, Fumiko; Ueno, Takefumi; Reiss, Allan L; Meyler, Ann; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H; Keller, Timothy A; Kobayashi, Nobuhisa; Mazaika, Paul; Jo, Booil; Just, Marcel Adam; Gabrieli, John D E
The ability to decode letters into language sounds is essential for reading success, and accurate identification of children at high risk for decoding impairment is critical for reducing the frequency and severity of reading impairment. We examined the utility of behavioral (standardized tests), and functional and structural neuroimaging measures taken with children at the beginning of a school year for predicting their decoding ability at the end of that school year. Specific patterns of brain activation during phonological processing and morphology, as revealed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray and white matter densities, predicted later decoding ability. Further, a model combining behavioral and neuroimaging measures predicted decoding outcome significantly better than either behavioral or neuroimaging models alone. Results were validated using cross-validation methods. These findings suggest that neuroimaging methods may be useful in enhancing the early identification of children at risk for poor decoding and reading skills.
Wise, Justin C.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne
Purpose: Some researchers (F. R. Vellutino, F. M. Scanlon, & M. S. Tanzman, 1994) have argued that the different domains comprising language (e.g., phonology, semantics, and grammar) may influence reading development in a differential manner and at different developmental periods. The purpose of this study was to examine proposed causal…
Gregg, Madeleine; Sekeres, Diane Carver
If children are to read to learn, they must acquire skill in processing and comprehending expository texts. However, teaching children to read and comprehend informational texts takes time, because there are so many complex skills associated with this reading. Building children's knowledge of the content to be studied and introducing new…
Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick
Learning environments have an impact on acquiring skills in reading as well as developing positive attitudes toward reading. Another variable that affects attitudes and aptitude toward reading is the "climate" or "environment" in which children learn their skills. This paper concentrates on the phenomenon that is reaching epic proportions in the…
Yildirim, Kasim; Ritz, Elizabeth; Akyol, Hayati; Rasinski, Timothy
One of the most important aims of teaching reading is to help students acquire fluent reading skills. With this aim in mind, this study attempted to support a student with difficulty to become a fluent reader by improving his reading skills using a fluency instruction method called repeated reading. This study was performed with an elementary…
Hendrix, C M; Thompson, I K; Mann, C J
In the 1989 report by the Pew National Veterinary Education Program (PNVEP), communication skills topped the list of characteristics the veterinary graduate should possess in order to function effectively in the twenty-first century. To determine the reading, writing, and oral communication requirements and opportunities in veterinary curricula in the US and Canada, and to determine the perceived communication tasks that might be commonly required of practicing veterinarians in the next century, we sent a 15-item communications skills questionnaire to the academic deans of the 31 veterinary curricula in the US and Canada. The results reinforce the importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine, as detailed by the PNVEP over 10 years ago. Based on the responses to our questionnaire and on our own experiences with veterinary medical students, we make several recommendations to enhance communication instruction in veterinary medical curricula.
Rawley, Lee Ann; Smith, Alfred N.
A technique for teaching dialog is outlined that provides considerable preproduction input and acquisition experiences through which students create dialog lines. The technique uses these steps: prenarrative activities, narrative, contextual expansion of new vocabulary, reading input, dialog construction from visual cues, dialog recreation, and…
Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.
Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342
Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.
Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5
Shapiro, Edward S; Gebhardt, Sarah; Flatley, Katie; Guard, Kirra B; Fu, Qiong; Leichman, Erin S; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Hojnoski, Robin
The development and psychometric qualities of a measure using teacher judgment to rate performance in reading comprehension for narrative text is described-the Rating Scales for Academic Skills-Reading Comprehension Narrative (RSAS-RCN). Sixty-five teachers from the third, fourth, and fifth grades of 8 elementary schools completed the measure on 177 students. Each teacher rated students who had been identified through school-based universal screening to be below the 25th percentile, between the 25th and 74th percentile, and at or above the 75th percentile on national normative standards. Results indicated the RSAS-RCN has strong to moderate evidence of (a) 1-week test-retest reliability, (b) concurrent validity with the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) and end of year state assessment in reading, and (c) significant classification accuracy across student ability levels. Principal component analysis and item response theory (Rasch modeling) indicate the RSAS-RCN is comprised of a single general dimension. Overall, this examination of the RSAS-RCN suggests teacher judgment may be a potentially valuable tool in assessing reading comprehension among upper elementary school students. (PsycINFO Database Record
Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; Severiens, Sabine E.; Klop, Tanja
The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four-lesson science module on opinion-forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16-year-old students' opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use of fiction in the module. The basic hypothesis…
Collaboration skills are essential for all teachers, but crucial for personnel who instruct students with disabilities. Through collaboration, families and professionals are able to combine their strengths and wisdom to make education as appropriate as possible for the student. Capitalizing on each other's knowledge and expertise not only helps…
Critical care nurses need to be more effective leaders and managers in healthcare. Delivering quality and cost-effective patient outcomes have become goals of all nurses. To achieve these goals, nurses must practice and attain leadership ability. This article describes a program to help nurses gain quality leadership skills.
Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…
Patel, Vrajeshri; Craig, Jamie; Schumacher, Michelle; Burns, Martin K.; Florescu, Ionut; Vinjamuri, Ramana
Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning. A new task was designed to highlight the range of motion and dexterity of the human hand. Two separate training strategies were tested in healthy subjects: task repetition training and synergy training versus a control. All three groups showed improvements when retested on the same task. When tested on a similar, but different set of tasks, only the synergy group showed improvements in accuracy (9.27% increase) compared to the repetition (3.24% decline) and control (3.22% decline) groups. A kinematic analysis revealed that although joint angular peak velocities decreased, timing benefits stemmed from the initial feed-forward portion of the task (reaction time). Accuracy improvements may have derived from general improved coordination among the four involved fingers. These preliminary results warrant further investigation of synergy-based motor training in healthy individuals, as well as in individuals undergoing hand-based rehabilitative therapy. PMID:28289680
Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana
This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning…
de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C
The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear.
de Oliveira, Darlene G.; da Silva, Patrícia B.; Dias, Natália M.; Seabra, Alessandra G.; Macedo, Elizeu C.
The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8–13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331
Leal, Dorothy; Johanson, George; Toth, Allison; Huang, Chin-Cheng
The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how the reading skills of children at-risk are affected by tutoring by preservice reading endorsement students, (b) to identify differences by setting, gender and grade level, and to (c) identify effective strategies and influences on student success in a four-month tutoring program. Data were collected…
Tyler, Emily J.; Hughes, John C.; Wilson, Meadhbh M.; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard P.; Williams, Bethan M.
Many children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) have considerable difficulty learning basic reading skills. Increasing evidence suggests individuals with IDD may benefit from instruction incorporating components of reading found to be effective for typically developing children. However, little research into reading…
Nevo, Einat; Bar-Kochva, Irit
This study investigated the relations of early working-memory abilities (phonological and visual-spatial short-term memory [STM] and complex memory and episodic buffer memory) and later developing reading skills. Sixty Hebrew-speaking children were followed from kindergarten through Grade 5. Working memory was tested in kindergarten and reading in…
Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.
Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…
Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans
Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…
Dixon, L. Quentin
To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are…
Foorman, Barbara; Beyler, Nicholas; Borradaile, Kelley; Coyne, Michael; Denton, Carolyn A.; Dimino, Joseph; Furgeson, Joshua; Hayes, Lynda; Henke, Juliette; Justice, Laura; Keating, Betsy; Lewis, Warnick; Sattar, Samina; Streke, Andrei; Wagner, Richard; Wissel, Sarah
The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. This guide is a companion to the existing practice guide, "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade", and as a set, these guides…
Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Lingam, Raghu; Friend, Angela
By the time children leave primary school there is a large socio-economic gap in their reading proficiency. There are a number of potential explanations for this socio-economic gap and in this paper we investigate the role of three particular genes and gene-environment interactions in determining children's reading skills, using the Avon…
Spira, Elana Greenfield; Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.
This study investigated the role of early literacy and behavioral skills in predicting the improvement of children who have experienced reading difficulties in 1st grade. The progress of 146 low-income children whose reading scores in 1st grade were below the 30th percentile was examined to determine (a) how the poorest readers in 1st grade…
Endress, Stacy A.; Weston, Holly; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Martella, Ronald C.; Simmons, Julie
The purpose of this program evaluation was to examine the effects of "Phono-Graphix," an intensive tertiary-level reading intervention, on the basic reading skills of 16 students aged 6 to 17 years who received special education services. Instruction was delivered one-on-one or in small groups of two or three students. Instruction lasted 8 weeks.…
Grant, Amy; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther
The validity of two measures of English reading comprehension was examined across three different groups of English language learners (ELLs; 64 Portuguese, 66 Spanish and 65 Cantonese). All three groups were achieving within the average range in second grade. An exploratory principal components analysis of reading skills was carried out to…
Dakin, Alexandra B.
This study focuses on the effectiveness and advantages of using an explicit phonics based reading program in kindergarten through second grade. The methods of decoding words that teachers introduce to the beginning readers must prove to be effective in introducing and building reading skills. Most recent studies have revisited and concurred with…
Markoff, Annabelle Most
Two objectives of this book are to provide a rationale for using basic language forms (sounds, letters, and words) in the perceptual-skill training of low-achieving children and to present techniques for teaching reading, spelling, and handwriting to low-achieving children. The first chapter, on the reading/spelling inversion, explains the…
Plourde, Vickie; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Marino, Cecilia; Tremblay, Richard T.; Dionne, Ginette
Background: The phenotypic and genetic associations between decoding skills and ADHD dimensions have been documented but less is known about the association with reading comprehension. The aim of the study is to document the phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension and ADHD dimensions of inattention and…
Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Dunlop, Maggie; Wagner, Maryam; Kim, Youn-Hee; Gu, Zhimei
The study examined differences in reading achievement and mastery skill development among Grade-6 students with different language background profiles, using cognitive diagnosis modeling applied to large-scale provincial reading test performance data. Our analyses revealed that students residing in various home language environments show different…
District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.
The purpose of the Basic Skills portion of this project was to improve the reading and mathematics skills of students in the Junior High Schools Transition program, grades 7 through 9, in 27 junior high schools and 4 middle or extended elementary schools. The goal of the Mathematics Teacher Resources Development portion of the project was to…
The aim of present research was to describe the relation of six-year-old children's attention and reading readiness skills (general knowledge, word comprehension, sentences, and matching) with their auditory reasoning and processing skills. This was a quantitative study based on scanning model. Research sampling consisted of 204 kindergarten…
Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.
Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…
Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Ormel, Ellen; Verhoeven, Ludo
This paper reports on one experiment in which we investigated the relationship between reading and signing skills. We administered a vocabulary task and a story comprehension task in Sign Language of the Netherlands and in written Dutch to a group of 87 deaf children from bilingual education programs. We found a strong and positive correlation between the scores obtained in the sign vocabulary task and the reading vocabulary task when age, short-term memory scores, and nonverbal intelligence scores were controlled for. In addition, a correlation was observed between the scores in the story comprehension tasks in Sign Language of the Netherlands and written Dutch but only when vocabulary scores for words and signs were not taken into account. The results are briefly discussed with reference to a model we recently proposed to describe lexical development for deaf children in bilingual education programs (Hermans, D., Knoors, H., Ormel, E., & Verhoeven, L., 2008). In addition, the implications of the results of the present study for previous studies on the relationship between reading and signing skills are discussed.
Johns, Clinton L.; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Van Dyke, Julie A.
A substantial body of evidence points to a cue-based direct-access retrieval mechanism as a crucial component of skilled adult reading. We report two experiments aimed at examining whether poor readers are able to make use of the same retrieval mechanism. This is significant in light of findings that poor readers have difficulty retrieving linguistic information (e.g., Perfetti, 1985). Our experiments are based on a previous demonstration of direct-access retrieval in language processing, presented in McElree et al. (2003). Experiment 1 replicates the original result using an auditory implementation of the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff (SAT) method. This finding represents a significant methodological advance, as it opens up the possibility of exploring retrieval speeds in non-reading populations. Experiment 2 provides evidence that poor readers do use a direct-access retrieval mechanism during listening comprehension, despite overall poorer accuracy and slower retrieval speeds relative to skilled readers. The findings are discussed with respect to hypotheses about the source of poor reading comprehension. PMID:26528212
Erbeli, Florina; Pižorn, Karmen
This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1 Slovene English as foreign language (EFL) students in foreign language (L2) fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed…
Bos, Lisanne T.; De Koning, Bjorn B.; Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; van der Schoot, Menno
This study aimed to enhance third and fourth graders’ text comprehension at the situation model level. Therefore, we tested a reading strategy training developed to target inference making skills, which are widely considered to be pivotal to situation model construction. The training was grounded in contemporary literature on situation model-based inference making and addressed the source (text-based versus knowledge-based), type (necessary versus unnecessary for (re-)establishing coherence), and depth of an inference (making single lexical inferences versus combining multiple lexical inferences), as well as the type of searching strategy (forward versus backward). Results indicated that, compared to a control group (n = 51), children who followed the experimental training (n = 67) improved their inference making skills supportive to situation model construction. Importantly, our training also resulted in increased levels of general reading comprehension and motivation. In sum, this study showed that a ‘level of text representation’-approach can provide a useful framework to teach inference making skills to third and fourth graders. PMID:26913014
Bos, Lisanne T; De Koning, Bjorn B; Wassenburg, Stephanie I; van der Schoot, Menno
This study aimed to enhance third and fourth graders' text comprehension at the situation model level. Therefore, we tested a reading strategy training developed to target inference making skills, which are widely considered to be pivotal to situation model construction. The training was grounded in contemporary literature on situation model-based inference making and addressed the source (text-based versus knowledge-based), type (necessary versus unnecessary for (re-)establishing coherence), and depth of an inference (making single lexical inferences versus combining multiple lexical inferences), as well as the type of searching strategy (forward versus backward). Results indicated that, compared to a control group (n = 51), children who followed the experimental training (n = 67) improved their inference making skills supportive to situation model construction. Importantly, our training also resulted in increased levels of general reading comprehension and motivation. In sum, this study showed that a 'level of text representation'-approach can provide a useful framework to teach inference making skills to third and fourth graders.
Henricson, Cecilia; Lidestam, Björn; Lyxell, Björn; Möller, Claes
Objective: To investigate working memory (WM), phonological skills, lexical skills, and reading comprehension in adults with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). Design: The participants performed tests of phonological processing, lexical access, WM, and reading comprehension. The design of the test situation and tests was specifically considered for use with persons with low vision in combination with hearing impairment. The performance of the group with USH2 on the different cognitive measures was compared to that of a matched control group with normal hearing and vision (NVH). Study Sample: Thirteen participants with USH2 aged 21–60 years and a control group of 10 individuals with NVH, matched on age and level of education. Results: The group with USH2 displayed significantly lower performance on tests of phonological processing, and on measures requiring both fast visual judgment and phonological processing. There was a larger variation in performance among the individuals with USH2 than in the matched control group. Conclusion: The performance of the group with USH2 indicated similar problems with phonological processing skills and phonological WM as in individuals with long-term hearing loss. The group with USH2 also had significantly longer reaction times, indicating that processing of visual stimuli is difficult due to the visual impairment. These findings point toward the difficulties in accessing information that persons with USH2 experience, and could be part of the explanation of why individuals with USH2 report high levels of fatigue and feelings of stress (Wahlqvist et al., 2013). PMID:25859232
Silva, Juan Pino
Reading materials written in English is the prime goal of many reading programs around the world. Extensive reading (ER) has for years aided new students at my institution to gradually acquire large vocabularies and other sub-skills that are needed to read fluently. To continue to do that effectively, a new scheme involving the use of…
Lipka, Orly; Siegel, Linda S
This study examined the development of literacy skills in children in a district that used a Response to Intervention (RTI) model. The district included children whose first language was English and children who were learning English as a second language (ESL). Tasks measuring phonological awareness, lexical access, and syntactic awareness were administered when the children entered school in kindergarten at age 5. Reading, phonological processing, syntactic awareness, memory, and spelling were administered in grade 7. When the children entered school, significant numbers of them were at risk for literacy difficulties. After systematic instruction and annual monitoring of skills, their reading abilities improved to the extent that only a very small percentage had reading difficulties. The results demonstrated that early identification and intervention and frequent monitoring of basic skills can significantly reduce the incidence of reading problems in both the ESL and language majority children.
Breier, Joshua; Fletcher, Jack; Klaas, Patricia; Gray, Lincoln
Children ages 7 to 14 years listened to seven tokens, /ga/ to /ka/ synthesized in equal steps from 0 to 60 ms along the voice onset time (VOT) continuum, played in continuous rhythm. All possible changes (21) between the seven tokens were presented seven times at random intervals, maintaining the rhythm. Children were asked to press a button as soon as they detected a change. Maps of the seven tokens, constructed from multidimensional scaling of reaction times, indicated two salient dimensions: one phonological and the other acoustic/phonetic. Better reading, spelling, and phonological processing skills were associated with greater relative weighting of the phonological as compared to the acoustic dimension, suggesting that children with reading difficulty and associated deficits may underweight the phonological and/or overweight the acoustic information in speech signals. This task required no training and only momentary memory of the tokens. That an analysis of a simple task coincides with more complex reading tests suggests a low-level deficit (or shift in listening strategy). Compared to control children, children with reading disabilities may pay more attention to subtle details in these signals and less attention to the global pattern or attribute. [Supported by NIH Grant 1 RO1 HD35938 to JIB.
Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco
The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ± 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension.
Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando
Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic…
Heimann, M; Nelson, K E; Tjus, T; Gillberg, C
This paper reports on the effect of using an interactive and child-initiated microcomputer program (Alpha) when teaching three groups of children (N = 30) reading and communications skills: (a) 11 children with autism (M chronological age, CA = 9:4 years), (b) 9 children with mixed handicaps (M CA = 13:1), and (c) 10 normal preschool children (M CA = 6:4 years). Their mental age varied from 5:8 years to 6:9 years and all children received computer instruction supplementary to their regular reading and writing activities. Tests of reading and phonological development were carried out at the onset of the training (Start), at the end (Post 1), and at a follow-up evaluation (Post 2). In addition, video observations of the childrens' verbal and nonverbal communication were added at Start and Post 1. The children with autism increased both their word reading and their phonological awareness through the use of the Alpha program. Clearly significant gains were observed during the intervention, but none during the follow-up period. A similar but weaker pattern is observed for the children with mixed handicaps. In contrast, the normal preschool children increased their scores regardless of the program. Analyses of the children's classroom behavior indicate that the intervention succeeded in stimulating verbal expressions among the children with autism and mixed handicap. A significant increase in enjoyment was also noted for the children with autism. It is concluded that the intervention with a motivating multimedia program might stimulate reading and communication in children with various developmental disabilities, but that such interventions must be individually based and include both detailed planning and monitoring from teachers, and parents, as well as from clinicians in charge.
Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wagner, Richard K; Schatschneider, Christopher
This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73% to 87%) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most unique variance to reading comprehension at all grade levels. In addition, we fit a multiple group 4-factor MIMIC model to investigate the relative stability (or variability) of the predictor contributions to reading comprehension across development (i.e., grade levels). The results revealed that the contributions of verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory to reading comprehension were stable across the three grade levels. Decoding was the only predictor that could not be constrained to be equal across grade levels. The contribution of decoding skills to reading comprehension was higher in third grade and then remained relatively stable between seventh and tenth grade. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using MIMIC models to explain individual differences in reading comprehension across the development of reading skills.
Zhou, Yanling; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Law, Ada Bui-Yan; Li, Tong; Cheung, Amelie Cho-Yi; Wong, Anita M-Y; Shu, Hua
This 2-year longitudinal study sought to identify a developmental pattern of Chinese and English reading skills in children with and without dyslexia from 6 to 8years of age. Three groups of 15 children each-those with dyslexia, age-matched (AM) controls, and reading-matched (RM) controls-participated. Dyslexia was diagnosed at 8years of age. All children were tested on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), morphological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also speed of processing skill. AM controls outperformed the group with dyslexia on all measures except for phonological awareness, English word reading, and vocabulary. However, those with dyslexia and AM controls developed at a similar rate across all reading-related skills from 6 to 8years of age. Compared with the RM controls, the group with dyslexia scored higher in phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also in English word reading but scored similarly in RAN. Children with dyslexia, thus, manifested clear difficulties in Chinese vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, and RAN as well as general speed of processing, representing a developmental lag in cognitive skills. Among these, RAN deficits are likely to be the most severe deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia.
Cutting, Laurie E.; Scarborough, Hollis S.
Reading comprehension scores from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and the Gray Oral Reading Test were examined in relation to measures of reading, language, and other cognitive skills that have been hypothesized to contribute to comprehension and account for comprehension differences. In a sample of 97…
Lloyd, Bruce A.
To discover the opinions of high school teachers regarding the need for teaching reading skills, an amended Vaughan Scale was administered to 388 teachers in 15 high schools in Michigan. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions to which teachers responded on a Likert-type scale. The results supported the following conclusions: (1) teaching…
Solari, Emily J.; Aceves, Terese C.; Higareda, Ignacio; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill
This study investigates the relation between Spanish and English early literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade, and English oral reading fluency at the end of first and second grade in a sample of 150 Spanish-speaking English language learners. Students were assessed in kindergarten, first, and second grades on a broad bilingual academic…
Michaels, Claire F; Gomes, Thábata V B; Benda, Rodolfo N
The theory of direct learning (D. M. Jacobs & C. F. Michaels, 2007 ) has proven useful in understanding improvement in perception and exploratory action. Here the authors assess its usefulness for understanding the learning of a motor skill, bimanual tapping at a difficult phase relation. Twenty participants attempted to learn to tap with 2 index fingers at 2 Hz with a phase lag of 90° (i.e., with a right-right period of 500 ms and a right-left period of 125 ms). There were 30 trials, each with 50 tapping cycles. Computer-screen feedback informed of errors in both period and phase for each pair of taps. Participants differed dramatically in their success. Learning was assessed by identifying the succession of attractors capturing tapping over the experiment. A few participants' attractors migrated from antiphase to 90° with an appropriate period; others became attracted to a fixed right-left interval, rather than phase, with or without attraction to period. Changes in attractor loci were explained with mixed success by direct learning, inviting elaboration of the theory. The transition to interval attractors was understood as a change in intention, and was remarkable for its indifference to typical bimanual interactions.
Zucker, Tricia A; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N
In this study, we examined the longitudinal relations between frequency and features of reading experiences within the preschool classroom to children's language and literacy outcomes in kindergarten and 1st grade. Frequency refers to the number of shared reading sessions conducted each week as measured by teachers' written reading logs recorded across the academic year. Features refers to teachers' extratextual talk about literal, inferential, or print or phonological topics as assessed by analysis of 6 videotaped readings of narrative and informational texts collected across the preschool year. Participants were 28 preschool teachers and 178 children. The children were largely at risk and randomly selected from among those in each classroom to complete longitudinal assessments. In preschool, results showed that the frequency of classroom shared reading was positively and significantly related to children's receptive vocabulary growth, as was the inclusion of extratextual conversations around the text; only extratextual conversations related to children's preschool literacy growth. There was no evidence of differential influences of these experiences for children; that is, the relationship between frequency or features and children's language and literacy development was not moderated by children's initial skill level. Longitudinally, extratextual talk during preschool shared reading remained associated with children's vocabulary skills through kindergarten, with trends toward significance extending to 1st grade literacy skills. The frequency of preschool shared reading was not a significant predictor of longitudinal outcomes.
Constantinidou, Maria; Stainthorp, Rhona
There is evidence that phonological awareness skills secure decoding ability and that phonological deficits underlie failure to acquire adequate word recognition. Slow word-reading rate may be an additional defining characteristic of reading disability. The present study aimed to investigate whether: (1) reading disabled (RD) Greek-speaking…
McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth
A recognised aim of science education is to promote critical engagement with science in the media. Evidence would suggest that this is challenging for both teachers and pupils and that science education does not yet adequately prepare young people for this task. Furthermore, in the absence of clear guidance as to what this means and how this may be achieved it is difficult for teachers to develop approaches and resources that address the matter and that systematically promote such critical engagement within their teaching programmes. Twenty-six individuals with recognised expertise or interest in science in the media, drawn from a range of disciplines and areas of practice, constituted a specialist panel in this study. The question this research sought to answer was "what are the elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude which underpin critical reading of science-based news reports?" During in-depth individual interviews the panel were asked to explore what they considered to be essential elements of knowledge, skills, and attitude which people need to enable them to respond critically to news reports with a science component. Analysis of the data revealed 14 fundamental elements which together contribute to an individual's capacity to engage critically with science-based news. These are classified in five categories "knowledge of science", "knowledge of writing and language", "knowledge about news, newspapers and journalism", "skills", and "attitudes". Illustrative profiles of each category along with indicators of critical engagement are presented. The implications for curriculum planning and pedagogy are considered.
Spira, Elana Greenfield; Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E
This study investigated the role of early literacy and behavioral skills in predicting the improvement of children who have experienced reading difficulties in 1st grade. The progress of 146 low-income children whose reading scores in 1st grade were below the 30th percentile was examined to determine (a) how the poorest readers in 1st grade progressed in reading achievement through 4th grade and (b) which emergent literacy and behavioral skills measured in kindergarten predicted differential 4th grade outcomes. Results indicated that the divergence between children who improved and those who did not was established by the end of 2nd grade. Further, individual linguistic skills and behavioral attributes measured in kindergarten contributed substantively to this difference. Implications for intervention timing and educational policy are discussed.
This study examined the discrimination of English vowel contrasts in real and novel word-pairs by 21 children: 11 bilingual Spanish/English- and 10 monolingual English-speaking children, 8-12 years of age (M=10; 6; Mdn=10; 4). The goal was to determine if children with poor reading skills had difficulty with discrimination, an essential factor in reading abilities. A categorial discrimination task was used in an ABX discrimination paradigm: A (the first word in the sequence) and B (the second word in the sequence) were different stimuli, and X (the third word in the sequence) was identical to either A or to B. Stimuli were produced by one of three different speakers. Seventy-two monosyllabic words were presented: 36 real English and 36 novel words. Vowels were those absent from the inventory of Spanish vowels. Discrimination accuracy for the English-speaking children with good reading skills was significantly greater than for the bilingual-speaking children with good or poor reading skills. Early age of acquisition and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English played the greatest role in bilingual children's discrimination and reading skills. The adjacency of vowels in the F1-F2 acoustic space presented the greatest difficulty.
Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N
The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.
Study conducted to determine whether Black English speakers are likely to encounter problems in reading standard English. Results indicate no relationship between the use of Black English and subjects' grade level or reading performance. (Author/JLF)
Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy
Studied the effects of two adaptations of the Success for All program, a Spanish bilingual version (Exito para Todos) and an adaptation that integrates English-as-a-Second-Language strategies with English reading instruction using data from six studies. Notes substantially positive effects of both approaches on students acquiring English. (SLD)
Suggate, Sebastian; Reese, Elaine; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Schneider, Wolfgang
Beginning readers in shallow orthographies acquire word reading skills more quickly than in deep orthographies like English. In addition to extending this evidence base by comparing reading acquisition in English with the more transparent German, we conducted a longitudinal study and investigated whether different early reading skills made…
Culver, Victor Irwin
The primary purpose of this study was to experimentally evaluate the Guided Reading Procedure (GRP) as a teaching strategy designed to improve reading comprehension. The chief experimental strategy was compared with a current instructional strategy, the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) described by Stauffer (1969). The effects on reading…
Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Kiuru, Noona; Laakkonen, Eero; Niemi, Pekka
The present five-year longitudinal study from preschool to grade 3 examined the developmental associations among oral language comprehension, task orientation, reading precursors, and reading fluency, as well as their role in predicting grade 3 reading comprehension. Ninety Finnish-speaking students participated in the study. The students' oral…
Bar-Kochva, Irit; Breznitz, Zvia
Spelling-sound transparency varies across orthographies. This aspect was found to have implications for the strategy of reading, but whether reading of different orthographies also relies differently on cognitive skills is yet unclear. This question was examined mainly by cross-participant-and-language investigations in which orthographic variation is hard to isolate. This work examined this topic using a within-participant-and-language study design. Hebrew readers in Grades 3 and 4 were longitudinally tested because in these grades they are engaged in reading three forms of script, transcribing the same language and varying in spelling-sound relations, as they gradually progress from reading a transparent orthography to reading an opaque one. Phonological awareness explained a considerable amount of variance in accuracy in reading all forms of script across these two years. The relations of morphological awareness with accuracy in reading the three forms of script were similar; however, the results suggested that these may be associated with the course of transition. Phonological awareness and rapid naming were similarly related to fluency in reading all forms of script when equivalent proficiencies in reading of these scripts were achieved. At this stage, the relations of vocabulary with fluency in reading and comprehension of the transparent and opaque forms of script were also much alike. Phonological memory explained a modest, but significant, amount of variance in comprehension of the unpointed script alone. These results suggest that, apart from phonological memory, the cognitive skills tested in this study serve as a common cognitive infrastructure in reading orthographies varying in spelling-sound transparency.
St Clair, Michelle C; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Pickles, Andrew
Individuals with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) often have subsequent problems with reading skills, but there have been some discrepant findings as to the developmental time course of these skills. This study investigates the developmental trajectories of reading skills over a 9-year time-span (from 7 to 16 years of age) in a large sample of individuals with a history of SLI. Relationships among reading skills, autistic symptomatology, and language-related abilities were also investigated. The results indicate that both reading accuracy and comprehension are deficient but that the development of these skills progresses in a consistently parallel fashion to what would be expected from a normative sample of same age peers. Language-related abilities were strongly associated with reading skills. Unlike individuals with SLI only, those with SLI and additional autistic symptomatology had adequate reading accuracy but did not differ from the individuals with SLI only in reading comprehension. They exhibited a significant gap between what they could read and what they could understand when reading. These findings provide strong evidence that individuals with SLI experience continued, long-term deficits in reading skills from childhood to adolescence.
Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama
Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate-they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like "now" that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, "know"). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it and from
Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama
Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate—they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like “now” that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, “know”). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it
Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J.; Menc, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R.
For accurate reading comprehension, readers must first learn to map letters to their corresponding speech sounds and meaning and then they must string the meanings of many words together to form a representation of the text. Furthermore, readers must master the complexities involved in parsing the relevant syntactic and pragmatic information necessary for accurate interpretation. Failure in this process can occur at multiple levels and cognitive neuroscience has been helpful in identifying the underlying causes of success and failure in reading single words and in reading comprehension. In general, neurobiological studies of skilled reading comprehension indicate a highly overlapping language circuit for single word reading, reading comprehension and listening comprehension with largely quantitative differences in a number of reading and language related areas. This paper reviews relevant research from studies employing neuroimaging techniques to study reading with a focus on the relationship between reading skill, single word reading, and text comprehension. PMID:23662034
Wu, Che-Ming; Chen, Yen-An; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Lee, Li-Ang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Lin, Bao-Guey; Liu, Tien-Chen
The aim of this study was to document receptive and expressive language levels and reading skills achieved by Mandarin-speaking children who had received cochlear implants (CIs) and used them for 4.75-7.42 years. The effects of possible associated factors were also analyzed. Standardized Mandarin language and reading tests were administered to 39 prelingually deaf children with Nucleus 24 devices. The Mandarin Chinese version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used to assess their receptive vocabulary knowledge and the Revised Primary School Language Assessment Test for their receptive and expressive language skills. The Graded Chinese Character Recognition Test was used to test their written word recognition ability and the Reading Comprehension Test for their reading comprehension ability. Raw scores from both language and reading measurements were compared to normative data of nor- mal-hearing children to obtain standard scores. The results showed that the mean standard score for receptive vocabulary measurement and the mean T scores for the receptive language, expressive language and total language measurement were all in the low-average range in comparison to the normative sample. In contrast, the mean T scores for word and text reading comprehension were almost the same as for their age-matched hearing counterparts. Among all children with CIs, 75.7% scored within or above the normal range of their age-matched hearing peers on receptive vocabulary measurement. For total language, Chinese word recognition and reading scores, 71.8, 77 and 82% of children with CIs were age appropriate, respectively. A strong correlation was found between language and reading skills. Age at implantation and sentence perception scores account for 37% of variance for total language outcome. Sentence perception scores and preimplantation residual hearing were revealed to be associated with the outcome of reading comprehension. We concluded that by using standard tests, the