Science.gov

Sample records for acquiring specially adapted

  1. 76 FR 63354 - Proposed Information Collection (Application in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing or Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Home Adaptation Grant) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department... determine a veteran's eligibility for specially adapted housing or special home adaptation grant. DATES.... Title: Application in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing or Special Home Adaptation Grant, VA Form...

  2. 77 FR 323 - Agency Information Collection (Application in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing or Special Home...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Adaptation Grant) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... Adapted Housing or Special Home Adaptation Grant, VA Form 26-4555. OMB Control Number: 2900-0132. Type of... special home adaptation grant. VA will use the data collected to determine the veteran's eligibility....

  3. 75 FR 68669 - Loan Guaranty: Assistance to Eligible Individuals in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing; Cost-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...The U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) announces that the aggregate amounts of assistance available under the Specially Adapted Housing (SAH) grant program remains unchanged during fiscal year 2011, pursuant to 38 CFR...

  4. 78 FR 10266 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Application for Assistance in Acquiring Special Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Adaptations) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... acquiring special housing and/or adaptations to their current resident. DATES: Written comments and... Acquiring Special Housing Adaptations, VA Form 26-4555d. OMB Control Number: 2900-0300. Type of...

  5. 75 FR 15494 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Application for Assistance in Acquiring Special Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Adaptations) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... acquiring special housing and/or adaptations to their current resident. DATES: Written comments and... Acquiring Special Housing Adaptations, VA Form 26-4555d. OMB Control Number: 2900-0300. Type of...

  6. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ..., 2009, (74 FR 67145), VA proposed to amend its regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN21 Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation AGENCY... housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain provisions from...

  7. Acquiring case adaptation knowledge: A hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, D.B.; Kinley, A.; Wilson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The ability of case-based reasoning (CBR) systems to apply cases to novel situations depends on their case adaptation knowledge. However, endowing CBR systems with adequate adaptation knowledge has proven to be a very difficult task. This paper describes a hybrid method for performing case adaptation, using a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning. It shows how this approach provides a framework for acquiring flexible adaptation knowledge from experiences with autonomous adaptation and suggests its potential as a basis for acquisition of adaptation knowledge from interactive user guidance. It also presents initial experimental results examining the benefits of the approach and comparing the relative contributions of case learning and adaptation learning to reasoning performance.

  8. 78 FR 40550 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Application for Assistance in Acquiring Special Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Adaptations) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Application for Assistance in Acquiring Special Housing Adaptations... housing and adaptations to dwellings. Under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b), grants are available to assist Veterans...

  9. Adapting Equipment for Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, Sue

    1992-01-01

    All students benefit from physical education, but equipment used in mainstream programs often is not appropriate for students with special needs. Equipment adaptation is necessary to improve students' opportunities for successful participation in class. The article describes how to create and finance adapted equipment and offers a resource list.…

  10. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  11. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  12. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  13. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  14. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  15. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. (a) If, during the period for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  16. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. (a) If, during the period for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  17. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. (a) If, during the period for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  18. 41 CFR 102-33.120 - Are there special requirements for acquiring life-limited parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for acquiring life-limited parts? 102-33.120 Section 102-33.120 Public Contracts and Property... Aircraft Parts § 102-33.120 Are there special requirements for acquiring life-limited parts? Yes, when you acquire new or used life-limited parts, you must— (a) Identify and inspect the parts, ensuring that...

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.120 - Are there special requirements for acquiring life-limited parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements for acquiring life-limited parts? 102-33.120 Section 102-33.120 Public Contracts and Property... Aircraft Parts § 102-33.120 Are there special requirements for acquiring life-limited parts? Yes, when you acquire new or used life-limited parts, you must— (a) Identify and inspect the parts, ensuring that...

  20. Adaptive and Acquired Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors Converge on the MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pengfei; Fu, Yujie; Chen, Minjiang; Jing, Ying; Wu, Jie; Li, Ke; Shen, Ying; Gao, Jian-Xin; Wang, Mengzhao; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhuang, Guanglei

    2016-01-01

    Both adaptive and acquired resistance significantly limits the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors. However, the distinct or common mechanisms of adaptive and acquired resistance have not been fully characterized. Here, through systematic modeling of erlotinib resistance in lung cancer, we found that feedback reactivation of MAPK signaling following erlotinib treatment, which was dependent on the MET receptor, contributed to the adaptive resistance of EGFR inhibitors. Interestingly, acquired resistance to erlotinib was also associated with the MAPK pathway activation as a result of CRAF or NRAS amplification. Consequently, combined inhibition of EGFR and MAPK impeded the development of both adaptive and acquired resistance. These observations demonstrate that adaptive and acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors can converge on the same pathway and credential cotargeting EGFR and MAPK as a promising therapeutic approach in EGFR mutant tumors. PMID:27279914

  1. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., acquired for the purpose of conducting scientific research under contracts with departments and agencies of... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.015-70 Special use allowances for research...

  2. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., acquired for the purpose of conducting scientific research under contracts with departments and agencies of... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.015-70 Special use allowances for research...

  3. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., acquired for the purpose of conducting scientific research under contracts with departments and agencies of... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.015-70 Special use allowances for research...

  4. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., acquired for the purpose of conducting scientific research under contracts with departments and agencies of... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.015-70 Special use allowances for research...

  5. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., acquired for the purpose of conducting scientific research under contracts with departments and agencies of... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.015-70 Special use allowances for research...

  6. 75 FR 32540 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Application for Assistance in Acquiring Special Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Adaptations) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... Special Housing Adaptations, VA Form 26-4555d. OMB Control Number: 2900-0300. Type of Review: Extension of... veteran in making adaptations to their current residences or one they intend to live in as long as...

  7. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  8. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  9. Specialized wavefront sensors for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Mansell, J.D.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    The performance of an adaptive optical system is strongly dependent upon correctly measuring the wavefront of the arriving light. The most common wavefront measurement techniques used to date are the shearing interferometer and the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Shack-Hartmann sensors rely on the use of lenslet arrays to sample the aperture appropriately. These have traditionally been constructed using ULM or step and repeat technology, and more recently with binary optics technology. Diffractive optics fabrication methodology can be used to remove some of the limitations of the previous technologies and can allow for low-cost production of sophisticated elements. We have investigated several different specialized wavefront sensor configurations using both Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer principles. We have taken advantage of the arbitrary nature of these elements to match pupil shapes of detector and telescope aperture and to introduce magnification between the lenslet array and the detector. We have fabricated elements that facilitate matching the sampling to the current atmospheric conditions. The sensors were designed using a far-field diffraction model and a photolithography layout program. They were fabricated using photolithography and RIE etching. Several different designs will be presented with some experimental results from a small-scale adaptive optics brass-board.

  10. Adapting Aquatic Circuit Training for Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thome, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses how land activities can be adapted to water so that individuals with handicapping conditions can participate in circuit training activities. An initial section lists such organizational procedures as providing vocal and/or visual cues for activities, having assistants accompany the performers throughout the circuit, and…

  11. Adaptive Memory: Is Survival Processing Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2008-01-01

    Do the operating characteristics of memory continue to bear the imprints of ancestral selection pressures? Previous work in our laboratory has shown that human memory may be specially tuned to retain information processed in terms of its survival relevance. A few seconds of survival processing in an incidental learning context can produce recall…

  12. Adapting a Robot Hand to Specialized Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Keith H.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptor enables mechanical and electrical connections made easily between special-purpose end effector and arm of robot or remote mainpulator. Use in prosthetic devices also contemplatd. With adaptor, hand changed quickly from device designed to grasp objects of various sizes and shapes to device intended to do specific task efficiently.

  13. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-4 - Special rules for readily tradable instruments acquired through a broker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acquired through a broker. 31.3406(d)-4 Section 31.3406(d)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-4 Special... tradable instrument is acquired through a post-1983 brokerage account (as defined in §...

  14. Special Physical Education: Adapted, Individualized, Developmental. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John M.

    This text on physical education for children and adolescents with disabilities attempts to bring together current research findings and best educational practices from the fields of adapted physical education, special education, psychology, medicine, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and therapeutic recreation. The book is organized into…

  15. Adaptive thinking & leadership simulation game training for special forces officers.

    SciTech Connect

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Mendini, Kip; Heneghan, Jerry; Deagle, Edwin

    2005-07-01

    Complex problem solving approaches and novel strategies employed by the military at the squad, team, and commander level are often best learned experimentally. Since live action exercises can be costly, advances in simulation game training technology offer exciting ways to enhance current training. Computer games provide an environment for active, critical learning. Games open up possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple levels; players may learn from contextual information embedded in the dynamics of the game, the organic process generated by the game, and through the risks, benefits, costs, outcomes, and rewards of alternative strategies that result from decision making. In the present paper we discuss a multiplayer computer game simulation created for the Adaptive Thinking & Leadership (ATL) Program to train Special Forces Team Leaders. The ATL training simulation consists of a scripted single-player and an immersive multiplayer environment for classroom use which leverages immersive computer game technology. We define adaptive thinking as consisting of competencies such as negotiation and consensus building skills, the ability to communicate effectively, analyze ambiguous situations, be self-aware, think innovatively, and critically use effective problem solving skills. Each of these competencies is an essential element of leader development training for the U.S. Army Special Forces. The ATL simulation is used to augment experiential learning in the curriculum for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center & School (SWCS) course in Adaptive Thinking & Leadership. The school is incorporating the ATL simulation game into two additional training pipelines (PSYOPS and Civil Affairs Qualification Courses) that are also concerned with developing cultural awareness, interpersonal communication adaptability, and rapport-building skills. In the present paper, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of the training simulation, and emphasize how the

  16. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships. PMID:22717002

  17. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act...—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As used in... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  18. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  19. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  20. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  1. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-4 - Special rules for readily tradable instruments acquired through a broker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special rules for readily tradable instruments acquired through a broker. 31.3406(d)-4 Section 31.3406(d)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX...

  3. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  4. Adaptive specializations, social exchange, and the evolution of human intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cosmides, Leda; Barrett, H. Clark; Tooby, John

    2010-01-01

    Blank-slate theories of human intelligence propose that reasoning is carried out by general-purpose operations applied uniformly across contents. An evolutionary approach implies a radically different model of human intelligence. The task demands of different adaptive problems select for functionally specialized problem-solving strategies, unleashing massive increases in problem-solving power for ancestrally recurrent adaptive problems. Because exchange can evolve only if cooperators can detect cheaters, we hypothesized that the human mind would be equipped with a neurocognitive system specialized for reasoning about social exchange. Whereas humans perform poorly when asked to detect violations of most conditional rules, we predicted and found a dramatic spike in performance when the rule specifies an exchange and violations correspond to cheating. According to critics, people's uncanny accuracy at detecting violations of social exchange rules does not reflect a cheater detection mechanism, but extends instead to all rules regulating when actions are permitted (deontic conditionals). Here we report experimental tests that falsify these theories by demonstrating that deontic rules as a class do not elicit the search for violations. We show that the cheater detection system functions with pinpoint accuracy, searching for violations of social exchange rules only when these are likely to reveal the presence of someone who intends to cheat. It does not search for violations of social exchange rules when these are accidental, when they do not benefit the violator, or when the situation would make cheating difficult. PMID:20445099

  5. 38 CFR 3.809 - Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a). 3.809 Section 3.809 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.809 Specially adapted...

  6. 38 CFR 3.809 - Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a). 3.809 Section 3.809 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.809 Specially adapted...

  7. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  8. Using Personal Computers To Acquire Special Education Information. Revised. ERIC Digest #429.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest offers basic information about resources, available to users of personal computers, in the area of professional development in special education. Two types of resources are described: those that can be purchased on computer diskettes and those made available by linking personal computers through electronic telephone networks. Resources…

  9. Early Adaptation and Acquired Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibition in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Abreu, Maria Teresa; Palafox, Marta; Asghar, Uzma; Rivas, Martín A; Cutts, Rosalind J; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Pearson, Alex; Guzman, Marta; Rodriguez, Olga; Grueso, Judit; Bellet, Meritxell; Cortés, Javier; Elliott, Richard; Pancholi, Sunil; Baselga, José; Dowsett, Mitch; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Turner, Nicholas C; Serra, Violeta

    2016-04-15

    Small-molecule inhibitors of the CDK4/6 cell-cycle kinases have shown clinical efficacy in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive metastatic breast cancer, although their cytostatic effects are limited by primary and acquired resistance. Here we report that ER-positive breast cancer cells can adapt quickly to CDK4/6 inhibition and evade cytostasis, in part, via noncanonical cyclin D1-CDK2-mediated S-phase entry. This adaptation was prevented by cotreatment with hormone therapies or PI3K inhibitors, which reduced the levels of cyclin D1 (CCND1) and other G1-S cyclins, abolished pRb phosphorylation, and inhibited activation of S-phase transcriptional programs. Combined targeting of both CDK4/6 and PI3K triggered cancer cell apoptosis in vitro and in patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models, resulting in tumor regression and improved disease control. Furthermore, a triple combination of endocrine therapy, CDK4/6, and PI3K inhibition was more effective than paired combinations, provoking rapid tumor regressions in a PDX model. Mechanistic investigations showed that acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition resulted from bypass of cyclin D1-CDK4/6 dependency through selection of CCNE1 amplification or RB1 loss. Notably, although PI3K inhibitors could prevent resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors, they failed to resensitize cells once resistance had been acquired. However, we found that cells acquiring resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors due to CCNE1 amplification could be resensitized by targeting CDK2. Overall, our results illustrate convergent mechanisms of early adaptation and acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors that enable alternate means of S-phase entry, highlighting strategies to prevent the acquisition of therapeutic resistance to these agents. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2301-13. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020857

  10. How to Help Special Needs Children Adapt According to Their Own Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dawndria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore strategies of how to help special needs children adapt according to their own abilities. Contributing factors, such as discrimination practices, served as the foundational components that led to the formation of special education services. At one time, "special needs children," also referred to…

  11. 75 FR 56875 - Loan Guaranty: Assistance to Eligible Individuals in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...'s living needs. In a document published in the Federal Register on October 5, 2009 (74 FR 51103), VA... Register on May 12, 2009 (74 FR 22145). VA inadvertently omitted Sec. 36.4412 in the proposed rule that preceded this final rule. See 74 FR 51103. VA is re-inserting this provision, without further change,...

  12. Direction-specific adaptation effects acquired in a slow rotation room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Knepton, J.

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-eight subjects were required to execute 120 head movements in a slow rotation room at each 1-rpm increase in velocity of the room between 0 and 6 rpm and, after a single-step gradual return to zero velocity, execute 120 head movements either immediately after the return or after delay periods varying from 1 to 24 hours unless, at any time, more than mild symptoms of motion sickness were elicited. A second stress profile differed by the sequential addition of an incremental adaptation schedule in which the direction of rotation was reversed. The experimental findings demonstrated the acquisition of direction-specific adaptation effects that underwent spontaneous decay with a short time constant (hours). Speculations are presented which could account for the simultaneous acquisition of short-term and long-term adaptation effects. The findings support the theory that motion sickness, although a consequence of vestibular stimulation, has its immediate origin in nonvestibular systems, implying a faculative or temporary linkage between the vestibular and nonvestibular systems.

  13. Adaptive Skills and Maladaptive Behavior of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Special Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…

  14. Classroom Adaptations for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbage, Edith

    This paper offers practical tips found useful in meeting the needs of children with special health problems within the classroom. It describes feeding techniques for children with gastrostomies or using nasal or oral gastric tubes. It outlines the implications of having a child with a tracheostomy in the classroom. Classroom management suggestions…

  15. Horizontally acquired oligopeptide transporters favour adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast to oenological environment.

    PubMed

    Marsit, Souhir; Sanchez, Isabelle; Galeote, Virginie; Dequin, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has emerged as a major evolutionary process that has shaped the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts. We recently showed that a large Torulaspora microellipsoides genomic island carrying two oligopeptide transporters encoded by FOT genes increases the fitness of wine yeast during fermentation of grape must. However, the impact of these genes on the metabolic network of S. cerevisiae remained uncharacterized. Here we show that Fot-mediated peptide uptake substantially affects the glutamate node and the NADPH/NADP(+) balance, resulting in the delayed uptake of free amino acids and altered profiles of metabolites and volatile compounds. Transcriptome analysis revealed that cells using a higher amount of oligopeptides from grape must are less stressed and display substantial variation in the expression of genes in the central pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, amino acid and protein biosynthesis, and the oxidative stress response. These regulations shed light on the molecular and metabolic mechanisms involved in the higher performance and fitness conferred by the HGT-acquired FOT genes, pinpointing metabolic effects that can positively affect the organoleptic balance of wines. PMID:26549518

  16. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  18. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  20. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  1. 78 FR 72573 - Specially Adapted Housing Eligibility for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Beneficiaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Federal Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78823), VA amended its regulations pertaining to the percent... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO84 Specially Adapted Housing Eligibility for Amyotrophic Lateral... housing (SAH). The amendment authorizes automatic issuance of a certificate of eligibility for SAH to...

  2. 38 CFR 3.809 - Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following requirements are met: (a) Service. Active military, naval or air service after April 20, 1898, is... under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a). 3.809 Section 3.809 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Benefits § 3.809 Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a). A certificate of eligibility...

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Adaptation of Four Assessments for Offenders with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Appropriate assessment is an essential part of treating sexual offenders. Few assessments exist that can be used with offenders who have lower levels of intellectual functioning and/or literacy deficits. Method: This study describes the adaptation of four self-report assessments for sexual offenders with special needs: (i) the "Social…

  4. The Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Programme for Special Needs Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The need for specialized treatment programmes to address the specific requirements of different populations has been well recognized. One important area of treatment development has been for offenders who are unsuitable for existing mainstream treatment programmes. This paper describes the process of adapting an existing sexual offender treatment…

  5. Overcoming Barriers in the Use of Adaptive and Assistive Technology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushrow, Kathy M.; Turner, Keith D.

    This paper examines change and change facilitators as they affect full use of adaptive and assistive technology (AAT) in special education, and compares qualitative versus quantitative methods of researching the change process. Four administrators and two teachers from a rural school district completed the Stages of Concern Questionnaire, which…

  6. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury: a single-case field experiment.

    PubMed

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry; NielsAgerholm; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the "Pay as You Speed" project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks=Baseline 1; 12 weeks=ISA period; 12 weeks=Baseline 2). The subjects participated in two semi-structured interviews concerning their strategies for driving with ABI and for driving with ISA. Furthermore, they gave consent to have data from their clinical journals and be a part of the study. The two subjects did not report any instances of being distracted or confused by ISA, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i.e. cognitive prosthesis) than as a temporary training device. As ABI is associated with a multitude of cognitive deficits, we developed a conceptual framework, which focused on the cognitive parameters that have been shown to relate to speeding behaviour, namely "intention to speed" and "inattention to speeding". The subjects' combined status on the two independent parameters made up their "speeding profile". A comparison of the speeding profiles and the speed logs indicated that ISA in the present study was more efficient in reducing inattention to speeding than affecting intention to speed. This finding suggests that ISA might be more suited for some neuropsychological profiles than for others, and that customisation of ISA for different neuropsychological profiles may be required

  7. An experimental test of host specialization in a ubiquitous polar ectoparasite: a role for adaptation?

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lobato, Elisa; Boulinier, Thierry; McCoy, Karen D

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of host specificity is considered to be an essential mechanism driving parasite diversity. It may be governed by adaptive constraints that lead to host-dependent fitness trade-offs. Alternatively, specificity may arise via transmission constraints that isolate parasite populations, without necessarily involving adaptation per se. Here, we ask whether the repeated observation of host-associated genetic races across the worldwide distribution of the seabird ectoparasite Ixodes uriae is associated with host adaptation. We conducted a field-based experiment to test for adaptive specialisation in host races of I. uriae. We transferred unengorged ticks of two life stages (nymphs and adults) originating from three host species (black-legged kittiwake, common guillemot and Atlantic puffin) onto young kittiwake nestlings and followed attraction and attachment rates, engorgement times and feeding success of the transplanted ticks. All ticks were also typed genetically to match exploitation patterns with genetic differences among races. Ticks from atypical hosts were significantly less attracted to nestlings than ticks from the typical host, and showed lower feeding success and higher mortality. The degree of host specificity matched patterns of neutral genetic variation among races, with puffin ticks being more specific than guillemot ticks. Differences in specificity were also apparent among tick life stages, suggesting that nymphal ticks may be less discriminating of host type than adult ticks. Our results indicate that the genetic divergence previously observed among sympatric I. uriae host races is at least partially linked to adaptive specialisation to the host species and not simply to host-mediated transmission. They also suggest that the adaptation process may evolve differently in different life stages based on trade-offs with physiological constraints. The identification of the selective forces acting in host specialization will now be necessary to

  8. Effects of an Adapted Physical Education Teaching Model on Special Educator Teaching Approaches for Students with Low Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package, which consisted of the Flex Grid Teaching Model along with adapted physical education consultation, on special education teacher instruction of functional motor skill acquisition instruction to secondary students with low incidence disabilities. Special education teachers…

  9. Building Adaptive Expertise and Practice-Based Evidence: Applying the Implementation Stages Framework to Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Williams, Loretta; Frederick, Jacqueline R.; Mulcahy, Candace A.

    2015-01-01

    Preparing pre-service special educators to meet classroom demands requires teacher preparation programs to design experiences for students to demonstrate routine expertise, while also building adaptive expertise. In this article, the authors describe a capstone project that meets these needs and prepares pre-service special educators for their…

  10. An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

  11. 78 FR 61002 - Loan Guaranty: Assistance to Eligible Individuals in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing; Cost-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...-Construction Index AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans... annually based on a residential home cost-of-construction index. The Secretary uses the Turner Building Cost Index for this purpose. In the most recent quarter for which the Turner Building Cost Index...

  12. Metabolic modelling reveals the specialization of secondary replicons for niche adaptation in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    diCenzo, George C; Checcucci, Alice; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Viti, Carlo; Dziewit, Lukasz; Finan, Turlough M; Galardini, Marco; Fondi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The genome of about 10% of bacterial species is divided among two or more large chromosome-sized replicons. The contribution of each replicon to the microbial life cycle (for example, environmental adaptations and/or niche switching) remains unclear. Here we report a genome-scale metabolic model of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti that is integrated with carbon utilization data for 1,500 genes with 192 carbon substrates. Growth of S. meliloti is modelled in three ecological niches (bulk soil, rhizosphere and nodule) with a focus on the role of each of its three replicons. We observe clear metabolic differences during growth in the tested ecological niches and an overall reprogramming following niche switching. In silico examination of the inferred fitness of gene deletion mutants suggests that secondary replicons evolved to fulfil a specialized function, particularly host-associated niche adaptation. Thus, genes on secondary replicons might potentially be manipulated to promote or suppress host interactions for biotechnological purposes. PMID:27447951

  13. Metabolic modelling reveals the specialization of secondary replicons for niche adaptation in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    diCenzo, George C.; Checcucci, Alice; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Viti, Carlo; Dziewit, Lukasz; Finan, Turlough M.; Galardini, Marco; Fondi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The genome of about 10% of bacterial species is divided among two or more large chromosome-sized replicons. The contribution of each replicon to the microbial life cycle (for example, environmental adaptations and/or niche switching) remains unclear. Here we report a genome-scale metabolic model of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti that is integrated with carbon utilization data for 1,500 genes with 192 carbon substrates. Growth of S. meliloti is modelled in three ecological niches (bulk soil, rhizosphere and nodule) with a focus on the role of each of its three replicons. We observe clear metabolic differences during growth in the tested ecological niches and an overall reprogramming following niche switching. In silico examination of the inferred fitness of gene deletion mutants suggests that secondary replicons evolved to fulfil a specialized function, particularly host-associated niche adaptation. Thus, genes on secondary replicons might potentially be manipulated to promote or suppress host interactions for biotechnological purposes. PMID:27447951

  14. A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shang, Qing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The Luoping fauna (Anisian, Middle Triassic) is probably the oldest of Triassic faunas in Guizhou-Yunnan area, China. The reptilian assemblage is comprised of ichthyosaurs, a number of sauropterygians (pachypleurosaur-like forms), saurosphargids, protorosaurs, and archosauriforms. Here, we report on a peculiar reptile, newly found in this fauna. Its dentition is fence or comb-like and bears more than 175 pleurodont teeth in each ramus of the upper and lower jaws, tooth crown is needle-like distally and blade-shaped proximally; its rostrum strongly bends downward and the anterior end of its mandible expands both dorsally and ventrally to form a shovel-headed structure; and its ungual phalanges are hoof-shaped. The specializations of the jaws and dentition indicate that the reptile may have been adapted to a way of bottom-filter feeding in water. It is obvious that such delicate teeth are not strong enough to catch prey, but were probably used as a barrier to filter microorganisms or benthic invertebrates such as sea worms. These were collected by the specialized jaws, which may have functioned as a shovel or pushdozer (the mandible) and a grasper or scratcher (the rostrum). Our preliminary analysis suggests that the new reptile might be more closely related to the Sauropterygia than to other marine reptiles.

  15. A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shang, Qing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The Luoping fauna (Anisian, Middle Triassic) is probably the oldest of Triassic faunas in Guizhou-Yunnan area, China. The reptilian assemblage is comprised of ichthyosaurs, a number of sauropterygians (pachypleurosaur-like forms), saurosphargids, protorosaurs, and archosauriforms. Here, we report on a peculiar reptile, newly found in this fauna. Its dentition is fence or comb-like and bears more than 175 pleurodont teeth in each ramus of the upper and lower jaws, tooth crown is needle-like distally and blade-shaped proximally; its rostrum strongly bends downward and the anterior end of its mandible expands both dorsally and ventrally to form a shovel-headed structure; and its ungual phalanges are hoof-shaped. The specializations of the jaws and dentition indicate that the reptile may have been adapted to a way of bottom-filter feeding in water. It is obvious that such delicate teeth are not strong enough to catch prey, but were probably used as a barrier to filter microorganisms or benthic invertebrates such as sea worms. These were collected by the specialized jaws, which may have functioned as a shovel or pushdozer (the mandible) and a grasper or scratcher (the rostrum). Our preliminary analysis suggests that the new reptile might be more closely related to the Sauropterygia than to other marine reptiles. PMID:24452285

  16. Interaction-focused intervention for acquired language disorders: facilitating mutual adaptation in couples where one partner has aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ray; Lock, Sarah; Bryan, Karen; Sage, Karen

    2011-02-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and evaluation of an interaction-focused intervention single case study for a couple where one partner has aphasia. Drawing on conversation analytic research, naturally occurring conversations of the couple at home pre- and post-intervention were collected and analysed. Analysis of the speaker with aphasia's topic initiating turns in the pre-intervention conversation showed that in each case a feature of the attempt was that the speaker had difficulty in getting the topic initiation accepted and established. Drawing on conversation analytic work on topic initiations in normal conversation, intervention focused on training the couple to co-produce these topic initiating turns of the speaker with aphasia in a collaborative and step-by-step manner. Post-intervention, there was evidence that the couple were now using this new method, albeit in a slightly different way to that worked on in the intervention sessions. Drawing on work into adaptation by speakers with aphasia and their conversation partners, these results are discussed in terms of a process of mutual adaptation by the couple. PMID:21329413

  17. “You have to hunt for the fruits, the vegetables”: Environmental Barriers and Adaptive Strategies to Acquire Food in a Low-Income African-American Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Dallas, Constance; Hardy, Elaine; Watkins, April; Hoskins-Wroten, Jacqueline; Holland, Loys

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand food acquisition behaviors and environmental factors that influence those behaviors among women in a low-income African American community with limited food resources. We drew upon in-depth interviews with 30 women ages 21 to 45 recruited from a community health center in Chicago, Illinois. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that women identified multiple environmental barriers—material, economic, and social-interactional—to acquiring food in an acceptable setting. In response, they engaged in several adaptive strategies to manage or alter these challenges including optimizing, settling, being proactive, and advocating. These findings indicate that efforts to improve neighborhood food environments should address not only food availability and prices, but also the physical and social environments of stores as well. PMID:21511955

  18. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix-uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix-uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% {+-} 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  19. Gamma-Ray Burst Dynamics and Afterglow Radiation from Adaptive Mesh Refinement, Special Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.

  20. Development and Use of Curricular Adaptations for Students Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Keegan, Lissa

    2014-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental descriptive design, with existing educator-made adaptations evaluated. The goals of this study were to (a) describe how educators develop adaptations and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of educator-made adaptations in facilitating the learning of students with disabilities. Findings suggest that (a) most…

  1. Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Pat

    Designed for middle school students, this award winning, six-day teaching unit helped students learn about the concepts of specialization, interdependence, efficiency, and profit. At the onset of the lesson the students were already familiar with the concepts of scarcity, goods, services, profits, supply, demand, and opportunity costs. The unit's…

  2. Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools: Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms in total, but fewer social anxiety symptoms, than Spence Children's Anxiety Scale Australian/Dutch norms. There were no gender differences. Variance in total anxiety scores was best explained by severity of repetitive speech/stereotyped behaviour symptoms, followed by adaptive functioning. Severity of repetitive speech/behaviour symptoms was a significant predictor of separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscale symptoms, but not of social phobia and physical injury fears. Adaptive functioning and chronological age predicted social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms only. Severity of social/communication autism symptoms did not explain any anxiety symptoms, when the other variables were controlled for. Findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations and possible implications for prevention, assessment and intervention are also discussed. PMID:25916865

  3. Emergent Literacy Activities, Instructional Adaptations and School Absence of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Marieke; de Moor, Jan; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of emergent literacy instruction. While time…

  4. An Examination of Current Adapted Physical Activity Provision in Primary and Special Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Disability in Sport Taskforce report examining adapted physical activity (APA) in the Irish context (Department of Education and Science, 1999) found that teachers involved in primary mainstream and specialist settings expressed a grave lack of self-confidence, due to lack of training, in the delivery of APA programmes to children with special…

  5. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  6. [Translation and adaptation of the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener to Brazilian Portuguese].

    PubMed

    Arrué, Andrea Moreira; Neves, Eliane Tatsch; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Cabral, Ivone Evangelista; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques

    2016-06-20

    This study aimed to elaborate the Brazilian version of the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener to assess internal consistency and inter-observer agreement. The stages included translation, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretest. Participation included 140 family members of children 0-12 years of age at health services in southern Brazil. Reliability was assessed with kappa statistic and Cronbach's alpha. In the assessment of clarity with health professionals, 80% rated the questions very clear. Prevalence of children with special health needs was 36%. Mean time for applying the instrument was 3.5 minutes. The process identified difficulties in understanding question number two. The instrument showed satisfactory internal consistency and perfect agreement. Future research should add to the psychometric analyses of the instrument's adequacy for the Brazilian context, thereby contributing to a standardized definition of this young age group's epidemiological profile within the public health scenario in Brazil. PMID:27333143

  7. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  8. Escalation and trophic specialization drive adaptive radiation of freshwater gastropods in ancient lakes on Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    von Rintelen, Thomas; Wilson, Anthony B.; Meyer, Axel; Glaubrecht, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Species flocks in ancient lakes have long been appreciated as ideal model systems for the study of speciation and adaptive processes. We here present data from a new invertebrate model system with intrinsic parameters distinct from those of other documented radiations. The ancient lakes on Sulawesi harbour an endemic species flock of at least 33 species of viviparous snails. Molecular data reveal multiple independent colonizations of the lakes by riverine ancestors. In each colonizing clade, parallel evolution of conspicuous shell morphologies, followed by a differentiation of trophic morphology and the development of habitat specificity can be observed. Extensive shell crushing experiments and strong dentition of the chelae observed in some lacustrine crab species suggest that coevolution with crabs, i.e. escalation, is the most likely cause of initial shell divergence. By contrast, repeated parallel evolution in radula morphology indicates that speciation within lineages is driven by divergent adaptation to different resources among sympatric taxa. The inclusion of coevolutionary processes is unique in this system compared with diversification models developed for vertebrate radiations. PMID:15615679

  9. Evaluation of mounting bolt loads for Space Shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) adapter beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talapatra, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    During the prototype vibration tests of the GAS adapter beam, significant impacting of the beam at its support points was observed. The cause of the impacting was traced to gaps under the mounting bolt heads. Because of the nonlinear nature of the response, it was difficult to evaluate the effects which Shuttle launch dynamics might have on the mounting bolt loads. A series of tests were conducted on an electrodynamic exciter in which the transient acceleration time histories, which had been measured during the Space Transportation System-1 (STS-1; Space Shuttle mission 1) launch, were simulated. The actual flight data had to be filtered and compensated so that it could be reproduced on the shaker without exceeding displacement and velocity limitations. Mounting bolt loads were measured directly by strain gages applied to the bolts. Various gap thicknesses and bolt torques were investigated. Although increased gap thickness resulted in greater accelerations due to impacting, the bolt loads were not significantly affected. This is attributed to the fact that impacting excited mostly higher frequency modes which do not have significant modal mass.

  10. Introduction to the Special Issue: Electrons, water and rice fields: plant response and adaptation to flooding and submergence stress.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B; Ismail, Abdelbagi M

    2015-01-01

    Flooding and submergence impose widespread and unpredictable environmental stresses on plants and depress the yield of most food crops. The problem is increasing, as is the need for greater food production from an expanding human population. The incompatibility of these opposing trends creates an urgent need to improve crop resilience to flooding in its multifarious forms. This Special Issue brings together research findings from diverse plant species to address the challenge of enhancing adaptation to flooding in major crops and learning from tactics of wetland plants. Here we provide an overview of the articles, with attempts to summarize how recent research results are being used to produce varieties of crop plants with greater flooding tolerance, notably in rice. The progress is considerable and based firmly on molecular and physiological research findings. The article also sets out how next-generation improvements in crop tolerance are likely to be achieved and highlights some of the new research that is guiding the development of improved varieties. The potential for non-model species from the indigenous riparian flora to uncover and explain novel adaptive mechanisms of flooding tolerance that may be introduced into crop species is also explored. The article begins by considering how, despite the essential role of water in sustaining plant life, floodwater can threaten its existence unless appropriate adaptations are present. Central to resolving the contradiction is the distinction between the essential role of cellular water as the source of electrons and protons used to build and operate the plant after combining with CO2 and O2 and the damaging role of extracellular water that, in excess, interferes with the union of these gases with photosynthetic or respiratory electrons and protons. PMID:26174144

  11. Introduction to the Special Issue: Electrons, water and rice fields: plant response and adaptation to flooding and submergence stress

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael B.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

    2015-01-01

    Flooding and submergence impose widespread and unpredictable environmental stresses on plants and depress the yield of most food crops. The problem is increasing, as is the need for greater food production from an expanding human population. The incompatibility of these opposing trends creates an urgent need to improve crop resilience to flooding in its multifarious forms. This Special Issue brings together research findings from diverse plant species to address the challenge of enhancing adaptation to flooding in major crops and learning from tactics of wetland plants. Here we provide an overview of the articles, with attempts to summarize how recent research results are being used to produce varieties of crop plants with greater flooding tolerance, notably in rice. The progress is considerable and based firmly on molecular and physiological research findings. The article also sets out how next-generation improvements in crop tolerance are likely to be achieved and highlights some of the new research that is guiding the development of improved varieties. The potential for non-model species from the indigenous riparian flora to uncover and explain novel adaptive mechanisms of flooding tolerance that may be introduced into crop species is also explored. The article begins by considering how, despite the essential role of water in sustaining plant life, floodwater can threaten its existence unless appropriate adaptations are present. Central to resolving the contradiction is the distinction between the essential role of cellular water as the source of electrons and protons used to build and operate the plant after combining with CO2 and O2 and the damaging role of extracellular water that, in excess, interferes with the union of these gases with photosynthetic or respiratory electrons and protons. PMID:26174144

  12. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  13. Dilemmatic group memberships of hard-of-hearing employees during the process of acquiring and adapting to the use of hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Inka; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Juvonen-Posti, Pirjo; Nevala, Nina; Husman, Päivi; Aaltonen, Tarja; Lonka, Eila; Laakso, Minna

    2016-09-01

    We describe how hard-of-hearing (HOH) employees renegotiate both their existing and new group memberships when they acquire and begin to use hearing aids (HAs). Our research setting was longitudinal and we carried out a theory-informed qualitative analysis of multiple qualitative data. When an individual discovers that they have a hearing problem and acquire a HA, their group memberships undergo change. First, HOH employees need to start negotiating their relationship with the HOH group. Second, they need to consider whether they see themselves as members of the disabled or the nondisabled employee group. This negotiation tends to be context-bound, situational, and nonlinear as a process, involving a back-and-forth movement in the way in which HOH employees value different group memberships. The dilemmatic negotiation of new group memberships and the other social aspects involved in HA rehabilitation tend to remain invisible to rehabilitation professionals, occupational healthcare, and employers. PMID:27128825

  14. The development and evaluation of an adaptable computer aided instruction(CAI) program for acquiring problem solving skills in biochemistry on the WWW: The "BioChem Thinker".

    PubMed Central

    Hershkovitz, B.

    1997-01-01

    BioChem Thinker is a CAI program that was developed to enhance problem solving skills and ability to integrate knowledge in biochemistry for medical and dental students. The program runs on a WWW browser. BioChem Thinker is adaptable, it enables the teacher to create a new problem solving assignment, or edit existing assignments without in-depth knowledge of computer programming. This provides teachers with greater independence and flexibility so as to be able to adapt the program to their own course requirements. The program was implemented and evaluated in the 3rd year biochemistry course of The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. The tool used to develop Biochem Thinker can be utilized to develop similar CAI in other biomedical areas. PMID:9357717

  15. Developmental specialization of the left parietal cortex for the semantic representation of Arabic numerals: an fMR-adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Stephan E; Goffin, Celia; Ansari, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The way the human brain constructs representations of numerical symbols is poorly understood. While increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies has indicated that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) becomes increasingly specialized for symbolic numerical magnitude representation over developmental time, the extent to which these changes are associated with age-related differences in symbolic numerical magnitude representation or with developmental changes in non-numerical processes, such as response selection, remains to be uncovered. To address these outstanding questions we investigated developmental changes in the cortical representation of symbolic numerical magnitude in 6- to 14-year-old children using a passive functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation design, thereby mitigating the influence of response selection. A single-digit Arabic numeral was repeatedly presented on a computer screen and interspersed with the presentation of novel digits deviating as a function of numerical ratio (smaller/larger number). Results demonstrated a correlation between age and numerical ratio in the left IPS, suggesting an age-related increase in the extent to which numerical symbols are represented in the left IPS. Brain activation of the right IPS was modulated by numerical ratio but did not correlate with age, indicating hemispheric differences in IPS engagement during the development of symbolic numerical representation. PMID:25555264

  16. Design of specially adapted reactive coordinates to economically compute potential and kinetic energy operators including geometry relaxation.

    PubMed

    Thallmair, Sebastian; Roos, Matthias K; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2016-06-21

    Quantum dynamics simulations require prior knowledge of the potential energy surface as well as the kinetic energy operator. Typically, they are evaluated in a low-dimensional subspace of the full configuration space of the molecule as its dimensionality increases proportional to the number of atoms. This entails the challenge to find the most suitable subspace. We present an approach to design specially adapted reactive coordinates spanning this subspace. In addition to the essential geometric changes, these coordinates take into account the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates without the necessity of performing geometry optimizations at each grid point. The method is demonstrated for an ultrafast photoinduced bond cleavage in a commonly used organic precursor for the generation of electrophiles. The potential energy surfaces for the reaction as well as the Wilson G-matrix as part of the kinetic energy operator are shown for a complex chemical reaction, both including the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates on equal footing. A microscopic interpretation of the shape of the G-matrix elements allows to analyze the impact of the non-reactive coordinates on the kinetic energy operator. Additionally, we compare quantum dynamics simulations with and without the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates included in the kinetic energy operator to demonstrate its influence. PMID:27334151

  17. Design of specially adapted reactive coordinates to economically compute potential and kinetic energy operators including geometry relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thallmair, Sebastian; Roos, Matthias K.; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2016-06-01

    Quantum dynamics simulations require prior knowledge of the potential energy surface as well as the kinetic energy operator. Typically, they are evaluated in a low-dimensional subspace of the full configuration space of the molecule as its dimensionality increases proportional to the number of atoms. This entails the challenge to find the most suitable subspace. We present an approach to design specially adapted reactive coordinates spanning this subspace. In addition to the essential geometric changes, these coordinates take into account the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates without the necessity of performing geometry optimizations at each grid point. The method is demonstrated for an ultrafast photoinduced bond cleavage in a commonly used organic precursor for the generation of electrophiles. The potential energy surfaces for the reaction as well as the Wilson G-matrix as part of the kinetic energy operator are shown for a complex chemical reaction, both including the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates on equal footing. A microscopic interpretation of the shape of the G-matrix elements allows to analyze the impact of the non-reactive coordinates on the kinetic energy operator. Additionally, we compare quantum dynamics simulations with and without the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates included in the kinetic energy operator to demonstrate its influence.

  18. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus thermophilus represents the only species among the streptococci that has “Generally Regarded As Safe” status and that plays an economically important role in the fermentation of yogurt and cheeses. We conducted comparative genome analysis of S. thermophilus LMD-9 to identify unique gene features as well as features that contribute to its adaptation to the dairy environment. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome response of LMD-9 during growth in milk in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a companion culture in yogurt fermentation, and during lytic bacteriophage infection. Results The S. thermophilus LMD-9 genome is comprised of a 1.8 Mbp circular chromosome (39.1% GC; 1,834 predicted open reading frames) and two small cryptic plasmids. Genome comparison with the previously sequenced LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066 strains revealed 114 kb of LMD-9 specific chromosomal region, including genes that encode for histidine biosynthetic pathway, a cell surface proteinase, various host defense mechanisms and a phage remnant. Interestingly, also unique to LMD-9 are genes encoding for a putative mucus-binding protein, a peptide transporter, and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic proteins that have close orthologs in human intestinal microorganisms. LMD-9 harbors a large number of pseudogenes (13% of ORFeome), indicating that like LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066, LMD-9 has also undergone major reductive evolution, with the loss of carbohydrate metabolic genes and virulence genes found in their streptococcal counterparts. Functional genome distribution analysis of ORFeomes among streptococci showed that all three S. thermophilus strains formed a distinct functional cluster, further establishing their specialized adaptation to the nutrient-rich milk niche. An upregulation of CRISPR1 expression in LMD-9 during lytic bacteriophage DT1 infection suggests its protective role against phage invasion. When co-cultured with L. bulgaricus, LMD-9

  19. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Field, C.B.; Barros, V.; Stocker, T.F.

    2012-07-01

    This Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) has been jointly coordinated by Working Groups I (WGI) and II (WGII) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The report focuses on the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events, the impacts of such events, and the strategies to manage the associated risks. This Special Report, in particular, contributes to frame the challenge of dealing with extreme weather and climate events as an issue in decision making under uncertainty, analyzing response in the context of risk management. The report consists of nine chapters, covering risk management; observed and projected changes in extreme weather and climate events; exposure and vulnerability to as well as losses resulting from such events; adaptation options from the local to the international scale; the role of sustainable development in modulating risks; and insights from specific case studies. (LN)

  20. Opinions of the General Education Teachers on the Adaptations for Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargin, Tevhide; Guldenoglu, Birkan; Sahin, Feyzullah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the opinions of general education teachers with regard to the instructional adaptations that need to be made for inclusion and to evaluate them against several variables. The study group consists of 126 general education teachers. The opinions of the teachers with regard to the adaptations in their…

  1. Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Szold, A; Udassin, R; Seror, D; Mogle, P; Godfrey, S

    1991-06-01

    Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a rare entity in the pediatric age group. We report two pediatric patients with acquired TEF caused by shells of pistachio nuts. In both patients the primary operation did not resolve the problem and a second intervention for recurrent fistula was needed. The special nature of acquired TEF, particularly the one described herein, requires delayed surgical intervention and meticulous separation of the respiratory and alimentary tracts by an intercostal muscle flap. PMID:1941455

  2. Behavioral adaptations imply a direct link between ecological specialization and reproductive isolation in a sympatrically diverging ground beetle.

    PubMed

    Van Belleghem, Steven M; De Wolf, Katrien; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation to a previously unoccupied niche within a single population is one of the most contentious topics in evolutionary biology as it assumes the simultaneous evolution of ecologically selected and preference traits. Here, we demonstrate behavioral adaptation to contrasting hydrological regimes in a sympatric mosaic of Pogonus chalceus beetle populations, and argue that this adaptation may result in nonrandom gene flow. When exposed to experimental inundations, individuals from tidal marshes, which are naturally subjected to frequent but short floods, showed a higher propensity to remain submerged compared to individuals from seasonal marshes that are inundated for several months. This adaptive behavior is expected to decrease the probability that individuals will settle in the alternative habitat, resulting in spatial sorting and reproductive isolation of both ecotypes. Additionally, we show that this difference in behavior is induced by the environmental conditions experienced by the beetles during their nondispersive larval stages. Hence, accidental or forced ovipositioning in the alternative habitat may induce both an increased performance and preference to the natal habitat type. Such plastic traits could play an important role in the most incipient stages of divergence with gene flow. PMID:27405686

  3. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  4. 7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to § 770.5(d) land acquired with loan funds, or other property serving as the security for a...

  5. Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis.

    PubMed

    Basak, P Y; Turkmen, C

    2001-01-01

    Acquired perforating disorder has been recognized as an uncommon distinct dermatosis in which altered collagen is eliminated through the epidermis. Several disorders accompanied by itching and scratching were reported to be associated with reactive perforating collagenosis. A 67-year-old white woman diagnosed as acquired reactive perforating collagenosis with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and congestive cardiac failure is presented. PMID:11525959

  6. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology. PMID:23731185

  7. Mobile Learning Technology Based on iOS Devices to Support Students with Special Education Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Lopez, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Fortiz, Maria Jose; Rodriguez-Almendros, Maria Luisa; Martinez-Segura, Maria Jose

    2013-01-01

    Students with special education have difficulties to develop cognitive abilities and acquire new knowledge. They could also need to improve their behavior, communication and relationships with their environment. The development of customizable and adaptable applications tailored to them provides many benefits as it helps mold the learning process…

  8. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  9. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  10. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a kidney transplant or blood-filtering treatments called dialysis. The cysts are more likely to develop in people who are on kidney dialysis. The chance of developing acquired cystic kidney disease ...

  11. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  12. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  13. International Student Adaptation to a U.S. College: A Mixed Methods Exploration of the Impact of a Specialized First-Year Foundations Course at a Large Midwestern Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovtun, Olena

    2010-01-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a specialized first-year foundations course as an intervention for international students' academic and cultural adaptation at a large, Midwestern, public research institution (very high research activity). This was a quasi-experimental, mixed methods study, consisting of two quantitative and two…

  14. Cooperative personalities and social niche specialization in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carter, A J; English, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2014-05-01

    The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that group-living animals should specialize in particular social roles to avoid social conflict, resulting in alternative life-history strategies for different roles. Social niche specialization, coupled with role-specific life-history trade-offs, should thus generate between-individual differences in behaviour that persist through time, or distinct personalities, as individuals specialize in particular nonoverlapping social roles. We tested for support for the social niche specialization hypothesis in cooperative personality traits in wild female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) that compete for access to dominant social roles. As cooperation is costly and dominance is acquired by heavier females, we predicted that females that ultimately acquired dominant roles would show noncooperative personality types early in life and before and after role acquisition. Although we found large individual differences in repeatable cooperative behaviours, there was no indication that individuals that ultimately acquired dominance differed from unsuccessful individuals in their cooperative behaviour. Early-life behaviour did not predict social role acquisition later in life, nor was cooperative behaviour before and after role acquisition correlated in the same individuals. We suggest that female meerkats do not show social niche specialization resulting in cooperative personalities, but that they exhibit an adaptive response in personality at role acquisition. PMID:24666630

  15. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  16. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  17. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Petrini, P

    1999-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a syndrome that has clinical and laboratory features similar to hereditary vWD. In contrast to the latter it occurs in patients without a family history of previous bleeding tendency. PMID:23401904

  18. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  19. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji; Pruthi, Rajiv K; Nichols, William L

    2002-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a relatively rare acquired bleeding disorder that usually occurs in elderly patients, in whom its recognition may be delayed. Patients usually present predominantly with mucocutaneous bleeding, with no previous history of bleeding abnormalities and no clinically meaningful family history. Various underlying diseases have been associated with AvWD, most commonly hematoproliferative disorders, including monoclonal gammopathies, lymphoproliferative disorders, and myeloproliferative disorders. The pathogenesis of AvWD remains incompletely understood but includes autoantibodies directed against the von Willebrand factor (vWF), leading to a more rapid clearance from the circulation or interference with its function, adsorption of vWF by tumor cells, and nonimmunologic mechanisms of destruction. Laboratory evaluation usually reveals a pattern of prolonged bleeding time and decreased levels of vWF antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity, and factor VIII coagulant activity consistent with a diagnosis of vWD. Acquired vWD is distinguished from the congenital form by age at presentation, absence of a personal and family history of bleeding disorders, and, often, presence of a hematoproliferative or autoimmune disorder. The severity of the bleeding varies considerably among patients. Therapeutic options include desmopressin and certain factor VIII concentrates that also contain vWF. Successful treatment of the associated illness can reverse the clinical and laboratory manifestations. Intravenous immunoglobulins have also shown some efficacy in the management of AvWD, especially cases associated with monoclonal gammopathies. Awareness of AvWD is essential for diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:11838652

  20. [Acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare, but probably underestimated, bleeding disorder that mimics the congenital form of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. AVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The main pathogenic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:16913181

  1. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

  2. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  3. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  4. Acquired Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Andrew; Danby, C. W. E.; Petermann, H.

    1965-01-01

    Currently, the porphyrias are classified in four main groups: congenital porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda hereditaria, and porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica. The acquired form of porphyria (porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica) occurs in older males and is nearly always associated with chronic alcoholism and hepatic cirrhosis. The main clinical changes are dermatological, with excessive skin fragility and photosensitivity resulting in erosions and bullae. Biochemically, high levels of uroporphyrin are found in the urine and stools. Treatment to date has been symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. A case of porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica is presented showing dramatic improvement of both the skin lesions and porphyrin levels in urine and blood following repeated phlebotomy. Possible mechanisms of action of phlebotomy on porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14341652

  5. [ICU acquired neuromyopathy].

    PubMed

    Gueret, G; Guillouet, M; Vermeersch, V; Guillard, E; Talarmin, H; Nguyen, B-V; Rannou, F; Giroux-Metges, M-A; Pennec, J-P; Ozier, Y

    2013-09-01

    ICU acquired neuromyopathy (IANM) is the most frequent neurological pathology observed in ICU. Nerve and muscle defects are merged with neuromuscular junction abnormalities. Its physiopathology is complex. The aim is probably the redistribution of nutriments and metabolism towards defense against sepsis. The main risk factors are sepsis, its severity and its duration of evolution. IANM is usually diagnosed in view of difficulties in weaning from mechanical ventilation, but electrophysiology may allow an earlier diagnosis. There is no curative therapy, but early treatment of sepsis, glycemic control as well as early physiotherapy may decrease its incidence. The outcomes of IANM are an increase in morbi-mortality and possibly long-lasting neuromuscular abnormalities as far as tetraplegia. PMID:23958176

  6. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  7. Acute Acquired Concomitant Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Deng, Daming; Sun, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Cao, Guobin; Yan, Jianhua; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is a rare, distinct subtype of esotropia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics and discuss the classification and etiology of AACE. Charts from 47 patients with AACE referred to our institute between October 2010 and November 2014 were reviewed. All participants underwent a complete medical history, ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, and brain and orbital imaging. Mean age at onset was 26.6 ± 12.2 years. Of the 18 cases with deviations ≤ 20 PD, 16 presented with diplopia at distance and fusion at near vision at the onset of deviation; differences between distance and near deviations were < 8 PD; all cases except one were treated with prism and diplopia resolved. Of the 29 cases with deviations > 20 PD, 5 were mild hypermetropic with age at onset between 5 and 19 years, 16 were myopic, and 8 were emmetropic with age at onset > 12 years; 24 were surgically treated and 5 cases remained under observation; all 24 cases achieved normal retinal correspondence or fusion or stereopsis on postoperative day 1 in synoptophore; in 23 cases diplopia or visual confusion resolved postoperatively. Of the 47 cases, brain and orbital imaging in 2 cases revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle and 1 case involved spinocerebellar ataxia as revealed by genetic testing. AACE in this study was characterized by a sudden onset of concomitant nonaccommodative esotropia with diplopia or visual confusion at 5 years of age or older and the potential for normal binocular vision. We suggest that AACE can be divided into 2 subgroups consisting of patients with relatively small versus large angle deviations. Coexisting or underlying neurological diseases were infrequent in AACE. PMID:26705210

  8. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... confer control of X and therefore will file as an acquiring person. Because A held the plant prior to the... within two persons, “A” and “B.” Under this section, if V is to acquire corporation X, both “A” and “B... person. Examples: 1. Assume that person “Q” will acquire voting securities of corporation X held by...

  9. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... confer control of X and therefore will file as an acquiring person. Because A held the plant prior to the... within two persons, “A” and “B.” Under this section, if V is to acquire corporation X, both “A” and “B... person. Examples: 1. Assume that person “Q” will acquire voting securities of corporation X held by...

  10. Specialization and evolutionary branching within migratory populations

    PubMed Central

    Torney, Colin J.; Levin, Simon A.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive specialization and speciation within initially homogeneous populations is a fundamental challenge for evolutionary theory. It is an issue of relevance for significant open questions in biology concerning the generation and maintenance of biodiversity, the origins of reciprocal cooperation, and the efficient division of labor in social or colonial organisms. Several mathematical frameworks have been developed to address this question and models based on evolutionary game theory or the adaptive dynamics of phenotypic mutation have demonstrated the emergence of polymorphic, specialized populations. Here we focus on a ubiquitous biological phenomenon, migration. Individuals in our model may evolve the capacity to detect and follow an environmental cue that indicates a preferred migration route. The strategy space is defined by the level of investment in acquiring personal information about this route or the alternative tendency to follow the direction choice of others. The result is a relation between the migratory process and a game theoretic dynamic that is generally applicable to situations where information may be considered a public good. Through the use of an approximation of social interactions, we demonstrate the emergence of a stable, polymorphic population consisting of an uninformed subpopulation that is dependent upon a specialized group of leaders. The branching process is classified using the techniques of adaptive dynamics. PMID:21059935

  11. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acquired person is the pre-acquisition ultimate parent entity of the entity. (ii) The value of an... directors of B. A is deemed to be acquiring all of the assets of B as a result. (g) Transfers of patent... transfer of patent rights covered by this paragraph constitutes an asset acquisition; and (3) Patent...

  12. Curriculum Adaptation in Special Schools for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (SID): A Case Study of Project Learning in One SID School in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jia-Wei; Wong, Lam; Chan, Tak-Hang; Chiu, Chi-Shing

    2014-01-01

    Using a qualitative case study approach, the authors analyzed the curriculum adaptation process for one project learning activity in School K, which is a SID school in the context of school-university collaboration. Multiple sources of data were collected for triangulation, including interviews, documents and observations. Curriculum adaptation…

  13. Teaching Students with Special Needs in Secondary and Vocational Programs: Classroom, Building, Equipment and Instructional Modifications and Adaptations. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Janice; Parks, A. Lee

    This manuscript, provided in a format that lends itself to workshop presentation, contains materials for vocational and secondary educators on curriculum and classroom modifications for handicapped learners. Content is divided into seven areas. The first section discusses overall curricular modification and adaptation for handicapped students. In…

  14. The Profiling System/Using Psychological Type and Learning Style To Provide Adaptations for Teaching Methodology in the Regular and Special Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Gisele A.; Lasage, Ed.

    The purpose of the Profiling System is to provide diagnostic and instructional resources to regular and special education teachers. The Profiling System is based on research and literature in psychological type and learning style. It combines the literature in these areas with academic and perceptual assessment instruments to screen for learning…

  15. Adapting the Physical Education Program for the Student with Special Needs: A Supplement to the K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The booklet is designed to acquaint the physical education specialist, classroom teacher, special educator, and administrator with the importance of physical education for handicapped students. An initial chapter addresses movement's effects on cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development. A second section outlines definitions of the major…

  16. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

  17. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  18. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  19. A Specialized Histone H1 Variant Is Required for Adaptive Responses to Complex Abiotic Stress and Related DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rutowicz, Kinga; Puzio, Marcin; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Lirski, Maciej; Kotliński, Maciej; Kroteń, Magdalena A; Knizewski, Lukasz; Lange, Bartosz; Muszewska, Anna; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Kościelniak, Janusz; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Buza, Krisztián; Janowiak, Franciszek; Żmuda, Katarzyna; Jõesaar, Indrek; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Fogtman, Anna; Kollist, Hannes; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Tiuryn, Jerzy; Siedlecki, Paweł; Swiezewski, Szymon; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Koblowska, Marta; Archacki, Rafał; Wilczynski, Bartek; Rapacz, Marcin; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Linker (H1) histones play critical roles in chromatin compaction in higher eukaryotes. They are also the most variable of the histones, with numerous nonallelic variants cooccurring in the same cell. Plants contain a distinct subclass of minor H1 variants that are induced by drought and abscisic acid and have been implicated in mediating adaptive responses to stress. However, how these variants facilitate adaptation remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the single Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stress-inducible variant H1.3 occurs in plants in two separate and most likely autonomous pools: a constitutive guard cell-specific pool and a facultative environmentally controlled pool localized in other tissues. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses of h1.3 null mutants demonstrate that H1.3 is required for both proper stomatal functioning under normal growth conditions and adaptive developmental responses to combined light and water deficiency. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis, we show that H1.3 has superfast chromatin dynamics, and in contrast to the main Arabidopsis H1 variants H1.1 and H1.2, it has no stable bound fraction. The results of global occupancy studies demonstrate that, while H1.3 has the same overall binding properties as the main H1 variants, including predominant heterochromatin localization, it differs from them in its preferences for chromatin regions with epigenetic signatures of active and repressed transcription. We also show that H1.3 is required for a substantial part of DNA methylation associated with environmental stress, suggesting that the likely mechanism underlying H1.3 function may be the facilitation of chromatin accessibility by direct competition with the main H1 variants. PMID:26351307

  20. A Specialized Histone H1 Variant Is Required for Adaptive Responses to Complex Abiotic Stress and Related DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rutowicz, Kinga; Puzio, Marcin; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Lirski, Maciej; Kotliński, Maciej; Kroteń, Magdalena A.; Knizewski, Lukasz; Lange, Bartosz; Muszewska, Anna; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Kościelniak, Janusz; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Buza, Krisztián; Janowiak, Franciszek; Żmuda, Katarzyna; Jõesaar, Indrek; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Fogtman, Anna; Kollist, Hannes; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Tiuryn, Jerzy; Siedlecki, Paweł; Swiezewski, Szymon; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Koblowska, Marta; Archacki, Rafał; Wilczynski, Bartek; Rapacz, Marcin; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Linker (H1) histones play critical roles in chromatin compaction in higher eukaryotes. They are also the most variable of the histones, with numerous nonallelic variants cooccurring in the same cell. Plants contain a distinct subclass of minor H1 variants that are induced by drought and abscisic acid and have been implicated in mediating adaptive responses to stress. However, how these variants facilitate adaptation remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the single Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stress-inducible variant H1.3 occurs in plants in two separate and most likely autonomous pools: a constitutive guard cell-specific pool and a facultative environmentally controlled pool localized in other tissues. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses of h1.3 null mutants demonstrate that H1.3 is required for both proper stomatal functioning under normal growth conditions and adaptive developmental responses to combined light and water deficiency. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis, we show that H1.3 has superfast chromatin dynamics, and in contrast to the main Arabidopsis H1 variants H1.1 and H1.2, it has no stable bound fraction. The results of global occupancy studies demonstrate that, while H1.3 has the same overall binding properties as the main H1 variants, including predominant heterochromatin localization, it differs from them in its preferences for chromatin regions with epigenetic signatures of active and repressed transcription. We also show that H1.3 is required for a substantial part of DNA methylation associated with environmental stress, suggesting that the likely mechanism underlying H1.3 function may be the facilitation of chromatin accessibility by direct competition with the main H1 variants. PMID:26351307

  1. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I.; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:24734017

  2. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  3. School reentry for children with acquired central nervous systems injuries.

    PubMed

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special education is not necessarily a special classroom, but an individualized set of educational needs, determined by a multidisciplinary school team, to promote educational success. The purpose of this article is to inform those pediatricians and pediatric allied health professionals treating children with CNS injury of the systems in place to support successful school reentry and their role in contributing to developing an appropriate educational plan. PMID:19489086

  4. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

  5. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  6. Career Adaptability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Porfeli, Erik J.; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood marks the dawn of vocational development, involving developmental tasks, transitions, and change. Children must acquire the rudiments of career adaptability to envision a future, make educational and vocational decisions, explore self and occupations, and problem solve. The authors situate child vocational development within human life…

  7. Tracing the History of the Energy Sector Related Applications Using Specially Adapted NASA Long-Term Climate Data Sets and Measures of Their Socio-Economic Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D. J.; Zhang, T.

    2012-12-01

    In the mid-1990's the National Renewable Energy Laboratory approached NASA Langley Research Center to gain information about the solar resource in Africa as estimated via early satellite based methods. From this began an effort that eventually involved collaboration with DOE NREL, Natural Resources Canada RETScreen International, and numerous other partners in industry and universities to make progressively improved data products available for the renewable energy and other energy related applications. In 2002, NASA Applied Science projects were initiated providing a more focused effort to accomplish the goal of empowering energy related decision support tools using NASA meteorological and climate related data sets. At this time, NASA Langley Research Center reorganized a project aimed to make long-term solar energy and meteorological data sets available to Energy sector related industries, including sustainable buildings and agroclimatology. This task involved the design and adaption of NASA derived data sets that these industries use, key partnerships, a commitment to validation, a commitment to expansion of parameters and data products over time, and a web based interface that allows energy industry specialists to obtained the needed data parameters in easy to use formats. This presentation shows the history of the NASA Langley Research Center effort to provide data sets for energy sector applications. This includes the development and usage of the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/) web interface that has been improved under the Prediction of Worldwide renewable Energy Resource Project (POWER, http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Through the years the data sets provided now span more than 30 years and since 2009 include global parameters released within about 4-6 days of real time. The history of usage of this web site is discussed in terms of key partnerships and new data releases. We will present ways of categorizing the

  8. 76 FR 33032 - Agency Information Collection (Veteran's Supplemental Application for Assistance in Acquiring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... 26-4555c to apply for specially adapted housing grants. VA will use the data collected to determine... Specially Adapted Housing) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of... and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503 (202)...

  9. Preschoolers Use Questions as a Tool to Acquire Knowledge from Different Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Candice M.; Legare, Cristine H.; Bills, Megan; Mejias, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    How do children use questions as tools to acquire new knowledge? The current experiment examined preschool children's ability to direct questions to appropriate sources to acquire knowledge. Fifty preschoolers engaged in a task that entailed asking questions to discover which special key would open a box that contained a prize. Children solved…

  10. Targets for Combating the Evolution of Acquired Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Culyba, Matthew J; Mo, Charlie Y; Kohli, Rahul M

    2015-06-16

    Bacteria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly adapt and evolve in response to antibiotics. Acquired antibiotic resistance can arise by multiple mechanisms but commonly involves altering the target site of the drug, enzymatically inactivating the drug, or preventing the drug from accessing its target. These mechanisms involve new genetic changes in the pathogen leading to heritable resistance. This recognition underscores the importance of understanding how such genetic changes can arise. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the processes that contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance, with a particular focus on hypermutation mediated by the SOS pathway and horizontal gene transfer. We explore the molecular mechanisms involved in acquired resistance and discuss their viability as potential targets. We propose that additional studies into these adaptive mechanisms not only can provide insights into evolution but also can offer a strategy for potentiating our current antibiotic arsenal. PMID:26016604

  11. Targets for Combating the Evolution of Acquired Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly adapt and evolve in response to antibiotics. Acquired antibiotic resistance can arise by multiple mechanisms but commonly involves altering the target site of the drug, enzymatically inactivating the drug, or preventing the drug from accessing its target. These mechanisms involve new genetic changes in the pathogen leading to heritable resistance. This recognition underscores the importance of understanding how such genetic changes can arise. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the processes that contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance, with a particular focus on hypermutation mediated by the SOS pathway and horizontal gene transfer. We explore the molecular mechanisms involved in acquired resistance and discuss their viability as potential targets. We propose that additional studies into these adaptive mechanisms not only can provide insights into evolution but also can offer a strategy for potentiating our current antibiotic arsenal. PMID:26016604

  12. Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin Administered to Abolish Acquired Nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, R. John; Tomsak, Robert L.; Grant, Michael P.; Remler, Bernd F.; Yaniglos, Stacy S.; Lystad, Lisa; Dell'Osso, Louis F.

    1992-01-01

    We injected botulinum toxin into the horizontal rectus muscles of the right eyes of two patients who had acquired pendular nystagmus with horizontal, vertical, and torsional components. This treatment successfully abolished the horizontal component of the nystagmus in the injected eye in both patients for approximately 2 months. Both patients showed a small but measurable improvement of vision in the injected eye that may have been limited by coexistent disease of the visual pathways. The vertical and torsional components of the nystagmus persisted in both patients. In one patient, the horizontal component of nystagmus in the noninjected eye increased; we ascribe this finding to plastic-adaptive changes in response to paresis caused by the botulinum toxin. Such plastic-adaptive changes and direct side effects of the injections - such as diplopia and ptosis - may limit the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of acquired nystagmus. Neither patient elected to repeat the botulinum treatment.

  13. Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Somak; Pantanowitz, Liron; Amin, Milon; Seethala, Raja R.; Ishtiaque, Ahmed; Yousem, Samuel A.; Parwani, Anil V.; Cucoranu, Ioan; Hartman, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Photomicrographs in Anatomic Pathology provide a means of quickly sharing information from a glass slide for consultation, education, documentation and publication. While static image acquisition historically involved the use of a permanently mounted camera unit on a microscope, such cameras may be expensive, need to be connected to a computer, and often require proprietary software to acquire and process images. Another novel approach for capturing digital microscopic images is to use smartphones coupled with the eyepiece of a microscope. Recently, several smartphone adapters have emerged that allow users to attach mobile phones to the microscope. The aim of this study was to test the utility of these various smartphone adapters. Materials and Methods: We surveyed the market for adapters to attach smartphones to the ocular lens of a conventional light microscope. Three adapters (Magnifi, Skylight and Snapzoom) were tested. We assessed the designs of these adapters and their effectiveness at acquiring static microscopic digital images. Results: All adapters facilitated the acquisition of digital microscopic images with a smartphone. The optimal adapter was dependent on the type of phone used. The Magnifi adapters for iPhone were incompatible when using a protective case. The Snapzoom adapter was easiest to use with iPhones and other smartphones even with protective cases. Conclusions: Smartphone adapters are inexpensive and easy to use for acquiring digital microscopic images. However, they require some adjustment by the user in order to optimize focus and obtain good quality images. Smartphone microscope adapters provide an economically feasible method of acquiring and sharing digital pathology photomicrographs. PMID:25191623

  14. Perioperatively acquired disorders of coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Grottke, Oliver; Fries, Dietmar; Nascimento, Bartolomeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of acquired coagulopathies that can occur in various perioperative clinical settings. Also described are coagulation disturbances linked to antithrombotic medications and currently available strategies to reverse their antithrombotic effects in situations of severe hemorrhage. Recent findings Recent studies highlight the link between low fibrinogen and decreased fibrin polymerization in the development of acquired coagulopathy. Particularly, fibrin(ogen) deficits are observable after cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery, on arrival at the emergency room in trauma patients, and with ongoing bleeding after child birth. Regarding antithrombotic therapy, although new oral anticoagulants offer the possibility of efficacy and relative safety compared with vitamin K antagonists, reversal of their anticoagulant effect with nonspecific agents, including prothrombin complex concentrate, has provided conflicting results. Specific antidotes, currently being developed, are not yet licensed for clinical use, but initial results are promising. Summary Targeted hemostatic therapy aims to correct coagulopathies in specific clinical settings, and reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions, thus preventing massive transfusion and its deleterious outcomes. Although there are specific guidelines for reversing anticoagulation in patients treated with antiplatelet agents or warfarin, there is currently little evidence to advocate comprehensive recommendations to treat drug-induced coagulopathy associated with new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25734869

  15. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. PMID:24846635

  16. Adapting Lessons for the Special Needs Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, James J.; Sibit, Shawn A.

    2005-01-01

    The population of American schools has continually become more diverse over time and so too have the needs of the students as well as the responsibilities of teachers. One must include in this multicultural amalgam those who have learning disabilities (LD). Arguably, nowhere else in society are disabilities so openly recognized and acknowledged as…

  17. SPECIAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION--ADAPTED, CORRECTIVE, DEVELOPMENTAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAIT, HOLLIS F.

    THIS BOOK, WRITTEN FOR PROSPECTIVE PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS IN A VARIETY OF SETTINGS, HAS THREE OBJECTIVES--(1) TO INTRODUCE BRIEFLY THE NATURE OF VARIOUS HANDICAPPING CONDITIONS, (2) TO DELINEATE THEIR PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS, AND (3) TO SUGGEST SUITABLE GAMES AND ACTIVITIES. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, A BASIS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE HANDICAPPED,…

  18. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  19. Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Ray, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on special needs instruction and technology: (1) "Hawaii Special Education Teacher Induction" (Kalena Oliva and Quinn Avery); (2) "The Impact of Group v Individual Use of Hypermedia-Based Instruction" (Lewis R. Johnson, Louis P. Semrau, and Gail E. Fitzgerald); (3) "Assistive Technology Meets…

  20. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: neuroradiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W M; Brant-Zawadzki, M

    1983-11-01

    Central nervous system complications depicted by CT in ten patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are described. Three patients had multifocal intra-axial enhancing lesions representing atypical brain abscesses (two with toxoplasmosis, one with candidiasis). A fourth patient with multifocal "ring" lesions whose biopsy was interpreted as suggestive of toxoplasmosis responded poorly to treatment. Following his death three months later of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, autopsy revealed primary intracerebral immunoblastic lymphoma. One patient had Kaposi sarcoma involving the right frontal lobe (seen as an enhancing mass on the CT scan). CT findings in the remaining five patients revealed mild to moderate enlargement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces (including ventricles and basal cisternae) as a result of cryptococcal meningitis in three patients and "aseptic" meningitis in two. The two patients in whom early biopsy confirmed toxoplasmosis responded well to anti-infective therapy, resulting in dramatic clinical recoveries. PMID:6622693

  1. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood. PMID:17049474

  2. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression. PMID:25864863

  3. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  4. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  5. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  6. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  7. Special Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Phil

    1986-01-01

    Specialized publications such as "Opera News,""Gourmet," and "Forbes" can bring an institution's story to targeted audiences. The experiences of Chautauqua Institution are described. Some of the benefits of marketing articles to these publications are discussed. (MLW)

  8. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  9. Infections Acquired in the Garden.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cheston B; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-10-01

    Gardening is a wonderful pastime, and the garden is a very peaceful place to enjoy one's vacation. However, the garden may be a treacherous place for very young or compromised hosts when one takes into account the infectious potential residing in the soil, as well as the insect vectors on plants and animals. Even normal hosts may acquire a variety of infections from the soil, animals, or animal-related insect bites. The location of the garden, its natural animal and insect inhabitants, and the characteristics of the soil play a part in determining its infectious potential. The most important factor making the garden an infectious and dangerous place is the number and interaction of animals, whether they are pets or wild, that temporarily use the garden for part of their daily activities. The clinician should always ask about garden exposure, which will help in eliminating the diagnostic possibilities for the patient. The diagnostic approach is to use epidemiological principles in concert with clinical clues, which together should suggest a reasonable list of diagnostic possibilities. Organ involvement and specific laboratory tests help further narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the specific tests necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26542044

  10. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  11. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  12. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  13. Surface Sampler Arm Acquiring Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Operation of the surface sampler in obtaining Martian soil for Viking 2's molecular analysis experiment last Saturday (September 25) was closely monitored by one of the Lander cameras because of the precision required in trenching the small area--8 by 9 inches-surrounded by rocks. Dubbed 'Bonneville Salt Flats,' the exposure of thin crust appeared unique in contrast with surrounding materials and became a prime target for organic analysis in spite of potential hazards. Large rock in foreground is 8 inches high. At left, the sampler scoop has touched the surface, missing the rock at upper left by a comfortable 6 inches, and the backhoe has penetrated the surface about one-half inch. The scoop was then pulled back to sample the desired point and (second photo) the backhoe furrowed the surface pulling a piece of thin crust toward the spacecraft. The initial touchdown and retraction sequence was used to avoid a collision between a rock in the shadow of the arm and a plate joining the arm and scoop. The rock was cleared by 2 to 3 inches. The third picture was taken 8 minutes after the scoop touched the surface and shows that the collector head has acquired a quantity of soil. With surface sampler withdrawn (right), the foot-long trench is seen between the rocks. The trench is three inches wide and about 1 1/2 to 2 inches deep. The scoop reached to within 3 inches of the rock at far end of trench. Penetration appears to have left a cavernous opening roofed by the crust and only about one inch of undisturbed crust separates the deformed surface and the rock.

  14. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  15. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  16. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  17. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  18. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  19. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard J.; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E.; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Loh, Wai Y.; Matthews, Lillian G.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Seal, Marc L.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical gray

  20. The genomics of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-12-22

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation. PMID:23097510

  1. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  2. Acquired stuttering due to recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katherine B; Turner, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Acquired (neurogenic) stuttering is a rare phenomenon seen after cerebral infarction or brain injury. Aetiology of this symptom is unclear, but recent evidence supports that it is a disturbance in the left hemispheric neural network involving the interplay between the cortex and basal ganglia. We present the case of a patient who develops acquired stuttering after a recurrence of a right temporoparietal anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III). We also review other cases of acquired stuttering and known anatomical correlates. PMID:24252834

  3. Attaining Success for Beginning Special Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marjorie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)

  4. A Special Kind of Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda Brown

    2007-01-01

    Tutoring has long been recognized as superior to group instruction, especially for students with special needs. Tutors can adapt instruction to the learner's pace, learning style and level of understanding. Feedback and correction are immediate. Basic misunderstandings can be quickly identified and corrected. Tutoring also has emotional benefits:…

  5. Waddington's widget: Hsp90 and the inheritance of acquired characters.

    PubMed

    Ruden, Douglas M; Garfinkel, Mark D; Sollars, Vincent E; Lu, Xiangyi

    2003-10-01

    Conrad Waddington published an influential model for evolution in his 1942 paper, Canalization of Development and Inheritance of Acquired Characters. In this classic, albeit controversial, paper, he proposed that an unknown mechanism exists that conceals phenotypic variation until the organism is stressed. Recent studies have proposed that the highly conserved chaperone Hsp90 could function as a "capacitor," or an "adaptively inducible canalizer," that masks silent phenotypic variation of either genetic or epigenetic origin. This review will discuss evidence for, and arguments against, the role of Hsp90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution, and as a key component of what we call "Waddington's widget." PMID:14986860

  6. Special Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Weele, Maribeth

    1992-01-01

    Thomas Hehir, special education chief of Chicago Public Schools, is evangelist of integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. By completely reorganizing department viewed as political patronage dumping ground, Hehir has made remarkable progress in handling large number of children awaiting evaluation and placement in special…

  7. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, L.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The special theory of relativity (SR), developed by ALBERT EINSTEIN in 1905, represents a revolutionary change in the human conception of the nature of space and time. According to SR, space and time are not absolute but must be viewed as components of a single entity, SPACE-TIME. This idea has numerous important implications, both conceptual and practical....

  8. Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Sarah K.; Lynch, Clifford; Nevins, Kate; Juergens, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Contains three special reports: developments in copyright law, 1997 (World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation, Ashcroft Bill, No Electronic Theft Act, database protection, Conference on Fair Use (CONFU), judicial decisions, principles for licensing electronic resources, and Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B); Internet2 and the…

  9. Specialized Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Six articles discuss librarians as mediators in special circumstances. Highlights include the reference librarian and the information paraprofessional; effective reference mediation for nontraditional public library users, including mentally impaired patrons and illiterate adults; the academic librarian's role in the education process; and…

  10. Postpartum patient with thrombosis of mechanical prostheses and acquired supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Benfatti, Ricardo Adala; Martins Júnior, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Guilherme Viotto Rodrigues da; Pontes, José Carlos Dorsa Vieira

    2011-01-01

    The blood hypercoagulability in pregnancy increases significantly the incidence of thrombosis of mechanical valves. Acquired supravalvular aortic stenosis is extremely rare. We report the case of an immediate postpartum patient with aortic mechanical prostheses and acquired supravalvular aortic stenosis who underwent emergency heart surgery, with severe hemodynamic instability, using adapted surgical technique for correction of supravalvular stenosis with satisfactory clinical and echocardiography results. PMID:21894422

  11. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  12. 41 CFR 102-36.445 - Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? 102-36.445 Section... Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Red Cross Property § 102-36.445 Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? Yes,...

  13. 41 CFR 102-36.445 - Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? 102-36.445 Section... Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Red Cross Property § 102-36.445 Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? Yes,...

  14. 41 CFR 102-36.445 - Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? 102-36.445 Section... Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Red Cross Property § 102-36.445 Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? Yes,...

  15. 41 CFR 102-36.445 - Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? 102-36.445 Section... Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Red Cross Property § 102-36.445 Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? Yes,...

  16. 41 CFR 102-36.445 - Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? 102-36.445 Section... Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Red Cross Property § 102-36.445 Do we report excess personal property originally acquired from or through the American National Red Cross? Yes,...

  17. Special Rules for Special Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Julie J.

    2000-01-01

    School districts are on safer legal ground if they recommend appropriate educational services for each special-needs child, convene parents and school personnel for Individual Education Plan meetings, make placement decisions based on individualized, thorough evaluations; document alternative options; develop behavior-management programs, and use…

  18. Acquired Surface Dyslexia: The Evidence from Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnboim, Smadar

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the symptoms of acquired surface dyslexia in Hebrew. Four acquired surface dyslexic adults were compared with eight normal second graders in terms of reading strategy. Homophones and homographs were a major source of difficulty for native Hebrew surface dyslexic readers; the normal second graders used a non-lexical strategy. (45…

  19. Acquiring and Managing Electronic Journals. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Donnelyn; Yue, Paoshan

    Electronic journals are both a blessing and a curse for libraries. To be meaningful in the current information environment--to meet users' ever-increasing demands--libraries must acquire as many appropriate full text resources as possible, as quickly as possible, and make them easy to use. This Digest provides tips for acquiring and providing…

  20. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Mohanan; Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn's disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient. PMID:23248371

  1. Dynamics of adaptive immunity against phage in bacterial populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradde, Serena; Vucelja, Marija; Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mechanism allows bacteria to adaptively defend against phages by acquiring short genomic sequences (spacers) that target specific sequences in the viral genome. We propose a population dynamical model where immunity can be both acquired and lost. The model predicts regimes where bacterial and phage populations can co-exist, others where the populations oscillate, and still others where one population is driven to extinction. Our model considers two key parameters: (1) ease of acquisition and (2) spacer effectiveness in conferring immunity. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations show that if spacers differ mainly in ease of acquisition, or if the probability of acquiring them is sufficiently high, bacteria develop a diverse population of spacers. On the other hand, if spacers differ mainly in their effectiveness, their final distribution will be highly peaked, akin to a ``winner-take-all'' scenario, leading to a specialized spacer distribution. Bacteria can interpolate between these limiting behaviors by actively tuning their overall acquisition rate.

  2. Theory of psychological adaptive modes.

    PubMed

    Lehti, Juha

    2016-05-01

    When an individual is facing a stressor and normal stress-response mechanism cannot guarantee sufficient adaptation, special emotional states, adaptive modes, are activated (for example a depressive reaction). Adaptive modes are involuntary states of mind, they are of comprehensive nature, they interfere with normal functioning, and they cannot be repressed or controlled the same way as many emotions. Their transformational nature differentiates them from other emotional states. The object of the adaptive mode is to optimize the problem-solving abilities according to the situation that has provoked the mode. Cognitions and emotions during the adaptive mode are different than in a normal mental state. These altered cognitions and emotional reactions guide the individual to use the correct coping skills in order to deal with the stressor. Successful adaptation will cause the adaptive mode to fade off since the adaptive mode is no longer necessary, and the process as a whole will lead to raised well-being. However, if the adaptation process is inadequate, then the transformation period is prolonged, and the adaptive mode will turn into a dysfunctional state. Many psychiatric disorders are such maladaptive processes. The maladaptive processes can be turned into functional ones by using adaptive skills that are used in functional adaptive processes. PMID:27063089

  3. Acquired hemophilia masked by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kantor, R; Mayan, H; Puritz, L; Varon, D; Farfel, Z

    2000-03-01

    People without hemophilia but with autoantibodies specifically directed against the procoagulant activity of factor VIII are known to have acquired hemophilia. The bleeding diathesis in these patients is often severe and life-threatening. The definite laboratory diagnosis of this disorder includes demonstration of low factor VIII levels in plasma with a high titer of factor VIII inhibitors, but the initial suspicion for its presence should rise in view of a prolonged partial thromboblastin time (PTT) and a normal prothrombin time associated with an acquired bleeding disorder. Oral anticoagulant treatment is known to prolong PTT as well, and the merger of these 2 situations may cause delayed diagnosis of acquired hemophilia with devastating consequences. We describe here the first reported case of acquired hemophilia diagnosed in a patient treated with warfarin. In such patients prolonged PTT may be ascribed to warfarin therapy rather than to acquired hemophilia, thus causing a dangerous delay in diagnosis. PMID:10746834

  4. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Nicholas M. J.

    This course on special relativity emphasizes the coordinate-free and tensorial approach to Einstein's theory. The author encourages the reader to look at problems from a four-dimensional point of view, so preparing them for further study in relativistic physics, gravitation and cosmology. The book will be especially appealing to students with a mathematical bent and those who like brevity and clarity of reasoning.

  5. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country. PMID:16163422

  6. Phase Adaptation and Correction by Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiziani, Hans J.

    2010-04-01

    Adaptive optical elements and systems for imaging or laser beam propagation are used for some time in particular in astronomy, where the image quality is degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In astronomical telescopes a deformable mirror is frequently used to compensate wavefront-errors due to deformations of the large mirror, vibrations as well as turbulence and hence to increase the image quality. In the last few years interesting elements like Spatial Light Modulators, SLM's, such as photorefractive crystals, liquid crystals and micro mirrors and membrane mirrors were introduced. The development of liquid crystals and micro mirrors was driven by data projectors as consumer products. They contain typically a matrix of individually addressable pixels of liquid crystals and flip mirrors respectively or more recently piston mirrors for special applications. Pixel sizes are in the order of a few microns and therefore also appropriate as active diffractive elements in digital holography or miniature masks. Although liquid crystals are mainly optimized for intensity modulation; they can be used for phase modulation. Adaptive optics is a technology for beam shaping and wavefront adaptation. The application of spatial light modulators for wavefront adaptation and correction and defect analysis as well as sensing will be discussed. Dynamic digital holograms are generated with liquid crystal devices (LCD) and used for wavefront correction as well as for beam shaping and phase manipulation, for instance. Furthermore, adaptive optics is very useful to extend the measuring range of wavefront sensors and for the wavefront adaptation in order to measure and compare the shape of high precision aspherical surfaces.

  7. Acquiring unpublished population documents in Africa: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Kwafo-akoto, K O

    1988-04-01

    Acquiring both published and unpublished documents produced in Africa is, generally, a difficult task due to the existing poor state of bibliographic control and the publishing industry. It is even more difficult to obtain unpublished documents in a specialized area of study such as demography--a diffuse area which cuts across several disciplines. This paper discusses the problems encountered on acquisition trips to some African countries to acquire unpublished population material. To help solve the problems, the Population Association of Africa must persuade its members to send copies of their publications to population libraries and documentation centers in their individual countries for dissemination to the other users in Africa. The various organizations and institutions in Africa engaged in the teaching and research of population studies should have an agreement to exchange copies of their theses. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Organization of African Unity (OAU) should make representations to the various African member countries on the need to disseminate the results of vital censuses and surveys conducted. Finally, the Population Information Network for Africa (POPIN-AFRICA) with its coordinating unit at the population division of ECA should ensure that all the nodes of the network have the financial and other resources to be able to acquire the relevant documents needed for their operations. PMID:12341802

  8. Potential disadvantages of using socially acquired information.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Valone, Thomas J; Templeton, Jennifer J

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and use of socially acquired information is commonly assumed to be profitable. We challenge this assumption by exploring hypothetical scenarios where the use of such information either provides no benefit or can actually be costly. First, we show that the level of incompatibility between the acquisition of personal and socially acquired information will directly affect the extent to which the use of socially acquired information can be profitable. When these two sources of information cannot be acquired simultaneously, there may be no benefit to socially acquired information. Second, we assume that a solitary individual's behavioural decisions will be based on cues revealed by its own interactions with the environment. However, in many cases, for social animals the only socially acquired information available to individuals is the behavioural actions of others that expose their decisions, rather than the cues on which these decisions were based. We argue that in such a situation the use of socially acquired information can lead to informational cascades that sometimes result in sub-optimal behaviour. From this theory of informational cascades, we predict that when erroneous cascades are costly, individuals should pay attention only to socially generated cues and not behavioural decisions. We suggest three scenarios that might be examples of informational cascades in nature. PMID:12495513

  9. Shuffling Adaptive Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sanjay G; Gokhale, Sankalp

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are interventional studies on human beings, designed to test the hypothesis for diagnostic techniques, treatments, and disease preventions. Any novel medical technology should be evaluated for its efficacy and safety by clinical trials. The costs associated with developing drugs have increased dramatically over the past decade, and fewer drugs are obtaining regulatory approval. Because of this, the pharmaceutical industry is continually exploring new ways of improving drug developments, and one area of focus is adaptive clinical trial designs. Adaptive designs, which allow for some types of prospectively planned mid-study changes, can improve the efficiency of a trial and maximize the chance of success without undermining validity and integrity of the trial. However it is felt that in adaptive trials; perhaps by using accrued data the actual patient population after the adaptations could deviate from the originally target patient population and so to overcome this drawback; special methods like Bayesian Statistics, predicted probability are used to deduce data-analysis. Here, in this study, mathematical model of a new adaptive design (shuffling adaptive trial) is suggested which uses real-time data, and because there is no gap between expected and observed data, statistical modifications are not needed. Results are obviously clinically relevant. PMID:23751329

  10. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, T.R.; Vidal, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    This paper presents a novel class of special purpose processors referred to as ASOCS (adaptive self-organizing concurrent systems). Intended applications include adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, system malfunction management, and in general, applications of logic reasoning. ASOCS combines massive parallelism with self-organization to attain a distributed mechanism for adaptation. The ASOCS approach is based on an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements (nodes) which operate in a combinational and asynchronous fashion. Problem specification (programming) is obtained by presenting to the system if-then rules expressed as Boolean conjunctions. New rules are added incrementally. In the current model, when conflicts occur, precedence is given to the most recent inputs. With each rule, desired network response is simply presented to the system, following which the network adjusts itself to maintain consistency and parsimony of representation. Data processing and adaptation form two separate phases of operation. During processing, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit. Control of the adaptive process is distributed among the network nodes and efficiently exploits parallelism.

  11. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  12. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography.

    PubMed

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  13. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications. PMID:16937429

  14. Adaptive capture of expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D.; Hand, Un Kyong |

    1995-05-01

    A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

  15. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  16. Biofied room integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Fumi; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Current smart buildings are based on scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events. We focus our attention on high adaptability of living matters to environmental changes. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is the concept of creating pleasant living environments using this high adaptability. Biofied room is integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information. In this research, we propose a highly adaptive algorithm to control the devices automatically. Based on physiological adaption, we can make the algorithm very flexible. As the first step in this research, a prototype of the sensor agent robot is built. Camera, microphone, proximity sensor, laser range-finder are mounted on the robot. As a sensor agent robot follows the residents, it acquires environmental information, and records the interaction between the robot and human. In a suggested control model, a resident is built in the control loop and his/her uncomfortable feeling plays a role of control signal. Following its signal, devices are controlled. Results obtained from the computer simulation show that models are able to maintain the human comfort feeling adaptively. This research suggests an adaptive, fault-tolerant, and energy-saving control models for building spaces, using simple algorithms based on physiological adaption.

  17. Acquired cutis laxa associated with cutaneous mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Minh Van; Dang, Phuoc Van; Bui, Duc Van; Mejbel, Haider; Mani, Divya Thomas; Smoller, Bruce Robert; Phung, Thuy Linh

    2015-07-01

    Cutis laxa is characterized by dramatic wrinkling of skin that is lacking in elasticity due to inherent defects in dermal elastic fibers. Cutis laxa can be caused by genetic and metabolic disorders. It can also be acquired, possibly resulting from inflammatory processes with destruction of elastic fibers. This report describes a 26-year old woman who developed acquired cutis laxa and cutaneous mastocytosis leading to premature aging. She represents a unique co-occurrence of these two separate disease entities. To our knowledge, there has been only one published case report of acquired cutis laxa occurring in association with urticaria pigmentosa in a 4-year old girl. Our case would be a second case that exhibits the coexistence of these two disorders in an adult female. PMID:26436968

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images PMID:8792545

  19. INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT--IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VUILLEMOT, L.D.

    THE COMPOUNDING PROBLEMS OF A SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN A SCHOOL DISTRICT OF LESS THAN 15,000 POPULATION ARE OUTLINED BY THE DIRECTOR OF SPECIAL EDUCATION IN AN INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT IN ILLINOIS. A VARIETY OF ADAPTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IS CONSIDERED. THE DEVELOPMENT SINCE 1959-60 OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATION DISTRICT WHICH NOW SERVES…

  20. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment and prevention].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Tagarro García, A; Escribano Montaner, A; Figuerola Mulet, J; García García, J J; Moreno-Galdó, A; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Lliria, C; Ruiz Contreras, J; Saavedra Lozano, J

    2015-12-01

    There have been significant changes in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children in the last decade. These changes relate to epidemiology and clinical presentation. Resistance to antibiotics is also a changing issue. These all have to be considered when treating CAP. In this document, two of the main Spanish pediatric societies involved in the treatment of CAP in children, propose a consensus concerning therapeutic approach. These societies are the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases. The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) has also been involved in the prevention of CAP. An attempt is made to provide up-to-date guidelines to all paediatricians. The first part of the statement presents the approach to ambulatory, previously healthy children. We also review the prevention with currently available vaccines. In a next second part, special situations and complicated forms will be addressed. PMID:25488029

  1. Acquired hemophilia masked by warfarin therapy: report on two cases.

    PubMed

    Uggla, Bertil; Linder, Olle; Schulman, Sam

    2003-12-01

    Spontaneous appearance of acquired anticoagulants is a rare phenomenon. We present two cases, where such antibodies against factor VIII were masked by warfarin therapy. The two patients were anticoagulated with warfarin due to mechanical heart valve and recurrent thromboembolic events, respectively. Different therapies against the inhibitor of factor VIII were used in the two cases. One patient received corticosteroids and high-dose gammaglobulin with temporary effect and was then effectively treated with cyclophosphamide. The other patient was successfully treated with cyclosporine. The special problems of keeping the balance between thrombosis and bleeding in this group of patients with need of anticoagulation due to mechanical heart valves or other thrombogenic factors are discussed. PMID:14614359

  2. Adapted Minds and Evolved Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology raises questions about how cognitive adaptations might be related to the emergence of formal schooling. Is there a special role for natural domains of cognition such as folk physics, folk psychology and folk biology? These domains may vary from small fragments of reasoning to large integrated systems. This heterogeneity…

  3. Curriculum Adaptation for Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Tom; And Others

    This manual on curriculum adaptation for inclusive classrooms was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a 5-year collaborative systems change project in California to facilitate the integration of students with severe disabilities previously at special centers into services at regular school…

  4. Educational Adaptations for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.; Simeonsson, Rune

    1982-01-01

    Representative adaptations currently being used to educate exceptional children are described and their effectiveness is weighed. Diagnostic-prescriptive teaching, behavioral modification techniques, lesson content modifications, and early intervention are considered, as are student placement options, such as special schools and classes and…

  5. Genomics of adaptation to host-plants in herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Guy, Endrick; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jaquiéry, Julie; Nouhaud, Pierre; Peccoud, Jean; Sugio, Akiko; Streiff, Réjane

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous insects represent the most species-rich lineages of metazoans. The high rate of diversification in herbivorous insects is thought to result from their specialization to distinct host-plants, which creates conditions favorable for the build-up of reproductive isolation and speciation. These conditions rely on constraints against the optimal use of a wide range of plant species, as each must constitute a viable food resource, oviposition site and mating site for an insect. Utilization of plants involves many essential traits of herbivorous insects, as they locate and select their hosts, overcome their defenses and acquire nutrients while avoiding intoxication. Although advances in understanding insect-plant molecular interactions have been limited by the complexity of insect traits involved in host use and the lack of genomic resources and functional tools, recent studies at the molecular level, combined with large-scale genomics studies at population and species levels, are revealing the genetic underpinning of plant specialization and adaptive divergence in non-model insect herbivores. Here, we review the recent advances in the genomics of plant adaptation in hemipterans and lepidopterans, two major insect orders, each of which includes a large number of crop pests. We focus on how genomics and post-genomics have improved our understanding of the mechanisms involved in insect-plant interactions by reviewing recent molecular discoveries in sensing, feeding, digesting and detoxifying strategies. We also present the outcomes of large-scale genomics approaches aimed at identifying loci potentially involved in plant adaptation in these insects. PMID:25846754

  6. Ultrasound of Inherited vs. Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Harms, Matthew B.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We compared features of nerve enlargement in inherited and acquired demyelinating neuropathies using ultrasound. Methods We measured median and ulnar nerve cross-sectional areas in proximal and distal regions in 128 children and adults with inherited (Charcot-Marie Tooth-1 (CMT-1) (n=35)) and acquired (Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) (n=55), Guillaine-Barre Syndrome (GBS) (n=21) and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) (n=17)) demyelinating neuropathies. We classified nerve enlargement by degree and number of regions affected. We defined patterns of nerve enlargement as: none- no enlargement; mild-nerves enlarged but never more than twice normal; regional- nerves normal at at least one region and enlarged more than twice normal at atleast one region; diffuse- nerves enlarged at all four regions with atleast one region more than twice normal size. Results Nerve enlargement was commonly diffuse (89%) and generally more than twice normal size in CMT-1, but not (p<0.001) in acquired disorders which mostly had either no, mild or regional nerve enlargement (CIDP (64%), GBS (95%), and MMN (100%)). In CIDP, subjects treated within three months of disease onset had less nerve enlargement than those treated later. Discussion Ultrasound identified patterns of diffuse nerve enlargement can be used to screen patients suspected of having CMT-1. Normal, mildly, or regionally enlarged nerves in demyelinating polyneuropathy suggests an acquired etiology. Early treatment in CIDP may impede nerve enlargement. PMID:24101129

  7. Acquiring a Second Language for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Virginia P.

    1995-01-01

    This report offers a conceptual model for use with language minority children who are entering a new school when they must acquire the language of the majority student population. The model has four development components or processes: sociocultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive. These four components are described in detail. Research is…

  8. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  9. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  10. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  12. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  13. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  14. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... possession of raisins by a handler at his packing or processing plant or at any other established receiving station operated by him: Provided, That a handler shall not be deemed to acquire any raisins...

  15. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 926.10 Section 926.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND...

  16. Acquiring Financial Management Software: A Prototyping Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John H.

    1990-01-01

    When the Smithsonian Institution recently acquired a new financial management system, the concept of prototyping was used throughout the process, but in a broader sense than in software development. It was used to refine requirements, establish software management techniques, test a logistical system, and implement and apply the package. (MSE)

  17. A Case Of Bilateral Acquired Localized Lipoatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tanrıkulu, Osman; Yesilova, Yavuz; Aksoy, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is characterized by inflammation and tissue loss in fatty tissue. This disease may be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Secondary lipoatrophy develops with infections, collagen tissue diseases, tumors and drug injections. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old female patient who developed lipoatrophy following intramuscular steroid injection to both buttocks. PMID:27504088

  18. Neural Correlates of Acquired Color Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna; Holmes, Amanda; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Ozgen, Emre; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Category training can induce category effects, whereby color discrimination of stimuli spanning a newly learned category boundary is enhanced relative to equivalently spaced stimuli from within the newly learned category (e.g., categorical perception). However, the underlying mechanisms of these acquired category effects are not fully understood.…

  19. Acquired structural defects of the hair.

    PubMed

    Chetty, G N; Kamalam, A; Thambiah, A S

    1981-03-01

    Acquired hair shaft abnormalities resembling genetic trichorrhexis nodosa were seen in two patients. Selenium shampoo and bacterial infection with trichomycosis axillaris may have been the contributing factors. There is a possibility that strongyloides larvae caused trichonodosis in one patient. PMID:7216593

  20. Community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, W N; Lu, C H; Huang, C R; Chuang, Y C

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis in adults is an extremely rare infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report one adult case of this rare CNS infection and review the clinical data of another seven cases reported in the English language literature. In total, eight patients (six men and two women) aged between 19 and 63 years were studied. The causative pathogen in our patient was Acinetobacter baumannii; in the other reported cases they were most likely Acinetobacter Iwoffii, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter junii, a genomic species 3 or 6. No underlying disease was found in seven of the eight cases and six of the eight patients acquired the infections before the age of 30 years. Fever and consciousness disturbance were the most common clinical manifestations. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) was found in two cases. Unlike the Acinetobacter strains found in nosocomial infections, the strain of Acinetobacter meningitis in the community-acquired case did not show multiple antibiotic resistance. Most adult patients with community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis can be saved by timely therapy with appropriate antibiotics before deterioration of the systemic condition and impairment of consciousness. PMID:11139162

  1. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  2. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  3. Accommodating Individual Differences through Instructional Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatterott, Cathy; Yard, George J.

    1993-01-01

    Dissimilar learners, although not candidates for special-education services, have difficulty adapting to the typical middle-school environment. The Intervention with Dissimilar Learners model adapts middle-school programs to meet student needs and achieve positive regard, teacher empowerment, and teacher as advisor objectives. The goal is building…

  4. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  5. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  6. Current treatment options of acquired flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Lesić, Aleksandar R; Atkinson, Henry Dushan E; Zagorac, Slavisa G; Bumbasirević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic acquired flatfoot is an important orthopaedic problem, due to progressive loss of whole foot function and the increasing problem of patient disability. It is a complex entity, involving the tibialis posterior tendon, ankle joint, hindfoot and midfoot. In most cases the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) is the root cause of acquired flat foot, but there are other contributors and many different factors have an influence. The clinical picture varies depending on the stage of the deformity, as well as the treatment approach. Initially soft tissue procedures, synoviectomy and augmentation of the PTT are advised. In stage 2, lateral column lengthening and calcaneal osteotomy, with soft tissue - tendon transfers (TA, FHL, FDL) are recommended. In stage 3 subtalar, double or triplearthodesis is preferable, while in stage 4 pantalar fusion is indicated. This article elaborates on the etiology, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment modalities. PMID:24669559

  7. Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2016-01-01

    In the genetic airway disease cystic fibrosis (CF), deficiency or dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) alters anion transport in respiratory epithelium and consequently disrupts mucociliary clearance. An enriched understanding of the role of CFTR in the maintenance of normal epithelial function has revealed that mild and variable CFTR mutations play a causative role in a number of diseases not classically associated with CF. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that acquired defects in wild-type CFTR protein processing, endocytic recycling and function can contribute to the pathogenesis of airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this chapter, we discuss emerging findings implicating acquired CFTR dysfunction in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis and propose a new and leading edge approach to future CRS therapy using CFTR potentiators. PMID:27466849

  8. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  9. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  10. [Pharmacogenetics of community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Suleĭmanov, S Sh; Molchanova, O V; Kirpichnikova, N V; Sukhotina, N V; Gorbach, A A

    2010-01-01

    The rate of acetylation of xenobiotics affects the course and prognosis of infectious diseases. The efficacy of antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in RA-patients is lower than that in LA-ones. In order to ensure the best antimicrobial effect on the onset of the disease it is required to use regimens with the maximum permissible dose of antibacterial drugs in the regions where the rapid type prevails. PMID:21400754

  11. Domestically acquired fascioliasis in northern California.

    PubMed

    Weisenberg, Scott A; Perlada, David E

    2013-09-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  12. Domestically Acquired Fascioliasis in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  13. Acquired protein energy malnutrition in glutaric acidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liqiao; Savory, Stephanie; Agim, Nnenna G

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acquired protein energy malnutrition with associated zinc deficiency in an 18-month-old boy with type 1 glutaric acidemia. Physical examination findings included generalized nonpitting edema, widespread desquamative plaques, and sparse hair with a reddish tinge. Laboratory abnormalities included low levels of zinc, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and iron. A review of skin manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, specifically kwashiorkor, is presented, as well as the relatively new entity called acrodermatitis dysmetabolica. PMID:23330977

  14. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  15. Acquired resistance to immunotherapy and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Smyth, Mark J; Snyder, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Advances in immunotherapy have resulted in remarkable clinical responses in some patients. However, one of the biggest challenges in cancer therapeutics is the development of resistant disease and disease progression on or after therapy. Given that many patients have now received various types of immunotherapy, we asked three scientists to give their views on the current evidence for whether acquired resistance to immunotherapy exists in patients and the future challenges posed by immunotherapy. PMID:26822578

  16. Countermeasures to Enhance Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to novel gravitational environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We have conducted a series of studies that have shown: Training using a combination of modified visual flow and support surface motion during treadmill walking enhances locomotor adaptability to a novel sensorimotor environment. Trained individuals become more proficient at performing multiple competing tasks while walking during adaptation to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. Trained subjects can retain their increased level of adaptability over a six months period. SA training is effective in producing increased adaptability in a more complex over-ground ambulatory task on an obstacle course. This confirms that for a complex task like walking, treadmill training contains enough of the critical features of overground walking to be an effective training modality. The structure of individual training sessions can be optimized to promote fast/strategic motor learning. Training sessions that each contain short-duration exposures to multiple perturbation stimuli allows subjects to acquire a greater ability to rapidly reorganize appropriate response strategies when encountering a novel sensory environment. Individual sensory biases (i.e. increased visual dependency) can predict adaptive responses to novel sensory environments suggesting that customized training prescriptions can be developed to enhance

  17. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  18. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  19. Adaptive homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient adaptations typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, Adaptive Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. Adaptive Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802

  20. Automated mechanical ventilation: adapting decision making to different disease states.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Zahonero, S; Gottlieb, D; Haberthür, C; Guttmann, J; Möller, K

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a novel methodology for adapting and upgrading decision-making strategies concerning mechanical ventilation with respect to different disease states into our fuzzy-based expert system, AUTOPILOT-BT. The special features are: (1) Extraction of clinical knowledge in analogy to the daily routine. (2) An automated process to obtain the required information and to create fuzzy sets. (3) The controller employs the derived fuzzy rules to achieve the desired ventilation status. For demonstration this study focuses exclusively on the control of arterial CO(2) partial pressure (p(a)CO(2)). Clinical knowledge from 61 anesthesiologists was acquired using a questionnaire from which different disease-specific fuzzy sets were generated to control p(a)CO(2). For both, patients with healthy lung and with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the fuzzy sets show different shapes. The fuzzy set "normal", i.e., "target p(a)CO(2) area", ranges from 35 to 39 mmHg for healthy lungs and from 39 to 43 mmHg for ARDS lungs. With the new fuzzy sets our AUTOPILOT-BT reaches the target p(a)CO(2) within maximal three consecutive changes of ventilator settings. Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated. PMID:21069471

  1. A cascade reaction network mimicking the basic functional steps of acquired immune response

    PubMed Central

    Han, Da; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Shuo; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Zheng; Liang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems use complex ‘information processing cores’ composed of molecular networks to coordinate their external environment and internal states. An example of this is the acquired, or adaptive, immune system (AIS), which is composed of both humoral and cell-mediated components. Here we report the step-by-step construction of a prototype mimic of the AIS which we call Adaptive Immune Response Simulator (AIRS). DNA and enzymes are used as simple artificial analogues of the components of the AIS to create a system which responds to specific molecular stimuli in vitro. We show that this network of reactions can function in a manner which is superficially similar to the most basic responses of the vertebrate acquired immune system, including reaction sequences that mimic both humoral and cellular responses. As such, AIRS provides guidelines for the design and engineering of artificial reaction networks and molecular devices. PMID:26391084

  2. Perturbative Interpretation of Adaptive Thouless-Anderson-Palmer Free Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Muneki; Takahashi, Chako; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In conventional well-known derivation methods for the adaptive Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) free energy, special assumptions that are difficult to mathematically justify except in some mean-field models, must be made. Here, we present a new adaptive TAP free energy derivation method. Using this derivation technique, without any special assumptions, the adaptive TAP free energy can be simply obtained as a high-temperature expansion of the Gibbs free energy.

  3. Adaptive optics OCT using 1060nm swept source and dual deformable lenses for human retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yifan; Lee, Sujin; Cua, Michelle; Miao, Dongkai; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics concepts have been applied to the advancement of biological imaging and microscopy. In particular, AO has also been very successfully applied to cellular resolution imaging of the retina, enabling visualization of the characteristic mosaic patterns of the outer retinal layers using flood illumination fundus photography, Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Despite the high quality of the in vivo images, there has been a limited uptake of AO imaging into the clinical environment. The high resolution afforded by AO comes at the price of limited field of view and specialized equipment. The implementation of a typical adaptive optics imaging system results in a relatively large and complex optical setup. The wavefront measurement is commonly performed using a Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor (HS-WFS) placed at an image plane that is optically conjugated to the eye's pupil. The deformable mirror is also placed at a conjugate plane, relaying the wavefront corrections to the pupil. Due to the sensitivity of the HS-WFS to back-reflections, the imaging system is commonly constructed from spherical mirrors. In this project, we present a novel adaptive optics OCT retinal imaging system with significant potential to overcome many of the barriers to integration with a clinical environment. We describe in detail the implementation of a compact lens based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) 1060nm swept source OCT human retinal imaging system with dual deformable lenses, and present retinal images acquired in vivo from research volunteers.

  4. Genetic organization of the catabolic plasmid pJP4 from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 (pJP4) reveals mechanisms of adaptation to chloroaromatic pollutants and evolution of specialized chloroaromatic degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Trefault, N; De la Iglesia, R; Molina, A M; Manzano, M; Ledger, T; Pérez-Pantoja, D; Sánchez, M A; Stuardo, M; González, B

    2004-07-01

    Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 (pJP4) is a useful model for the study of bacterial degradation of substituted aromatic pollutants. Several key degrading capabilities, encoded by tfd genes, are located in the 88 kb, self-transmissible, IncP-1 beta plasmid pJP4. The complete sequence of the 87,688 nucleotides of pJP4, encoding 83 open reading frames (ORFs), is reported. Most of the coding sequence corresponds to a well-conserved IncP-1 beta backbone and the previously reported tfd genes. In addition, we found hypothetical proteins putatively involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and short-chain fatty acid oxidation. ORFs related to mobile elements, including the Tn501-encoded mercury resistance determinants, an IS1071-based composite transposon and a cryptic class II transposon, are also present in pJP4. These mobile elements are inefficient in transposition and are located in two regions of pJP4 that are rich in remnants of lateral gene transfer events. pJP4 plasmid was able to capture chromosomal genes and form hybrid plasmids with the IncP-1 alpha plasmid RP4. These observations are integrated into a model for the evolution of pJP4, which reveals mechanisms of bacterial adaptation to degrade pollutants. PMID:15186344

  5. Adaptive soft molecular self-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andong; Shi, Wenyue; Huang, Jianbin; Yan, Yun

    2016-01-14

    Adaptive molecular self-assemblies provide possibility of constructing smart and functional materials in a non-covalent bottom-up manner. Exploiting the intrinsic properties of responsiveness of non-covalent interactions, a great number of fancy self-assemblies have been achieved. In this review, we try to highlight the recent advances in this field. The following contents are focused: (1) environmental adaptiveness, including smart self-assemblies adaptive to pH, temperature, pressure, and moisture; (2) special chemical adaptiveness, including nanostructures adaptive to important chemicals, such as enzymes, CO2, metal ions, redox agents, explosives, biomolecules; (3) field adaptiveness, including self-assembled materials that are capable of adapting to external fields such as magnetic field, electric field, light irradiation, and shear forces. PMID:26509717

  6. 7 CFR 653.3 - Adaptation of technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adaptation of technical standards. 653.3 Section 653.3..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL STANDARDS § 653.3 Adaptation of technical standards. Technical standards and criteria developed on a national basis may require special adaptation to meet...

  7. 7 CFR 653.3 - Adaptation of technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adaptation of technical standards. 653.3 Section 653.3..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL STANDARDS § 653.3 Adaptation of technical standards. Technical standards and criteria developed on a national basis may require special adaptation to meet...

  8. 7 CFR 653.3 - Adaptation of technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adaptation of technical standards. 653.3 Section 653.3..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL STANDARDS § 653.3 Adaptation of technical standards. Technical standards and criteria developed on a national basis may require special adaptation to meet...

  9. 7 CFR 653.3 - Adaptation of technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adaptation of technical standards. 653.3 Section 653.3..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL STANDARDS § 653.3 Adaptation of technical standards. Technical standards and criteria developed on a national basis may require special adaptation to meet...

  10. 7 CFR 653.3 - Adaptation of technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adaptation of technical standards. 653.3 Section 653.3..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL STANDARDS § 653.3 Adaptation of technical standards. Technical standards and criteria developed on a national basis may require special adaptation to meet...

  11. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA), and pityriasis versicolor (PV). Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included. PMID:23619442

  12. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia. PMID:2132469

  13. Acquired scalp alopecia. Part II: A review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J R; Kossard, S

    1999-05-01

    The neutrophil-associated and infiltrative scarring alopecias are reviewed including folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, acne keloidalis and follicular degeneration syndrome. The management of acquired scalp alopecia is also reviewed including newer, promising therapies. More specific agents targeting components of the androgen system will make the treatment of androgenetic alopecia more rewarding. Similarly new immunomodulatory therapies show great promise for the lymphocyte-associated alopecias and include a new generation of macrolide immunosuppressives (tacrolimus, SDZ ASM 981, and SDZ 281-240), some of which appear to have good transcutaneous absorption. PMID:10333615

  14. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  15. Acquired haemophilia masked by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Vadikolia, C M; Riddell, A; Brooks, S; Yee, T T; Brown, S; Lee, C

    2007-02-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare phenomenon and prompt diagnosis is essential for successful treatment. Early laboratory detection could minimize its potentially devastating consequences and reduce mortality but when a masking element such as anticoagulant therapy is present, delay in diagnosis is not uncommon. A prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) may be falsely attributed to warfarin alone, particularly when it is associated with oral anticoagulant overdose. We describe two patients on treatment with warfarin who presented with a bleeding diathesis and disproportionately prolonged APTT, which led to the diagnosis of antibodies directed against factor VIII. PMID:17224010

  16. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K.; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  17. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2007-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those for congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD). However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. aVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, most frequently in lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Through an analysis of the more recent literature data, the pathophysiology and the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:17133419

  18. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  19. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  20. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  1. Behavior of adaptive digital erosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuciurean-Zapan, Clara; Dougherty, Edward R.; Chen, Yidong

    1996-10-01

    Design of statistically optimal erosion-based filters is problematic due to the complexity of the search process. Specialized search techniques and constraints on optimality are used to mitigate the full search. Adaptation of structuring elements has also ben employed. The present paper looks at the behavior of an adaptive filter relative to the actual optimal filter for a single erosion in two models, signal-union-noise and dilation. It does so in the context of state transitions, where filter states are stacks that determine the structuring element upon thresholding.

  2. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  3. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  4. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  5. Issues in adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, William Wenlong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for a patch-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for multi-physics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, and management of patches. Among the special features of this patch-based AMR are symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement, special implementation offlux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. Here, higher efficiency of refinement means less unnecessarily refined cells for a given set of cells to be refined. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement are shown in both two- and three-dimensions.

  6. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  7. Volleyball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven booklets on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents an instructional program for volleyball coaches working with mentally retarded persons. The instructional program presents information on the following topics: long term goals; short term objectives; modifications and adaptations of equipment, sport…

  8. Special Problems of Handicapped Skiers: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Ellen; Pitzer, Neil L.

    1988-01-01

    Skiing is a rewarding form of exercise for the disabled, including amputees, the blind and deaf, parapalegics, and those with neuromuscular disorders and spinal cord injuries. The article discusses equipment adaptation for the disabled, as well as training techniques for and special considerations in instructing handicapped skiers. (JL)

  9. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication. PMID:26541597

  10. Tetracycline resistance genes acquired at birth.

    PubMed

    Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Contreras, Mónica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2013-06-01

    Newborns acquire their first microbiota at birth. Maternal vaginal or skin bacteria colonize newborns delivered vaginally or by C-section, respectively (Dominguez-Bello et al. 2010 #884). We aimed to determine differences in the presence of four tetracycline (tet) resistance genes, in the microbes of ten newborns and in the mouth and vagina of their mothers, at the time of birth. DNA was amplified by PCR with primers specific for [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)]. Maternal vaginas harbored all four tet resistance genes, but most commonly tet(M) and tet(O) (63 and 38 %, respectively). Genes coding for tet resistance differed by birth mode, with 50 % of vaginally delivered babies had tet(M) and tet(O) and 16 and 13 % of infants born by C-section had tet(O) and tet(W), respectively. Newborns acquire antibiotic resistance genes at birth, and the resistance gene profile varies by mode of delivery. PMID:23483141

  11. Surgery-associated acquired hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Theodossiades, G; Tsevrenis, V; Nomikou, E; Dadiotis, L; Kontopoulou-Griva, I

    2001-11-01

    We present two patients who acquired factor VIII antibodies in the immediate postoperative period. One patient was receiving warfarin that was temporarily discontinued but reintroduced after the procedure. Preoperatively, none gave a history of bleeding, even with past surgeries, and both had normal coagulation tests. Within days of surgery, hemorrhage with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, low factor VIII levels, and demonstrable factor VIII antibodies were observed. For the patient who was receiving warfarin the severe bleeding was attributed, at the beginning, only to the high international normalized ratio (INR), which resulted in a fatal delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We would like to raise awareness of surgery as a precipitating cause of acquired hemophilia, which is something to be considered with unusual postoperative bleeding. This syndrome is remarkable for its abrupt onset within days of surgery, severe bleeding but potential successful outcome with combined hemostatic control with recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and elimination of the antibody by immunosuppression. PMID:11757731

  12. Therapeutic approaches to acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B

    2000-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare acquired bleeding disorder similar to the congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings. Diagnosis of AVWS can be very difficult, with treatment normally taking an empirical form. Although more than 200 cases have been reported since 1968, no retrospective or prospective studies are available on AVWS. Recently, an International Registry on AVWS, gathering data directly from worldwide Departments of Haematology-Oncology and Haemophilia Centres, has been organised by a group working on behalf of the Subcommittee on VWF in the Scientific Standardisation Committee (SSC) of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). Information about an additional 211 AVWS patients is now available, with more detailed data on demography, type of haemorrhage, diagnostic tests for AVWS and management of bleeding episodes. The additional 211 AVWS cases are associated with lymphoproliferative (47%) or myeloproliferative (19%) disorders, cardiovascular diseases, neoplasia (7%) and other miscellaneous diseases (14%). Bleeding episodes of AVWS patients were managed by different compounds including desmopressin (22%), FVIII/VWF concentrates (26%) and high-dose immunoglobulin (10%), plasmapheresis (2%), steroids (5%) and immunosuppressive drugs (20%). Based on complied data, we can conclude that none of the therapeutic approaches proposed are 100% effective in all AVWS cases. Therefore, treatment must be customized for each patient according to the underlying disorder, as well as to the type and the severity of bleeding episode and must be targeted to each specific case. PMID:11060681

  13. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  14. Ethics and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…

  15. Precision Grip in Congenital and Acquired Hemiparesis: Similarities in Impairments and Implications for Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with congenital and acquired hemiparesis incur long-term functional deficits, among which the loss of prehension that may impact their functional independence. Identifying, understanding, and comparing the underlying mechanisms of prehension impairments represent an opportunity to better adapt neurorehabilitation. Objective: The present review aims to provide a better understanding of precision grip deficits in congenital and acquired hemiparesis and to determine whether the severity and type of fine motor control impairments depend on whether or not the lesions are congenital or acquired in adulthood. Methods: Using combinations of the following key words: fingertip force, grip force, precision grip, cerebral palsy, stroke, PubMed, and Scopus databases were used to search studies from 1984 to 2013. Results: Individuals with both congenital and acquired hemiparesis were able to some extent to use anticipatory motor control in precision grip tasks, even if this control was impaired in the paretic hand. In both congenital and acquired hemiparesis, the ability to plan efficient anticipatory motor control when the less-affected hand is used provides a possibility to remediate impairments in anticipatory motor control of the paretic hand. Conclusion: Surprisingly, we observed very few differences between the results of studies in children with congenital hemiplegia and stroke patients. We suggest that the underlying specific strategies of neurorehabilitation developed for each one could benefit the other. PMID:25071502

  16. Computational adaptive optics of the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that patient-specific ocular aberrations limit imaging resolution in the human retina. Previously, hardware adaptive optics (HAO) has been employed to measure and correct these aberrations to acquire high-resolution images of various retinal structures. While the resulting aberration-corrected images are of great clinical importance, clinical use of HAO has not been widespread due to the cost and complexity of these systems. We present a technique termed computational adaptive optics (CAO) for aberration correction in the living human retina without the use of hardware adaptive optics components. In CAO, complex interferometric data acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT) is manipulated in post-processing to adjust the phase of the optical wavefront. In this way, the aberrated wavefront can be corrected. We summarize recent results in this technology for retinal imaging, including aberration-corrected imaging in multiple retinal layers and practical considerations such as phase stability and image optimization.

  17. Mississippi Special Olympics: Special Events Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Toni; Cooper, Walter E.

    Provided in the manual are organizational guidelines and suggested activities for a Special Evants segment of the Mississippi Special Olympics Program to encourage participation by low motor functioning, multihandicapped, mentally retarded persons. Information is provided concerning objectives, organizational set-up, guidelines, communication…

  18. SPECIAL CLASSES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWELL, G.L.

    A SPECIAL 3-YEAR TRAINING PROGRAM IN FARM POWER AND MACHINERY WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND TO HELP MEET THE NEED FOR SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA AREA. CHANGES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED FROM REGULAR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSES TO THE SPECIAL CLASSES PROVIDE A MORE…

  19. Treatment of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Budde, Ulrich; Scheppenheim, Sonja; Dittmer, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) accounts for 22% of patients with abnormal von Willebrand factor. Most patients with known pathophysiological mechanisms suffer from cardiovascular, myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Less frequent associations are of autoimmune origin, due to hyperfibrinolysis, adsorption to tumor cells, reduced synthesis and prolonged circulation. The mechanisms leading to aVWS is hitherto not known in patients with liver and kidney diseases, drug use, glycogen storage disease, virus infections and at least 18 other disease entities. Diagnosis is complicated by the battery of tests needed, and their inherent rather low sensitivity and specificity for aVWS. Thus, even in acute bleeding situations it may take days until a firm diagnosis is settled and specific therapies can be initiated. The main aim is to shed more light onto this, compared with inherited von Willebrand disease, rare disease which affects at least 2-3% of the older population. PMID:26577336

  20. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Susanna L; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M C; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R; Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H; Raine, Keiran; O'Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S; Teague, Jon W; Butler, Adam P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, Neil D; Janes, Sam M; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5' truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  1. ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E.E.

    1996-09-01

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  2. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for helpmore » with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.« less

  3. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrian; Podlipnik, Sebastian; Burgos, Fernando; Vargas-Laguna, Elena; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio; Fernández-Cogolludo, Eva; Gallego-Valdes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson's disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer's disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth. PMID:27073702

  4. How to divest acquired physician practices.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1999-02-01

    When an integrated delivery system (IDS) determines it must divest itself of a previously acquired physician practice, it must manage the transaction with care. The IDS most likely will want to maintain a positive ongoing relationship with the physician practice, while avoiding concessions to the practice that could be construed as violations of state and Federal laws. Before proceeding, the IDS should evaluate the reasons for divesting the practice, assess legal issues involved in terminating contracts with the practice, decide how to deal with the practice's assets and office facilities, consider whether covenants not to compete should be enforced, ensure continued access to essential medical records, consider whether to incorporate a "non-disparagement" clause in the termination agreement, and determine what mutual general releases may be necessary. PMID:10345614

  5. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  6. Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

    1991-11-01

    Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

  7. [Merits of acquiring ISO15189 accreditation].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, an ISO15189 accreditation system was started in 2005. To date, 47 hospitals have been accredited. In this session, I will present the merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189 based on our experience. Our hospital has 263 beds. The Clinical Examination Section consists of 12 staff (including 5 part-time workers): 7 in change of sample examination and 5 in charge of physiological examination. The annual number of samples is approximately 150,000. Samples collected on health checkups account for 90%. To improve the quality and service, assessment by third persons has been positively utilized in our hospital. Accreditation regarding ISO9001, ISO14001, ISO27001, privacy mark, hospital function assessment, the functional assessment of "ningen-dock"/health checkup hospitals, labor/hygiene service function assessment, and ISO15189 has been acquired. Patients may not recognize ISO. So, it must be utilized, considering that the acquisition of accreditation is not a goal but a starting point. Furthermore, cost-performance should be improved to achieve utilization-related merits. It is important to not only acquire accreditation but also help clinical staff and patients become aware of some changes/merits. Patients may consult a hospital for the following reasons: confidence in the hospital, and the staffs kind/polite attitudes. Long-term management strategies should be established without pursuing only short-term profits. I will introduce several merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189. Initially, incidental conditions for bids and appeal points include accreditation regarding ISO15189. Our corporation has participated in some competitive bids regarding health checkup business. In some companies, the bid conditions included ISO acquisition. In our hospital, clinical trials have been positively carried out. For participation in trials, hospitals must pass an institutional examination. However, ISO acquisition facilitates the preparation of

  8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  9. Acquiring ownership and the attribution of responsibility.

    PubMed

    Palamar, Max; Le, Doan T; Friedman, Ori

    2012-08-01

    How is ownership established over non-owned things? We suggest that people may view ownership as a kind of credit given to agents responsible for making possession of a non-owned object possible. On this view, judgments about the establishment of ownership depend on attributions of responsibility. We report three experiments showing that people's judgments about the establishment of ownership are influenced by an agent's intent and control in bringing about an outcome, factors that also affect attributions of responsibility. These findings demonstrate that people do not just consider who was first to possess an object in judging who owns it, and are broadly consistent with the view that ownership is acquired through labor. The findings also suggest that rather than exclusively being the product of social conventions, judgments about the establishment of ownership over non-owned things also depend on the psychological processes underlying the attribution of responsibility. PMID:22591710

  10. Covalent targeting of acquired cysteines in cancer.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marieke; Arkin, Michelle R; Dansen, Tobias B

    2016-02-01

    The thiolate side chain of cysteine has a unique functionality that drug hunters and chemical biologists have begun to exploit. For example, targeting cysteine residues in the ATP-binding pockets of kinases with thiol-reactive molecules has afforded increased selectivity and potency to drugs like imbrutinib, which inhibits the oncogene BTK, and CO-1686 and AZD9291 that target oncogenic mutant EGFR. Recently, disulfide libraries and targeted GDP-mimetics have been used to selectively label the G12C oncogenic mutation in KRAS. We reasoned that other oncogenes contain mutations to cysteine, and thus screened the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer for frequently acquired cysteines. Here, we describe the most common mutations and discuss how these mutations could be potential targets for cysteine-directed personalized therapeutics. PMID:26629855

  11. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P.; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Raine, Keiran; O’Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S.; Teague, Jon W.; Butler, Adam P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G.; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A.; Hayes, Neil D.; Janes, Sam M.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J.; Provenzano, Elena; van de Vijver, Marc; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin; Pinder, Sarah; Mac Grogan, Gaetan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Larsimont, Denis; Grabau, Dorthe; Sauer, Torill; Garred, Øystein; Ehinger, Anna; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; van Deurzen, C.H.M; Salgado, Roberto; Brock, Jane E.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Giri, Dilip D.; Arnould, Laurent; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Treilleux, Isabelle; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Fatima, Aquila; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stenhouse, Alasdair; Foekens, John; Martens, John; Sieuwerts, Anieta; Brinkman, Arjen; Stunnenberg, Henk; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Thomas, Gilles; Broeks, Annegein; Langerod, Anita; Aparicio, Samuel; Simpson, Peter T.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Erla Eyfjörd, Jórunn; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Jonasson, Jon G.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5′ truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  12. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E. E.

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  13. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  14. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  15. Signal regulators of systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Zhu, Shifeng; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays a vital role in a number of physiological responses, including plant defense. The last two decades have witnessed a number of breakthroughs related to biosynthesis, transport, perception and signaling mediated by SA. These findings demonstrate that SA plays a crictical role in both local and systemic defense responses. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one such SA-dependent response. SAR is a long distance signaling mechanism that provides broad spectrum and long-lasting resistance to secondary infections throughout the plant. This unique feature makes SAR a highly desirable trait in crop production. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of SA in SAR and discusses its relationship to other SAR inducers. PMID:25918514

  16. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore; Vestergaard, Martin; Rasmussen, Simon; Lund, Ole; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data. Methods We developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de-novo-sequenced isolates. Results When testing the 1862 GenBank files, the method identified the resistance genes with an ID = 100% (100% identity) to the genes in ResFinder. Agreement between in silico predictions and phenotypic testing was found when the method was further tested on 23 isolates of five different bacterial species, with available phenotypes. Furthermore, ResFinder was evaluated on WGS chromosomes and plasmids of 30 isolates. Seven of these isolates were annotated to have antimicrobial resistance, and in all cases, annotations were compatible with the ResFinder results. Conclusions A web server providing a convenient way of identifying acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in completely sequenced isolates was created. ResFinder can be accessed at www.genomicepidemiology.org. ResFinder will continuously be updated as new resistance genes are identified. PMID:22782487

  17. Infantile and acquired nystagmus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ehrt, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Nystagmus is an involuntary, periodic eye movement caused by a slow drift of fixation which is followed by a fast refixation saccade (jerk nystagmus) or a slow movement back to fixation (pendular nystagmus). In childhood most cases are benign forms of nystagmus: idiopathic infantile, ocular or latent nystagmus. They arise at the age of 3 months, without oscillopsia and show the absence of the physiologic opto-kinetic nystagmus. A full ophthalmologic evaluation is all that is needed in most cases: albinism, macular or optic nerve hypoplasia and congenital retinal dystrophies are the most common forms of ocular nystagmus. Idiopathic infantile nystagmus can be hereditary, the most common and best analyzed form being a mutation of the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26.2. The mutation shows a mild genotype-phenotype correlation. In all female carriers the opto-kinetic nystagmus is absent and half had mild nystagmus. Latent nystagmus is part of the infantile esotropia syndrome and shows the unique feature of change of direction when the fixing eye changes: it is always beating to the side of the fixing eye. There is no cure for infantile nystagmus but therapeutic options include magnifying visual aids or eye muscle surgery at the age of 6-8 y in patients with head turn. Less than 20% of childhood nystagmus are acquired and need further neurological and imaging work-up. Alarming signs and symptoms are: onset after the age of 4 months, oscillopsia, dissociated (asymmetric) nystagmus, preserved opto-kinetic nystagmus, afferent pupillary defect, papilloedema and neurological symptoms like vertigo and nausea. The most common cause is due to pathology of the anterior optic pathway (e.g. optic nerve gliomas). It shows the same clinical feature of dissociated nystagmus as spasmus nutans but has a higher frequency as in INO. Other forms of acquired nystagmus are due to brainstem, cerebellar or metabolic diseases. PMID:22459007

  18. Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Mile; Vuković, Irena; Miller, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined patterns of acquired dyslexia in Serbian aphasic speakers, comparing profiles of groups with Broca's versus Wernicke's aphasia. The study also looked at the relationship of reading and auditory comprehension and between reading comprehension and reading aloud in these groups. Participants were 20 people with Broca's and 20 with Wernicke's aphasia. They were asked to read aloud and to understand written material from the Serbian adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. A Serbian Word Reading Aloud Test was also used. The people with Broca's aphasia achieved better results in reading aloud and in reading comprehension than those with Wernicke's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia showed significantly more semantic errors than those with Broca's aphasia who had significantly more morphological and phonological errors. From the data we inferred that lesion sites accorded with previous work on networks associated with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia and with a posterior-anterior axis for reading processes centred on (left) parietal-temporal-frontal lobes. PMID:27135368

  19. Oculomotor rehabilitation for reading in acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Han, Ying; Kapoor, Neera; Ficarra, Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading-related oculomotor rehabilitation in individuals with acquired brain injury. Adults with either stroke (n=5) or traumatic brain injury (n=9) participated. Training paradigms included single-line and multiple-line simulated reading, as well as basic versional tracking (fixation, saccade, and pursuit), twice per week over an 8 week period. Training modes included normal internal oculomotor visual feedback either in isolation (4 weeks) or concurrent with external oculomotor auditory feedback (4 weeks). Training effects were assessed objectively using infrared eye movement recording technology for simulated and actual reading, with the assessments occurring before, midway, and after training. In addition, the individuals were assessed subjectively using a reading rating-scale questionnaire. All reported considerably improved reading ability, and this was confirmed by several of the objective oculomotor measures. There was a trend for improvement to be better with the combined visual and auditory oculomotor feedback. Reading-related oculomotor rehabilitation produced significant gains in both the subjective and objective domains. It is believed that rapid saccadic oculomotor adaptation, as well as the training of rhythmicity and automaticity, were involved in modifying eye movement behavior to produce a more systematic approach and resultant improved reading profile. PMID:16720933

  20. 26 CFR 1.1091-2 - Basis of stock or securities acquired in “wash sales”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1091-2 Basis of stock or securities acquired in “wash sales”. (a) In general. The application of section 1091(d) may be... special rule as to the adjustment to basis required under section 1091(d) in the case of wash...

  1. Resource on Handicapped Conditions: Special Education Students in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segraves, Chris; And Others

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet provides guidelines for services as identified under Georgia special education requirements. An initial section offers general guidelines for consideration of student placement in specially designed physical education programs. A following section describes regular and adapted physical…

  2. The Marketplace: Report on Technology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, June, Ed.; Lahm, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Three reports on technology in special education identify major trends, describe availability and characteristics of adaptive hardware, and report on special education costs and demographic data. The first report notes the continuing interest of the Federal Government in technology, the changing federal policy toward hardware acquisition, and such…

  3. Adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kisdi, Éva; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case [Formula: see text], we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism. PMID:26676357

  4. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  5. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  6. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section 1779..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  7. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  8. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  9. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  10. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  11. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  12. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of Land... of acquisition by the Bureau of Land Management, and are not subject to the requirements of § 4110.1....

  13. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  14. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  15. Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  16. Codes with special correlation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.

    1964-01-01

    Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

  17. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L.; Jamieson, L.H.; Gannon, D.B.; Siegel, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is based on a workshop which dealt with array processors. Topics considered include algorithmic specialization using VLSI, innovative architectures, signal processing, speech recognition, image processing, specialized architectures for numerical computations, and general-purpose computers.

  18. Cost analysis of Topical Negative Pressure (TNP) Therapy for traumatic acquired wounds.

    PubMed

    Kolios, Leila; Kolios, Georg; Beyersdorff, Marius; Dumont, Clemens; Stromps, Jan; Freytag, Sebastian; Stuermer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Extended traumatic wounds require extended reconstructive operations and are accompanied by long hospitalizations and risks of infection, thrombosis and flap loss. In particular, the frequently used Topical Negative Pressure (TNP) Therapy is regarded as cost-intensive. The costs of TNP in the context of traumatic wounds is analyzed using the method of health economic evaluation. All patients (n=67: 45 male, 22 female; average age 54 y) with traumatically acquired wounds being treated with TNP at the university hospital of Goettingen in the period 01/01/2005-31/12/2007 comprise the basis for this analysis. The concept of activity-based costing based on clinical pathways according to InEK (National Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System) systematic calculations was chosen for cost accounting. In addition, a special module system adaptable for individual courses of disease was developed. The treated wounds were located on a lower extremity in 83.7% of cases (n=56) and on an upper extremity in 16.3% of cases (n=11). The average time of hospitalization of the patients was 54 days. Twenty-five patients (37.31%) exceeded the "maximum length of stay" of their associated DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups). The total PCCL (patient clinical complexity level = patient severity score) of 2.99 reflects the seriousness of disease. For the treatment of the 67 patients, total costs were $1,729,922.32 (1,249,176.91 euro). The cost calculation showed a financial deficit of $-210,932.50 (-152,314.36 euro). Within the entire treatment costs of $218,848.07 (158,030.19 euro), 12.65% per case were created by TNP with material costs of $102,528.74 (74,036 euro), representing 5.92% of entire costs. The cost of TNP per patient averaged $3,266.39 (2,358.66 euro). The main portion of the costs was not - as is often expected - due to high material costs of TNP but instead to long-term treatments. Because of their complexity, the cases are insufficiently represented in the lump

  19. Breast Cancer as an Acquired Thrombophilic State

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an acquired thrombophilic condition manifested by increased incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications. Despite progress that has been achieved in treatments over the recent years, thromboembolism remains a major complication in patients with breast cancer; it is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately, 1% of breast cancer patients develop venous thromboembolism within 2 years with the highest incidence occurring in the 6 months post diagnosis. Metastatic disease and their comorbidities are the strongest predictors of the development of thrombotic event. The diagnosis of venous thromboembolism is associated with a higher risk of death within 2 years of diagnosis. Thromboembolic events in cancer patients range from abnormal laboratory coagulation tests without specific symptoms to massive thomboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The underlying pathophysiology is complex and includes the prothrombotic properties of cancer cells, which can be enhanced by anticancer treatment modalities, such as surgery, hormonal agents, and chemotherapy. Primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients should be individualized according to risk. For secondary prevention, several clinical studies have shown that low molecular weight heparin has improved patients' compliance, cancer outcomes and overall survival. This review summarizes the available data on the pathogenesis and clinical approach of hemostatic changes in breast cancer. PMID:22807931

  20. Community-acquired Pneumonia and its Complications.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qiang; Shen, Kun-ling

    2015-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in developing and developed countries, and its incidence is highest among children less than 5-y-old. Over the last five years, several international and local guidelines have been updated with new evidence concerning the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of pediatric CAP, but there are still several major problems that need to be standardised. The aim of this review is to consider the available data concerning the termination, epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment, and complications of pediatric CAP. There still are many unanswered questions concerning the management of CAP, including its definition, the difficulty to identify its etiological agents, the emergence of drug, and the lack of introduction of vaccines against respiratory pathogens in developing countries. More research is required in various areas (including therapy of atypical agents), and further efforts are needed to increase vaccination in order to reduce the incidence of the disease. PMID:25976616

  1. Natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Doucet-Populaire, F; Buriánková, K; Weiser, J; Pernodet, J-L

    2002-12-01

    The genus Mycobacterium contains two of the most important human pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the etiologic agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively. Other mycobacteria are mostly saprophytic organisms, living in soil and water, but some of them can cause opportunistic infections. The increasing incidence of tuberculosis as well as infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in AIDS patients has renewed interest in molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in these pathogens. Mycobacteria show a high degree of intrinsic resistance to most common antibiotics. For instance, species from the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) are intrinsically resistant to macrolides. Nevertheless, some semi-synthetic macrolides as the erythromycin derivatives clarithromycin, azithromycin and most recently the ketolides, are active against NTM, particularly Mycobacterium avium, and some of them are widely used for infection treatment. However, shortly after the introduction of these new drugs, resistant strains appeared due to mutations in the macrolide target, the ribosome. The mycobacterial cell wall with its specific composition and structure is considered to be a major factor in promoting the natural resistance of mycobacteria to various antibiotics. However, to explain the difference in macrolide sensitivity between the MTC and NTM, the synergistic contribution of a specific resistance mechanism might be required, in addition to possible differences in cell wall permeability. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria, gives an overview of potential mechanisms implicated in the intrinsic resistance and brings recent data concerning a macrolide resistance determinant in the MTC. PMID:12570741

  2. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:24389150

  3. Acquired Hemophilia A Successfully Treated with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Grandone, Elvira; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA, besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with a normalization of clotting parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm., but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation parameters induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days. This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs) remains to be established and warrants further investigation. PMID:25745551

  4. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  5. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Stahl, R E; el-Sadr, W; Cassai, N D; Forrester, E M; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1985-04-01

    Blood and a variety of tissues from 97 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 25 with the AIDS prodrome were studied ultrastructurally. Tubuloreticular structures (TRS) were found in 85 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 92 per cent of those with the prodrome. Test tube and ring-shaped forms (TRF), found in 41 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 8 per cent of those with the prodrome, increased with disease progression. Among the patients with AIDS, as the number of sites examined per case increased, the incidence of TRS and TRF tended to approach 100 per cent, suggesting that they are present in all patients with AIDS. Other changes seen frequently were immunologic capping of blood lymphocytes, intramitochondrial iron in blood reticulocytes and marrow normoblasts, megakaryocytic immaturity and platelet phagocytosis, collections of membranous rings in hepatocytic cytoplasm, suggestive of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and proliferations and engorgement of hepatic Ito cells with lipid. The data suggest that TRS and TRF can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. PMID:3872253

  6. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  7. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  8. Urgent operation for acquired ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C S; Alford, W C; Burrus, G R; Glassford, D M; Stoney, W S

    1982-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that ventricular septal defect (VSD) secondary to myocardial infarction constitutes an indication for urgent operation. Acquired VSD at St. Thomas Hospital, Nashville, was reviewed to substantiate the obsolescence of protracted medical therapy designed to allow a late, technically less demanding, repair. Twenty-two acute VSDs (less than four weeks following onset of murmur) have been treated since 1970. Five patients died during medical therapy. Two patients survived for more than four weeks without operation. One never manifested significant cardiac decompensation. The other was operated on at 33 days, after progressive deterioration. No technical advantage from the delay was apparent, although survival was achieved. Ten of 15 patients (67%) operated on during the first four weeks survived. Fourteen had reached a level of marked instability prior to operation. Of the five deaths, four were technical and were the product of an initial lack of recognition of the necessity for patch replacement of the interventricular septum. The prosthetic patch is now considered essential to minimize suture-line stress in necrotic muscle. Potentially, only one of 15 patients operated on early using current methods would have expired. This experience supports an aggressive surgical approach to any unstable patient with postinfarction VSD. Early repair requires specific techniques. Results of early operation using these techniques are dramatically superior to past efforts designed to delay definitive repair. PMID:7082062

  9. Mentorship of Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer Booker; Schroth-Cavataio, Georganne

    2012-01-01

    The national shortage and exceptionally high attrition rate of special education teachers are impediments to serving students with special needs. Given that only 64 percent of special education teachers have access to a mentor compared with 86 percent of general education teachers, this book meets an essential need for attracting, retaining, and…

  10. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  11. Mentoring Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Edwards, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Mentorship is critical for career development. Members of special populations are at increased risk of information shortfalls and advice that is not framed with cultural sensitivity. Special knowledge and skills are needed to successfully mentor members of ethnic minority and other special populations. Midlevel and senior scientists need…

  12. Assessing Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfendale, Sheila, Ed.

    This essays in this book contain valuable and up-to-date information about current issues and developments in assessing special educational needs. The context of the book is the mainstream setting in the United Kingdom. The aim of these chapters is to consider special needs in inclusive education, consistent with British special needs legislation.…

  13. Cytomegalovirus myelitis in perinatally acquired HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, T; Funk, M; Linde, R; Jacobi, G; Horn, M; Kreuz, W

    1993-01-01

    A 7 year old child perinatally infected with HIV who died from progressive muscular paralysis and central nervous respiratory failure is described. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis with a special intravenous CMV hyper-immunoglobulin had been successfully conducted for more than four years. Macroscopic and microscopic immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord revealed a diffuse CMV infiltration of the entire myelon. CMV infected cells were identified as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, macrophages, ependymal, endothelial, and Schwann cells. Other organs had no signs of CMV infection. Central nervous spinal CMV infection was most probably due to insufficient penetration of the blood-brain barrier by the CMV hyper-immunoglobulin. In suspicious cases early spinal magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 tesla) combined with an examination of urine and cerebrospinal fluid for CMV is recommended. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8385439

  14. The Development of Adaptive Skills in Young People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duijn, G.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Scholte, E. M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To help children with Down syndrome reach optimum levels of adaptive behaviour, caretakers need to know how and to what extent children with Down syndrome acquire adaptive skills. Method: The adaptive levels of motor, daily living, communicative and social behavioural skills were determined in a group of 984 Dutch children with Down…

  15. The Differentiation of Adaptive Behaviours: Evidence from High and Low Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Harrison; Oakland, Thomas David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professionals who use measures of adaptive behaviour when working with special populations may assume that adaptive behaviour is a consistent and linear construct at various ability levels and thus believe the construct of adaptive behaviour is the same for high and low performers. That is, highly adaptive people simply are assumed to…

  16. Early developmental exposures shape trade-offs between acquired and innate immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Life history theory predicts resource allocation trade-offs between competing functions and processes. We test the hypothesis that relative investment towards innate versus acquired immunity in humans is subject to such trade-offs and that three types of early developmental exposures are particularly salient in shaping adult immunophenotype: (i) pathogen exposure, (ii) nutritional resources; and (iii) extrinsic mortality cues. Methodology We quantified one aspect each of innate and acquired immune function, via C-reactive protein and Epstein–Barr virus antibodies, respectively, in a sample of 1248 men and women from the Philippines (ca. 21.5 years old). Early developmental exposures were assessed via long-term data collected prospectively since participants’ birth (1983–4). We calculated a standardized ratio to assess relative bias towards acquired versus innate immune function and examined its relationship to a suite of predictors via multiple regression. Results In partial support of our predictions, some of the measures of higher pathogen exposure, greater availability of nutritional resources, and lower extrinsic mortality cues in early life were associated with a bias toward acquired immunity in both men and women. The immune profile of women, in particular, appeared to be more sensitive to early life pathogen exposures than those of men. Finally, contrary to prediction, women exhibited a greater relative investment toward innate, not acquired, immunity. Conclusions and implications Early environments can exert considerable influence on the development of immunity. They affect trade-offs between innate and acquired immunity, which show adaptive plasticity and may differ in their influence in men and women. PMID:27530543

  17. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  18. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region. PMID:27288649

  19. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works. PMID:11183979

  20. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  1. Molecular evolution and thermal adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peiqiu

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis, we address problems in molecular evolution, thermal adaptation, and the kinetics of adaptation of bacteria and viruses to elevated environmental temperatures. We use a nearly neutral fitness model where the replication speed of an organism is proportional to the copy number of folded proteins. Our model reproduces the distribution of stabilities of natural proteins in excellent agreement with experiment. We find that species with high mutation rates tend to have less stable proteins compared to species with low mutation rate. We found that a broad distribution of protein stabilities observed in the model and in experiment is the key determinant of thermal response for viruses and bacteria. Our results explain most of the earlier experimental observations: striking asymmetry of thermal response curves, the absence of evolutionary trade-off which was expected but not found in experiments, correlation between denaturation temperature for several protein families and the Optimal Growth Temperature (OGT) of their carrier organisms, and proximity of bacterial or viral OGTs to their evolutionary temperatures. Our theory quantitatively and with high accuracy described thermal response curves for 35 bacterial species. The model also addresses the key to adaptation is in weak-link genes (WLG), which encode least thermodynamically stable essential proteins in the proteome. We observe, as in experiment, a two-stage adaptation process. The first stage is a Luria-Delbruck type of selection, whereby rare WLG alleles, whose proteins are more stable than WLG proteins of the majority of the population (either due to standing genetic variation or due to an early acquired mutation), rapidly rise to fixation. The second stage constitutes subsequent slow accumulation of mutations in an adapted population. As adaptation progresses, selection regime changes from positive to neutral: Selection coefficient of beneficial mutations scales as a negative power of number of

  2. Adaptive computing for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Merrow, S L; Corbett, C D

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive computing is a relatively new area, and little has been written in the nursing literature on the topic. "Adaptive computing" refers to the professional services and the technology (both hardware and software) that make computing technology accessible for persons with disabilities. Nurses in many settings such as schools, industry, rehabilitation facilities, and the community, can use knowledge of adaptive computing as they counsel, advise, and advocate for people with disabilities. Nurses with an awareness and knowledge of adaptive computing will be better able to promote high-level wellness for individuals with disabilities, thus maximizing their potential for an active fulfilling life. People with different types of disabilities, including visual, mobility, hearing, learning, communication disorders and acquired brain injuries may benefit from computer adaptations. Disabled people encounter barriers to computing in six major areas: 1) the environment, 2) data entry, 3) information output, 4) technical documentation, 5) support, and 6) training. After a discussion of these barriers, the criteria for selecting appropriate adaptations and selected examples of adaptations are presented. Several cases studies illustrate the evaluation process and the development of adaptive computer solutions. PMID:8082064

  3. Evidence for archaic adaptive introgression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Racimo, Fernando; Sankararaman, Sriram; Nielsen, Rasmus; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    As modern and ancient DNA sequence data from diverse human populations accumulate1–4, evidence is increasing in support of the existence of beneficial variants acquired from archaic humans that may have accelerated adaptation and improved survival in new environments — a process, known as adaptive introgression (AI). Within the past couple of years, a series of studies5–8 have identified genomic regions showing strong evidence for archaic adaptive introgression. In this Review, we provide an overview of the statistical methods developed to identify archaic introgressed fragments in the genome sequences of modern humans, and to determine whether positive selection has acted on these fragments. We discuss recently reported examples of adaptive introgression and consider the level of supporting evidence for each, grouped by selection pressure. We discuss challenges and recommendations for inferring selection on introgressed regions. PMID:25963373

  4. Male acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salenave, Sylvie; Trabado, Sévérine; Maione, Luigi; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH), contrary to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is characterized by postnatal onset of disorders that damage or alter the function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and/or pituitary gonadotroph cells. AHH thus prevents the establishment of gonadotropin secretion at puberty, or its post-pubertal maintenance. Thus, postnatal AHH may prevent the onset of puberty or appear during pubertal development, but it usually emerges after the normal age of puberty. Although pituitary tumors, particularly prolactinoma, are the most common cause, sellar tumors or cyst of the hypothalamus or infundibulum, infiltrative, vascular, iron overload and other disorders may also cause AHH. Pituitary surgery and head trauma or cranial/pituitary radiation therapy are also usual causes of AHH. The clinical manifestations of AHH depend on age of onset, the degree of gonadotropin deficiency, the rapidity of its onset and the association to other pituitary function deficiencies or excess. Men with AHH have less stamina, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and strength, and a worsened sense of well being leading to degraded quality of life. The physical examination is usually normal if hypogonadism is of recent onset. Diminished facial, body hair and muscle mass, fine facial wrinkles, gynecomastia, and hypotrophic testes are observed in long-standing and complete AHH. Spermatogenesis is impaired and the volume of ejaculate is decreased only when gonadotropins and testosterone levels are very low. Men with AHH may have normal or low serum LH and FSH concentrations, but normal gonadotropin values are inappropriate when associated with low serum testosterone. In the majority of AHH patients, serum inhibin B is "normal". The decrease of this sertolian hormone indicates a long-standing and severe gonadotropin deficiency. Symptoms, usually associated with significant testosterone deficiency in men with AHH, improve with

  5. Inpatient Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonias with Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Diederich, Klas; Kusserow, Maria; Laubersheimer, Andreas; Kramer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the presented observational case series was to evaluate the experience in treating patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) within integrative medicine, particularly anthroposophic medicine in a well-experienced and specialized unit. Patients and Methods. Patients with proven CAP were evaluated (CAP-study group) based on a retrospective chart review. To estimate the severity of pneumonia, the pneumonia severity index (PSI) was applied. Treatment efficacy was evaluated regarding body temperature, CRP level, leukocytes blood count, the need to be treated on ICU, and mortality. Results were compared with the inpatient data of the Pneumonia PORT Validation Cohort. Results. 15/18 patients of the CAP-study group belonged to risk class groups I–III (low and moderate risk), 2 patients to risk class IV, and one patient to risk class V (severe pneumonia). 16/18 patients were treated with anthroposophic medicine only and 2/18 got additionally antibiotic therapy (both of risk class IV). A significant reduction of body temperature, CRP level, and leukocytes blood count has been obtained by applying anthroposophic medicine, while neither complications nor pneumonia-related death occurred. Compared with the control group there was no significant difference in mortality rate, whereby no patient had to be treated on the ICU, but the duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in the presented series. Conclusion. Inpatient treatment of CAP with anthroposophic medicine without the use of antibiotics may achieve reasonable results in selected cases. Additional larger sized prospective controlled trials should further clarify the role of AM in the treatment of CAP. PMID:23762145

  6. Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

  7. A case series of acquired haemophilia in a Malaysian hospital: unpredictably rare medical emergency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiou Perng; Khalid, Bahariah Bt

    2015-10-01

    Acquired haemophilia (AH) is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the presence of acquired inhibitors against Factor VIII causing disruption of coagulation cascade. It has no known genetic inheritance, and diagnosis remains a challenge. The peculiar presentations are later age of onset as acute pain in weight-bearing joints and spontaneous muscle haematoma with isolated prolonged activated partial thrombin time (APTT). Prevalence is 1 per million per year affecting both genders equally where blood product transfusion is seen in almost 87% of cases. The direct cause of AH is still unknown, and autoimmune dysregulation has been postulated, which predisposes to the development of the factor inhibitors. Being extremely rare, we are reporting two consecutive patients diagnosed by unusual bleeding episodes with isolated prolonged APTT due to Factor VIII inhibitors. AH deserves a special mention as high index of suspicion is required. More studies are required to provide better guidance in diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:26568837

  8. Survey of Specialized Technical Information Centers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safety Management Inst., Washington, DC.

    A study was conducted to determine the most advantageous method of acquiring selected bibliographic data collections specializing in highway safety literature in order to provide the National Highway Safety Documentation Center (NHSDC) with a significant data base. This data base is necessary for NHSDC to accomplish its objective of being a…

  9. HIV/AIDS Education for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colson, Steven E.; Carlson, Judith K.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses human immune deficiency disease, the role of education as a prevention tool, a rationale for the inclusion of students with special needs in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, a scope and sequence of skills related to AIDS, suggestions for implementing objectives across curricular areas, and multimedia…

  10. 48 CFR 11.303 - Special requirements for paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paper. 11.303 Section 11.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.303 Special requirements for paper. (a) The following applies when agencies acquire paper in the United States (as defined in 23.001):...

  11. 48 CFR 11.303 - Special requirements for paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paper. 11.303 Section 11.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.303 Special requirements for paper. (a) The following applies when agencies acquire paper in the United States (as defined in 23.001):...

  12. 48 CFR 11.303 - Special requirements for paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paper. 11.303 Section 11.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.303 Special requirements for paper. (a) The following applies when agencies acquire paper in the United States (as defined in 23.001):...

  13. 48 CFR 11.303 - Special requirements for paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paper. 11.303 Section 11.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.303 Special requirements for paper. (a) The following applies when agencies acquire paper in the United States (as defined in 23.001):...

  14. Adolescent Sexuality Special Subject Bibliography, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document consists of three annual issues of a special subject bibliography combining adolescent sexuality, for the years 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively. Citations for books, journal articles, and reports concerned with adolescent sexuality are grouped under such topics as: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Immunodeficiency…

  15. Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--worldwide.

    PubMed

    1988-05-13

    As of March 21, 1988, 136 countries or territories throughout the world had reported a total of 84,256 cases of AIDS to the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) (formerly the Special Programme on AIDS) of the World Health Organization (WHO). 37 countries or territories had reported no AIDS cases. Reports are based on either the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/WHO surveillance definition, the WHO clinical definition, or a physician's diagnosis. From 1979 through March 21, 1988, the number of AIDS cases increased markedly in all geographic regions. The cumulative world total increased from 11,965 in 1984 to 25,150 in 1985 (a 11% increase) and to 48,413 in 1986 (a 92% increase). Because of reporting lags, the global total of AIDS cases reported for 1987 is not yet complete; however, as of March 21, 1988, 34,913 cases had been reported for 1987 (a 72% increase). Data on the distribution of AIDS cases by region are presented, followed by a discussion of the findings. Regions include: Americas, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Asia, and eastern Mediterranean countries. Epidemiologic studies indicate 3 broad yet distinct geographic patterns of transmission. Pattern I is typical of industrialized countries with large numbers of reported AIDS cases, such as North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Latin America. In these areas, most cases occur among homosexual or bisexual males and urban intravenous (IV) drug users. Pattern II is observed in areas of central, eastern, and southern Africa and in some Carribean countries. In these areas, most cases occur among heterosexuals. Pattern III is found in areas of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and most of the Pacific. Only small numbers of cases have been reported in these areas. PMID:3129644

  16. Acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to hydatid cyst operation.

    PubMed

    Gezer, S; Turut, H; Oz, G; Demirag, F; Tastepe, I

    2007-10-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal communications between pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. The majority of the cases are congenital in origin, and acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are very rare. We present a case here, which - to the best of our knowledge - is the first acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to a hydatid cyst operation in the literature, and we discuss the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and treatment of acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. PMID:17902072

  17. Specialization and Bet Hedging in Heterogeneous Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulands, Steffen; Jahn, David; Frey, Erwin

    2014-09-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity is a strategy commonly used by bacteria to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Here, we study the interplay between phenotypic heterogeneity and genetic diversity in spatially extended populations. By analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics, we show that the level of mobility and the type of competition qualitatively influence the persistence of phenotypic heterogeneity. While direct competition generally promotes persistence of phenotypic heterogeneity, specialization dominates in models with indirect competition irrespective of the degree of mobility.

  18. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eve R; Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Slav N

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. PMID:27053733

  19. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  20. ADAPTATION AND ADAPTABILITY, THE BELLEFAIRE FOLLOWUP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLERHAND, MELVIN E.; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH TEAM STUDIED INFLUENCES, ADAPTATION, AND ADAPTABILITY IN 50 POORLY ADAPTING BOYS AT BELLEFAIRE, A REGIONAL CHILD CARE CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN. THE TEAM ATTEMPTED TO GAUGE THE SUCCESS OF THE RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTER IN TERMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND ROLE PERFORMANCES OF THE BOYS DURING INDIVIDUAL CASEWORK…

  1. Admixture facilitates genetic adaptations to high altitude in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Choongwon; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Basnyat, Buddha; Neupane, Maniraj; Witonsky, David B.; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Beall, Cynthia M.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Admixture is recognized as a widespread feature of human populations, renewing interest in the possibility that genetic exchange can facilitate adaptations to new environments. Studies of Tibetans revealed candidates for high-altitude adaptations in the EGLN1 and EPAS1 genes, associated with lower hemoglobin concentration. However, the history of these variants or that of Tibetans remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze genotype data for the Nepalese Sherpa, and find that Tibetans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to the Sherpa and Han Chinese. EGLN1 and EPAS1 genes show a striking enrichment of high-altitude ancestry in the Tibetan genome, indicating that migrants from low altitude acquired adaptive alleles from the highlanders. Accordingly, the Sherpa and Tibetans share adaptive hemoglobin traits. This admixture-mediated adaptation shares important features with adaptive introgression. Therefore, we identify a novel mechanism, beyond selection on new mutations or on standing variation, through which populations can adapt to local environments. PMID:24513612

  2. Fast frequency acquisition via adaptive least squares algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.

    1986-01-01

    A new least squares algorithm is proposed and investigated for fast frequency and phase acquisition of sinusoids in the presence of noise. This algorithm is a special case of more general, adaptive parameter-estimation techniques. The advantages of the algorithms are their conceptual simplicity, flexibility and applicability to general situations. For example, the frequency to be acquired can be time varying, and the noise can be nonGaussian, nonstationary and colored. As the proposed algorithm can be made recursive in the number of observations, it is not necessary to have a priori knowledge of the received signal-to-noise ratio or to specify the measurement time. This would be required for batch processing techniques, such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The proposed algorithm improves the frequency estimate on a recursive basis as more and more observations are obtained. When the algorithm is applied in real time, it has the extra advantage that the observations need not be stored. The algorithm also yields a real time confidence measure as to the accuracy of the estimator.

  3. 76 FR 6651 - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters To Advance Climate Change Adaptation... scientific basis of climate change, potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. More... on ``Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation...

  4. Two phylogenetic specializations in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Allman, John; Hakeem, Atiya; Watson, Karli

    2002-08-01

    In this study, two anatomical specializations of the brain in apes and humans are considered. One of these is a whole cortical area located in the frontal polar cortex (Brodmann's area 10), and the other is a morphologically distinctive cell type, the spindle neuron of the anterior cingulate cortex. The authors suggest that the spindle cells may relay to other parts of the brain--especially to area 10, the outcome of processing within the anterior cingulate cortex. This relay conveys the motivation to act. It particularly concerns the recognition of having committed an error that leads to the initiation of adaptive responses to these adverse events so as to reduce error commission. This capacity is related to the development of self-control as an individual matures and gains social insight. Although the anterior cingulate deals with the individual's immediate response to changing conditions, area 10 is involved in the retrieval of memories from the individual's past experience and the capacity to plan adaptive responses. The authors suggest that these neurobehavioral specializations are crucial aspects of intelligence as defined as the capacity to make adaptive responses to changing conditions. The authors further hypothesize that these specializations facilitated the evolution of the unique capacity for the intergenerational transfer of the food and information characteristic of human extended families. PMID:12194502

  5. Sensorimotor adaptation of speech in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mollaei, Fatemeh; Shiller, Douglas M; Gracco, Vincent L

    2013-10-01

    The basal ganglia are involved in establishing motor plans for a wide range of behaviors. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a manifestation of basal ganglia dysfunction associated with a deficit in sensorimotor integration and difficulty in acquiring new motor sequences, thereby affecting motor learning. Previous studies of sensorimotor integration and sensorimotor adaptation in PD have focused on limb movements using visual and force-field alterations. Here, we report the results from a sensorimotor adaptation experiment investigating the ability of PD patients to make speech motor adjustments to a constant and predictable auditory feedback manipulation. Participants produced speech while their auditory feedback was altered and maintained in a manner consistent with a change in tongue position. The degree of adaptation was associated with the severity of motor symptoms. The patients with PD exhibited adaptation to the induced sensory error; however, the degree of adaptation was reduced compared with healthy, age-matched control participants. The reduced capacity to adapt to a change in auditory feedback is consistent with reduced gain in the sensorimotor system for speech and with previous studies demonstrating limitations in the adaptation of limb movements after changes in visual feedback among patients with PD. PMID:23861349

  6. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  7. Symbiont-supplemented maternal investment underpinning host's ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kaiwa, Nahomi; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Moriyama, Minoru; Meng, Xian-Ying; Maeda, Taro; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ito, Motomi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-10-20

    Maternal investment for offspring's growth and survival is widespread among diverse organisms. Vertical symbiont transmission via maternal passage is also pivotal for offspring's growth and survival in many organisms. Hence, it is expected that vertical symbiont transmission may coevolve with various organismal traits concerning maternal investment in offspring. Here we report a novel phenotypic syndrome entailing morphological, histological, behavioral, and ecological specializations for maternal investment and vertical symbiont transmission in stinkbugs of the family Urostylididae. Adult females develop huge ovaries exaggerated for polysaccharide excretion, possess novel ovipositor-associated organs for vertical transmission of a bacterial symbiont ("Candidatus Tachikawaea gelatinosa"), and lay eggs covered with voluminous symbiont-supplemented jelly. Newborns hatch in midwinter, feed solely on the jelly, acquire the symbiont, and grow during winter. In spring, the insects start feeding on plant sap, wherein the symbiont localizes to a specialized midgut region and supplies essential amino acids deficient in the host's diet. The reduced symbiont genome and host-symbiont cospeciation indicate their obligate association over evolutionary time. Experimental deprivation of the jelly results in nymphal mortality, whereas restoration of the jelly leads to recovered nymphal growth, confirming that the jelly supports nymphal growth in winter. Chemical analyses demonstrate that the galactan-based jelly contains a sufficient quantity of amino acids to sustain nymphal growth to the third instar. The versatile biological roles of the symbiont-containing egg-covering jelly highlight intricate evolutionary interactions between maternal resource investment and vertical symbiont transmission, which are commonly important for offspring's growth, survival, and ecological adaptation. PMID:25264255

  8. Introduction: Reflexions on Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Goodwin, Donna; Bouffard, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The articles included in this special issue of Quest emerged from a research workshop entitled "Thinking About Our Thinking in Adapted Physical Activity," held at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, from June 18-19, 2013. The aim of the workshop was to examine different worldviews that contribute to the adapted physical…

  9. Special Education in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan; Nam, Sang Seok

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development and current status of special education in Singapore. Topics include organization of service delivery, integration, teacher training, and achievements. Challenges to improve the quality of special education services through integration opportunities, preservice teacher training, and greater coordination among…

  10. Special Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granstrom, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reports on the organization and implementation of a "Special Needs Awareness Month" in Quincy, Massachusetts. Noted are the heavy involvement of parents in the multiagency planning committee, and the resulting citywide displays, publications, programs, and publicity on children with special needs. (DB)

  11. Special Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanlin; Wang, HongBo

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the history and development of special education in China. The historical review covers antiquity to the 1800s, 1800s to 1900s, 1949 to 1965, and 1966 to 1976. Current special education in China is discussed in terms of laws and regulations and major achievements. Major problems and future prospects are also noted. (Author/DB)

  12. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  13. Evaluating Special Education Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses early research on evaluating services for Australian disabled persons, the Schonell Evaluation Procedure (SEP) developed for use in Activity Therapy Centres (adult continuing education programs), the modification of SEP for use in special schools for children, and emergent and unmet needs for evaluating adult special education…

  14. Special Education Resource System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampert, George J.

    The guide to the Special Education Resource System (SERS) of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school system contains policies and procedures regarding organization, services, and process of the system. Noted is the SERS purpose of providing information and access to appropriate instructional media and materials for special education personnel. Briefly…

  15. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  16. Preface: ISBB Special Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is published for the International Society of Biocatalysis and Biotechnology (ISBB). The ISBB special issue is devoted to all areas of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology in which biological systems are developed and/or used for the provision of commercial goods or serv...

  17. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization. Little…

  18. Handbook of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.

    Intended to serve as a basic reference work for students and professionals in special education, the book contains 34 author contributed chapters concerned with the conceptual foundations of special education, service delivery systems, curriculum and methods, and child and child/environmental management. Chapters have the following titles and…

  19. Special Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  20. Special Education in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Sultana S.; Munir, Shirin Z.

    1992-01-01

    This review of special education in Bangladesh describes the prevalence of major disabilities and government and nongovernment programs for children with various types of disabilities. The paper concludes that most special education is supported by nongovernment organizations and that implementation has been restricted by economic constraints.…

  1. Special Education Teacher Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was special education teachers, who remained in the teaching field 5 or more years. Through the use of qualitative mixed-methods study, variables contributing to their longevity were explored. Research indicates that 50% of special education teachers leave the field within five years of employment (Alliance for Education,…

  2. Adaptive immunity in the liver.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Zongwen; Leung, Miranda Wy; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Weici; Yang, Guoxiang; Leung, Patrick Sc; Eric Gershwin, M

    2016-05-01

    The anatomical architecture of the human liver and the diversity of its immune components endow the liver with its physiological function of immune competence. Adaptive immunity is a major arm of the immune system that is organized in a highly specialized and systematic manner, thus providing long-lasting protection with immunological memory. Adaptive immunity consists of humoral immunity and cellular immunity. Cellular immunity is known to have a crucial role in controlling infection, cancer and autoimmune disorders in the liver. In this article, we will focus on hepatic virus infections, hepatocellular carcinoma and autoimmune disorders as examples to illustrate the current understanding of the contribution of T cells to cellular immunity in these maladies. Cellular immune suppression is primarily responsible for chronic viral infections and cancer. However, an uncontrolled auto-reactive immune response accounts for autoimmunity. Consequently, these immune abnormalities are ascribed to the quantitative and functional changes in adaptive immune cells and their subsets, innate immunocytes, chemokines, cytokines and various surface receptors on immune cells. A greater understanding of the complex orchestration of the hepatic adaptive immune regulators during homeostasis and immune competence are much needed to identify relevant targets for clinical intervention to treat immunological disorders in the liver. PMID:26996069

  3. Adaptive immunity in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Zongwen; Leung, Miranda WY; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Weici; Yang, Guoxiang; Leung, Patrick SC; Eric Gershwin, M

    2016-01-01

    The anatomical architecture of the human liver and the diversity of its immune components endow the liver with its physiological function of immune competence. Adaptive immunity is a major arm of the immune system that is organized in a highly specialized and systematic manner, thus providing long-lasting protection with immunological memory. Adaptive immunity consists of humoral immunity and cellular immunity. Cellular immunity is known to have a crucial role in controlling infection, cancer and autoimmune disorders in the liver. In this article, we will focus on hepatic virus infections, hepatocellular carcinoma and autoimmune disorders as examples to illustrate the current understanding of the contribution of T cells to cellular immunity in these maladies. Cellular immune suppression is primarily responsible for chronic viral infections and cancer. However, an uncontrolled auto-reactive immune response accounts for autoimmunity. Consequently, these immune abnormalities are ascribed to the quantitative and functional changes in adaptive immune cells and their subsets, innate immunocytes, chemokines, cytokines and various surface receptors on immune cells. A greater understanding of the complex orchestration of the hepatic adaptive immune regulators during homeostasis and immune competence are much needed to identify relevant targets for clinical intervention to treat immunological disorders in the liver. PMID:26996069

  4. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  5. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  6. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  7. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section 626.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase of crude oil, DOE shall, through...

  8. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  9. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  10. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  11. Free Reading: A Powerful Tool for Acquiring a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priya, J.; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The paper claims that free reading is a crucial ingredient in acquiring a second or foreign language. It contributes to the development of all measures of language competence which include grammar, vocabulary, spelling, syntax, fluency and style. The review supports the claim that readers acquire language subconsciously when they receive…

  12. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  13. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  14. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  15. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  16. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section 5(d) of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  18. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  20. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  1. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should...

  2. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  3. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  4. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  5. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  6. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  7. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  8. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to the Government, it...

  9. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to the Government, it...

  10. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States the cigarette limit is 1,000, not more than 200 of which shall have been acquired elsewhere than... beneficiary countries. (e) Exemption not applicable. The exemption does not apply to articles intended for sale or acquired on commission, i.e., for the account of another person, with or without...

  11. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... States the cigarette limit is 1,000, not more than 200 of which shall have been acquired elsewhere than... beneficiary countries. (e) Exemption not applicable. The exemption does not apply to articles intended for sale or acquired on commission, i.e., for the account of another person, with or without...

  12. 33 CFR 211.27 - Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction. 211.27 Section 211.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... PROJECTS Federal Jurisdiction over Real Estate § 211.27 Method of acquiring Federal...

  13. 26 CFR 1.471-9 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.471-9 Section 1.471-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-9 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  14. 26 CFR 1.472-7 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.472-7 Section 1.472-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.472-7 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  15. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  16. Are We Preparing Special Educators for the Issues Facing Schools in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The literature on teen sexuality, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), drug abuse, and homelessness is reviewed as it relates to students with special needs. A survey of 258 special education teacher preparation programs revealed wide variability in the coverage that these programs were providing on these…

  17. Growing Special and Free To Say No to HIV. HIV/AIDS Preventative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    This curriculum guide is written to provide special education teachers with a model for teaching students about the prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It is noted that special education students may be at risk for contracting the virus because they are often vulnerable to high-risk behaviors in an effort to belong to a peer…

  18. Psychological and adjustment problems due to acquired brain lesions in pediatric patients: a comparison of vascular, infectious, and other origins.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Valentina; Galbiati, Susanna; Villa, Federica; Colombo, Katia; Recla, Monica; Adduci, Annarita; Avantaggiato, Paolo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Strazzer, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe psychological, behavioral, and adjustment problems in children and adolescents with acquired brain lesions of different origins. Three groups of patients with acquired brain lesions (15 patients with infectious origin, 37 with vascular origin, and 15 with other origin), ranging in age from 4 to 18 years, received a psychological evaluation, including the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4 to 18 and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. About half of the total sample (47.8%) showed psychological problems. Difficulties varied according to the cause of the brain lesions. The most problematic patients were children with brain lesions of infectious origin, whereas children with brain lesions of vascular origin scored lower on most of the Child Behavior Checklist scales. The authors conclude that psychological and behavioral difficulties are very common among school-aged children with acquired brain lesions, and their relevance and impact must necessarily be considered. PMID:24453143

  19. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  20. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    This book seeks to guide information providers in establishing accessible World Wide Web sites and acquiring the hardware and software needed by people with disabilities, focusing on access to the Internet using large print, voice, and Braille. The book also covers how to acquire the funds for adaptive technology, what type of equipment to choose,…

  1. Improving the quality of radiographic images acquired with conical radiation beams through divergence correction and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.; Souza, E. S.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-07-01

    Earlier works have shown the feasibility to correct the deformation of the attenuation map in radiographs acquired with conical radiation beams provided that the inspected object could be expressed into analytical geometry terms. This correction reduces the contribution of the main object in the radiograph, allowing thus the visualization of its otherwise concealed heterogeneities. However, the non-punctual character of the source demanded a cumbersome trial-and-error approach in order to determine the proper correction parameters for the algorithm. Within this frame, this work addresses the improvement of radiographs of specially tailored test-objects acquired with a conical beam through correction of its divergence by using the information contained in the image itself. The corrected images have afterwards undergone a filtration in the frequency domain aiming at the reduction of statistical fluctuation and noise by using a 2D Fourier transform. All radiographs have been acquired using 165Dy and 198Au gamma-ray sources produced at the Argonauta research reactor in Institutode Engenharia Nuclear - CNEN, and an X-ray sensitive imaging plate as detector. The processed images exhibit features otherwise invisible in the original ones. Their processing by conventional histogram equalization carried out for comparison purposes did not succeed to detect those features.

  2. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment. PMID:25725545

  3. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  4. Habituation of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  5. Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Community-Acquired and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Su, Chien-Hao; Wang, Yu-Ching Lily; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The disease burden and outcomes of community-acquired (CA-) and hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of AKI in a large Taiwanese adult cohort. This retrospective cohort study examined 734,340 hospital admissions from a group of hospitals within an organization in Taiwan between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Patients with AKI at discharge were classified as either CA- or HA-AKI based on the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of function, end stage of kidney disease) classification criteria. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, dialysis, recovery of renal function, and length of stay. Risks of developing AKI were determined using multivariate logistic regression based on demographic and baseline clinical characteristics and nephrotoxin use before admission. AKI occurred in 1.68% to 2% hospital discharges among adults without and with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD), respectively. The incidence of CA-AKI was 17.25 and HA-AKI was 8.14 per 1000 admissions. The annual rate of CA-AKI increased from 12.43 to 19.96 per 1000 people, but the change in HA-AKI was insignificant. Comparing to CA-AKI, those with HA-AKI had higher levels of in-hospital mortality (26.07% vs 51.58%), mean length of stay (21.25 ± 22.35 vs 35.84 ± 34.62 days), and dialysis during hospitalization (1.45% vs 2.06%). Preexisting systemic diseases, including CKD were associated with increased risks of CA-AKI, and nephrotoxic polypharmacy increased risk of both CA- and HA-AKI. Patients with HA-AKI had more severe outcomes than patients with CA-AKI, and demonstrated different spectrum of risk factors. Although patients with CA-AKI with better outcomes, the incidence increased over time. It is also clear that optimal preventive and management strategies of HA- and CA-AKI are urgently needed to limit the risks in susceptible individuals. PMID:27175701

  6. Adaptation in a rotating artificial gravity environment.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; DiZio, P

    1998-11-01

    The centripetal force generated by a rotating space vehicle is a potential source of artificial gravity. Minimizing the cost of such a vehicle dictates using the smallest radius and highest rotation rate possible, but head movements made at high rotation rates generate disorienting, nauseogenic cross-coupled semicircular canal stimulation. Early studies suggested 3 or 4 rpm as the highest rate at which humans could adapt to this vestibular stimulus. These studies neglected the concomitant Coriolis force actions on the head/neck system. We assessed non-vestibular Coriolis effects by measuring arm and leg movements made in the center of a rotating room turning at 10 rpm and found that movement endpoints and trajectories are initially deviated; however, subjects readily adapt with 10-20 additional movements, even without seeing their errors. Equilibrium point theories of motor control errantly predict that Coriolis forces will not cause movement endpoint errors so that subjects will not have to adapt their reaching movements during rotation. Adaptation of movement trajectory acquired during Coriolis force perturbations of one arm transfers to the unexposed arm but there is no intermanual transfer of endpoint adaptation indicating that neuromotor representations of movement endpoint and trajectory are separable and can adapt independently, also contradictory to equilibrium point theories. Touching a surface at the end of reaching movements is required for complete endpoint adaptation in darkness but trajectory adapts completely with or without terminal contact. We have also made the first kinematic measurements of unconstrained head movements during rotation, these movements show rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations. Our results point to methods for achieving full compensation for rotation up to 10 rpm. PMID:9795214

  7. Adaptation in a rotating artificial gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1998-01-01

    The centripetal force generated by a rotating space vehicle is a potential source of artificial gravity. Minimizing the cost of such a vehicle dictates using the smallest radius and highest rotation rate possible, but head movements made at high rotation rates generate disorienting, nauseogenic cross-coupled semicircular canal stimulation. Early studies suggested 3 or 4 rpm as the highest rate at which humans could adapt to this vestibular stimulus. These studies neglected the concomitant Coriolis force actions on the head/neck system. We assessed non-vestibular Coriolis effects by measuring arm and leg movements made in the center of a rotating room turning at 10 rpm and found that movement endpoints and trajectories are initially deviated; however, subjects readily adapt with 10-20 additional movements, even without seeing their errors. Equilibrium point theories of motor control errantly predict that Coriolis forces will not cause movement endpoint errors so that subjects will not have to adapt their reaching movements during rotation. Adaptation of movement trajectory acquired during Coriolis force perturbations of one arm transfers to the unexposed arm but there is no intermanual transfer of endpoint adaptation indicating that neuromotor representations of movement endpoint and trajectory are separable and can adapt independently, also contradictory to equilibrium point theories. Touching a surface at the end of reaching movements is required for complete endpoint adaptation in darkness but trajectory adapts completely with or without terminal contact. We have also made the first kinematic measurements of unconstrained head movements during rotation, these movements show rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations. Our results point to methods for achieving full compensation for rotation up to 10 rpm. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. A Very Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hilda B.

    1973-01-01

    Granite School District, a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah, has a staff of 349 teachers and other professional personnel who provide career education and job experience for more than 5,000 special children. (DS)

  9. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  10. Israeli Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  11. Next-generation sequencing reveals a conserved haplotype controlling parallel adaptation in geographically distant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local adaptation is the process by which different individuals of the same species are exposed to distinct forces of natural selection and populations adapt or acquire traits that provide an advantage in their local environment. Salmonid fishes exhibit extensive local adaptations due to an abundant ...

  12. Cold adaptation in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Johnston, I A

    1990-01-30

    Animals from polar seas exhibit numerous so called resistance adaptations that serve to maintain homeostasis at low temperature and prevent lethal freezing injury. Specialization to temperatures at or below 0 degrees C is associated with an inability to survive at temperatures above 3-8 degrees C. Polar fish synthesize various types of glycoproteins or peptides to lower the freezing point of most extracellular fluid compartments in a non-colligative manner. Antifreeze production is seasonal in boreal species and is often initiated by environmental cues other than low temperature, particularly short day lengths. Most of the adaptations that enable intertidal invertebrates to survive freezing are associated with their ability to withstand ariel exposure. Unique adaptations for freezing avoidance include the synthesis of low molecular mass ice-nucleating proteins that control and induce extracellular ice-formation. Marine poikilotherms also exhibit a range of capacity adaptations that increase the rate of some physiological processes so as to partially compensate for the effects of low temperature. However, the rate of embryonic development in a diverse range of marine organisms shows no evidence of temperature compensation. This results in a significant lengthening of the time from fertilization to hatching in polar, relative to temperate, species. Some aspects of the physiology of polar marine species, such as low metabolic and slow growth rates, probably result from a combination of low temperature and other factors such as the highly seasonal nature of food supplies. Although neuromuscular function shows a partial capacity adaptation in Antarctic fish, maximum swimming speeds are lower than for temperate and tropical species, particularly for early stages in the life history. PMID:1969650

  13. Allopurinol in the treatment of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis*

    PubMed Central

    Tilz, Hemma; Becker, Jürgen Christian; Legat, Franz; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Inzinger, Martin; Massone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a perforating dermatosis usually associated with different systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and/or chronic renal insufficiency. Different therapies have been tried but treatment is not standardized yet and remains a challenge. In the last few years, allopurinol has been reported as a good therapeutic option for acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with diabetes type 1 and chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol 100mg once/day p.o.. PMID:23539010

  14. Valuing the recreational benefits of wetland adaptation to climate change: a trade-off between species' abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Faccioli, Michela; Riera Font, Antoni; Torres Figuerola, Catalina M

    2015-03-01

    Climate change will further exacerbate wetland deterioration, especially in the Mediterranean region. On the one side, it will accelerate the decline in the populations and species of plants and animals, this resulting in an impoverishment of biological abundance. On the other one, it will also promote biotic homogenization, resulting in a loss of species' diversity. In this context, different climate change adaptation policies can be designed: those oriented to recovering species' abundance and those aimed at restoring species' diversity. Based on the awareness that knowledge about visitors' preferences is crucial to better inform policy makers and secure wetlands' public use and conservation, this paper assesses the recreational benefits of different adaptation options through a choice experiment study carried out in S'Albufera wetland (Mallorca). Results show that visitors display positive preferences for an increase in both species' abundance and diversity, although they assign a higher value to the latter, thus suggesting a higher social acceptability of policies pursuing wetlands' differentiation. This finding acquires special relevance not only for adaptation management in wetlands but also for tourism planning, as most visitors to S'Albufera are tourists. Thus, given the growing competition to attract visitors and the increasing demand for high environmental quality and unique experiences, promoting wetlands' differentiation could be a good strategy to gain competitive advantage over other wetland areas and tourism destinations. PMID:25472830

  15. Valuing the Recreational Benefits of Wetland Adaptation to Climate Change: A Trade-off Between Species' Abundance and Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccioli, Michela; Riera Font, Antoni; Torres Figuerola, Catalina M.

    2015-03-01

    Climate change will further exacerbate wetland deterioration, especially in the Mediterranean region. On the one side, it will accelerate the decline in the populations and species of plants and animals, this resulting in an impoverishment of biological abundance. On the other one, it will also promote biotic homogenization, resulting in a loss of species' diversity. In this context, different climate change adaptation policies can be designed: those oriented to recovering species' abundance and those aimed at restoring species' diversity. Based on the awareness that knowledge about visitors' preferences is crucial to better inform policy makers and secure wetlands' public use and conservation, this paper assesses the recreational benefits of different adaptation options through a choice experiment study carried out in S'Albufera wetland (Mallorca). Results show that visitors display positive preferences for an increase in both species' abundance and diversity, although they assign a higher value to the latter, thus suggesting a higher social acceptability of policies pursuing wetlands' differentiation. This finding acquires special relevance not only for adaptation management in wetlands but also for tourism planning, as most visitors to S'Albufera are tourists. Thus, given the growing competition to attract visitors and the increasing demand for high environmental quality and unique experiences, promoting wetlands' differentiation could be a good strategy to gain competitive advantage over other wetland areas and tourism destinations.

  16. Sport Specialization, Part I

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  17. Introduction to the Special Issue on remote sensing.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1987-01-01

    The papers in ths Special Issue, with their emphasis on physical properties and hypothesis testing, illustrate a growing trend in the field of remote sensing. It is now becoming more common to approach problems by defining the types of data that will be acquired and the analysis algorithms that will be used, based on the geologic setting of the area, the known physical properties (largely spectral at this time) of the materials present and the instrument characteristics. New instruments are currently being developed and tested to acquire multispectral data from aircraft.-from Author

  18. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  19. [Antibiotic therapy of severe community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Molchanova, O V; Suleĭmanov, S Sh; Ostrovskiĭ, A B

    2009-01-01

    Combined antibiotic therapy, including the use of intravenous cefotaxime (a beta-lactam) and azithromycin (a macrolide) was shown advantageous from both clinical and economic viewpoints in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:19711847

  20. Acquired localised hypertrichosis in a Chinese child after cast immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, M W; Lai, Loretta K P; Chan, P F; Chao, David V K

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrichosis refers to excessive hair growth that is independent of any androgen effect. Hypertrichosis could be congenital or acquired, localised or generalised. The phenomenon of acquired localised hypertrichosis following cast application for a fracture is well known to orthopaedic surgeons, but is rarely encountered by primary care physicians. We describe a 28-month-old Chinese boy who had fracture of right leg as a result of an injury. He had a cast applied by an orthopaedic surgeon as treatment. On removal of the cast 6 weeks later, he was noticed to have significant hair growth on his right leg compared with the left leg. The patient was reassessed 3 months after removal of the cast. The hypertrichosis resolved completely with time. This patient was one of the youngest among the reported cases of acquired localised hypertrichosis after cast application. We illustrate the significance of management of post-cast-acquired localised hypertrichosis in the primary care setting. PMID:26238136

  1. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  2. [THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF MODERN METHODS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL VERIFICATION OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN CLINICAL PRACTICE].

    PubMed

    Mavzyutova, G A; Kuzovkina, O Z; Mirsayapova, I A

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to determine etiological structure and informativeness of different methods of detection of agents of community-acquired pneumonia, the sampling included 274 examined patients aged from 16 to 80 years with community-acquired pneumonia of different degree of severity and being under hospital treatment. Besides of standard laboratory and clinical methods of examination ofpatients with community-acquired pneumonia special techniques of etiological verification were applied: molecular genetic analysis (polymerase chain reaction) of phlegm, qualitative detection of antigen Legionella pneumophila of serogroup 1 and antigen Streptococcus pneumoniae in samples of urine using quick immune chromatographic test, detection of level of serum specific immunoglobulines class M and G to Chlamidophilia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pListeria monocytogenes in dynamics using immunoenzyme technique. The etiological structure of community-acquired pneumonia was established based of study results. The analysis of informativeness of different methods of etiological verification of diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia demonstrated that combination ofpolymerase chain reaction and serological method is the optimal one. PMID:27032250

  3. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. PMID:26975787

  4. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  5. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  6. Adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2016-08-15

    We present an adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscope (AOPCSO) using a digital micromirror device (DMD). The imaging light is modulated to be a line of point sources by the DMD, illuminating the retina simultaneously. By using a high-speed line camera to acquire the image and using adaptive optics to compensate the ocular wave aberration, the AOPCSO can image the living human eye with cellular level resolution at the frame rate of 100 Hz. AOPCSO has been demonstrated with improved spatial resolution in imaging of the living human retina compared with adaptive optics line scan ophthalmoscopy. PMID:27519106

  7. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  8. Adapting Classroom Activities for Multiple Needs and Purposes: "Find Someone Who..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Ken

    1994-01-01

    An English-as-a-Foreign Language instructor's repertoire of effective classroom activities is extended not only through acquiring useful, new ideas, but through adapting these activities (new and old) for varied needs and purposes. This article focuses on the potential for adaptation of one popular, communicative activity: "Find someone who..."…

  9. Special Issue: "Functional Dendrimers".

    PubMed

    Tomalia, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    This special issue entitled "Functional Dendrimers" focuses on the manipulation of at least six "critical nanoscale design parameters" (CNDPs) of dendrimers including: size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture and elemental composition. These CNDPs collectively define properties of all "functional dendrimers". This special issue contains many interesting examples describing the manipulation of certain dendrimer CNDPs to create new emerging properties and, in some cases, predictive nanoperiodic property patterns (i.e., dendritic effects). The systematic engineering of CNDPs provides a valuable strategy for optimizing functional dendrimer properties for use in specific applications. PMID:27517890

  10. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  11. Parallelism in adaptive radiations of experimental Escherichia coli populations.

    PubMed

    Saxer, Gerda; Travisano, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive radiations are major contributors to species diversity. Although the underlying mechanisms of adaptive radiations, specialization and trade-offs, are relatively well understood, the tempo and repeatability of adaptive radiations remain elusive. Ecological specialization can occur through the expansion into novel niches or through partitioning of an existing niche. To test how the mode of resource specialization affects the tempo and repeatability of adaptive radiations, we selected replicate bacterial populations in environments that promoted the evolution of diversity either through niche expansion or through niche partitioning, and in a third low-quality single-resource environment, in which diversity was not expected to evolve. Colony size diversity evolved equally fast in environments that provided ecological opportunities regardless of the mode of resource specialization. In the low-quality environments, diversity did not consistently evolve. We observed the largest fitness improvement in the low-quality environment and the smallest the glucose-limited environment. We did not observe a change in the rate of evolutionary change in either trait or environment, suggesting that the pool of beneficial mutations was not exhausted. Overall, the mode of resource specialization did not affect the tempo or repeatability of adaptive radiations. These results demonstrate the limitations of eco-evolutionary feedbacks to affect evolutionary outcomes. PMID:26683761

  12. Patterns of transfer of adaptation among body segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, G. E.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to determine the patterns of transfer of visuomotor adaptation between arm and head pointing. An altered gain of display of pointing movements was used to induce a conflict between visual and somatosensory representations. Two subject groups participated in Experiment 1: group 1 adapted shoulder pointing movements, and group 2 adapted wrist pointing movements to a 0.5 gain of display. Following the adaptation regimen, subjects performed a transfer test in which the shoulder group performed wrist movements and the wrist group performed shoulder movements. The results demonstrated that both groups displayed typical adaptation curves, initially undershooting the target followed by a return to baseline performance. Transfer tests revealed that both groups had high transfer of the acquired adaptation to the other joint. Experiment 2 followed a similar design except that group 1 adapted head pointing movements and group 2 adapted arm pointing movements. The arm adaptation had high transfer to head pointing while the head adaptation had very little transfer to arm pointing. These results imply that, while the arm segments may share a common target representation for goal-directed actions, individual but functionally dependent target representations may exist for the control of head and arm movements.

  13. Patterns of Transfer of Adaptation Among Body Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, George E.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to determine the patterns of transfer of visuomotor adaptation between arm and head pointing. An altered gain of display of pointing movements was used to induce a conflict between visual and somatosensory representations. Two subject groups participated in Experiment One: group 1 adapted shoulder pointing movements, and group 2 adapted wrist pointing movements to a 0.5 gain of display. Following the adaptation regimen, subjects performed a transfer test in which the shoulder group performed wrist movements and the wrist group performed shoulder movements. The results demonstrated that both groups displayed typical adaptation curves, initially undershooting the target followed by a return to baseline performance. Transfer tests revealed that both groups had high transfer of the acquired adaptation to the other joint. Experiment Two followed a similar design except that group 1 adapted head pointing movements and group 2 adapted arm pointing movements. The arm adaptation had high transfer to head pointing while the head adaptation had very little transfer to arm pointing. These results imply that, while the arm segments may share a common target representation for goal-directed actions, individual but functionally dependent target representations may exist for the control of head and arm movements.

  14. Special Education Teacher Time Use in Four Types of Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Parker, Richard I.; Soares, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined, by direct observation and 1 hr interval self-reporting, teacher time use in 4 types of special education programs (adaptive behavior units, content mastery, coteaching, resource room). Over 7,000 pieces of data were collected across an academic year from 31 teachers in 24 schools within 9 districts in the Southwestern United…

  15. Special Education Terminology Every Physical Education Teacher Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Lytle, Rebecca; Arndt, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    An initial step to demonstrate commitment and professional behaviors is to be knowledgeable in the terminology used by special education colleagues, and to share with them common terminology used in physical education settings. Adapted physical education (APE) and general physical education (GPE) teachers need to know terminology used by…

  16. Test Rules Differ between Groups for Special Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Champions of students with disabilities have long complained that those students are often an afterthought in state testing plans. Only after a test design is completed are educators asked to go back and adapt the questions for a student who is blind, who needs help accessing text or calculating numbers, or who must use a specialized device to…

  17. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

    2012-09-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

  18. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jasper; Owens, Emma

    2013-01-01

    We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences [“like” (+) or “dislike” (−)] for sports [e.g., tennis (t) and hockey (h)] of four fictitious people [e.g., Alice (A), Beth (B), Charlotte (C), and Dorothy (D)]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt−, Ct+, Dt−, Ah−, Bh+, Ch−, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are “equivalent” in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of “whole” versus “partial” reversal learning). Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C) signal the same outcome (e.g., +) when accompanied by the same input (t). One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence. PMID:24130542

  19. Placental specializations in lecithotrophic viviparous squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James R

    2015-09-01

    Squamate reptiles have been thought to be predisposed to evolution of viviparity because embryos of most oviparous species undergo considerable development in the uterus prior to oviposition. A related hypothesis proposes that prolonged intrauterine gestation, an intermediate condition leading to viviparity, requires little or no physiological adjustment, other than reduction in thickness of the eggshell. This logical framework is often accompanied by an assumption that mode of parity (oviparity, viviparity) and pattern of embryonic nutrition (lecithotrophy, placentotrophy) are independent traits that evolve in sequence. Thus, specializations for viviparity should be absent in some lecithotrophic viviparous species. Studies of species of lizards with geographic variation in mode of parity challenge this scenario by demonstrating that placental specializations are correlated with viviparity. Uterine specializations for placental transport of calcium to viviparous embryos alter uterine physiology compared to oviparous females. In addition, comparative studies of oviparous and viviparous species, i.e., in which gene flow is disrupted, reveal that both uterine and embryonic structural modifications are commonly associated with viviparity, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of placental specializations. Studies of squamate reproductive biology support two hypotheses: 1) evolution of viviparity requires physiological adjustments of the uterine environment, and 2) evolution of viviparity promotes relatively rapid adaptations for placentation. Models for the evolution of viviparity from oviparity, or for reversals from viviparity to oviparity, should reflect current understanding of squamate reproductive biology and future studies should be designed to challenge these models. PMID:26055953

  20. Special Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper briefly describes the current status of special education in Pakistan, noting its relatively brief history, the lack of incidence figures, the administrative organization and structure, personnel preparation, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the recognition of four categories of disability: mental retardation, physical…

  1. Specially Funded Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    A total of eight specially funded programs designed to improve social and human conditions are described. These programs are Adult Basic Education (ABE), Adult Personal Traffic Safety (APTS), Emergency Employment Act (EEA), Industry Sponsored Programs (ISP), Manpower Development Training Act (MDTA), Model Cities Projects, Work Incentive Program…

  2. A Special Trinomial Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author takes up the special trinomial (1 + x + x[squared])[superscript n] and shows that the coefficients of its expansion are entries of a Pascal-like triangle. He also shows how to calculate these entries recursively and explicitly. This article could be used in the classroom for enrichment. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  4. Seeking: Special Education Director

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    The author recently left her position as special services director in an urban school district in Vermont, a state that embraces inclusion for students with disabilities, to accept the position of superintendent of schools in the same district. The new job requires overseeing the educational mission of six elementary schools, two middle schools, a…

  5. Films for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tringo, John L.

    Listed are approximately 500 films in the various areas of special education. The listing has been compiled from film company catalogs, social agency listings, and National Audiovisual Center listings. Information stated is that which was in the source materials (usually name, length, source, and brief description). Films are listed under the…

  6. LOGO and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michayluk, J. O.; Saklofske, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    The article examines the current status of the LOGO programming language and LOGO research within special education. Efficacy conclusions include LOGO's strengths: (1) as a socializing agent; (2) in maintaining the attention of hyperactive children; (3) in improving academic performance; and (4) in increasing self esteem. (Author/DB)

  7. Special Operation. Module 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  8. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  9. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  10. Special technical assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to perform various special analytical and experimental investigations to support the NRC in resolving regulatory research issues related to irradiation effects on materials. This task currently addresses two major areas: (1) providing technical expertise and assistance in the review of national codes and standards and (2) experimental evaluations of test specimens and practices and material properties.

  11. Magazines in Special Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This document is a directory of magazines in special media. It consists of two main parts: (1) an alphabetical listing of magazines produced by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS); and (2) an alphabetical listing of magazines available from other sources. Appended to the second part are addresses of sources…

  12. NASA's Getaway Special.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1978-01-01

    The "Getaway Special" is NASA's semiofficial program for low-budget researchers, who can arrange bookings for their own space experiments on regular flights of the space shuttle. Information about arranging for NASA to take individual experiment packages is presented. (LBH)

  13. Spotlight on Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Lasky, Beth

    2009-01-01

    With the everyday juggling act principals perform, they have a daunting challenge to keep up the latest research in education. At the same time, the literature documents an intensive need for increased professional development of principals in special education (Goar, Schwenn, & Boyer, 1997; Lasky & Karge, 2006; McLaughlin & Nolet, 2004). To…

  14. Online Learning. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Special section includes "World Wide Weeds" (Ann M. Bauer), about trainers as webmasters; "Get the Picture?" (Frank Jossi)--the role of digital video in computer-based training; and "The Reluctant Executive" (Anne K. Fredrickson), how to get administrators into the information age. (JOW)

  15. Special Interest Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  16. Mentoring Special Youth Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britner, Preston A.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Blechman, Elaine A.; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Larose, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Whereas mentoring programs are well received as support services, very little empirical research has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of these programs to meet the diverse needs of different special populations of youth. Potentially useful theoretical orientations (attachment, parental acceptance-rejection, social support, adult…

  17. Handbook of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Special education is now an established part of public education in the United States--by law and by custom. However, it is still widely misunderstood and continues to be dogged by controversies related to such things as categorization, grouping, assessment, placement, funding, instruction, and a variety of legal issues. The purpose of this…

  18. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  19. Special Issue: Resumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes "Writing Effective Resumes" (Kursmark); "Writing Cover Letters with Credibility" (Davis); "Career Portfolios" (Miller); "Writing a Top-Flight Vitae" (Orlando); "Converting a Curriculum Vitae to a Resume" (Katz, Morahan); "Special Reports" (Chapman); "Every Job Searcher Needs an e-Resume" (Dixson); "Military Value" (Burns); "Key Words"…

  20. Columbia Quincentenary. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foard, Douglas, Ed.; Regoli, Michael, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This special theme issue of the OAH Magazine of History contains articles that present a variety of perspectives on the Columbian Quincentenary--the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's voyages of discovery. The articles include: "Exploring the Columbian Quincentenary through Historiography" (John Hebert); "Science, Religion, and Columbus's…