Science.gov

Sample records for acquisition computer triggered

  1. D0 experiment: its trigger, data acquisition, and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Cutts, D.; Zeller, R.; Schamberger, D.; Van Berg, R.

    1984-05-01

    The new collider facility to be built at Fermilab's Tevatron-I D0 region is described. The data acquisition requirements are discussed, as well as the hardware and software triggers designed to meet these needs. An array of MicroVAX computers running VAXELN will filter in parallel (a complete event in each microcomputer) and transmit accepted events via Ethernet to a host. This system, together with its subsequent offline needs, is briefly presented.

  2. Triggering and data acquisition aspects of SSC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-04-01

    Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems which meet the requirements for radiation damage and rates in the SSC environment are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. Implications for data acquisition and triggering are examined. 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Event triggering in the IceCube data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J. L.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    In order to detect cosmic ray air showers and neutrinos, the software data acquisition (DAQ) system of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory forms triggers on patterns of Cherenkov light deposition in the detector based on temporal and/or spatial coincidences. Here we describe the algorithms used for triggering, as well as the fast merging algorithm used to combine the time-ordered hit streams from the optical modules. We also present recently implemented and planned modifications of the DAQ that take advantage of our newly upgraded multi-core computer systems at the South Pole.

  4. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  5. Mark-II Data Acquisition and Trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Breidenbach, M.

    1984-06-01

    The Mark-II Data Acquisition and Trigger system requirements and general solution are described. The solution takes advantage of the synchronous crossing times and low event rates of an electron positron collider to permit a very highly multiplexed analog scheme to be effective. The system depends on a two level trigger to operate with acceptable dead time. The trigger, multiplexing, data reduction, calibration, and CAMAC systems are described.

  6. Computational models of syntactic acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The computational approach to syntactic acquisition can be fruitfully pursued by integrating results and perspectives from computer science, linguistics, and developmental psychology. In this article, we first review some key results in computational learning theory and their implications for language acquisition. We then turn to examine specific learning models, some of which exploit distributional information in the input while others rely on a constrained space of hypotheses, yet both approaches share a common set of characteristics to overcome the learning problem. We conclude with a discussion of how computational models connects with the empirical study of child grammar, making the case for computationally tractable, psychologically plausible and developmentally realistic models of acquisition. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:205-213. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1154 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  8. Computed tomography coronary angiography with a consistent dose below 2 mSv using double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition in patients with atrial fibrillation: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Qin, Jing; He, Bai; Zhou, Yin; Yang, Jun-jie; Hou, Xiao-ling; Yang, Xiao-bo; Chen, Jiu-hong; Chen, Yun-dai

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and imaging quality of double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (double flash mode) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). 47 patients (11 women, 36 men; mean age 64.5 ± 12.1 years) were enrolled for CTCA examinations using a dual-source CT with 2 × 128 × 0.6 mm collimation, 0.28 s rotation time and a pitch of 3.4. Double flash mode was prospectively triggered first at 60 % and later at 30 % of the R-R interval within two cardiac cycles. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (1 = excellent, 4 = non-assessable). From 672 coronary artery segments, 77.5 % (521/672) was rated as score of 1, 20.8 % (140/672) as score of 2, 1.2 % (8/672) as score of 3 and 0.4 % (3/672) was rated as 'non-assessable'. The average image quality score was 1.25 ± 0.38 on a per segment basis. Mean dose-length product for CTCA was 92.6 ± 28.2 mGy cm, the effective dose was 1.30 ± 0.39 mSv (0.64-1.97 mSv). In patients with AF, double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode could be a feasible and valuable scan mode for CTCA with a consistent dose below 2 mSv as well as diagnostic imaging quality.

  9. Low-power triggered data acquisition system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champaigne, Kevin (Inventor); Sumners, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-power triggered data acquisition system and method utilizes low-powered circuitry, comparators, and digital logic incorporated into a miniaturized device interfaced with self-generating transducer sensor inputs to detect, identify and assess impact and damage to surfaces and structures wherein, upon the occurrence of a triggering event that produces a signal greater than a set threshold changes the comparator output and causes the system to acquire and store digital data representative of the incoming waveform on at least one triggered channel. The sensors may be disposed in an array to provide triangulation and location of the impact.

  10. Event triggered data acquisition in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory upgrades and revisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes updates and revisions to the data acquisition computer program DATAVG which has served as the basic data collection system for the Sandia National Laboratories Geomechanics Department, Rock Mechanics Laboratory since late 1992. DATAVG was first described in Event Triggered Data Acquisition in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory, [Hardy, 1993]. DATAVG has been modified to incorporate numerous user-requested enhancements and a few bug fixes. In this paper these changes to DATAVG are described.

  11. Schemas, Computation, and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jane C.; Arbib, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a general analysis of the problem of relating private, cognitive mechanisms of individuals to their public behavior. A computational model of language acquisition is offered. Conclusions are related to Piaget's notion of mutual verification and to some general philosophical questions about learning. (Author/RH)

  12. The LUX experiment - trigger and data acquisition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druszkiewicz, Eryk

    2013-04-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is a two-phase xenon time projection chamber designed to detect interactions of dark matter particles with the xenon nuclei. Signals from the detector PMTs are processed by custom-built analog electronics which provide properly shaped signals for the trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) systems. During calibrations, both systems must be able to handle high rates and have large dynamic ranges; during dark matter searches, maximum sensitivity requires low thresholds. The trigger system uses eight-channel 64-MHz digitizers (DDC-8) connected to a Trigger Builder (TB). The FPGA cores on the digitizers perform real-time pulse identification (discriminating between S1 and S2-like signals) and event localization. The TB uses hit patterns, hit maps, and maximum response detection to make trigger decisions, which are reached within few microseconds after the occurrence of an event of interest. The DAQ system is comprised of commercial digitizers with customized firmware. Its real-time baseline suppression allows for a maximum event acquisition rate in excess of 1.5 kHz, which results in virtually no deadtime. The performance of the trigger and DAQ systems during the commissioning runs of LUX will be discussed.

  13. Integration of the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; Bellomo, M.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    During 2006 and the first half of 2007, the installation, integration and commissioning of trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) equipment in the ATLAS experimental area have progressed. There have been a series of technical runs using the final components of the system already installed in the experimental area. Various tests have been run including ones where level 1 preselected simulated proton-proton events have been processed in a loop mode through the trigger and dataflow chains. The system included the readout buffers containing the events, event building, level 2 and event filter trigger algorithms. The scalability of the system with respect to the number of event building nodes used has been studied and quantities critical for the final system, such as trigger rates and event processing times, have been measured using different trigger algorithms as well as different TDAQ components. This paper presents the TDAQ architecture, the current status of the installation and commissioning and highlights the main test results that validate the system.

  14. Proceedings of the workshop on triggering and data acquisition for experiments at the Supercollider

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1989-04-01

    This meeting covered the following subjects: triggering requirements for SSC physics; CDF level 3 trigger; D0 trigger design; AMY trigger systems; Zeus calorimeter first level trigger; data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector; trigger and data acquisition aspects for SSC tracking; data acquisition systems for the SSC; validating triggers in CDF level 3; optical data transmission at SSC; time measurement system at SSC; SSC/BCD data acquisition system; microprocessors and other processors for triggering and filtering at the SSC; data acquisition, event building, and on-line processing; LAA real-time benchmarks; object-oriented system building at SSC; and software and project management. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  16. FPGA based compute nodes for high level triggering in PANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, W.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Lang, J.; Lange, S.; Liu, M.; Perez, T.; Yang, S.; Schmitt, L.; Jin, D.; Li, L.; Liu, Z.; Lu, Y.; Wang, Q.; Wei, S.; Xu, H.; Zhao, D.; Korcyl, K.; Otwinowski, J. T.; Salabura, P.; Konorov, I.; Mann, A.

    2008-07-01

    PANDA is a new universal detector for antiproton physics at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The PANDA data acquisition system has to handle interaction rates of the order of 107/s and data rates of several 100 Gb/s. FPGA based compute nodes with multi-Gb/s bandwidth capability using the ATCA architecture are designed to handle tasks such as event building, feature extraction and high level trigger processing. Data connectivity is provided via optical links as well as multiple Gb Ethernet ports. The boards will support trigger algorithms such us pattern recognition for RICH detectors, EM shower analysis, fast tracking algorithms and global event characterization. Besides VHDL, high level C-like hardware description languages will be considered to implement the firmware.

  17. The trigger and data acquisition for the NEMO-Phase 2 tower

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, C.; Biagi, S.; Fusco, L. A.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M.; Chiarusi, T.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the framework of the Phase 2 of the NEMO neutrino telescope project, a tower with 32 optical modules is being operated since march 2013. A new scalable Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) has been developed and extensively tested with the data from this tower. Adopting the all-data-to-shore concept, the NEMO TriDAS is optimized to deal with a continuous data-stream from off-shore to on-shore with a large bandwidth. The TriDAS consists of four computing layers: (i) data aggregation of isochronal hits from all optical modules; (ii) data filtering by means of concurrent trigger algorithms; (iii) composition of the filtered events into post-trigger files; (iv) persistent data storage. The TriDAS implementation is reported together with a review of dedicated on-line monitoring tools.

  18. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  19. Event triggered data acquisition in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    Increasing complexity of experiments coupled with limitations of the previously used computers required improvements in both hardware and software in the Rock Mechanics Laboratories. Increasing numbers of input channels and the need for better graphics could no longer be supplied by DATAVG, an existing software package for data acquisition and display written by D. J. Holcomb in 1983. After researching the market and trying several alternatives, no commercial program was found which met our needs. The previous version of DATAVG had the basic features needed but was tied to obsolete hardware. Memory limitations on the previously used PDP-11 made it impractical to upgrade the software further. With the advances in IBM compatible computers it is now desirable to use them as data recording platforms. With this information in mind, it was decided to write a new version of DATAVG which would take advantage of newer hardware. The new version had to support multiple graphic display windows and increased channel counts. It also had to be easier to use.

  20. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  1. Evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN relies on a complex and highly distributed Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system to gather and select particle collision data at unprecedented energy and rates. The TDAQ is composed of three levels which reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average event recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the operational performance of the DAQ system during 2011 and the first months of data taking in 2012. It describes how the flexibility inherent in the design of the system has be exploited to meet the changing needs of ATLAS data taking and in some cases push performance beyond the original design performance specification. The experience accumulated in the TDAQ system operation during these years stimulated also interest to explore possible evolutions, despite the success of the current design. One attractive direction is to merge three systems - the second trigger level (L2), the Event Builder (EB), and the Event Filter (EF) - within a single homogeneous one in which each processing node executes all the steps required by the trigger and data acquisition process. Appealing aspects of this design are: a simplification of the software architecture and of its configuration, a better exploitation of the computing resources, the caching of fragments already collected for L2 processing, the automated load balancing between L2 and EF selection steps, the sharing of code and services on HLT nodes. Furthermore, the full treatment of the HLT selection on a single node allows more flexible approaches, for example “incremental event building” in which trigger algorithms progressively enlarge the size of the analyzed region of interest, before requiring the building of the complete event. To spot possible limitations of the new approach and to demonstrate the benefits out-lined above, a prototype has been implemented. The preliminary

  2. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

  3. Respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography: A novel method to reduce imaging dose

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Benjamin J.; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J.; Balik, Salim; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: A novel method called respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is described whereby imaging dose can be reduced without degrading image quality. RT 4D CBCT utilizes a respiratory signal to trigger projections such that only a single projection is assigned to a given respiratory bin for each breathing cycle. In contrast, commercial 4D CBCT does not actively use the respiratory signal to minimize image dose. Methods: To compare RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT, 3600 CBCT projections of a thorax phantom were gathered and reconstructed to generate a ground truth CBCT dataset. Simulation pairs of conventional 4D CBCT acquisitions and RT 4D CBCT acquisitions were developed assuming a sinusoidal respiratory signal which governs the selection of projections from the pool of 3600 original projections. The RT 4D CBCT acquisition triggers a single projection when the respiratory signal enters a desired acquisition bin; the conventional acquisition does not use a respiratory trigger and projections are acquired at a constant frequency. Acquisition parameters studied were breathing period, acquisition time, and imager frequency. The performance of RT 4D CBCT using phase based and displacement based sorting was also studied. Image quality was quantified by calculating difference images of the test dataset from the ground truth dataset. Imaging dose was calculated by counting projections. Results: Using phase based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 47% less imaging dose on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT. Image quality differences were less than 4% at worst. Using displacement based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 57% less imaging dose on average, than conventional 4D CBCT methods; however, image quality was 26% worse with RT 4D CBCT. Conclusions: Simulation studies have shown that RT 4D CBCT reduces imaging dose while maintaining comparable image quality for phase based 4D CBCT; image quality is degraded for displacement based RT 4D

  4. Acquisition of Predictable Vertical Visual Targets: Eye-Head Coordination and the Triggering Effect.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Ognyan I; Reschke, Millard F

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate target acquisition in the vertical plane with emphasis on establishing strategy differences associated with acquisition triggering methods. Eight subjects were tested. Measurements consisted of target acquisition time, eye-head latency differences, velocity of gaze, eyes and head, and head amplitude. Using 3-way repeated measures analyses of variance the results show that the strategy for acquisition of predictable visual targets in vertical plane with the head unrestrained significantly depended on (a) the direction of the gaze motion with respect to the gravity vector (i.e., there is significant up-down asymmetry), (b) the angular distance of the target, and (c) the method of triggering the command to acquire the target-external versus internal. The data also show that when vertical acquisition is compared with triggering methods in the horizontal plane there is a difference in overall strategy for the acquisition of targets with the same spatial distances from straight ahead gaze when both the eyes and head are used. Among the factors contributing to the difference in strategy for vertical target acquisition are the gravitational vector, the relationship of target displacement and vestibular activitation, biomechanical and neural control asymmetries, and the difference in the vertical field of view.

  5. Input, Triggering and Poverty of the Stimulus in the Second Language Acquisition of Japanese Passives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    This article adopts an input perspective in examining a poverty-of-the stimulus (POS) learning situation in second language acquisition (SLA). Analysis of grammaticality judgement data from 81 English-speaking and 85 Chinese-speaking learners of Japanese isolates triggering input that informed English learners of subtle semantic properties of the…

  6. Whole Heart Coronary Imaging with Flexible Acquisition Window and Trigger Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166–220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  7. Whole heart coronary imaging with flexible acquisition window and trigger delay.

    PubMed

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166-220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  8. Clock and trigger synchronization between several chassis of digital data acquisition modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, W.; Tan, H.; Walby, M.; Grudberg, P.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Warburton, W. K.; Vaman, C.; Starosta, K.; Miller, D.

    2007-08-01

    In applications with segmented high purity Ge detectors or other detector arrays with tens or hundreds of channels, the high development cost and limited flexibility of application specific integrated circuits outweigh their benefits of low power and small size. The readout electronics typically consist of multi-channel data acquisition modules in a common chassis for power, clock and trigger distribution, and data readout. As arrays become larger and reach several hundred channels, the readout electronics have to be divided over several chassis, but still must maintain precise synchronization of clocks and trigger signals across all channels. This division becomes necessary not only because of limits given by the instrumentation standards on module size and chassis slot numbers, but also because data readout times increase when more modules share the same data bus and because power requirements approach the limits of readily available power supplies. In this paper, we present a method for distributing clocks and triggers between 4 PXI chassis containing DGF Pixie-16 modules with up to 226 acquisition channels per chassis. The data acquisition system is intended to instrument the over 600 channels of the SeGA detector array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Our solution is designed to achieve synchronous acquisition of detector waveforms from all channels with a jitter of less than 1 ns, and can be extended to a larger number of chassis if desired.

  9. Design of a trigger and data acquisition system for a detector at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Briggs, D.; Haller, G.; Hoeflich, J.; Innes, W.

    1993-11-01

    This paper proposes a design of a trigger and data acquisition system for a detector at the PEP-II B Factory. The system is asynchronous, data-driven, and scalable. Design goals include orthogonal tracking and calorimetric triggers, minimal dead time, graceful degradation, high efficiency, and useful performance in the face of backgrounds so high as to overwhelm reconstruction. Also described are instrumentation of the Drift Chamber, based on 8-bit FADCs, and of the Calorimeter, based on a new custom integrated circuit, the Charge Amplifier with Range Encoding (CARE), and 10-bit ADCs. This design employs commercial embedded CPUs in VME and VXI crates.

  10. The evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment, aimed at recording the results of LHC proton-proton collisions, is upgrading its Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system during the current LHC first long shutdown. The purpose of the upgrade is to add robustness and flexibility to the selection and the conveyance of the physics data, simplify the maintenance of the infrastructure, exploit new technologies and, overall, make ATLAS data-taking capable of dealing with increasing event rates. The TDAQ system used to date is organised in a three-level selection scheme, including a hardware-based first-level trigger and second- and third-level triggers implemented as separate software systems distributed on separate, commodity hardware nodes. While this architecture was successfully operated well beyond the original design goals, the accumulated experience stimulated interest to explore possible evolutions. We will also be upgrading the hardware of the TDAQ system by introducing new elements to it. For the high-level trigger, the current plan is to deploy a single homogeneous system, which merges the execution of the second and third trigger levels, still separated, on a unique hardware node. Prototyping efforts already demonstrated many benefits to the simplified design. In this paper we report on the design and the development status of this new system.

  11. Implementation of local area network extension for instrumentation standard trigger capabilities in advanced data acquisition platforms.

    PubMed

    López, J M; Ruiz, M; Barrera, E; de Arcas, G; Vega, J

    2008-10-01

    Synchronization mechanisms are an essential part of the real-time distributed data acquisition systems (DASs) used in fusion experiments. Traditionally, they have been based on the use of digital signals. The approach known as local area network extension for instrumentation (LXI) provides a set of very powerful synchronization and trigger mechanisms. The Intelligent Test Measurement System (ITMS) is a new platform designed to implement distributed data acquisition and fast data processing for fusion experiments. It is based on COMPATPCI technology and its extension to instrumentation (PXI). Hardware and software elements have been developed to include LXI trigger and synchronization mechanisms in this platform in order to obtain a class A LXI instrument. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, involving the following components: commercial hardware running a Linux operating system; a real-time extension to an operating system and network (RTAI and RTNET), which implements a software precision time protocol (PTP) using IEEE1588; an ad hoc PXI module to support hardware implementation of PTP-IEEE 1588; and the multipoint, low-voltage differential signaling hardware LXI trigger bus.

  12. Readiness of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system for the first LHC beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandelli, W.; Atlas Tdaq Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is based on O(2k) processing nodes, interconnected by a multi-layer Gigabit network, and consists of a combination of custom electronics and commercial products. In its final configuration, O(20k) applications will provide the needed capabilities in terms of event selection, data flow, local storage and data monitoring. In preparation for the first LHC beams, many TDAQ sub-systems already reached the final configuration and roughly one third of the final processing power has been deployed. Therefore, the current system allows for a sensible evaluation of the performance and scaling properties. In this paper we introduce the ATLAS TDAQ system requirements and architecture and we discuss the status of software and hardware component. We moreover present the results of performance measurements validating the system design and providing a figure for the ATLAS data acquisition capabilities in the initial data taking period.

  13. Computer Skills Acquisition: A Review and Future Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    A review of past research on training employees for computer-mediated work leads to the development of theory and propositions concerning the relationship between different variables, such as: (1) individual factors; (2) task and person-computer interface; (3) characteristics of training design for the acquisition of computer skills; and (4) the…

  14. 48 CFR 227.7203-2 - Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-2 Section 227.7203-2 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-2 Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation....

  15. 48 CFR 227.7203-2 - Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-2 Section 227.7203-2 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-2 Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. (a...

  16. 48 CFR 227.7203-2 - Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-2 Section 227.7203-2 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-2 Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. (a...

  17. 48 CFR 227.7203-2 - Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-2 Section 227.7203-2 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-2 Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. (a...

  18. 48 CFR 227.7203-2 - Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-2 Section 227.7203-2 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-2 Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. (a...

  19. Computational Modeling for Language Acquisition: A Tutorial With Syntactic Islands.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Lisa S; Sprouse, Jon

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing prominence of computational modeling in the acquisition research community, we present a tutorial on how to use computational modeling to investigate learning strategies that underlie the acquisition process. This is useful for understanding both typical and atypical linguistic development. We provide a general overview of why modeling can be a particularly informative tool and some general considerations when creating a computational acquisition model. We then review a concrete example of a computational acquisition model for complex structural knowledge referred to as syntactic islands. This includes an overview of syntactic islands knowledge, a precise definition of the acquisition task being modeled, the modeling results, and how to meaningfully interpret those results in a way that is relevant for questions about knowledge representation and the learning process. Computational modeling is a powerful tool that can be used to understand linguistic development. The general approach presented here can be used to investigate any acquisition task and any learning strategy, provided both are precisely defined.

  20. Use of Analogy in Computer Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Heidi L.; Nutter, Jane Terry

    1985-01-01

    Subjects in a study of analogic reasoning use in learning a computer language read text describing an invented LISP dialect and then solved problems and described language constructs. Five of six factors studied indicating use of analogy with a familiar computer language showed statistically significant results, supporting the hypothesis.…

  1. Data-Acquisition Board For IBM PS/2 Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Phuong-Dung T.

    1990-01-01

    Circuit board containing microprocessors designed to control acquisition of data by IBM PS/2 computer. Plugged into one of 16-bit slots on mother board of computer. Controls transfer of data from as many as 48 discrete channels to Micro Channel Interface. With expansion of software, board recognizes and filters specified kinds of signal patterns, possibly to detect errors.

  2. Computational study of two possible intraplate earthquake triggering mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kohsmann, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The efficacy of two potential mechanisms for either triggering or causing seismicity is examined in this computational study. The conclusions reached are specifically applied to the seismicity of the new Madrid seismic zone, where they are found to have no demonstrable effect. The effect of water-loading in the Mississippi River is examined first. The modeling of river load by a finite length of rectangular load approximations results in a non-unique determination of the stress distribution which is dependent on the load geometry far outside of the region of interest. A statistical study of the relation between seismicity, river stage, and their tendency functions for 1976 in the northern Mississippi Embayment is also presented. As a prelude to the investigation of thermal stresses related to cylindrical plutonic intrusions, a detailed computational study of the thermal effects of such intrusions is also presented. The computational study of the thermal stresses associated with cylindrical plutonic intrusions is done using plots of the radial-dependence of the principal stresses associated with a given intrusion geometry at particular times after the initiation of intrusion and using focal mechanism plots based on the principal stress distribution. The results of these studies are discussed with relation to the seismicity and tectonic environment of the northern Mississippi Embayment.

  3. Computer Acquisition: The Carnegie-Mellon Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCredie, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the strategy used at Carnegie-Mellon University for providing adequate services for the increasing demands of campus computing. This strategy combines the flexibility of leasing with the economy of outright purchase by acquiring smaller systems at frequent intervals and distributing processing. (CMV)

  4. Computer-based data acquisition system in the Large Coil Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, S.S.; Layman, L.R.; Million, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of computers for data acquisition and control is of paramount importance on large-scale fusion experiments because they feature the ability to acquire data from a large number of sensors at various sample rates and provide for flexible data interpretation, presentation, reduction, and analysis. In the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/60 host computer with the DEC RSX-11M operating system coordinates the activities of five DEC LSI-11/23 front-end processors (FEPs) via direct memory access (DMA) communication links. This provides host control of scheduled data acquisition and FEP event-triggered data collection tasks. Four of the five FEPs have no operating system.

  5. Improving Target Acquisition for Computer Users With Athetosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dan; Rodriguez, Sergio Peral; Cooper, Rory A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has highlighted the challenges faced by people with athetosis when trying to acquire on-screen targets using a mouse or trackball. The difficulty of positioning the mouse cursor within a confined area has been identified as a challenging task. We have developed a target acquisition assistance algorithm that features transition assistance via directional gain variation based on target prediction, settling assistance via gain reduction in the vicinity of a predicted target, and expansion of the predicted target as the cursor approaches it. We evaluated the algorithm on improving target acquisition efficiency among seven participants with athetoid cerebral palsy. Our results showed that the algorithm significantly reduced the overall movement time by about 20%. Considering the target acquisition occurs countless times in the course of regular computer use, the accumulative effect of such improvements can be significant for improving the efficiency of computer interaction among people with athetosis. PMID:26132226

  6. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  7. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  8. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  9. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  10. Acquisition of gamma camera and physiological data by computer.

    PubMed

    Hack, S N; Chang, M; Line, B R; Cooper, J A; Robeson, G H

    1986-11-01

    We have designed, implemented, and tested a new Research Data Acquisition System (RDAS) that permits a general purpose digital computer to acquire signals from both gamma camera sources and physiological signal sources concurrently. This system overcomes the limited multi-source, high speed data acquisition capabilities found in most clinically oriented nuclear medicine computers. The RDAS can simultaneously input signals from up to four gamma camera sources with a throughput of 200 kHz per source and from up to eight physiological signal sources with an aggregate throughput of 50 kHz. Rigorous testing has found the RDAS to exhibit acceptable linearity and timing characteristics. In addition, flood images obtained by this system were compared with flood images acquired by a commercial nuclear medicine computer system. National Electrical Manufacturers Association performance standards of the flood images were found to be comparable.

  11. Computer Systems Acquisition Metrics Handbook. Volume II. Quality Factor Modules.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD- A120 376 SYSTEMS ARCH4ITECTS INC RtANDOLPH MASS F/ O 9/2CCOM4PUTER SYSTEMS ACQUISITION METRICS MAN09M@. VOLUME It. QUALI -ETC iuMAT 82 FIft2 8-C...components of the "COMPUTER SYSTEMS ACQUISITION METRICS HANDBOOK". le Cj co-i " z/%a 4 • \\ // INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR CORRECTNESS MODULE...rr LE ~M M 1inT DRS4I- UALTG i MSIGNUT M0 JI PJM.DGIWn MaN TU IE ESD PIRMJCrS, FOR TEST AND INTEGRATION PHASE Apply the Preliminary Design Worksheets

  12. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT-Italia is an INFN project supported with Italian PON fundings for building the core of the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The detector, made of 700 10'' Optical Modules (OMs) lodged along 8 vertical structures called towers, will be deployed starting from fall 2015 at the KM3NeT-Italy site, about 80 km off Capo Passero, Italy, 3500 m deep. The all data to shore approach is used to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector, demanding for an on-line trigger integrated in the data acquisition system running in the shore station, called TriDAS. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the underwater detector can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the design and performances of the TriDAS and of the related network infrastructure. In this contribution the technology behind the implementation of the TriDAS infrastructure is reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the various components and their performances. The modular design of the TriDAS, which allows for its scalability up to a larger detector than the 8-tower configuration is also discussed.

  13. Prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition for cardiac CT angiography in routine clinical practice: initial results.

    PubMed

    Kröpil, Patric; Rojas, Carlos A; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Lanzman, Rotem S; Miese, Falk R; Scherer, Axel; Kalra, Mannudeep; Abbara, Suhny

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the mode of application, image quality (IQ), and radiation exposure resulting from introduction of a prospectively electrocardiogram-triggered high-pitch cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) acquisition mode into routine clinical practice. A total of 42 prospectively triggered cardiac CTAs were conducted on 34 patients (11 female, 23 male; mean age 56 ± 15 y) using a high-pitch mode (pitch 3.4) on a dual-source CT. In 8 of these patients with higher heart rates or occasional premature ventricular contractions, 2 immediately subsequent CTAs were performed ("double flash protocol"). Subjective IQ was assessed for coronary arteries using a 4-point scale (1=unevaluable to 4=excellent). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured in 9 locations. CT Dose Index and dose-length product were obtained, and the patients' effective dose was calculated. Mean effective doses were 2.6 ± 1.4 mSv (range: 1.1 to 6.4) for the entire cardiac examination and 1.4 ± 0.7 mSv (0.4 to 3.1) for individual high-pitch cardiac CTA. z-coverage ranged from 9.9 cm in a native coronary CTA to 31.4 cm in a bypass graft case. The overall subjective IQ was good to excellent (mean score: 3.5), with 1.5% unevaluable coronary segments. The "double flash protocol" resulted in a fully diagnostic CT study in all cases just after taking both scans into consideration. The mean CNR of all locations was 19.7 ± 2.6. Prospectively electrocardiograph-triggered high-pitch-mode cardiac CTA is a feasible and promising technique in clinical routine, allowing for evaluation of coronaries at good-to-excellent IQ and providing high CNR and minimal radiation doses. The "double flash protocol" might become a more robust tool in patients with elevated heart rates or premature ventricular contractions.

  14. An empirical generative framework for computational modeling of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Heidi R; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of generative grammars from raw CHILDES data and give an account of the generative performance of the acquired grammars. Next, we summarize findings from recent longitudinal and experimental work that suggests how certain statistically prominent structural properties of child-directed speech may facilitate language acquisition. We then present a series of new analyses of CHILDES data indicating that the desired properties are indeed present in realistic child-directed speech corpora. Finally, we suggest how our computational results, behavioral findings, and corpus-based insights can be integrated into a next-generation model aimed at meeting the four requirements of our modeling framework.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: FPGA-based, specialized trigger and data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2010-06-01

    High-energy physics (HEP) experiments with particle colliders enable us to study the structure of matter, its properties and interactions. The work in this field stimulates the development of measurement methods and new technological solutions. An increase in the metrological accuracy (in terms of space, time or signal recognition), as well as in the speed of data processing and registration, is observed. The growing functional requirements in triggering and data acquisition lead to a widespread application of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with hardware description language (HDL) programming. The review discusses multi-channel, distributed, synchronous measurement systems for triggering and data acquisition used in HEP experiments. These systems are now mainly based on FPGA solutions. The conditions, requirements and confinements of FPGAs in HEP measurement systems are presented.

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - Acquisition of EPEAT-Registered Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Registered Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-16 Acquisition of EPEAT-Registered Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(d)(1), insert the following clause: Acquisition of Epeat®-Registered Personal Computer...

  17. Data-flow coupling and data-acquisition triggers for the PreSPEC-AGATA campaign at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralet, D.; Pietri, S.; Aubert, Y.; Bellato, M.; Bortolato, D.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Dosme, N.; Gadea, A.; Gerl, J.; Golubev, P.; Grave, X.; Johansson, H. T.; Karkour, N.; Korichi, A.; Kurz, N.; Lafay, X.; Legay, E.; Linget, D.; Pietralla, N.; Rudolph, D.; Schaffner, H.; Stezowski, O.; Travers, B.; Wieland, O.

    2015-06-01

    The PreSPEC setup for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy using radioactive ion beams was employed for experimental campaigns in 2012 and 2014. The setup consisted of the state of the art Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) and the High Energy γ deteCTOR (HECTOR+) positioned around a secondary target at the final focal plane of the GSI FRagment Separator (FRS) to perform in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of exotic nuclei. The Lund York Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) was used to identify the reaction products. In this paper we report on the trigger scheme used during the campaigns. The data-flow coupling between the Multi-Branch System (MBS) based Data AcQuisition (DAQ) used for FRS-LYCCA and the "Nouvelle Acquisition temps Réel Version 1.2 Avec Linux" (NARVAL) based acquisition system used for AGATA are also described.

  18. Graphics Processing Unit-Accelerated Code for Computing Second-Order Wiener Kernels and Spike-Triggered Covariance.

    PubMed

    Mano, Omer; Clark, Damon A

    2017-01-01

    Sensory neuroscience seeks to understand and predict how sensory neurons respond to stimuli. Nonlinear components of neural responses are frequently characterized by the second-order Wiener kernel and the closely-related spike-triggered covariance (STC). Recent advances in data acquisition have made it increasingly common and computationally intensive to compute second-order Wiener kernels/STC matrices. In order to speed up this sort of analysis, we developed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated module that computes the second-order Wiener kernel of a system's response to a stimulus. The generated kernel can be easily transformed for use in standard STC analyses. Our code speeds up such analyses by factors of over 100 relative to current methods that utilize central processing units (CPUs). It works on any modern GPU and may be integrated into many data analysis workflows. This module accelerates data analysis so that more time can be spent exploring parameter space and interpreting data.

  19. A personal computer-based, multitasking data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A multitasking, data acquisition system was written to simultaneously collect meteorological radar and telemetry data from two sources. This system is based on the personal computer architecture. Data is collected via two asynchronous serial ports and is deposited to disk. The system is written in both the C programming language and assembler. It consists of three parts: a multitasking kernel for data collection, a shell with pull down windows as user interface, and a graphics processor for editing data and creating coded messages. An explanation of both system principles and program structure is presented.

  20. On Triggering Data in L2 Acquisition: A Reply to Schwartz and Gubala-Ryzak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    1992-01-01

    Responds to a reanalysis of study findings that refute the claim that negative evidence can lead to parameter setting in second-language acquisition, presenting empirical evidence from French learners of English, suggesting that positive second-language acquisition data do not guarantee the loss of native language parameter settings. (26…

  1. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) of the KM3NeT experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, C.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Starting from 2015, the new generation underwater high energy neutrino telescope, KM3NeT, is being installed in the Mediterranean Sea. During Phase 1, 32 Detection Units (8 tower-like and 24 string-like) will be deployed in the Ionian Sea, about 100km offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily, and 7 string-like DUs will be deployed in the MEUST site, offshore Toulon in France. During Phase 2, several hundreds of DUs will be added to the Phase 1 detector, reaching an effective detection volume of some cubic kilometres. In this contribution the Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) of the string-based detector is described. The TriDAS is designed to scale with the detector size, allowing the read-out and the on-line trigger of data from both Phase 1 and Phase 2, whose continuous throughputs are expected to be about 10Gbps and more than 250Gbps, respectively.

  2. Computer simulation of low-frequency electromagnetic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    SanFilipo, W.A.; Hohmann, G.W.

    1982-02-01

    Computer simulation of low frequency electromagnetic (LFEM) digital data acquisition in the presence of natural field noise demonstrates several important limitations and considerations. Without the use of a remote reference noise removal scheme it is difficult to obtain an adequate ratio of signal to noise below 0.1 Hz for frequency domain processing and below 0.3 Hz base frequency for time domain processing for a typical source-receiver configuration. A digital high-pass filter substantially facilitates rejection of natural field noise above these frequencies but, at lower frequencies where much longer stacking times are required, it becomes ineffective. Use of a remote reference to subtract natural field noise extends these low-frequency limits a decade, but this technique is limited by the resolution and dynamic range of the instrumentation. Gathering data in short segments so that natural field drift can be offset for each segment allows a higher gain setting to minimize dynamic range problems.

  3. Performance of the NOνA Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems for the full 14 kT Far Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A.; Davies, G. S.; Ding, P. F.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyan, H.; Frank, M. J.; R. C. Group; Habig, A.; Henderson, W.; Niner, E.; Mina, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Oksuzian, Y.; Rebel, B.; Shanahan, P.; Sheshukov, A.; Tamsett, M.; Tomsen, K.; Vinton, L.; Wang, Z.; Zamorano, B.; Zirnstien, J.

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment uses a continuous, free-running, dead-timeless data acquisition system to collect data from the 14 kT far detector. The DAQ system readouts the more than 344,000 detector channels and assembles the information into an raw unfiltered high bandwidth data stream. The NOvA trigger systems operate in parallel to the readout and asynchronously to the primary DAQ readout/event building chain. The data driven triggering systems for NOvA are unique in that they examine long contiguous time windows of the high resolution readout data and enable the detector to be sensitive to a wide range of physics interactions from those with fast, nanosecond scale signals up to processes with long delayed coincidences between hits which occur at the tens of milliseconds time scale. The trigger system is able to achieve a true 100% live time for the detector, making it sensitive to both beam spill related and off-spill physics.

  4. Advances in the computational study of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brent, M R

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a tutorial introduction to computational studies of how children learn their native languages. Its aim is to make recent advances accessible to the broader research community, and to place them in the context of current theoretical issues. The first section locates computational studies and behavioral studies within a common theoretical framework. The next two sections review two papers that appear in this volume: one on learning the meanings of words and one or learning the sounds of words. The following section highlights an idea which emerges independently in these two papers and which I have dubbed autonomous bootstrapping. Classical bootstrapping hypotheses propose that children begin to get a toc-hold in a particular linguistic domain, such as syntax, by exploiting information from another domain, such as semantics. Autonomous bootstrapping complements the cross-domain acquisition strategies of classical bootstrapping with strategies that apply within a single domain. Autonomous bootstrapping strategies work by representing partial and/or uncertain linguistic knowledge and using it to analyze the input. The next two sections review two more more contributions to this special issue: one on learning word meanings via selectional preferences and one on algorithms for setting grammatical parameters. The final section suggests directions for future research.

  5. Effects of Rifle Handling, Target Acquisition, and Trigger Control on Simulated Shooting Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-06

    Torre, Maxey, and Piper , 1987; Department of the Army, 1989), a more complex analysis of small shifts in gun movement, aim path, and trigger pressure...in novice shooters’ performance support this interpretation (Torre, Maxey, and Piper , 1987; Chung et al., 2005). Less-skilled shooters also...and Training Conference. Sydney, New South Wales. Torre, J. P., Maxey, J. L., and Piper , A. S. 1987. Live fire and simulator marksmanship

  6. The Data-Logging System of the Trigger and Data Acquisition for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Andreas; Beck, Hans Peter; Dobson, Marc; Gadomski, Szymon; Kordas, Kostas; Vandelli, Wainer

    2008-10-01

    The ATLAS experiment is getting ready to observe collisions between protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. These will be the highest energy collisions in a controlled environment to-date, to be provided by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN by mid 2008. The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system selects events online in a three level trigger system in order to keep those events promising to unveil new physics at a budgeted rate of 200 Hz for an event size of 1.5 MB. This paper focuses on the data-logging system on the TDAQ side, the so-called ldquoSub-Farm Outputrdquo (SFO) system. It takes data from the third level trigger, and it streams and indexes the events into different files, according to each event's trigger path. The data files are moved to CASTOR, the central mass storage facility at CERN. The final TDAQ data-logging system has been installed using 6 Linux PCs, holding in total 144 disks of 500 GB each, managed by three RAID controllers on each PC. The data-writing is managed in a controlled round-robin way among three independent filesystems associated to a distinct set of disks, managed by a distinct RAID controller. This novel design allows fast I/O, which together with a high speed network permits to minimize the number of SFO nodes. We report here on the functionality and performance requirements on the system, our experience with commissioning it and on the performance achieved.

  7. Computer acquisition of 3D images utilizing dynamic speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Semenov, Dmitry V.; Nippolainen, Ervin; Raita, Erik

    2006-05-01

    We present novel technique for fast non-contact and continuous profile measurements of rough surfaces by use of dynamic speckles. The dynamic speckle pattern is generated when the laser beam scans the surface under study. The most impressive feature of the proposed technique is its ability to work at extremely high scanning speed of hundreds meters per second. The technique is based on the continuous frequency measurements of the light-power modulation after spatial filtering of the scattered light. The complete optical-electronic system was designed and fabricated for fast measurement of the speckles velocity, its recalculation into the distance, and further data acquisition into computer. The measured surface profile is displayed in a PC monitor in real time. The response time of the measuring system is below 1 μs. Important parameters of the system such as accuracy, range of measurements, and spatial resolution are analyzed. Limits of the spatial filtering technique used for continuous tracking of the speckle-pattern velocity are shown. Possible ways of further improvement of the measurements accuracy are demonstrated. Owing to its extremely fast operation, the proposed technique could be applied for online control of the 3D-shape of complex objects (e.g., electronic circuits) during their assembling.

  8. NNSA?s Computing Strategy, Acquisition Plan, and Basis for Computing Time Allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkel, D J

    2009-07-21

    This report is in response to the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (H.R. 1105; Public Law 111-8) in its funding of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. This bill called for a report on ASC's plans for computing and platform acquisition strategy in support of stockpile stewardship. Computer simulation is essential to the stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile. Annual certification of the country's stockpile systems, Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs), and execution of Life Extension Programs (LEPs) are dependent on simulations employing the advanced ASC tools developed over the past decade plus; indeed, without these tools, certification would not be possible without a return to nuclear testing. ASC is an integrated program involving investments in computer hardware (platforms and computing centers), software environments, integrated design codes and physical models for these codes, and validation methodologies. The significant progress ASC has made in the past derives from its focus on mission and from its strategy of balancing support across the key investment areas necessary for success. All these investment areas must be sustained for ASC to adequately support current stockpile stewardship mission needs and to meet ever more difficult challenges as the weapons continue to age or undergo refurbishment. The appropriations bill called for this report to address three specific issues, which are responded to briefly here but are expanded upon in the subsequent document: (1) Identify how computing capability at each of the labs will specifically contribute to stockpile stewardship goals, and on what basis computing time will be allocated to achieve the goal of a balanced program among the labs. (2) Explain the NNSA's acquisition strategy for capacity and capability of machines at each of the labs and how it will fit within the existing budget constraints. (3) Identify the technical

  9. Quantification of Artifact Reduction With Real-Time Cine Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Acquisition Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Ulrich W.; Keall, Paul J.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the magnitude and frequency of artifacts in simulated four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images using three real-time acquisition methods- direction-dependent displacement acquisition, simultaneous displacement and phase acquisition, and simultaneous displacement and velocity acquisition- and to compare these methods with commonly used retrospective phase sorting. Methods and Materials: Image acquisition for the four 4D CT methods was simulated with different displacement and velocity tolerances for spheres with radii of 0.5 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2.5 cm, using 58 patient-measured tumors and respiratory motion traces. The magnitude and frequency of artifacts, CT doses, and acquisition times were computed for each method. Results: The mean artifact magnitude was 50% smaller for the three real-time methods than for retrospective phase sorting. The dose was {approx}50% lower, but the acquisition time was 20% to 100% longer for the real-time methods than for retrospective phase sorting. Conclusions: Real-time acquisition methods can reduce the frequency and magnitude of artifacts in 4D CT images, as well as the imaging dose, but they increase the image acquisition time. The results suggest that direction-dependent displacement acquisition is the preferred real-time 4D CT acquisition method, because on average, the lowest dose is delivered to the patient and the acquisition time is the shortest for the resulting number and magnitude of artifacts.

  10. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the 8 tower subsystem of the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzali, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Favaro, M.; Giacomini, F.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a large Cherenkov neutrino telescope that will collect photons emitted along the path of the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions in the vicinity of the detector. The philosophy of the DAQ system of the detector foresees that all data are sent to shore after a proper sampling of the photomultiplier signals. No off-shore hardware trigger is implemented and a software selection of the data is performed with an on-line Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) to reduce the large throughput due to the environmental light background. A first version of the TriDAS has been developed to operate a prototype detection unit deployed in March 2013 in the abyssal site of Capo Passero (Sicily, Italy), about 3500 m deep. A revised and improved version has been developed to meet the requirements of the final detector, using new tools and modern design solutions. First installation and scalability tests have been performed at the Bologna Common Infrastructure and results comparable to what expected have been observed.

  11. Age of Acquisition: Its Neural and Computational Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo E.; Li, Ping

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of new skills over a life span is a remarkable human ability. This ability, however, is constrained by age of acquisition (AoA); that is, the age at which learning occurs significantly affects the outcome. This is most clearly reflected in domains such as language, music, and athletics. This article provides a perspective on the…

  12. The application of a computer data acquisition system to a new high temperature tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonham, Charles D.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    The two data acquisition computer programs are described which were developed for a high temperature friction and wear test apparatus, a tribometer. The raw data produced by the tribometer and the methods used to sample that data are explained. In addition, the instrumentation and computer hardware and software are presented. Also shown is how computer data acquisition was applied to increase convenience and productivity on a high temperature tribometer.

  13. The application of a computer data acquisition system to a new high temperature tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonham, Charles D.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    The two data acquisition computer programs are described which were developed for a high temperature friction and wear test apparatus, a tribometer. The raw data produced by the tribometer and the methods used to sample that data are explained. In addition, the instrumentation and computer hardware and software are presented. Also shown is how computer data acquisition was applied to increase convenience and productivity on a high temperature tribometer.

  14. The application of a computer data acquisition system for a new high temperature tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonham, Charles D.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    The two data acquisition computer programs are described which were developed for a high temperature friction and wear test apparatus, a tribometer. The raw data produced by the tribometer and the methods used to sample that data are explained. In addition, the instrumentation and computer hardware and software are presented. Also shown is how computer data acquisition was applied to increase convenience and productivity on a high temperature tribometer.

  15. Graphics Processing Unit-Accelerated Code for Computing Second-Order Wiener Kernels and Spike-Triggered Covariance

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Sensory neuroscience seeks to understand and predict how sensory neurons respond to stimuli. Nonlinear components of neural responses are frequently characterized by the second-order Wiener kernel and the closely-related spike-triggered covariance (STC). Recent advances in data acquisition have made it increasingly common and computationally intensive to compute second-order Wiener kernels/STC matrices. In order to speed up this sort of analysis, we developed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated module that computes the second-order Wiener kernel of a system’s response to a stimulus. The generated kernel can be easily transformed for use in standard STC analyses. Our code speeds up such analyses by factors of over 100 relative to current methods that utilize central processing units (CPUs). It works on any modern GPU and may be integrated into many data analysis workflows. This module accelerates data analysis so that more time can be spent exploring parameter space and interpreting data. PMID:28068420

  16. Data Management Standards in Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on data management standards in computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS) are presented. CALS is intended to reduce cost, increase quality, and improve timeliness of weapon system acquisition and support by greatly improving the flow of technical information. The phase 2 standards, industrial environment, are discussed. The information resource dictionary system (IRDS) is described.

  17. 77 FR 44064 - Federal Acquisition Regulation: Clarification of Standards for Computer Generation of Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation: Clarification of Standards for Computer Generation of Forms AGENCIES... valid standard to use for computer-generated forms. FAR 53.105 is being amended; it will continue allowing agencies and the public to generate standard and optional forms on their computers. II. Discussion...

  18. 76 FR 79609 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Clarification of Standards for Computer Generation of Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Clarification of Standards for Computer Generation of Forms AGENCY... clarifying the use of American National Standards Institute X12, as the valid standard to use for computer... standard and optional forms on their computers. In addition to clarifying that FIPS 161 is no longer in use...

  19. Information and psychomotor skills knowledge acquisition: A student-customer-centered and computer-supported approach.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anita; Tobin, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will discuss coupling commercial and customized computer-supported teaching aids to provide BSN nursing students with a friendly customer-centered self-study approach to psychomotor skill acquisition.

  20. Computer system design description for the spare pump mini-dacs data acquisition and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.F. Jr.

    1994-09-29

    The attached document outlines the computer software design for the mini data acquisition and control system (DACS), that supports the testing of the spare pump for Tank 241-SY-101, at the maintenance and storage facility (MASF).

  1. Computer Based Data Acquisition in the Undergraduate Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wepfer, William J.; Oehmke, Roger L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a data acquisition system developed for an undergraduate engineering students' instructional laboratory at Georgia Tech. Special emphasis is placed on the design of an A/D Converter Board used to measure the viscosity and temperature of motor oil. The Simons' BASIC Program Listing for the Commodore 64 microcomputer is appended. (LRW)

  2. Micro-Computer Video Games and Spatial Visualization Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Bennie R.; Knirk, Frederick G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact and effects of many hours of interaction with computerized video games on the acquisition and development of spatial visualization skills and their relationship to mathematical and scientific aptitude. Sex differences in spatial ability and learning of spatial visualization skills are discussed, and references are listed. (EAO)

  3. Computer Based Data Acquisition in the Undergraduate Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wepfer, William J.; Oehmke, Roger L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a data acquisition system developed for an undergraduate engineering students' instructional laboratory at Georgia Tech. Special emphasis is placed on the design of an A/D Converter Board used to measure the viscosity and temperature of motor oil. The Simons' BASIC Program Listing for the Commodore 64 microcomputer is appended. (LRW)

  4. Computer-Aided Process and Tools for Mobile Software Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    file?based runtime verification. A case study of formally specifying, validating, and verifying a set of requirements for an iPhone application that...Center for Strategic and International Studies The Making of a DoD Acquisition Lead System Integrator (LSI) Paul Montgomery, Ron Carlson, and John...code against the execution trace of the mobile apps using log file–based runtime verification. A case study of formally specifying, validating, and

  5. Scientific Misconduct and Social Media: Role of Twitter in the Stimulus Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency Cells Scandal

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Yuya; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Shoko; Murakami, Masayasu; Tsuya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Background The academic scandal on a study on stimulus‑triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells in Japan in 2014 involved suspicions of scientific misconduct by the lead author of the study after the paper had been reviewed on a peer‑review website. This study investigated the discussions on STAP cells on Twitter and content of newspaper articles in an attempt to assess the role of social compared with traditional media in scientific peer review. Objective This study examined Twitter utilization in scientific peer review on STAP cells misconduct. Methods Searches for tweets and newspaper articles containing the term “STAP cells” were carried out through Twitter’s search engine and Nikkei Telecom database, respectively. The search period was from January 1 to July 1, 2014. The nouns appearing in the “top tweets” and newspaper articles were extracted through a morphological analysis, and their frequency of appearance and changes over time were investigated. Results The total numbers of top tweets and newspaper articles containing the term were 134,958 and 1646, respectively. Negative words concerning STAP cells began to appear on Twitter by February 9-15, 2014, or 3 weeks after Obokata presented a paper on STAP cells. The number of negative words in newspaper articles gradually increased beginning in the week of March 12-18, 2014. A total of 1000 tweets were randomly selected, and they were found to contain STAP-related opinions (43.3%, 433/1000), links to news sites and other sources (41.4%, 414/1000), false scientific or medical claims (8.9%, 89/1000), and topics unrelated to STAP (6.4%, 64/1000). Conclusions The discussion on scientific misconduct during the STAP cells scandal took place at an earlier stage on Twitter than in newspapers, a traditional medium. PMID:28246071

  6. Scientific Misconduct and Social Media: Role of Twitter in the Stimulus Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency Cells Scandal.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yuya; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Shoko; Murakami, Masayasu; Tsuya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kami, Masahiro; Narimatsu, Hiroto

    2017-02-28

    The academic scandal on a study on stimulus‑triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells in Japan in 2014 involved suspicions of scientific misconduct by the lead author of the study after the paper had been reviewed on a peer‑review website. This study investigated the discussions on STAP cells on Twitter and content of newspaper articles in an attempt to assess the role of social compared with traditional media in scientific peer review. This study examined Twitter utilization in scientific peer review on STAP cells misconduct. Searches for tweets and newspaper articles containing the term "STAP cells" were carried out through Twitter's search engine and Nikkei Telecom database, respectively. The search period was from January 1 to July 1, 2014. The nouns appearing in the "top tweets" and newspaper articles were extracted through a morphological analysis, and their frequency of appearance and changes over time were investigated. The total numbers of top tweets and newspaper articles containing the term were 134,958 and 1646, respectively. Negative words concerning STAP cells began to appear on Twitter by February 9-15, 2014, or 3 weeks after Obokata presented a paper on STAP cells. The number of negative words in newspaper articles gradually increased beginning in the week of March 12-18, 2014. A total of 1000 tweets were randomly selected, and they were found to contain STAP-related opinions (43.3%, 433/1000), links to news sites and other sources (41.4%, 414/1000), false scientific or medical claims (8.9%, 89/1000), and topics unrelated to STAP (6.4%, 64/1000). The discussion on scientific misconduct during the STAP cells scandal took place at an earlier stage on Twitter than in newspapers, a traditional medium.

  7. Adult Learning in a Computer-Based ESL Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karen Renee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…

  8. Adult Learning in a Computer-Based ESL Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karen Renee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…

  9. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs for current second language learning. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs' report (2002), more than nine million…

  10. Combining high performance simulation, data acquisition, and graphics display computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Issues involved in the continuing development of an advanced simulation complex are discussed. This approach provides the capability to perform the majority of tests on advanced systems, non-destructively. The controlled test environments can be replicated to examine the response of the systems under test to alternative treatments of the system control design, or test the function and qualification of specific hardware. Field tests verify that the elements simulated in the laboratories are sufficient. The digital computer is hosted by a Digital Equipment Corp. MicroVAX computer with an Aptec Computer Systems Model 24 I/O computer performing the communication function. An Applied Dynamics International AD100 performs the high speed simulation computing and an Evans and Sutherland PS350 performs on-line graphics display. A Scientific Computer Systems SCS40 acts as a high performance FORTRAN program processor to support the complex, by generating numerous large files from programs coded in FORTRAN that are required for the real time processing. Four programming languages are involved in the process, FORTRAN, ADSIM, ADRIO, and STAPLE. FORTRAN is employed on the MicroVAX host to initialize and terminate the simulation runs on the system. The generation of the data files on the SCS40 also is performed with FORTRAN programs. ADSIM and ADIRO are used to program the processing elements of the AD100 and its IOCP processor. STAPLE is used to program the Aptec DIP and DIA processors.

  11. Distributed acquisition system using the VME KAV30 single board computer in a VAXELN environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antone, I.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pavesi, B.; Sanzani, G.; Marini, A.; Ronga, F.; Surdo, A.; Mancarella, G.

    1994-02-01

    An acquisition system based on a network (Ethernet/DECNET) of KAV30 VAX processors is described. KAC30 is a VME single board computer based around rt-Vax 300 and running in VAXELN, a Digital Equipment software product for the development of dedicated, real time systems for VAX processors. A central VAX running under the VAX/VMS operating system is used as file server and as an interface of the acquisition system with respect to the user's world.

  12. Computer-assisted knowledge acquisition for hypermedia systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steuck, Kurt

    1990-01-01

    The usage of procedural and declarative knowledge to set up the structure or 'web' of a hypermedia environment is described. An automated knowledge acquisition tool was developed that helps a knowledge engineer elicit and represent an expert's knowledge involved in performing procedural tasks. The tool represents both procedural and prerequisite, declarative knowledge that supports each activity performed by the expert. This knowledge is output and subsequently read by a hypertext scripting language to generate the link between blank, but labeled cards. Each step of the expert's activity and each piece of supporting declarative knowledge is set up as an empty node. An instructional developer can then enter detailed instructional material concerning each step and declarative knowledge into these empty nodes. Other research is also described that facilitates the translation of knowledge from one form into a form more readily useable by computerized systems.

  13. Computer-Mediated Negotiated Interaction and Lexical Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a paired-groups experimental study, which tests the Interaction Hypothesis in a computer-mediated communicative environment. Pairs of intermediate-level nonnative speakers of English (n = 24) interacted with one another in a synchronous mode over a local area network while attempting to jointly complete jigsaw and…

  14. A Computational Model of Early Argument Structure Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alishahi, Afra; Stevenson, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    How children go about learning the general regularities that govern language, as well as keeping track of the exceptions to them, remains one of the challenging open questions in the cognitive science of language. Computational modeling is an important methodology in research aimed at addressing this issue. We must determine appropriate learning…

  15. Computer-Based Imaginary Sciences and Research on Concept Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brockenbrough S.

    To control for interactions in learning research due to subjects' prior knowledge of the instructional material presented, an imaginary curriculum was presented with a computer assisted technique based on Carl Berieter's imaginary science of Xenograde systems. The curriculum consisted of a classification system for ten conceptual classes of…

  16. Collaboration and Computer-Assisted Acquisition of a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renie, Delphine; Chanier, Thierry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how collaborative learning (CL) can be used in a computer-assisted learning (CAL) environment for language learning, reviewing research in the fields of applied linguistics, educational psychology, and artificial intelligence. An application of CL and CAL in the learning of French as a Second Language, focusing on interrogative…

  17. Experimental validation of A-mode ultrasound acquisition system for computer assisted orthopaedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; De Momi, Elena; Beretta, Elisa; Cerveri, Pietro; Perona, Franco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2009-02-01

    Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) systems improve the results and the standardization of surgical interventions. Anatomical landmarks and bone surface detection is straightforward to either register the surgical space with the pre-operative imaging space and to compute biomechanical parameters for prosthesis alignment. Surface points acquisition increases the intervention invasiveness and can be influenced by the soft tissue layer interposition (7-15mm localization errors). This study is aimed at evaluating the accuracy of a custom-made A-mode ultrasound (US) system for non invasive detection of anatomical landmarks and surfaces. A-mode solutions eliminate the necessity of US images segmentation, offers real-time signal processing and requires less invasive equipment. The system consists in a single transducer US probe optically tracked, a pulser/receiver and an FPGA-based board, which is responsible for logic control command generation and for real-time signal processing and three custom-made board (signal acquisition, blanking and synchronization). We propose a new calibration method of the US system. The experimental validation was then performed measuring the length of known-shape polymethylmethacrylate boxes filled with pure water and acquiring bone surface points on a bovine bone phantom covered with soft-tissue mimicking materials. Measurement errors were computed through MR and CT images acquisitions of the phantom. Points acquisition on bone surface with the US system demonstrated lower errors (1.2mm) than standard pointer acquisition (4.2mm).

  18. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of Energy Star... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in 1523.7003, insert the following clause: Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers,...

  19. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Acquisition of Energy Star... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in 1523.7003, insert the following clause: Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers,...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of Energy Star... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in 1523.7003, insert the following clause: Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers,...

  1. Dynamics of HTLV-1 leukemogenesis: data acquisition for computer modeling.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Gerhard R F; Brandt, Michael E; Wang, Guanyu; Buja, L Maximilian

    2002-01-01

    A literature search for HTLV-1-induced adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) at the National Library of Medicine resulted in 1003 publications which were evaluated with regard to HTLV-1 virus load, apoptosis and peripheral blood leukocyte changes during the latent period and leukemia development following virus infection. The data are presented in a comparable way to previous publications of infections with HHV-6 and HIV (which target the same CD4+ cell for infection) to be used for computer validation studies. After initial infection, HTLV-1 remains clinically latent for many years at low provirus copy numbers in CD4 cells. Once immune surveillance deteriorates and viral replication progresses, provirus copy numbers increase rapidly. Unlike other virus infections, apoptotic death of virus-infected "atypical" lymphocytes decreases with increasing viral load, thus favoring continued proliferation of these cells and further virus replication at the same time. Changes in the peripheral blood are characterized by coincident rises in oligoclonal lymphocyte populations including HTLV-1-positive CD4+ T-lymphocytes and their precursors with a progressive shift to immature cells as disease progresses. The pathogenesis of HTLV-1-induced adult T-cell leukemia is an example of dysregulative leukemogenesis ideal for validation of respective computer simulation models.

  2. Implement an adjustable delay time digital trigger for an NI data acquisition card in a high-speed demodulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Fan, Lingling; Wang, Pengfei; Park, Seong-Wook

    2012-06-01

    A National Instruments (NI) DAQ card PCI 5105 is installed in a high-speed demodulation system based on Fiber Fabry-Pérot Tunable Filter. The instability of the spectra of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors caused by intrinsic drifts of FFP-TF needs an appropriate, flexible trigger. However, the driver of the DAQ card in the current development environment does not provide the functions of analog trigger but digital trigger type. Moreover, the high level of the trigger signal from the tuning voltage of FFP-TF is larger than the maximum input overload voltage of PCI 5105 card. To resolve this incompatibility, a novel converter to change an analog trigger signal into a digital trigger signal has been reported previously. However, the obvious delay time between input and output signals limits the function of demodulation system. Accordingly, we report an improved low-cost, small-size converter with an adjustable delay time. This new scheme can decline the delay time to or close to zero when the frequency of trigger signal is less than 3,000 Hz. This method might be employed to resolve similar problems or to be applied in semiconductor integrated circuits.

  3. Computation and Communication Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism for Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Goncalo; Moondra, Arul; Dubey, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    2016-01-01

    In modern networked control applications, confidentiality and integrity are important features to address in order to prevent against attacks. Moreover, network control systems are a fundamental part of the communication components of current cyber-physical systems (e.g., automotive communications). Many networked control systems employ Time-Triggered (TT) architectures that provide mechanisms enabling the exchange of precise and synchronous messages. TT systems have computation and communication constraints, and with the aim to enable secure communications in the network, it is important to evaluate the computational and communication overhead of implementing secure communication mechanisms. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the effects of adding a Hash-based Message Authentication (HMAC) to TT networked control systems. The contributions of the paper include (1) the analysis and experimental validation of the communication overhead, as well as a scalability analysis that utilizes the experimental result for both wired and wireless platforms and (2) an experimental evaluation of the computational overhead of HMAC based on a kernel-level Linux implementation. An automotive application is used as an example, and the results show that it is feasible to implement a secure communication mechanism without interfering with the existing automotive controller execution times. The methods and results of the paper can be used for evaluating the performance impact of security mechanisms and, thus, for the design of secure wired and wireless TT networked control systems. PMID:27463718

  4. Computation and Communication Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism for Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Goncalo; Moondra, Arul; Dubey, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D

    2016-07-25

    In modern networked control applications, confidentiality and integrity are important features to address in order to prevent against attacks. Moreover, network control systems are a fundamental part of the communication components of current cyber-physical systems (e.g., automotive communications). Many networked control systems employ Time-Triggered (TT) architectures that provide mechanisms enabling the exchange of precise and synchronous messages. TT systems have computation and communication constraints, and with the aim to enable secure communications in the network, it is important to evaluate the computational and communication overhead of implementing secure communication mechanisms. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the effects of adding a Hash-based Message Authentication (HMAC) to TT networked control systems. The contributions of the paper include (1) the analysis and experimental validation of the communication overhead, as well as a scalability analysis that utilizes the experimental result for both wired and wireless platforms and (2) an experimental evaluation of the computational overhead of HMAC based on a kernel-level Linux implementation. An automotive application is used as an example, and the results show that it is feasible to implement a secure communication mechanism without interfering with the existing automotive controller execution times. The methods and results of the paper can be used for evaluating the performance impact of security mechanisms and, thus, for the design of secure wired and wireless TT networked control systems.

  5. [Computers in biomedical research II: experimental control, data acquisition and storage].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, P; Vivaldi, E

    2001-09-01

    During the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the use of computers in biomedical research. In particular, the use of these instruments in experimental control, as well as in the acquisition and storage of experimental data, has become universal. The current capacity of these machines enables the precise manipulation of many experimental variables and allows for very fast acquisition of data. In this article, we discuss the fundamentals of small personal computers and its use in experimental control and data acquisition. Further, we discuss technical aspects related to the management of measurement instrument's control and their technical limitations. Electrical recordings from the cerebral cortex are used as examples to illustrate the different aspect included in this article.

  6. Behavioral and computational aspects of language and its acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, Shimon; Waterfall, Heidi

    2007-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the cognitive sciences is to explain what it means to know a language, and how the knowledge of language is acquired. The dominant approach to this challenge within linguistics has been to seek an efficient characterization of the wealth of documented structural properties of language in terms of a compact generative grammar-ideally, the minimal necessary set of innate, universal, exception-less, highly abstract rules that jointly generate all and only the observed phenomena and are common to all human languages. We review developmental, behavioral, and computational evidence that seems to favor an alternative view of language, according to which linguistic structures are generated by a large, open set of constructions of varying degrees of abstraction and complexity, which embody both form and meaning and are acquired through socially situated experience in a given language community, by probabilistic learning algorithms that resemble those at work in other cognitive modalities.

  7. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  8. [The data acquisition and handling system controlled by computer for static charge along meridians in human].

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Gu, X; Xu, G

    1997-01-01

    The change of static charge along meridian in human is relation to disease. A computer controlled data acquisition used for acpoint static charge detection is presented in this paper. This system supplied a practical method for researching the relation between disease and static charge along meridians in human.

  9. Centralized Book Acquisition for New York State: Proposed Computer System. Part II: System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein (Theodore) Co., New York, NY.

    The logic of the system presented in this report is divided into five parts for computer processing and manipulation. They are: (1) incorporating publication information and Library of Congress catalog copy into the system, (2) processing of authority files and assignment of supplier, (3) preparing data for cataloging and acquisitions, (4)…

  10. Authenticity and Authorship in the Computer-Mediated Acquisition of L2 Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Examines two tenets of communicative language teaching--authenticity of the input and authorship of the language user--in an electronic environment. Reviews research in textually-mediated second language acquisition and analyzes two cases of computer-mediated language learning: the construction of a multimedia CD-ROM by American college learners…

  11. Computer-Based Acquisitions Procedures at Tarrant County Junior College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, John, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The computer-based procedures described in this report form the basis of book acquisitions performed by the Automation and Technical Services Division in serving the Learning Resources Centers of the multi-campus Tarrant County Junior College District. The procedures, which are off-line in a batch mode, have been operational since 1968. Since 1970…

  12. The Computer Book of the Internal Medicine Resident: competence acquisition and achievement of learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Oristrell, J; Oliva, J C; Casanovas, A; Comet, R; Jordana, R; Navarro, M

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Book of the Internal Medicine resident (CBIMR) is a computer program that was validated to analyze the acquisition of competences in teams of Internal Medicine residents. To analyze the characteristics of the rotations during the Internal Medicine residency and to identify the variables associated with the acquisition of clinical and communication skills, the achievement of learning objectives and resident satisfaction. All residents of our service (n=20) participated in the study during a period of 40 months. The CBIMR consisted of 22 self-assessment questionnaires specific for each rotation, with items on services (clinical workload, disease protocolization, resident responsibilities, learning environment, service organization and teamwork) and items on educational outcomes (acquisition of clinical and communication skills, achievement of learning objectives, overall satisfaction). Associations between services features and learning outcomes were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. An intense clinical workload, high resident responsibilities and disease protocolization were associated with the acquisition of clinical skills. High clinical competence and teamwork were both associated with better communication skills. Finally, an adequate learning environment was associated with increased clinical competence, the achievement of educational goals and resident satisfaction. Potentially modifiable variables related with the operation of clinical services had a significant impact on the acquisition of clinical and communication skills, the achievement of educational goals, and resident satisfaction during the specialized training in Internal Medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. The Upgrade Path from Legacy VME to VXS Dual Star Connectivity for Large Scale Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas, C; Barbosa, F J; Dong, H; Gu, W; Jastrzembski, E; Kaneta, S R; Moffitt, B; Nganga, N; Raydo, B J; Somov, A; Taylor, W M; Wilson, J

    2011-10-01

    New instrumentation modules have been designed by Jefferson Lab and to take advantage of the higher performance and elegant backplane connectivity of the VITA 41 VXS standard. These new modules are required to meet the 200KHz trigger rates envisioned for the 12GeV experimental program. Upgrading legacy VME designs to the high speed gigabit serial extensions that VXS offers, comes with significant challenges, including electronic engineering design, plus firmware and software development issues. This paper will detail our system design approach including the critical system requirement stages, and explain the pipeline design techniques and selection criteria for the FPGA that require embedded Gigabit serial transceivers. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250MHz clock with synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals distributed to each front end readout crate via the second switch slot in the 21 slot, dual star VXS backplane. The readout of the buffered detector signals relies on 2eSST over the standard VME64x path at >200MB/s. We have achieved 20Gb/s transfer rate of trigger information within one VXS crate and will present results using production modules in a two crate test configuration with both VXS crates fully populated. The VXS trigger modules that reside in the front end crates, will be ready for production orders by the end of the 2011 fiscal year. VXS Global trigger modules are in the design stage now, and will be complete to meet the installation schedule for the 12GeV Physics program.

  14. Noise cancellation signal processing method and computer system for improved real-time electrocardiogram artifact correction during MRI data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Odille, Freddy; Pasquier, Cédric; Abächerli, Roger; Vuissoz, Pierre-André; Zientara, Gary P; Felblinger, Jacques

    2007-04-01

    A system was developed for real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis and artifact correction during magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, to improve patient monitoring and triggering of MR data acquisitions. Based on the assumption that artifact production by magnetic field gradient switching represents a linear time invariant process, a noise cancellation (NC) method is applied to ECG artifact linear prediction. This linear prediction is performed using a digital finite impulse response (FIR) matrix, that is computed employing ECG and gradient waveforms recorded during a training scan. The FIR filters are used during further scanning to predict artifacts by convolution of the gradient waveforms. Subtracting the artifacts from the raw ECG signal produces the correction with minimal delay. Validation of the system was performed both off-line, using prerecorded signals, and under actual examination conditions. The method is implemented using a specially designed Signal Analyzer and Event Controller (SAEC) computer and electronics. Real-time operation was demonstrated at 1 kHz with a delay of only 1 ms introduced by the processing. The system opens the possibility of automatic monitoring algorithms for electrophysiological signals in the MR environment.

  15. High Speed Data Acquisition System for Three-Dimensional X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.W.; Claytor, T.N.; Sheats, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Computed tomography for nondestructive evaluation applications has been limited by system cost, resolution, and time requirements for three-dimensional data sets. FlashCT (Flat panel Amorphous Silicon High-Resolution Computed Tomography) is a system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to address these three problems. Developed around a flat panel amorphous silicon detector array, FlashCT is suitable for low to medium energy x-ray and neutron computed tomography at 127-micron resolution. Overall system size is small, allowing rapid transportation to a variety of radiographic sources. System control software was developed in LabVIEW for Windows NT to allow multithreading of data acquisition, data correction, and staging motor control. The system control software simplifies data collection and allows fully automated control of the data acquisition process, leading toward remote or unattended operation. The first generation of the FlashCT Data Acquisition System was completed in Au gust 1998, and since that time the system has been tested using x-ray sources ranging in energy from 60 kV to 20MV. The system has also been used to collect data for thermal neutron computed tomography at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). System improvements have been proposed to provide faster data collection and greater dynamic range during data collection.

  16. Design and Construction of Detector and Data Acquisition Elements for Proton Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fermi Research Alliance; Northern Illinois University

    2015-07-15

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) offers an alternative to x-ray imaging with potential for three-dimensional imaging, reduced radiation exposure, and in-situ imaging. Northern Illinois University (NIU) is developing a second-generation proton computed tomography system with a goal of demonstrating the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging within clinically realistic imaging times. The second-generation pCT system is comprised of a tracking system, a calorimeter, data acquisition, a computing farm, and software algorithms. The proton beam encounters the upstream tracking detectors, the patient or phantom, the downstream tracking detectors, and a calorimeter. The schematic layout of the PCT system is shown. The data acquisition sends the proton scattering information to an offline computing farm. Major innovations of the second generation pCT project involve an increased data acquisition rate ( MHz range) and development of three-dimensional imaging algorithms. The Fermilab Particle Physics Division and Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development at Northern Illinois University worked together to design and construct the tracking detectors, calorimeter, readout electronics and detector mounting system.

  17. High-speed data acquisition for three-dimensional x-ray and neutron computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony W.; Claytor, Thomas N.; Sheats, Matthew J.

    1999-09-01

    Computed tomography for nondestructive evaluation applications has been limited by system cost, resolution, and time requirements for three-dimensional data sets. FlashCT (Flat panel Amorphous Silicon High-Resolution Computed Tomography) is a system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to address these three problems. Developed around a flat panel amorphous silicon detector array, FlashCT is suitable for low to medium energy x-ray and neutron computed tomography at 127- micron resolution. Overall system size is small, allowing rapid transportation to a variety of radiographic sources. System control software was developed in LabVIEW for Windows NT to allow multithreading of data acquisition, data correction, and staging motor control. The system control software simplifies data collection and allows fully automated control of the data acquisition process, leading toward remote or unattended operation. The first generation of the FlashCT Data Acquisition System was completed in August 1998, and since that time the system has been tested using x-ray sources ranging in energy from 60 kV to 20MV. The system has also been used to collect data for thermal neutron computed tomography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). System improvements have been proposed to provide faster data collection and greater dynamic range during data collection.

  18. High-quality image acquisition by double exposure overlap in dental cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Plachtovics, Mark; Bujtar, Peter; Nagy, Katalin; Mommaerts, Maurice

    2014-06-01

    With a double exposure overlapping cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan technique, using CBCT acquisition radiation dose, the objective was to obtain apparent density similar to that of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Factory quality-assurance phantom and water phantom were used for the evaluation of apparent density fidelity of iCAT scans in different modes. Each scan's apparent density was analyzed for identical regions using ImageJ, version 1.42q. The iCAT Classic extended height acquisition with 4-cm central overlap and reconstruction of 2 groups of 300 projections per rotation for the water and quality-assurance CBCT phantoms resulted in improved apparent density fidelity. This apparent density accuracy was superior to that of iCAT scan at high resolution (600 projections during 1 rotation). Using double exposure overlapping CBCT scans allows the analysis quality to be comparable with that of MDCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acquisition of a High Performance Computing Instrument for Big Data Research and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-03

    for big data research and education at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&T). This instrument will promote innovation and...translational big data research at NCA&T. It will make NCA&T (a land grant HBCU) a strong player in big data research and education. The research...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of a High Performance Computing Instrument for Big Data Research and Education The

  20. A new approach in utilizing a computer data acquisition system for criticality safety control

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H; Song, H; Warren, F

    1999-05-06

    A new approach in utilizing a computer data acquisition system is proposed to address many issues associated with criticality safety control. This Criticality Safety Support System (CSSS) utilizes many features of computer and information process technology such as digital pictures, barcodes, voice data entry, etc. to enhance criticality safety in an R and D environment. Due to on-line data retrieving, data recording, and data management offered by new technology, the CSSS would provide a framework to design new solutions to old problems. This pilot program is the first step in developing this application for the years to come.

  1. Hardware Acquisition for the Enhancement of a Fault Tolerance/Distributed Computing Laboratory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    8217.).-..-e:j N/A N/A 4. TITLE (rn Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Hardware Acquisition for the Enhancement of aFMa 1 92 a 4 9 Fault Tolerance...Identify by block number) -. Fault tolerance, multiprocessor, distributed data processing, software support, testbed, computer-aided design. R0 A*TRACT r(c...m - evwao lf i ceeawuy and Identify by block number) A VAX 11/780 computer was obtained to provide a software development envi- ronment for the Fault

  2. The digital data acquisition chain and the cosmic ray trigger system for the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuti, A.; Piemontese, L.; Calcaterra, A.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Burrows, P.N.; Cartwright, S.L.; Gonzales, S.; Lath, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Castro, A.; Galvagni, S.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Wyss, J.; Alpat, B.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Dell'Orso, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Servoli, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Castaldi, R.; Cazzola, U.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Messn

    1989-08-01

    The entire data-acquisition chain, from the custom-made front-end electronics to the Fastbus readout and data-reduction module, for the digital readout of the SLD limited streamer tube Warm Iron Calorimeter and Muon Identifier is described. Also described is a Fastbus Cosmic Logic Unit being developed to achieve the capability of reading cosmic ray events, also during the inter-crossing time, for apparatus monitoring and calibration purposes. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Detector array control and triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Bartolucci, M. |

    1998-08-01

    A commercial DSP-based board installed in a host-PC was employed for the fast, on-line and real-time computation of special algorithms, in order to perform event selection and operate as a 2nd level trigger. Moreover an ad hoc build interface, realized using PLDs with a view to connecting the DSP-board to the ADCs and to the data acquisition system, has been tested in order to evaluate the performances of these programmable devices used as a look-up-table and as a decisional part of a 1st level trigger.

  4. Management and organisational barriers in the acquisition of computer usage skills by mature age workers.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Mark

    2009-09-01

    To investigate workplace cultures in the acquisition of computer usage skills by mature age workers. Data were gathered through focus groups conducted at job network centres in the Greater Brisbane metropolitan region. Participants who took part were a mixture of workers and job-seekers. The results suggest that mature age workers can be exposed to inappropriate computer training practices and age-insensitive attitudes towards those with low base computer skills. There is a need for managers to be observant of ageist attitudes in the work place and to develop age-sensitive strategies to help mature age workers learn computer usage skills. Mature age workers also need to develop skills in ways which are practical and meaningful to their work.

  5. Reduction of X-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes during coronary CT angiography using high-pitch spiral data acquisition with prospective ECG-triggering.

    PubMed

    Kuefner, Michael A; Hinkmann, Fabian M; Alibek, Sedat; Azoulay, Sascha; Anders, Katharina; Kalender, Willi A; Achenbach, Stephan; Grudzenski, Saskia; Löbrich, Markus; Uder, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-pitch spiral data acquisition with prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggering on the x-ray induced DNA damages to blood lymphocytes with commonly used low-pitch spiral scans. Thirty four patients underwent coronary computed tomography angiography either using high-pitch spiral data acquisition (n = 15; dual-source computed tomography (CT) scanner, 38.4 mm collimation, 100-120 kV, 320-456 mAs/rotation, pitch value 3.2-3.4) or using a low-pitch protocol (n = 19; dual-source CT scanner, 19.2 mm collimation, 120 kV, 330-438 mAs/rotation, pitch 0.2-0.39, ECG-based tube current modulation). Blood samples were obtained before and 30 minutes after CT. Lymphocytes were isolated, stained against the phosphorylated histone variant gammaH2AX, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were visualized using fluorescence microscopy. Radiation dose to the blood was estimated by relating in vivo DSB levels to values of in vitro irradiated blood samples (50 mGy). Dose length product was registered as provided by the patient protocol. Total dose length product ranged from 101 to 237 (median 112) mGy cm in high-pitch and from 524 to 1283 (median 1025) mGy cm in low-pitch scans (P < 0.0001). The median CT induced DSB level 30 minutes after exposure was significantly lower after high-pitch (0.04 DSBs/cell, range 0.02-0.10 DSBs/cell) compared with low-pitch scans (0.39 DSBs/cell, 0.22-0.71 DSBs/cell, P < 0.0001). Both DSB levels and radiation dose to the blood showed a significant correlation to the dose length product (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). The radiation dose to the blood was significantly reduced in the high-pitch (median 3.1, range 2.0-8.1 mGy) compared with the low-pitch group (median 26.9; range 14.2-44.9 mGy, P < 0.0001). Prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral data acquisition can considerably reduce the radiation dose to the blood in coronary CT angiography as compared with low pitch protocols.

  6. Computer Skill Acquisition and Retention: The Effects of Computer-Aided Self-Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Tai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    This research presents an experimental study to determine to what extent computer skill learners can benefit from generating self-explanation with the aid of different computer-based visualization technologies. Self-explanation was stimulated with dynamic visualization (Screencast), static visualization (Screenshot), or verbal instructions only,…

  7. Exploitation of realistic computational anthropomorphic phantoms for the optimization of nuclear imaging acquisition and processing protocols.

    PubMed

    Loudos, George K; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis G; Kagadis, George C

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations play a crucial role in nuclear medical imaging since they can provide the ground truth for clinical acquisitions, by integrating and quantifing all physical parameters that affect image quality. The last decade a number of realistic computational anthropomorphic models have been developed to serve imaging, as well as other biomedical engineering applications. The combination of MC techniques with realistic computational phantoms can provide a powerful tool for pre and post processing in imaging, data analysis and dosimetry. This work aims to create a global database for simulated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) exams and the methodology, as well as the first elements are presented. Simulations are performed using the well validated GATE opensource toolkit, standard anthropomorphic phantoms and activity distribution of various radiopharmaceuticals, derived from literature. The resulting images, projections and sinograms of each study are provided in the database and can be further exploited to evaluate processing and reconstruction algorithms. Patient studies using different characteristics are included in the database and different computational phantoms were tested for the same acquisitions. These include the XCAT, Zubal and the Virtual Family, which some of which are used for the first time in nuclear imaging. The created database will be freely available and our current work is towards its extension by simulating additional clinical pathologies.

  8. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, G.; Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Graverini, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  9. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Deri, L.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Sozzi, M.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Gap Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ("trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  10. Audit of desktop computer acquisitions at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-25

    Federal and Department of Energy (Department) acquisition regulations, policies and procedures, as well as the terms of the current contract between the Idaho Operations Office (Idaho) and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (Lockheed) require them to pay the lowest possible prices for desktop computers needed to support the overall mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Laboratory). The purpose of this audit was to determine Idaho`s and Lockheed`s success in achieving this price goal. Idaho and Lockheed have implemented numerous efficiency standards that are expected to reduce computer service and maintenance costs as well as increase employee productivity by approximately $3.6 million per year. However, the audit showed that Lockheed did not always pay the lowest possible prices for desktop computers because its standard desktop computer configuration was excessive. Additionally, some desktop computers that Lockheed acquired exceeded its established standard and were not fully justified in accordance with established policies and procedures. Further, Lockheed purchased desktop computers from a local vendor rather than a less costly alternative source and did not pursue the possibly more economical option of leasing computers.

  11. Computer control and data acquisition system for the R. F. Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.A.; Burris, R.D.; Mankin, J.B.; Thompson, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Test Facility (RFTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, used to test and evaluate high-power ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components, is monitored and controlled by a multicomponent computer system. This data acquisition and control system consists of three major hardware elements: (1) an Allen-Bradley PLC-3 programmable controller; (2) a VAX 11/780 computer; and (3) a CAMAC serial highway interface. Operating in LOCAL as well as REMOTE mode, the programmable logic controller (PLC) performs all the control functions of the test facility. The VAX computer acts as the operator's interface to the test facility by providing color mimic panel displays and allowing input via a trackball device. The VAX also provides archiving of trend data acquired by the PLC. Communications between the PLC and the VAX are via the CAMAC serial highway. Details of the hardware, software, and the operation of the system are presented in this paper.

  12. Acquisition of Dynamic Stress/Strain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mines, R. G.; Demonet, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Computer program enables real-time data acquisition and plotting of stress strain by small, desk top computer. Program monitors load cell and multiple-strain gages during tension or compression loading. Scan routine triggered by specified change of applied load or longitudinal strain.

  13. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  14. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-08-24

    This document provides descriptions of components and tasks that are involved in the computer system for the data acquisition and control of the mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company. The computers (both personal computers and specialized data-taking computers) and the software programs of the system will hereafter collectively be referred to as the DACS (Data Acquisition and Control System).

  15. Acquisition of electroencephalographic data in a large regional hospital - Bringing the brain waves to the computer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, M. D.; Baker, M.; Ferguson, R.; Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a complete electroencephalographic acquisition and transmission system, designed to meet the needs of a large hospital with multiple critical care patient monitoring units. The system provides rapid and prolonged access to a centralized recording and computing area from remote locations within the hospital complex, and from locations in other hospitals and other cities. The system includes quick-on electrode caps, amplifier units and cable transmission for access from within the hospital, and EEG digitization and telephone transmission for access from other hospitals or cities.

  16. Acquisition of electroencephalographic data in a large regional hospital - Bringing the brain waves to the computer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, M. D.; Baker, M.; Ferguson, R.; Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a complete electroencephalographic acquisition and transmission system, designed to meet the needs of a large hospital with multiple critical care patient monitoring units. The system provides rapid and prolonged access to a centralized recording and computing area from remote locations within the hospital complex, and from locations in other hospitals and other cities. The system includes quick-on electrode caps, amplifier units and cable transmission for access from within the hospital, and EEG digitization and telephone transmission for access from other hospitals or cities.

  17. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT).

    PubMed

    Javor, D; Wressnegger, A; Unterhumer, S; Kollndorfer, K; Nolz, R; Beitzke, D; Loewe, C

    2017-04-01

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. • A single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction. • Endoleak development is the most common complication after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). • CT angiography is the imaging modality of choice for aortic aneurysm evaluation.

  18. The economics of data acquisition computers for ST and MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some low cost options for data acquisition computers for ST (stratosphere, troposphere) and MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere) are presented. The particular equipment discussed reflects choices made by the University of Alaska group but of course many other options exist. The low cost microprocessor and array processor approach presented here has several advantages because of its modularity. An inexpensive system may be configured for a minimum performance ST radar, whereas a multiprocessor and/or a multiarray processor system may be used for a higher performance MST radar. This modularity is important for a network of radars because the initial cost is minimized while future upgrades will still be possible at minimal expense. This modularity also aids in lowering the cost of software development because system expansions should rquire little software changes. The functions of the radar computer will be to obtain Doppler spectra in near real time with some minor analysis such as vector wind determination.

  19. A computer-controlled, on-board data acquisition system for wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, H. J.; Cambra, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled data acquisition system has been developed for the 40x80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. The system, consisting of several small onboard units installed in the model and a data-managing, data-displaying ground station, is capable of sampling up to 256 channels of raw data at a total sample rate of 128,000 samples/sec. Complete signal conditioning is contained within the on-board units. The sampling sequence and channel gain selection is completely random and under total control of the ground station. Outputs include a bar-graph display, digital-to-analog converters, and digital interface to the tunnel's central computer, an SEL 840MP. The system can be run stand-alone or under the control of the SEL 840MP.

  20. A computer-controlled, on-board data acquisition system for wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, H. J.; Cambra, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled data acquisition system has been developed for the 40x80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. The system, consisting of several small onboard units installed in the model and a data-managing, data-displaying ground station, is capable of sampling up to 256 channels of raw data at a total sample rate of 128,000 samples/sec. Complete signal conditioning is contained within the on-board units. The sampling sequence and channel gain selection is completely random and under total control of the ground station. Outputs include a bar-graph display, digital-to-analog converters, and digital interface to the tunnel's central computer, an SEL 840MP. The system can be run stand-alone or under the control of the SEL 840MP.

  1. Machine Learning and Computer Vision System for Phenotype Data Acquisition and Analysis in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro J.; Pérez, Fernando; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Phenomics is a technology-driven approach with promising future to obtain unbiased data of biological systems. Image acquisition is relatively simple. However data handling and analysis are not as developed compared to the sampling capacities. We present a system based on machine learning (ML) algorithms and computer vision intended to solve the automatic phenotype data analysis in plant material. We developed a growth-chamber able to accommodate species of various sizes. Night image acquisition requires near infrared lightning. For the ML process, we tested three different algorithms: k-nearest neighbour (kNN), Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC), and Support Vector Machine. Each ML algorithm was executed with different kernel functions and they were trained with raw data and two types of data normalisation. Different metrics were computed to determine the optimal configuration of the machine learning algorithms. We obtained a performance of 99.31% in kNN for RGB images and a 99.34% in SVM for NIR. Our results show that ML techniques can speed up phenomic data analysis. Furthermore, both RGB and NIR images can be segmented successfully but may require different ML algorithms for segmentation. PMID:27164103

  2. Machine Learning and Computer Vision System for Phenotype Data Acquisition and Analysis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pedro J; Pérez, Fernando; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-05-05

    Phenomics is a technology-driven approach with promising future to obtain unbiased data of biological systems. Image acquisition is relatively simple. However data handling and analysis are not as developed compared to the sampling capacities. We present a system based on machine learning (ML) algorithms and computer vision intended to solve the automatic phenotype data analysis in plant material. We developed a growth-chamber able to accommodate species of various sizes. Night image acquisition requires near infrared lightning. For the ML process, we tested three different algorithms: k-nearest neighbour (kNN), Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC), and Support Vector Machine. Each ML algorithm was executed with different kernel functions and they were trained with raw data and two types of data normalisation. Different metrics were computed to determine the optimal configuration of the machine learning algorithms. We obtained a performance of 99.31% in kNN for RGB images and a 99.34% in SVM for NIR. Our results show that ML techniques can speed up phenomic data analysis. Furthermore, both RGB and NIR images can be segmented successfully but may require different ML algorithms for segmentation.

  3. Computer graphic method for direct correspondence image acquisition used in full parallax holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid Sánchez, Alejandro; Velásquez Prieto, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The holoprinter technology based on holographic stereograms has generated a fast development in holographic display applications by the holographic recording of a 2D image sequence with information of a 3D scene, which could be real or computer generated. The images used in holographic stereograms initially start from the acquisition of the different image perspectives of the 3D scene by the re-centering camera configuration and then, this images must be rearranged before the optical recording. This paper proposes a method to acquire the required images or hogel images in one step without using rearrange algorithms, the method uses a virtual camera that moves along a virtual rail by conventional computer graphics software. The proposed method reduced the time required to obtain the hogel images and enhance the quality of the 3D holographic images; it also can be applied in different computer graphics software. To validate the method, a full parallax holographic stereogram was made for a computer generated object.

  4. SU-E-J-183: Quantifying the Image Quality and Dose Reduction of Respiratory Triggered 4D Cone-Beam Computed Tomography with Patient- Measured Breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B; OBrien, R; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Respiratory triggered four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is a novel technique that uses a patient's respiratory signal to drive the image acquisition with the goal of imaging dose reduction without degrading image quality. This work investigates image quality and dose using patient-measured respiratory signals for RT 4D CBCT simulations instead of synthetic sinusoidal signals used in previous work. Methods: Studies were performed that simulate a 4D CBCT image acquisition using both the novel RT 4D CBCT technique and a conventional 4D CBCT technique from a database of oversampled Rando phantom CBCT projections. A database containing 111 free breathing lung cancer patient respiratory signal files was used to create 111 RT 4D CBCT and 111 conventional 4D CBCT image datasets from realistic simulations of a 4D RT CBCT system. Each of these image datasets were compared to a ground truth dataset from which a root mean square error (RMSE) metric was calculated to quantify the degradation of image quality. The number of projections used in each simulation is counted and was assumed as a surrogate for imaging dose. Results: Based on 111 breathing traces, when comparing RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT the average image quality was reduced by 7.6%. However, the average imaging dose reduction was 53% based on needing fewer projections (617 on average) than conventional 4D CBCT (1320 projections). Conclusion: The simulation studies using a wide range of patient breathing traces have demonstrated that the RT 4D CBCT method can potentially offer a substantial saving of imaging dose of 53% on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT in simulation studies with a minimal impact on image quality. A patent application (PCT/US2012/048693) has been filed which is related to this work.

  5. Quantifying the image quality and dose reduction of respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography with patient-measured breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Benjamin J.; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Kipritidis, John; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory triggered four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is a novel technique that uses a patient’s respiratory signal to drive the image acquisition with the goal of imaging dose reduction without degrading image quality. This work investigates image quality and dose using patient-measured respiratory signals for RT 4D CBCT simulations. Studies were performed that simulate a 4D CBCT image acquisition using both the novel RT 4D CBCT technique and a conventional 4D CBCT technique. A set containing 111 free breathing lung cancer patient respiratory signal files was used to create 111 pairs of RT 4D CBCT and conventional 4D CBCT image sets from realistic simulations of a 4D CBCT system using a Rando phantom and the digital phantom, XCAT. Each of these image sets were compared to a ground truth dataset from which a mean absolute pixel difference (MAPD) metric was calculated to quantify the degradation of image quality. The number of projections used in each simulation was counted and was assumed as a surrogate for imaging dose. Based on 111 breathing traces, when comparing RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT, the average image quality was reduced by 7.6% (Rando study) and 11.1% (XCAT study). However, the average imaging dose reduction was 53% based on needing fewer projections (617 on average) than conventional 4D CBCT (1320 projections). The simulation studies have demonstrated that the RT 4D CBCT method can potentially offer a 53% saving in imaging dose on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT in simulation studies using a wide range of patient-measured breathing traces with a minimal impact on image quality.

  6. Design and implementation of photoelectric rotary table data acquisition and analysis system host computer software based on VC++ and MFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dawei; Yang, Xiufang; Han, Junfeng; Yan, Xiaoxu

    2015-02-01

    Photoelectric rotary table is mainly used in the defense industry and military fields, especially in the shooting range, target tracking, target acquisition, aerospace aspects play an important one. For range photoelectric measuring equipment field test application requirements, combined with a portable photoelectric rotary table data acquisition hardware system, software programming platform is presented based on the VC++, using MFC prepared PC interface, the realization of photoelectric turntable data acquisition, analysis and processing and debugging control. The host computer software design of serial communication and protocol, real-time data acquisition and display, real-time data curve drawing, analog acquisition, debugging guide, error analysis program, and gives the specific design method. Finally, through the photoelectric rotary table data acquisition hardware system alignment, the experimental results show that host computer software can better accomplish with lower machine data transmission, data acquisition, control and analysis, and to achieve the desired effect, the entire software system running performance is stable, flexible, strong practicality and reliability, the advantages of good scalability.

  7. Comparison of Image Quality, Diagnostic Accuracy and Radiation Dose Between Flash Model and Retrospective ECG-Triggered Protocols in Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) in Congenital Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Xiang-Jiu; Huang, Gang; Zhou, Xing; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Ma, Ya-Qiong; Zuo, Xiao-na

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Dual source computed tomography (DSCT) plays an important role in the diagnosis of congenital heart diseases (CHD). However, the issue of radiation-related side effects constitutes a wide public concern. The aim of the study was to explore the differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose and image quality between a prospectively ECG – triggered high – pitch spiral acquisition (flash model) and a retrospective ECG-gated protocol of DSCT used for the detection of CHD. Material/Methods The study included 58 patients with CHD who underwent a DSCT examination, including two groups of 29 patients in each protocol. Then, both subjective and objective image quality, diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose were compared between the two protocols. Results The image quality and the total as well as partial diagnostic accuracy did not differ significantly between the protocols. The radiation dose in the flash model was obviously lower than that in the retrospective model (P<0.05). Conclusions Compared to the retrospective protocol, the flash model can significantly reduce the dose of radiation, while maintaining both diagnostic accuracy and image quality. PMID:28344686

  8. Computer programs for the acquisition and analysis of eddy-current array probe data

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, J.R.; Dodd, C.V.

    1996-07-01

    Objective of the Improved Eddy-Curent ISI (in-service inspection) for Steam Generators Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for ISI of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC`s mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report documents computer programs that were developed for acquisition of eddy-current data from specially designed 16-coil array probes. Complete code as well as instructions for use are provided.

  9. Data Acquisition, Control, Communication and Computation System of Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amish B.; Vadher, N. M.; Jain, Rajma; Dave, Hemant; Shah, Vishal; Manian, K. S. B.; Kayasth, Satish; Patel, Vinod; Ubale, Girish; Shah, Kirit; Solanki, Chirag; Deshpande, M. R.; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Umapathy, C. N.; Viswanath, N.; Kulkarni, Ravi; Kumar, P. S.

    2006-09-01

    The Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission onboardGSAT- 2 Indian Spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 using GSLV-D2 rocket by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). SOXS aims to study solar flares, which are the most violent and energetic phenomena in the solar system, in the energy range of 4-56 keV with high spectral and temporal resolution. SOXS employs state-of-the-art semiconductor devices, viz., Si-Pin and CZT detectors to achieve sub-keV energy resolution requirements. In this paper, we present an overview of data acquisition, control,communication and computation of low energy payload of the SOXS mission.

  10. Computer- and video-based instruction of food-preparation skills: acquisition, generalization, and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Kevin; Cihak, David

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based video instruction (CBVI) program to teach life skills. Three middle school-aged students with intellectual disabilities were taught how to make a sandwich, use a microwave, and set the table with a CBVI software package. A multiple probe across behaviors design was used to evaluate for a functional relation between the software and skill acquisition. All students increased the percentage of steps completed in the correct order after receiving CBVI. During maintenance probes, the performance of all students deteriorated; after a single review session with CBVI, all students regained previous levels of performance, tentatively indicating a role of CBVI as a tool for reviewing previously mastered material. Results are discussed in terms of the use of CBVI for providing students sufficient learning trials on tasks that require the use of consumable products (e.g., food).

  11. A computational model associating learning process, word attributes, and age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type. We tested the model in three respects. The first analysis showed that the proposed model accounts for empirical AoA distributions better than a standard alternative. The second analysis demonstrated that the estimated learning parameters well predicted the psychological attributes, such as frequency and imageability, of words. The third analysis illustrated that the developmental trend predicted by our estimated learning parameters was consistent with relevant findings in the developmental literature on word learning in children. We further discuss the theoretical implications of our model-based approach.

  12. A Computational Model Associating Learning Process, Word Attributes, and Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type. We tested the model in three respects. The first analysis showed that the proposed model accounts for empirical AoA distributions better than a standard alternative. The second analysis demonstrated that the estimated learning parameters well predicted the psychological attributes, such as frequency and imageability, of words. The third analysis illustrated that the developmental trend predicted by our estimated learning parameters was consistent with relevant findings in the developmental literature on word learning in children. We further discuss the theoretical implications of our model-based approach. PMID:24223699

  13. Correction of Motion Artifacts From Shuttle Mode Computed Tomography Acquisitions for Body Perfusion Imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Payel; Chandler, Adam G; Altinmakas, Emre; Rong, John; Ng, Chaan S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of shuttle-mode computed tomography (CT) technology for body perfusion applications by quantitatively assessing and correcting motion artifacts. Noncontrast shuttle-mode CT scans (10 phases, 2 nonoverlapping bed locations) were acquired from 4 patients on a GE 750HD CT scanner. Shuttling effects were quantified using Euclidean distances (between-phase and between-bed locations) of corresponding fiducial points on the shuttle and reference phase scans (prior to shuttle mode). Motion correction with nonrigid registration was evaluated using sum-of-squares differences and distances between centers of segmented volumes of interest on shuttle and references images. Fiducial point analysis showed an average shuttling motion of 0.85 ± 1.05 mm (between-bed) and 1.18 ± 1.46 mm (between-phase), respectively. The volume-of-interest analysis of the nonrigid registration results showed improved sum-of-squares differences from 2950 to 597, between-bed distance from 1.64 to 1.20 mm, and between-phase distance from 2.64 to 1.33 mm, respectively, averaged over all cases. Shuttling effects introduced during shuttle-mode CT acquisitions can be computationally corrected for body perfusion applications.

  14. Can computer mice be used as low-cost devices for the acquisition of planar human movement velocity signals?

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Christian; Plamondon, Réjean

    2011-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to determine whether a computer mouse can be used as a low-cost device for the acquisition of two-dimensional human movement velocity signals in the context of psychophysical studies and biomedical applications. A comprehensive overview of the related literature is presented, and the problem of characterizing mouse movement acquisition is analyzed and discussed. Then, the quality of velocity signals acquired with this kind of device is measured on horizontal oscillatory movements by comparing the mouse data to the signals acquired simultaneously by a video motion tracking system and a digitizing tablet. A synthesis of the information gathered in this work indicates that the computer mouse can be used for the reliable acquisition of biosignals in the context of human movement studies, particularly for many applications dealing with the velocity of the end effector of the upper limb. This paper concludes by discussing the possibilities and limitations of such use.

  15. Web-based Learning and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning for psychomotor skill acquisition: perspectives of medical undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jansen; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Mackinnon, Kim; Brett, Clare; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence for the use of Web-based Learning (WBL) and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) for acquiring psychomotor skills in medical education. In this study, we surveyed medical undergraduate students attending a simulation based training session for central line insertion on their perspectives and utilization of WBL and CSCL for acquisition of a complex psychomotor skill.

  16. The Effect of Motor Difficulty on the Acquisition of a Computer Task: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fezzani, K.; Albinet, C.; Thon, B.; Marquie, J. -C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which the impact of motor difficulty on the acquisition of a computer task varies as a function of age. Fourteen young and 14 older participants performed 352 sequences of 10 serial pointing movements with a wireless pen on a digitiser tablet. A conditional probabilistic structure governed the…

  17. The Effect of Motor Difficulty on the Acquisition of a Computer Task: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fezzani, K.; Albinet, C.; Thon, B.; Marquie, J. -C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which the impact of motor difficulty on the acquisition of a computer task varies as a function of age. Fourteen young and 14 older participants performed 352 sequences of 10 serial pointing movements with a wireless pen on a digitiser tablet. A conditional probabilistic structure governed the…

  18. Motivation in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Scenario and Its Impact on Learning Activities and Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Bannert, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Addressing a drawback in current research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), this study investigated the influence of motivation on learning activities and knowledge acquisition during CSCL. Participants' (N = 200 university students) task was to develop a handout for which they had first an individual preparing phase followed by…

  19. Evaluation of tooth-click triggering and speech recognition in assistive technology for computer access.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Tyler; Gauthier, Michel; Prochazka, Arthur

    2010-02-01

    Computer access can play an important role in employment and leisure activities following spinal cord injury. The authors' prior work has shown that a tooth-click detecting device, when paired with an optical head mouse, may be used by people with tetraplegia for controlling cursor movement and mouse button clicks. To compare the efficacy of tooth clicks to speech recognition and that of an optical head mouse to a gyrometer head mouse for cursor and mouse button control of a computer. Six able-bodied and 3 tetraplegic subjects used the devices listed above to produce cursor movements and mouse clicks in response to a series of prompts displayed on a computer. The time taken to move to and click on each target was recorded. The use of tooth clicks in combination with either an optical head mouse or a gyrometer head mouse can provide hands-free cursor movement and mouse button control at a speed of up to 22% of that of a standard mouse. Tooth clicks were significantly faster at generating mouse button clicks than speech recognition when paired with either type of head mouse device. Tooth-click detection performed better than speech recognition when paired with both the optical head mouse and the gyrometer head mouse. Such a system may improve computer access for people with tetraplegia.

  20. Understanding the vascular environment of myofascial trigger points using ultrasonic imaging and computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Ortiz, Robin; Gebreab, Tadesse; Gerber, Lynn H; Shah, Jay P

    2010-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common, yet poorly understood, acute and chronic pain condition. MPS is characterized by local and referred pain associated with hyperirritable nodules known as myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) that are stiff, localized spots of exquisite tenderness in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle. Recently, our research group has developed new ultrasound imaging methods to visualize and characterize MTrPs and their surrounding soft tissue. The goal of this paper was to quantitatively analyze Doppler velocity waveforms in blood vessels in the neighborhood of MTrPs to characterize their vascular environment. A lumped parameter compartment model was then used to understand the physiological origin of the flow velocity waveforms. 16 patients with acute neck pain were recruited for the study and the blood vessels in the upper trapezius muscle in the neighborhood of palpable MTrPs were imaged using Doppler ultrasound. Preliminary findings show that symptomatic MTrPs have significantly higher peak systolic velocities and negative diastolic velocities compared to latent MTrPs and normal muscle sites. Using compartment modeling, we show that a constricted vascular bed and an enlarged vascular volume could explain the observed flow waveforms with retrograde diastolic flow.

  1. Significance of PQ interval in acquisition of coronary multidetector row computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sano, Tomonari; Kondo, Takeshi; Matsutani, Hideyuki; Morita, Hitomi; Arai, Takehiro; Sekine, Takako; Takase, Shinichi; Oida, Akitsugu; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Kodama, Takahide; Kondo, Makoto; Orihara, Tadaaki; Yamada, Norikazu; Narula, Jagat

    2009-12-01

    Since image quality obtained in the mid-diastolic [or slow filling (SF)] phase is generally superior to end-systolic image in coronary multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), low heart rate (HR) comprises the most important factor for acquisition of high-quality images. However, despite HR <70 and optimum breath-hold, sometimes high quality images cannot be obtained in SF. We assessed the significance of PQ interval in acquisition of coronary MDCT. Of 541 consecutive patients who underwent coronary MDCT, 7 patients with incomplete breath-hold, 62 HR ≥70, and 70 arrhythmias were excluded. The remaining 402 patients (M: 222, 66±11 years), including 38 with first-degree atrioventricular block (1° AVB, PQ >200 ms) were evaluated. RR and PQ were measured on electrocardiogram and systolic and SF phase with 4-chamber cine cardiac computed tomography. SF significantly (p<0.0001) correlated with RR (SF=-471+0.720RR, r=0.887) in all subjects. The SF of without 1° AVB (292±97 ms) was significantly (p<0.0147) longer than that of with 1° AVB (251±121 ms), although RR was not significantly different between the two groups. The SF/RR of without 1° AVB (27.2±6.1%) was also significantly (p<0.0001) higher than that of with 1° AVB (22.7±8.0%). The coefficient of correlation between (RR-PQ) and SF [r=0.915, p<0.0001, SF=-362+0.742(RR-PQ)] was significantly (p<0.034) higher than that of correlation between RR and SF in all subjects. The SF of rank A image quality was significantly longer than that of rank B (p<0.0001) or rank C (p=0.0042). In critical HR (60-69 bpm), the optimum phase was ES in 7/139 patients without 1° AVB, and SF in 3/13 patients with 1° AVB (chi(2), p<0.0416). Since SF depends on (RR-PQ), if PQ is long in critical HR, it might be difficult to reconstruct high quality images in the SF phase.

  2. Implement trigger for a NI data acquisition card PCI 5105 in the measurement studio development environment for a high speed demodulator based on fiber Fabry-Pérot tunable filter (FFP-TF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Yang, Shangming; Fan, Lingling; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Zhenhua; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we report a scheme of low-cost, small-size differential electrical converter to change analog trigger signals into digital trigger signals. This converter successfully resolves the incompatibility between the digital trigger mode of NI (National Instruments) data acquisition card PCI 5105 in Measurement Studio development environment for a demodulator and the requirement from instability of spectra of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The instability is caused by intrinsic drifts of FFP-TF inside this high speed demodulator. The obtained results of frequency response about the converter have clearly demonstrated that this method is effective when the frequency of trigger signal is less than 3,000 Hz. This converter can satisfy the current requirements of demodulator based on FFP-TF, since mostly actual working scanning frequency of FFP-TF is less than 1,000 Hz. This method may be recommended to resolve similar problems for other NI customers who have developed their data acquisition system based on Measurement Studio.

  3. Effects of postural and visual stressors on myofascial trigger point development and motor unit rotation during computer work.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Jeffrey A; Marras, William S; Sheedy, James E; Hart, Dennis E

    2011-02-01

    Musculoskeletal complaint rates are high among those performing low-level static exertions (LLSEs), such as computer users. However, our understanding of the causal mechanisms is lacking. It was hypothesized that myofascial trigger point (MTrP) development might be one causal mechanism to help explain these complaints and that static postural and visual demands may be contributing factors. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to examine MTrP development and the behavior of multiple parts of the trapezius muscle under postural and mental stress (represented by visual stress) conditions during computer work. Twelve subjects (six male and six female) were monitored for MTrP development via expert opinion, subject self-report, and cyclic changes in EMG median frequency across fourteen spatial locations. Results showed that MTrPs developed after one hour of continuous typing, despite the stress condition. Interestingly, both the high postural and high visual stress conditions resulted in significantly fewer median frequency cycles (3.76 and 5.35 cycles, respectively), compared to the baseline low stress condition (6.26 cycles). Lastly, the MTrP location as well as locations more medial to the spine showed significantly fewer cycles than other locations. Findings suggest that MTrPs may be one causal pathway for pain during LLSEs and both postural and visual demands may play a role in muscle activation patterns, perhaps attributing to MTrP development and resultant discomfort.

  4. Non-Federal Computer Acquisition Practices Provide Useful Information for Streamlining Federal Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-02

    studied are not difficult and are not time consuming. The acquisition procedures are understood, followed, and consonant with normal business planning and...consonant with normal business planning and funding practices. Acquisitions normally take under 1 year. As a result, these organizations are able to plan

  5. Practical tips and tricks in cardiovascular computed tomography: patient preparation for optimization of cardiovascular CT data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Sandra Simon; Abbara, Suhny

    2007-07-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) images requires careful preparation of the patient before scanning. Guidelines for patient preparation are largely dictated by scanner capabilities and the technical limits they impose on patient-specific characteristics. The objective of this paper is to highlight procedures for patient screening, premedication, instruction, positioning, and electrocardiographic (ECG) lead placement. Awareness of scanner limitations and adherence to patient preparation guidelines can significantly improve CT image quality and diagnostic yield.

  6. Microcomputed tomography marginal fit evaluation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing crowns with different methods of virtual model acquisition.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flavio Domingues; do Prado, Celio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Carneiro, Thiago Almeida Prado Naves; Zancope, Karla; Davi, Leticia Resende; Mendonca, Gustavo; Cooper, Lyndon; Soares, Carlos Jose

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study used microcomputed tomography to evaluate the marginal fit of crowns fabricated using a chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with different methods of virtual model acquisition. Crowns were fabricated to fit in a cast containing a single human premolar. Four methods of virtual model acquisition were used: Group 1 (control), digital impressioning of a typodont; Group 2, digital impressioning of a powdered typodont; Group 3, digital impressioning of a regular impression; and Group 4, digital impressioning of a master cast. Statistically significant differences were found between the marginal gap of Group 2 and the other groups (P < 0.05); no differences were found among Groups 1, 3, and 4. The results showed that crowns fabricated using the chairside CAD/CAM system exhibited significantly smaller vertical misfit when a thin layer of powder was applied over the typodont before digital impressioning.

  7. A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, S.; Atwood, C.; Bell, P.; Blacker, T. D.; Dey, S.; Fisher, D.; Fisher, D. A.; Genalis, P.; Gorski, J.; Harris, A.; Hill, K.; Hurwitz, M.; Kendall, R. P.; Meakin, R. L.; Morton, S.; Moyer, E. T.; Post, D. E.; Strawn, R.; Veldhuizen, D. v.; Votta, L. G.; Wynn, S.; Zelinski, G.

    2008-07-01

    In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a 360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution of CREATE are based on the 'lessons learned' from case studies of large-scale computational science and engineering projects. The case studies stress the importance of a stable, close-knit development team; a focus on customer needs and requirements; verification and validation; flexible and agile planning, management, and development processes; risk management; realistic schedules and resource levels; balanced short- and long-term goals and deliverables; and stable, long-term support by the program sponsor. Since it began in FY2008, the CREATE program has built a team and project structure, developed requirements and begun validating them, identified candidate products, established initial connections with the acquisition programs, begun detailed project planning and development, and generated the initial collaboration infrastructure necessary for success by its multi-institutional, multidisciplinary teams.

  8. Image quality and radiation dose of a prospectively electrocardiography-triggered high-pitch data acquisition strategy for coronary CT angiography: The multicenter, randomized PROTECTION IV study.

    PubMed

    Deseive, Simon; Pugliese, Francesca; Meave, Aloha; Alexanderson, Erick; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin; Massberg, Steffen; Hausleiter, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about radiation dose of coronary CT angiography. Although high-pitch acquisition technique yields high potential for radiation dose savings, it is more vulnerable to artifacts, which impair diagnostic image quality. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 scan strategies for coronary CT angiography: a high-pitch helical scan first or a conventional scan first strategy. In this prospective, multicenter trial, we randomized 303 consecutive patients with a low and stable heart rate to either of the aforementioned mentioned strategies. Intravenous β-blockers were administered to achieve target heart rates. All scans were performed on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner. In case of nondiagnostic image quality, coronary CT angiography was allowed to be repeated. The primary end point was to demonstrate noninferior image quality in the high-pitch group. Image quality was assessed on a 4-point scale (1: nondiagnostic, 4: excellent). Secondary end point was total radiation dose. In the high-pitch helical first group, repeat scanning was necessary in 21 patients compared with 14 patients in the conventional first scan group (P = .25). Image quality in the high-pitch group was noninferior compared to the conventional scan group (3.81 ± 0.35 vs. 3.83 ± 0.37; P for noninferiority <.0001). The total effective radiation dose estimate was 58% lower in the high-pitch group (2.0 ± 2.4 vs. 4.7 ± 4.8 mSv; P < .0001). In patients with a low and stable heart rate diagnostic image quality can be maintained with a high-pitch helical scan first strategy while 58% of radiation dose can be saved. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving the Acquisition of Basic Technical Surgical Skills with VR-Based Simulation Coupled with Computer-Based Video Instruction.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Next to practice, feedback is the most important variable in skill acquisition. Feedback can vary in content and the way that it is used for delivery. Health professions education research has extensively examined the different effects provided by the different feedback methodologies. In this paper we compared two different types of knowledge of performance (KP) feedback. The first type was video-based KP feedback while the second type consisted of computer generated KP feedback. Results of this study showed that computer generated performance feedback is more effective than video based performance feedback. The combination of the two feedback methodologies provides trainees with a better understanding.

  10. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-02-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  11. Acquisition Management for Systems-of-Systems: Analysis of Alternatives via Computational Exploratory Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-03

    SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 63 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...to provide insights into the acquisition process. The research efforts during the one year study period have focused on the development and...in our project is based on the 16 technical management and technical system- engineering processes outlined in the Defense Acquisition Guidebook (DAG

  12. Hyperspeed data acquisition for 3D computer vision metrology as applied to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1997-02-01

    cycling at 1 millisecond, each pattern is projected and recorded in a cycle time of 1/500th second. An entire set of patterns can then be recorded within 1/60th second. This pattern set contains all the information necessary to calculate a 3-D map. The use of hyper-speed parallel video cameras in conjunction with high speed modulators enables video data rate acquisition of all data necessary to calculate numerical digital 3-D metrological surface data. Thus a 3-D video camera can operate at the rate of a conventional 2-D video camera. The speed of actual 3-D output information is a function of the speed of the computer, a parallel processor being preferred for the task. With video rate 3-D data acquisition law enforcement could survey crime scenes, obtain evidence, watch and record people, packages, suitcases, and record disaster scenes very rapidly.

  13. Public Response to Scientific Misconduct: Assessing Changes in Public Sentiment Toward the Stimulus-Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency (STAP) Cell Case via Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Gayle, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background In this age of social media, any news—good or bad—has the potential to spread in unpredictable ways. Changes in public sentiment have the potential to either drive or limit investment in publicly funded activities, such as scientific research. As a result, understanding the ways in which reported cases of scientific misconduct shape public sentiment is becoming increasingly essential—for researchers and institutions, as well as for policy makers and funders. In this study, we thus set out to assess and define the patterns according to which public sentiment may change in response to reported cases of scientific misconduct. This study focuses on the public response to the events involved in a recent case of major scientific misconduct that occurred in 2014 in Japan—stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cell case. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine (1) the patterns according to which public sentiment changes in response to scientific misconduct; (2) whether such measures vary significantly, coincident with major timeline events; and (3) whether the changes observed mirror the response patterns reported in the literature with respect to other classes of events, such as entertainment news and disaster reports. Methods The recent STAP cell scandal is used as a test case. Changes in the volume and polarity of discussion were assessed using a sampling of case-related Twitter data, published between January 28, 2014 and March 15, 2015. Rapidminer was used for text processing and the popular bag-of-words algorithm, SentiWordNet, was used in Rapidminer to calculate sentiment for each sample Tweet. Relative volume and sentiment was then assessed overall, month-to-month, and with respect to individual entities. Results Despite the ostensibly negative subject, average sentiment over the observed period tended to be neutral (−0.04); however, a notable downward trend (y=−0.01 x +0.09; R ²=.45) was observed month

  14. Contrast-Enhanced High-Pitch Computed Tomography in Pediatric Patients Without Electrocardiography Triggering and Sedation: Comparison of Cardiac Image Quality With Conventional Multidetector Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Esser, Michael; Gatidis, Sergios; Teufel, Matthias; Ketelsen, Inés; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schäfer, Jürgen F; Tsiflikas, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare image quality of anatomical cardiac details without electrocardiography triggering, sedation, or heart rate-regulating drugs in contrast-enhanced pediatric chest computed tomography (CT), using high-pitch CT (HPCT) versus conventional pitch-mode technique (multidetector CT [MDCT]). After written informed consent, 55 patients (median age, 11 years; range, 3-17 years) were prospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study. Patients underwent clinically indicated, contrast-enhanced MDCT or HPCT of the chest.Image quality was assessed evaluating morphological criteria on a 3-point scale (from 1, high, to 3, low detail) and summed up in a global score (from 4, best, to 12, poor image quality). Artifacts were analyzed correspondingly (from 3, low, to 9, severe artifacts). Effective dose and size-specific dose estimate were calculated for all scans. Cardiac image quality was higher in HPCT than in MDCT (7.1 [1.6] vs 8.8 [1.9], P < 0.001). Nevertheless, HPCT showed limitations in image quality, especially concerning the heart valves (2.5 [0.6] and 1.7 [0.5]) and coronary arteries (1.8 [0.6). Artifact score (3.4 [0.6 vs 5.1 [0.9, P < 0.001), effective dose (1.6 [1.3] vs 2.3 [1.6] mSv, P = 0.047), and size-specific dose estimate (2.5 [1.7] vs 4.1 [2.3] mGy, P = 0.002) were lower in HPCT compared with those in MDCT. In pediatric patients, contrast-enhanced HPCT of the chest provides high image quality without electrocardiography triggering or sedation, although image quality is somewhat limited for a detailed depiction of cardiac anatomy.

  15. A computer system for real-time data acquisition and analysis of biopotentials and quantal content at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Kim, Y I

    1983-06-01

    A computerized data acquisition system for on-line analysis of the parameters of neuromuscular transmission is described. Both hardware usage and software methodologies are discussed with regard to sampling in real-time and analyzing miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs), end-plate potentials (EPPs) and quantal content of the evoked transmitter release. Significant features of the program include: (1) automatic threshold determination for MEPP detection; (2) the use of a circular buffer to give pre-trigger information; (3) real-time noise spike rejection; (4) an automatic procedure for EPP failure detection; (5) rapid quantal content determinations by several methods as well as complete MEPP and EPP waveform analysis. The system has proven both accurate and reliable during more than two years of use. Advantages of the system over conventional methods include: (1) increased accuracy and efficiency in data analysis; (2) immediate availability of results; (3) conventional data storage; (4) flexibility to meet changing requirements.

  16. Signal Acquisition Using AXIe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narciso, Steven J.

    2011-08-01

    An emerging test and measurement standard called AXIe, AdvancedTCA extensions for Instrumentation, is expected to find wide acceptance within the Physics community as it offers many benefits to applications including shock, plasma, particle and nuclear physics. It is expected that many COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) signal conditioning, acquisition and processing modules will become available from a range of different suppliers. AXIe uses AdvancedTCA® as its basis, but then levers test and measurement industry standards such as PXI, IVI, and LXI to facilitate cooperation and plug-and-play interoperability between COTS instrument suppliers. AXIe's large board footprint and power allows high density in a 19" rack, enabling the development of high-performance signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, and data processing, while offering channel count scalability inherent in modular systems. Synchronization between modules is flexible and provided by two triggering structures: a parallel trigger bus, and radially-distributed, time-matched point-to-point trigger lines. Inter-module communication is also provided with an adjacent module local bus allowing data transfer to 600 Gbits/s in each direction, for example between a front-end digitizer and DSP. AXIe allows embedding high performance computing and a range of COTS AdvancedTCA® computer blades are currently available that provide low cost alternatives to the development of custom signal processing modules. The availability of both LAN and PCI Express allow interconnection between modules, as well as industry-standard high-performance data paths to external host computer systems. AXIe delivers a powerful environment for custom module devel opment. As in the case of VXIbus and PXI before it, commercial development kits are expected to be available. This paper will give an overview of the architectural elements of AXIe 1.0, the compatibility model with AdvancedTCA, and signal acquisition performance of many

  17. Evaluation of a modified Fitts law brain-computer interface target acquisition task in able and motor disabled individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, E. A.; Radwin, R. G.; Wilson, J. A.; Williams, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that takes recorded brain signals and translates them into real-time actions, in this case movement of a cursor on a computer screen. This work applied Fitts' law to the evaluation of performance on a target acquisition task during sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training. Fitts' law, which has been used as a predictor of movement time in studies of human movement, was used here to determine the information transfer rate, which was based on target acquisition time and target difficulty. The information transfer rate was used to make comparisons between control modalities and subject groups on the same task. Data were analyzed from eight able-bodied and five motor disabled participants who wore an electrode cap that recorded and translated their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals into computer cursor movements. Direct comparisons were made between able-bodied and disabled subjects, and between EEG and joystick cursor control in able-bodied subjects. Fitts' law aptly described the relationship between movement time and index of difficulty for each task movement direction when evaluated separately and averaged together. This study showed that Fitts' law can be successfully applied to computer cursor movement controlled by neural signals.

  18. RALPH: An online computer program for acquisition and reduction of pulse height data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R. C.; Clark, R. S.; Keith, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A background/foreground data acquisition and analysis system incorporating a high level control language was developed for acquiring both singles and dual parameter coincidence data from scintillation detectors at the Radiation Counting Laboratory at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. The system supports acquisition of gamma ray spectra in a 256 x 256 coincidence matrix (utilizing disk storage) and simultaneous operation of any of several background support and data analysis functions. In addition to special instruments and interfaces, the hardware consists of a PDP-9 with 24K core memory, 256K words of disk storage, and Dectape and Magtape bulk storage.

  19. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  20. Correlation of quantitative dual-energy computed tomography iodine maps and abdominal computed tomography perfusion measurements: are single-acquisition dual-energy computed tomography iodine maps more than a reduced-dose surrogate of conventional computed tomography perfusion?

    PubMed

    Stiller, Wolfram; Skornitzke, Stephan; Fritz, Franziska; Klauss, Miriam; Hansen, Jens; Pahn, Gregor; Grenacher, Lars; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Study objectives were the quantitative evaluation of whether conventional abdominal computed tomography (CT) perfusion measurements mathematically correlate with quantitative single-acquisition dual-energy CT (DECT) iodine concentration maps, the determination of the optimum time of acquisition for achieving maximum correlation, and the estimation of the potential for radiation exposure reduction when replacing conventional CT perfusion by single-acquisition DECT iodine concentration maps. Dual-energy CT perfusion sequences were dynamically acquired over 51 seconds (34 acquisitions every 1.5 seconds) in 24 patients with histologically verified pancreatic carcinoma using dual-source DECT at tube potentials of 80 kVp and 140 kVp. Using software developed in-house, perfusion maps were calculated from 80-kVp image series using the maximum slope model after deformable motion correction. In addition, quantitative iodine maps were calculated for each of the 34 DECT acquisitions per patient. Within a manual segmentation of the pancreas, voxel-by-voxel correlation between the perfusion map and each of the iodine maps was calculated for each patient to determine the optimum time of acquisition topt defined as the acquisition time of the iodine map with the highest correlation coefficient. Subsequently, regions of interest were placed inside the tumor and inside healthy pancreatic tissue, and correlation between mean perfusion values and mean iodine concentrations within these regions of interest at topt was calculated for the patient sample. The mean (SD) topt was 31.7 (5.4) seconds after the start of contrast agent injection. The mean (SD) perfusion values for healthy pancreatic and tumor tissues were 67.8 (26.7) mL per 100 mL/min and 43.7 (32.2) mL per 100 mL/min, respectively. At topt, the mean (SD) iodine concentrations were 2.07 (0.71) mg/mL in healthy pancreatic and 1.69 (0.98) mg/mL in tumor tissue, respectively. Overall, the correlation between perfusion values and

  1. Combining Language Corpora with Experimental and Computational Approaches for Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Padraic; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, first language acquisition research was a painstaking process of observation, requiring the laborious hand coding of children's linguistic productions, followed by the generation of abstract theoretical proposals for how the developmental process unfolds. Recently, the ability to collect large-scale corpora of children's language…

  2. The Probabilistic Analysis of Language Acquisition: Theoretical, Computational, and Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Anne S.; Chater, Nick; Vitanyi, Paul M. B.

    2011-01-01

    There is much debate over the degree to which language learning is governed by innate language-specific biases, or acquired through cognition-general principles. Here we examine the probabilistic language acquisition hypothesis on three levels: We outline a novel theoretical result showing that it is possible to learn the exact "generative model"…

  3. Language Acquisition as Computational Resetting: Verb Movement in L3 Initial State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the acquisition of the verb movement parameter in L3 English by adult Arabic-French bilinguals. The focus is on the nature of the L3 initial state and the contribution of the syntactic (C[subscript HL]) and post-syntactic (phonetic form) modules to the process of parameter resetting. The results of acceptability judgement…

  4. Synopsis of a computer program designed to interface a personal computer with the fast data acquisition system of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. D.; Mateos, M. A.; Lincoln, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly described are the essential features of a computer program designed to interface a personal computer with the fast, digital data acquisition system of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The instrumentation was developed to provide a time-resolved analysis of individual vapor pulses produced by the incidence of a pulsed laser beam on an ablative material. The high repetition rate spectrometer coupled to a fast transient recorder captures complete mass spectra every 20 to 35 microsecs, thereby providing the time resolution needed for the study of this sort of transient event. The program enables the computer to record the large amount of data generated by the system in short time intervals, and it provides the operator the immediate option of presenting the spectral data in several different formats. Furthermore, the system does this with a high degree of automation, including the tasks of mass labeling the spectra and logging pertinent instrumental parameters.

  5. Effects of Computer Assistance on Acquisition of Piagetian Conceptualization among Children of Ages Two to Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piel, John A.; Baller, William A.

    1986-01-01

    Designed to determine whether computer-assisted instruction could enhance performance on Piagetian classification and conservation tasks, this study divided 44 preschool children into an experimental group, which was exposed to computer lessons, and a control group. Both age and computer exposure were found to be significant variables. (LRW)

  6. Effects of Computer Assistance on Acquisition of Piagetian Conceptualization among Children of Ages Two to Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piel, John A.; Baller, William A.

    1986-01-01

    Designed to determine whether computer-assisted instruction could enhance performance on Piagetian classification and conservation tasks, this study divided 44 preschool children into an experimental group, which was exposed to computer lessons, and a control group. Both age and computer exposure were found to be significant variables. (LRW)

  7. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-10-12

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers.

  8. In-Depth Analysis of Computer Memory Acquisition Software for Forensic Purposes.

    PubMed

    McDown, Robert J; Varol, Cihan; Carvajal, Leonardo; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The comparison studies on random access memory (RAM) acquisition tools are either limited in metrics or the selected tools were designed to be executed in older operating systems. Therefore, this study evaluates widely used seven shareware or freeware/open source RAM acquisition forensic tools that are compatible to work with the latest 64-bit Windows operating systems. These tools' user interface capabilities, platform limitations, reporting capabilities, total execution time, shared and proprietary DLLs, modified registry keys, and invoked files during processing were compared. We observed that Windows Memory Reader and Belkasoft's Live Ram Capturer leaves the least fingerprints in memory when loaded. On the other hand, ProDiscover and FTK Imager perform poor in memory usage, processing time, DLL usage, and not-wanted artifacts introduced to the system. While Belkasoft's Live Ram Capturer is the fastest to obtain an image of the memory, Pro Discover takes the longest time to do the same job.

  9. Confidence range estimate of extended source imagery acquisition algorithms via computer simulations. [in optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, CHIEN-C.; Hui, Elliot; Okamoto, Garret

    1992-01-01

    Spatial acquisition using the sun-lit Earth as a beacon source provides several advantages over active beacon-based systems for deep-space optical communication systems. However, since the angular extend of the Earth image is large compared to the laser beam divergence, the acquisition subsystem must be capable of resolving the image to derive the proper pointing orientation. The algorithms used must be capable of deducing the receiver location given the blurring introduced by the imaging optics and the large Earth albedo fluctuation. Furthermore, because of the complexity of modelling the Earth and the tracking algorithms, an accurate estimate of the algorithm accuracy can only be made via simulation using realistic Earth images. An image simulator was constructed for this purpose, and the results of the simulation runs are reported.

  10. Confidence range estimate of extended source imagery acquisition algorithms via computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-C.; Hui, Elliot; Okamoto, Garret

    1992-06-01

    Spatial acquisition using the sun-lit Earth as a beacon source provides several advantages over active beacon-based systems for deep-space optical communication systems. However, since the angular extend of the Earth image is large compared to the laser beam divergence, the acquisition subsystem must be capable of resolving the image to derive the proper pointing orientation. The algorithms used must be capable of deducing the receiver location given the blurring introduced by the imaging optics and the large Earth albedo fluctuation. Furthermore, because of the complexity of modelling the Earth and the tracking algorithms, an accurate estimate of the algorithm accuracy can only be made via simulation using realistic Earth images. An image simulator was constructed for this purpose, and the results of the simulation runs are reported.

  11. Confidence range estimate of extended source imagery acquisition algorithms via computer simulations. [in optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, CHIEN-C.; Hui, Elliot; Okamoto, Garret

    1992-01-01

    Spatial acquisition using the sun-lit Earth as a beacon source provides several advantages over active beacon-based systems for deep-space optical communication systems. However, since the angular extend of the Earth image is large compared to the laser beam divergence, the acquisition subsystem must be capable of resolving the image to derive the proper pointing orientation. The algorithms used must be capable of deducing the receiver location given the blurring introduced by the imaging optics and the large Earth albedo fluctuation. Furthermore, because of the complexity of modelling the Earth and the tracking algorithms, an accurate estimate of the algorithm accuracy can only be made via simulation using realistic Earth images. An image simulator was constructed for this purpose, and the results of the simulation runs are reported.

  12. META-GLARE: A meta-system for defining your own computer interpretable guideline system-Architecture and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bottrighi, Alessio; Terenziani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Several different computer-assisted management systems of computer interpretable guidelines (CIGs) have been developed by the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine community. Each CIG system is characterized by a specific formalism to represent CIGs, and usually provides a manager to acquire, consult and execute them. Though there are several commonalities between most formalisms in the literature, each formalism has its own peculiarities. The goal of our work is to provide a flexible support to the extension or definition of CIGs formalisms, and of their acquisition and execution engines. Instead of defining "yet another CIG formalism and its manager", we propose META-GLARE (META Guideline Acquisition, Representation, and Execution), a "meta"-system to define new CIG systems. In this paper, META-GLARE, a meta-system to define new CIG systems, is presented. We try to capture the commonalities among current CIG approaches, by providing (i) a general manager for the acquisition, consultation and execution of hierarchical graphs (representing the control flow of actions in CIGs), parameterized over the types of nodes and of arcs constituting it, and (ii) a library of different elementary components of guidelines nodes (actions) and arcs, in which each type definition involves the specification of how objects of this type can be acquired, consulted and executed. We provide generality and flexibility, by allowing free aggregations of such elementary components to define new primitive node and arc types. We have drawn several experiments, in which we have used META-GLARE to build a CIG system (Experiment 1 in Section 8), or to extend it (Experiments 2 and 3). Such experiments show that META-GLARE provides a useful and easy-to-use support to such tasks. For instance, re-building the Guideline Acquisition, Representation, and Execution (GLARE) system using META-GLARE required less than one day (Experiment 1). META-GLARE is a meta-system for CIGs supporting fast prototyping

  13. A multilevel modeling approach to examining individual differences in skill acquisition for a computer-based task.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sankaran N; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    This article explores the role of age, cognitive abilities, prior experience, and knowledge in skill acquisition for a computer-based simulated customer service task. Fifty-two participants aged 50-80 performed the task over 4 consecutive days following training. They also completed a battery that assessed prior computer experience and cognitive abilities. The data indicated that overall quality and efficiency of performance improved with practice. The predictors of initial level of performance and rate of change in performance varied according to the performance parameter assessed. Age and fluid intelligence predicted initial level and rate of improvement in overall quality, whereas crystallized intelligence and age predicted initial e-mail processing time, and crystallized intelligence predicted rate of change in e-mail processing time over days. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of intervention strategies.

  14. A Multilevel Modeling Approach to Examining Individual Differences in Skill Acquisition for a Computer-Based Task

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sankaran N.; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the role of age, cognitive abilities, prior experience, and knowledge in skill acquisition for a computer-based simulated customer service task. Fifty-two participants aged 50–80 performed the task over 4 consecutive days following training. They also completed a battery that assessed prior computer experience and cognitive abilities. The data indicated that overall quality and efficiency of performance improved with practice. The predictors of initial level of performance and rate of change in performance varied according to the performance parameter assessed. Age and fluid intelligence predicted initial level and rate of improvement in overall quality, whereas crystallized intelligence and age predicted initial e-mail processing time, and crystallized intelligence predicted rate of change in e-mail processing time over days. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of intervention strategies. PMID:17565169

  15. A flexible high-rate USB2 data acquisition system for PET and SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    J. Proffitt, W. Hammond, S. Majewski, V. Popov, R.R. Raylman, A.G. Weisenberger, R. Wojcik

    2006-02-01

    A new flexible data acquisition system has been developed to instrument gamma-ray imaging detectors designed by the Jefferson Lab Detector and Imaging Group. Hardware consists of 16-channel data acquisition modules installed on USB2 carrier boards. Carriers have been designed to accept one, two, and four modules. Application trigger rate and channel density determines the number of acquisition boards and readout computers used. Each channel has an independent trigger, gated integrator and a 2.5 MHz 12-bit ADC. Each module has an FPGA for analog control and signal processing. Processing includes a 5 ns 40-bit trigger time stamp and programmable triggering, gating, ADC timing, offset and gain correction, charge and pulse-width discrimination, sparsification, event counting, and event assembly. The carrier manages global triggering and transfers module data to a USB buffer. High-granularity time-stamped triggering is suitable for modular detectors. Time stamped events permit dynamic studies, complex offline event assembly, and high-rate distributed data acquisition. A sustained USB data rate of 20 Mbytes/s, a sustained trigger rate of 300 kHz for 32 channels, and a peak trigger rate of 2.5 MHz to FIFO memory were achieved. Different trigger, gating, processing, and event assembly techniques were explored. Target applications include >100 kHz coincidence rate PET detectors, dynamic SPECT detectors, miniature and portable gamma detectors for small-animal and clinical use.

  16. A Computational Study of the Factors Influencing the PVC-Triggering Ability of a Cluster of Early Afterdepolarization-Capable Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Zimik, Soling; Nayak, Alok Ranjan; Pandit, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), which are abnormal impulse propagations in cardiac tissue, can develop because of various reasons including early afterdepolarizations (EADs). We show how a cluster of EAD-generating cells (EAD clump) can lead to PVCs in a model of cardiac tissue, and also investigate the factors that assist such clumps in triggering PVCs. In particular, we study, through computer simulations, the effects of the following factors on the PVC-triggering ability of an EAD clump: (1) the repolarization reserve (RR) of the EAD cells; (2) the size of the EAD clump; (3) the coupling strength between the EAD cells in the clump; and (4) the presence of fibroblasts in the EAD clump. We find that, although a low value of RR is necessary to generate EADs and hence PVCs, a very low value of RR leads to low-amplitude EAD oscillations that decay with time and do not lead to PVCs. We demonstrate that a certain threshold size of the EAD clump, or a reduction in the coupling strength between the EAD cells, in the clump, is required to trigger PVCs. We illustrate how randomly distributed inexcitable obstacles, which we use to model collagen deposits, affect PVC-triggering by an EAD clump. We show that the gap-junctional coupling of fibroblasts with myocytes can either assist or impede the PVC-triggering ability of an EAD clump, depending on the resting membrane potential of the fibroblasts and the coupling strength between the myocyte and fibroblasts. We also find that the triggering of PVCs by an EAD clump depends sensitively on factors like the pacing cycle length and the distribution pattern of the fibroblasts.

  17. A Computational Study of the Factors Influencing the PVC-Triggering Ability of a Cluster of Early Afterdepolarization-Capable Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zimik, Soling; Nayak, Alok Ranjan; Pandit, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), which are abnormal impulse propagations in cardiac tissue, can develop because of various reasons including early afterdepolarizations (EADs). We show how a cluster of EAD-generating cells (EAD clump) can lead to PVCs in a model of cardiac tissue, and also investigate the factors that assist such clumps in triggering PVCs. In particular, we study, through computer simulations, the effects of the following factors on the PVC-triggering ability of an EAD clump: (1) the repolarization reserve (RR) of the EAD cells; (2) the size of the EAD clump; (3) the coupling strength between the EAD cells in the clump; and (4) the presence of fibroblasts in the EAD clump. We find that, although a low value of RR is necessary to generate EADs and hence PVCs, a very low value of RR leads to low-amplitude EAD oscillations that decay with time and do not lead to PVCs. We demonstrate that a certain threshold size of the EAD clump, or a reduction in the coupling strength between the EAD cells, in the clump, is required to trigger PVCs. We illustrate how randomly distributed inexcitable obstacles, which we use to model collagen deposits, affect PVC-triggering by an EAD clump. We show that the gap-junctional coupling of fibroblasts with myocytes can either assist or impede the PVC-triggering ability of an EAD clump, depending on the resting membrane potential of the fibroblasts and the coupling strength between the myocyte and fibroblasts. We also find that the triggering of PVCs by an EAD clump depends sensitively on factors like the pacing cycle length and the distribution pattern of the fibroblasts. PMID:26675670

  18. HARD REAL TIME QUICK EXAFS DATA ACQUISITION WITH ALL OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE ON A COMMODITY PERSONAL COMPUTER.

    SciTech Connect

    SO,I.; SIDDONS, D.P.; CALIEBE, W.A.; KHALID, S.

    2007-04-25

    We describe here the data acquisition subsystem of the Quick EXAFS (QEXAFS) experiment at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. For ease of future growth and flexibility, almost all software components are open source with very active maintainers. Among them, Linux running on x86 desktop computer, RTAI for real-time response, COMEDI driver for the data acquisition hardware, Qt and PyQt for graphical user interface, PyQwt for plotting, and Python for scripting. The signal (A/D) and energy-reading (IK220 encoder) devices in the PCI computer are also EPICS enabled. The control system scans the monochromator energy through a networked EPICS motor. With the real-time kernel, the system is capable of deterministic data-sampling period of tens of micro-seconds with typical timing-jitter of several micro-seconds. At the same time, Linux is running in other non-real-time processes handling the user-interface. A modern Qt-based controls-front end enhances productivity. The fast plotting and zooming of data in time or energy coordinates let the experimenters verify the quality of the data before detailed analysis. Python scripting is built-in for automation. The typical data-rate for continuous runs are around ten mega-bytes per minute.

  19. Top-Down versus Grass Roots Decision Making about Computer Acquisition and Use in American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Henry Jay

    National survey data are used to address questions about the centralization and decentralization of decision making about computer use in American schools. Settings in which centralization and decentralization in decisions about computers are greatest are considered. The consequences of alternative decision-making structures are also considered,…

  20. Effects of Computer-Based Practice on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Basic Academic Skills for Children with Moderate to Intensive Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Julie M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Park, Ju Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-based practice on the acquisition and maintenance of basic academic skills for two children with moderate to intensive disabilities. The special education teacher created individualized computer games that enabled the participants to independently practice academic skills that corresponded with their…

  1. A synchronization method for wireless acquisition systems, application to brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Foerster, M; Bonnet, S; van Langhenhove, A; Porcherot, J; Charvet, G

    2013-01-01

    A synchronization method for wireless acquisition systems has been developed and implemented on a wireless ECoG recording implant and on a wireless EEG recording helmet. The presented algorithm and hardware implementation allow the precise synchronization of several data streams from several sensor nodes for applications where timing is critical like in event-related potential (ERP) studies. The proposed method has been successfully applied to obtain visual evoked potentials and compared with a reference biosignal amplifier. The control over the exact sampling frequency allows reducing synchronization errors that will otherwise accumulate during a recording. The method is scalable to several sensor nodes communicating with a shared base station.

  2. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  3. Computer aided data acquisition tool for high-throughput phenotyping of plant populations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The data generated during a course of a biological experiment/study can be sometimes be massive and its management becomes quite critical for the success of the investigation undertaken. The accumulation and analysis of such large datasets often becomes tedious for biologists and lab technicians. Most of the current phenotype data acquisition management systems do not cater to the specialized needs of large-scale data analysis. The successful application of genomic tools/strategies to introduce desired traits in plants requires extensive and precise phenotyping of plant populations or gene bank material, thus necessitating an efficient data acquisition system. Results Here we describe newly developed software "PHENOME" for high-throughput phenotyping, which allows researchers to accumulate, categorize, and manage large volume of phenotypic data. In this study, a large number of individual tomato plants were phenotyped with the "PHENOME" application using a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) with built-in barcode scanner in concert with customized database specific for handling large populations. Conclusion The phenotyping of large population of plants both in the laboratory and in the field is very efficiently managed using PDA. The data is transferred to a specialized database(s) where it can be further analyzed and catalogued. The "PHENOME" aids collection and analysis of data obtained in large-scale mutagenesis, assessing quantitative trait loci (QTLs), raising mapping population, sampling of several individuals in one or more ecological niches etc. PMID:20003250

  4. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  5. Neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics as a basis for computer acquisition of natural language

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.M.W.

    1983-04-01

    Research into natural language understanding systems for computers has concentrated on implementing particular grammars and grammatical models of the language concerned. This paper presents a rationale for research into natural language understanding systems based on neurological and psychological principles. Important features of the approach are that it seeks to place the onus of learning the language on the computer, and that it seeks to make use of the vast wealth of relevant psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory. 22 references.

  6. GPU real-time processing in NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-01-01

    A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Direct GPU communication using a FPGA-based board has been used to reduce the data transmission latency. The performance of the system for multi-ring reconstrunction obtained during the NA62 physics run will be presented.

  7. Age differences in strategic behavior during a computation-based skill acquisition task.

    PubMed

    Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2009-09-01

    The authors evaluated mechanistic and metacognitive accounts of age differences in strategy transitions during skill acquisition. Old and young participants were trained on a task involving a shift from performing a novel arithmetic algorithm to responding via associative recognition of equation-solution pairings. The strategy shift was manipulated by task instructions that either (a) equally focused on speed and accuracy, (b) encouraged retrieval use as a method toward fast responding, or (c) offered monetary incentives for fast retrieval-based performance. Monetary incentives produced a more rapid shift to retrieval relative to standard instructions; older adults showed a greater incentives effect on retrieval use than younger adults. Monetary incentives encouraged retrieval use and response time improvements despite accuracy costs (a speed-accuracy tradeoff). The pattern of results suggested a role of metacognitive and volitional factors in retrieval shift, indicating that an associative learning deficit cannot fully account for older adults' delayed strategy shift.

  8. Experiments with a low-cost system for computer graphics material model acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushmeier, Holly; Lockerman, Yitzhak; Cartwright, Luke; Pitera, David

    2015-03-01

    We consider the design of an inexpensive system for acquiring material models for computer graphics rendering applications in animation, games and conceptual design. To be useful in these applications a system must be able to model a rich range of appearances in a computationally tractable form. The range of appearance of interest in computer graphics includes materials that have spatially varying properties, directionality, small-scale geometric structure, and subsurface scattering. To be computationally tractable, material models for graphics must be compact, editable, and efficient to numerically evaluate for ray tracing importance sampling. To construct appropriate models for a range of interesting materials, we take the approach of separating out directly and indirectly scattered light using high spatial frequency patterns introduced by Nayar et al. in 2006. To acquire the data at low cost, we use a set of Raspberry Pi computers and cameras clamped to miniature projectors. We explore techniques to separate out surface and subsurface indirect lighting. This separation would allow the fitting of simple, and so tractable, analytical models to features of the appearance model. The goal of the system is to provide models for physically accurate renderings that are visually equivalent to viewing the original physical materials.

  9. 3D object optonumerical acquisition methods for CAD/CAM and computer graphics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Woznicki, Jerzy M.

    1999-08-01

    The creation of a virtual object for CAD/CAM and computer graphics on the base of data gathered by full-field optical measurement of 3D object is presented. The experimental co- ordinates are alternatively obtained by combined fringe projection/photogrammetry based system or fringe projection/virtual markers setup. The new and fully automatic procedure which process the cloud of measured points into triangular mesh accepted by CAD/CAM and computer graphics systems is presented. Its applicability for various classes of objects is tested including the error analysis of virtual objects generated. The usefulness of the method is proved by applying the virtual object in rapid prototyping system and in computer graphics environment.

  10. Technical drilling data acquisition and processing with an integrated computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Chevallier, J.J.; Quetier, F.P.; Marshall, D.W.

    1986-04-01

    Sedco Forex has developed an integrated computer system to enhance the technical performance of the company at various operational levels and to increase the understanding and knowledge of the drill crews. This paper describes the system and how it is used for recording and processing drilling data at the rig site, for associated technical analyses, and for well design, planning, and drilling performance studies at the operational centers. Some capabilities related to the statistical analysis of the company's operational records are also described, and future development of rig computing systems for drilling applications and management tasks is discussed.

  11. Dynamic gas temperature measurements using a personal computer for data acquisition and reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Oberle, Lawrence G.; Greer, Lawrence C., III

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a dynamic gas temperature measurement system. It has frequency response to 1000 Hz, and can be used to measure temperatures in hot, high pressure, high velocity flows. A personal computer is used for collecting and processing data, which results in a much shorter wait for results than previously. The data collection process and the user interface are described in detail. The changes made in transporting the software from a mainframe to a personal computer are described in appendices, as is the overall theory of operation.

  12. Task-Based Oral Computer-Mediated Communication and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2012-01-01

    The present study adds to the computer-mediated communication (CMC) literature by exploring oral learner-to-learner interaction using Skype, a free and widely used Internet software program. In particular, this task-based study has a two-fold goal. Firstly, it explores possible differences between two modes of oral CMC (audio and video) and…

  13. Computer-Based Multimodal Composing Activities, Self-Revision, and L2 Acquisition through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzekoe, Richmond

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how 22 advanced-low proficiency ESL students used computer-based multimodal composing activities (CBMCAs) to facilitate self-revision and learn English through academic writing in the USA. The CBMCAs involved a combination of writing, listening, visual analysis, and speaking activities. The research was framed within an…

  14. Efficacy of a Computer-Based Program on Acquisition of Reading Skills of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Morton, Rhonda Collins; Flynt, Samuel W.; Houchins, David E.; Smitherman, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of literacy skill training for incarcerated youth, a very limited number of empirically based research studies have examined reading instruction in correctional facilities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fast ForWord computer-assisted reading program improved the reading and spelling abilities of…

  15. Computer- and Video-Based Instruction of Food-Preparation Skills: Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Kevin; Cihak, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based video instruction (CBVI) program to teach life skills. Three middle school-aged students with intellectual disabilities were taught how to make a sandwich, use a microwave, and set the table with a CBVI software package. A multiple probe across behaviors design was used to…

  16. Computer- and Video-Based Instruction of Food-Preparation Skills: Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Kevin; Cihak, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based video instruction (CBVI) program to teach life skills. Three middle school-aged students with intellectual disabilities were taught how to make a sandwich, use a microwave, and set the table with a CBVI software package. A multiple probe across behaviors design was used to…

  17. Acquisition and Generalization of Chained Tasks Taught with Computer Based Video Instruction to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Kevin M.; Maguire, Amy; McClimon, Desiree

    2009-01-01

    Three elementary aged students with autism participated in an evaluation of computer based video instruction that targeted functional life skills. The effects of the software were analyzed in the context of a multiple probe design across and replicated across participants. This study represents a departure from more traditional video based…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Emotions and the Acquisition of Computer Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.

    2008-01-01

    Most computer users have to deal with major software upgrades every 6-18 months. Given the pressure of having to adjust so quickly and so often, it is reasonable to assume that users will express emotional reactions such as anger, desperation, anxiety, or relief during the learning process. To date, the primary emotion studied with respect to…

  19. Task-Based Oral Computer-Mediated Communication and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2012-01-01

    The present study adds to the computer-mediated communication (CMC) literature by exploring oral learner-to-learner interaction using Skype, a free and widely used Internet software program. In particular, this task-based study has a two-fold goal. Firstly, it explores possible differences between two modes of oral CMC (audio and video) and…

  20. Acquisition and Generalization of Chained Tasks Taught with Computer Based Video Instruction to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Kevin M.; Maguire, Amy; McClimon, Desiree

    2009-01-01

    Three elementary aged students with autism participated in an evaluation of computer based video instruction that targeted functional life skills. The effects of the software were analyzed in the context of a multiple probe design across and replicated across participants. This study represents a departure from more traditional video based…

  1. The Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the contrast between the theoretical landscape within view of language teaching professionals in 1991 and that of today. I argue that the pragmatic goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) developers and researchers to create and evaluate learning opportunities pushes them to consider a variety…

  2. Inquiry Based-Computational Experiment, Acquisition of Threshold Concepts and Argumentation in Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psycharis, Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Computational experiment approach considers models as the fundamental instructional units of Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSE) and STEM Education, where the model take the place of the "classical" experimental set-up and simulation replaces the experiment. Argumentation in IBSE and STEM education is related to the…

  3. Inquiry Based-Computational Experiment, Acquisition of Threshold Concepts and Argumentation in Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psycharis, Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Computational experiment approach considers models as the fundamental instructional units of Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSE) and STEM Education, where the model take the place of the "classical" experimental set-up and simulation replaces the experiment. Argumentation in IBSE and STEM education is related to the…

  4. The Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the contrast between the theoretical landscape within view of language teaching professionals in 1991 and that of today. I argue that the pragmatic goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) developers and researchers to create and evaluate learning opportunities pushes them to consider a variety…

  5. Efficacy of a Computer-Based Program on Acquisition of Reading Skills of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Morton, Rhonda Collins; Flynt, Samuel W.; Houchins, David E.; Smitherman, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of literacy skill training for incarcerated youth, a very limited number of empirically based research studies have examined reading instruction in correctional facilities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fast ForWord computer-assisted reading program improved the reading and spelling abilities of…

  6. Benefits of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Support Reading Acquisition in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Young children who are English language learners (ELLs) face major challenges in learning to read English. This study examined whether computer-assisted instruction (CAI) can be beneficial to ELL kindergartners enrolled in bilingual classes. The CAI programs provided systematic and structured exercises in developing phonological awareness and…

  7. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cretaro, Paolo; Di Lorenzo, Stefano; Fantechi, Riccardo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Neri, Ilaria; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Vicini, Piero

    2016-11-01

    Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  8. Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition: The CSLU Vocabulary Tutor in Oral-Deaf Education.

    PubMed

    Barker, Lecia J.

    2003-01-01

    Deficits in vocabulary have a negative impact on literacy and interpersonal interaction for deaf children. As part of an evaluation, an outcomes assessment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer-based vocabulary tutor in an elementary auditory/oral program. Participants were 19 children, 16 profoundly deaf and 3 hearing. The vocabulary tutor displays line drawings or photographs of the words to be learned while a computer-generated avatar of a "talking head" provides synthesized audiovisual speech driven from text. The computer system also generates printed words corresponding to the imaged items. Through audiovisual reception, children memorized up to 218 new words for everyday household items. After 4 weeks, their receptive vocabulary was tested, using the avatar to speak the name of each item. Most of the students retained more than half of the new words. The freely available vocabulary tutor, whose characteristics can be tailored to individual need, can provide a language-intensive, independent learning environment to supplement classroom teaching in content areas.

  9. Priming in the Type I-F CRISPR-Cas system triggers strand-independent spacer acquisition, bi-directionally from the primed protospacer

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Corinna; Dy, Ron L.; McKenzie, Rebecca E.; Watson, Bridget N.J.; Taylor, Corinda; Chang, James T.; McNeil, Matthew B.; Staals, Raymond H.J.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process is the least characterized step in CRISPR-Cas immunity. Here, we used Pectobacterium atrosepticum to investigate adaptation in Type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. Pre-existing spacers that matched plasmids stimulated hyperactive primed acquisition and resulted in the incorporation of up to nine new spacers across all three native CRISPR arrays. Endogenous expression of the cas genes was sufficient, yet required, for priming. The new spacers inhibited conjugation and transformation, and interference was enhanced with increasing numbers of new spacers. We analyzed ∼350 new spacers acquired in priming events and identified a 5′-protospacer-GG-3′ protospacer adjacent motif. In contrast to priming in Type I-E systems, new spacers matched either plasmid strand and a biased distribution, including clustering near the primed protospacer, suggested a bi-directional translocation model for the Cas1:Cas2–3 adaptation machinery. Taken together these results indicate priming adaptation occurs in different CRISPR-Cas systems, that it can be highly active in wild-type strains and that the underlying mechanisms vary. PMID:24990370

  10. Priming in the Type I-F CRISPR-Cas system triggers strand-independent spacer acquisition, bi-directionally from the primed protospacer.

    PubMed

    Richter, Corinna; Dy, Ron L; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Watson, Bridget N J; Taylor, Corinda; Chang, James T; McNeil, Matthew B; Staals, Raymond H J; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process is the least characterized step in CRISPR-Cas immunity. Here, we used Pectobacterium atrosepticum to investigate adaptation in Type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. Pre-existing spacers that matched plasmids stimulated hyperactive primed acquisition and resulted in the incorporation of up to nine new spacers across all three native CRISPR arrays. Endogenous expression of the cas genes was sufficient, yet required, for priming. The new spacers inhibited conjugation and transformation, and interference was enhanced with increasing numbers of new spacers. We analyzed ∼ 350 new spacers acquired in priming events and identified a 5'-protospacer-GG-3' protospacer adjacent motif. In contrast to priming in Type I-E systems, new spacers matched either plasmid strand and a biased distribution, including clustering near the primed protospacer, suggested a bi-directional translocation model for the Cas1:Cas2-3 adaptation machinery. Taken together these results indicate priming adaptation occurs in different CRISPR-Cas systems, that it can be highly active in wild-type strains and that the underlying mechanisms vary.

  11. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Computer modeling for smart sensor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, S. K.; Davis, R. E.; Huck, F. O.; Arduini, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper a model of the processes involved in multispectral remote sensing and data classification is developed as a tool for designing and evaluating smart sensors. The model has both stochastic and deterministic elements and accounts for solar radiation, atmospheric radiative transfer, surface reflectance, sensor spectral reponses, and classification algorithms. Preliminary results are presented which indicate the validity and usefulness of this approach. Future capabilities of smart sensors will ultimately be limited by the accuracy with which multispectral remote sensing processes and their error sources can be computationally modeled.

  12. A computer based wireless system for online acquisition, monitoring and digital processing of ECG waveforms.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Dipali; Khan, Munna; Salhan, Ashok K

    2009-04-01

    Various ECG instruments have addressed a wide variety of clinical and technical issues. However, there is still scope for improvement in them particularly in the area of their susceptibility to noise, lack of universal connectivity and off-line processing. A prototype system has been developed that caters to these limitations. It includes an analog system and a FM transceiver pair interfaced through sound port of the computer. The real time acquired data is viewed and filtered using MATLAB software. The ECG system described captures the bio-signal faithfully in real time wireless mode with minimum noise and has universal connectivity.

  13. Dynamics of active progressive infection with HIV1: data acquisition for computer modeling.

    PubMed

    Krueger, G R; Koch, B; Weldner, J D; Tymister, G; Ramon, A; Brandt, M E; Wang, G; Buja, L M

    2001-01-01

    Nineteen adult patients with progressive HIV1 infection, which progressed within 5 years from acute HIV syndrome to final AIDS were studied. Changes in HIV antibody titer, viral RNA load, peripheral T lymphocytes and subpopulations as well as CD4/CD8 cell ratio and cell death (apoptosis) were monitored. The data were collected for comparison with HHV-6 infection, which involves the same cell populations yet patients usually recover, and to serve as a further basis for future computer simulation studies. The results showed progressive increases of viral RNA copies in the patients' plasma even during clinical latency, which correlates with lymphocyte apoptosis and CD4 cell loss. Besides apparent direct CD4 cell destruction, there was indication of a disturbed intrathymic T cell differentiation. Pathologic cell changes in HIV infection continue until final death of the patient and do not return to normal after variable times as in HHV-6 infection. While HHV-6 infection can serve as models for immunostimulation, with or without immune dysregulation in computer simulation studies, HIV infection is a model for immunostimulation with final immune deficiency and cellular aplasia.

  14. Marburger concept for computer-aided acquisition, processing and documentation of patient data in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Höltermann, W; Knoch, M; Pfeiffer, H; Müller, E E; Lennartz, H

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on their experience with the computer-aided acquisition, processing and documentation of patient data in an intensive care unit. The goal of an effective data and information collection system in the intensive care unit is to make therapy, and the patients respond to it, recognizable and understandable through the clear and complete representation of the patients conditions. The focal point of the data documentation is the medical record. In the implementation of a computer-aided data documentation and processing system the application of one central PC is unpractical. Each bed will be equipped with its own PC, and all the individual PCs will be connected to one central PC, which functions as server, and to connected to another PC in the doctors room. The data will be managed in a powerful database-management-system and be stored on an optical-disk. The development of an effective man/machine interface is especially important. In addition we can promote the user acceptance in other ways, so as to ensure a concrete benefit for each user group.

  15. Measurement of cognitive performance in computer programming concept acquisition: interactive effects of visual metaphors and the cognitive style construct.

    PubMed

    McKay, E

    2000-01-01

    An innovative research program was devised to investigate the interactive effect of instructional strategies enhanced with text-plus-textual metaphors or text-plus-graphical metaphors, and cognitive style on the acquisition of programming concepts. The Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) program (Riding,1991) was used to establish the participants' cognitive style. The QUEST Interactive Test Analysis System (Adams and Khoo,1996) provided the cognitive performance measuring tool, which ensured an absence of error measurement in the programming knowledge testing instruments. Therefore, reliability of the instrumentation was assured through the calibration techniques utilized by the QUEST estimate; providing predictability of the research design. A means analysis of the QUEST data, using the Cohen (1977) approach to size effect and statistical power further quantified the significance of the findings. The experimental methodology adopted for this research links the disciplines of instructional science, cognitive psychology, and objective measurement to provide reliable mechanisms for beneficial use in the evaluation of cognitive performance by the education, training and development sectors. Furthermore, the research outcomes will be of interest to educators, cognitive psychologists, communications engineers, and computer scientists specializing in computer-human interactions.

  16. Respirator triggering of electron beam computed tomography (EBCT): evaluation of dynamic changes during mechanical expiration in the traumatized patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Kleinsasser, Axel; Hatschenberger, Robert; Knapp, Rudolf; zur Nedden, Dieter; Hoermann, Christoph

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the dynamic changes during expiration at different levels of positive end- expiratory pressure (PEEP) in the ventilated patient. We wanted to discriminate between normal lung function and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After approval by the local Ethic Committee we studied two ventilated patients: (1) with normal lung function; (2) ARDS). We used the 50 ms scan mode of the EBCT. The beam was positioned 1 cm above the diaphragm. The table position remained unchanged. An electronic trigger was developed, that utilizes the respirators synchronizing signal to start the EBCT at the onset of expiration. During controlled mechanical expiration at two levels of PEEP (0 and 15 cm H2O), pulmonary aeration was rated as: well-aerated (-900HU/-500HU), poorly- aerated (-500HU/-100HU) and non-aerated (-100HU/+100HU). Pathological and normal lung function showed different dynamic changes (FIG.4-12). The different PEEP levels resulted in a significant change of pulmonary aeration in the same patient. Although we studied only a very limited number of patients, respirator triggered EBCT may be accurate in discriminating pathological changes due to the abnormal lung function in the mechanically ventilated patient.

  17. A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

  18. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

    2012-06-01

    Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

  19. Recurrent temporal networks and language acquisition-from corticostriatal neurophysiology to reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Dominey, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    One of the most paradoxical aspects of human language is that it is so unlike any other form of behavior in the animal world, yet at the same time, it has developed in a species that is not far removed from ancestral species that do not possess language. While aspects of non-human primate and avian interaction clearly constitute communication, this communication appears distinct from the rich, combinatorial and abstract quality of human language. So how does the human primate brain allow for language? In an effort to answer this question, a line of research has been developed that attempts to build a language processing capability based in part on the gross neuroanatomy of the corticostriatal system of the human brain. This paper situates this research program in its historical context, that begins with the primate oculomotor system and sensorimotor sequencing, and passes, via recent advances in reservoir computing to provide insight into the open questions, and possible approaches, for future research that attempts to model language processing. One novel and useful idea from this research is that the overlap of cortical projections onto common regions in the striatum allows for adaptive binding of cortical signals from distinct circuits, under the control of dopamine, which has a strong adaptive advantage. A second idea is that recurrent cortical networks with fixed connections can represent arbitrary sequential and temporal structure, which is the basis of the reservoir computing framework. Finally, bringing these notions together, a relatively simple mechanism can be built for learning the grammatical constructions, as the mappings from surface structure of sentences to their meaning. This research suggests that the components of language that link conceptual structure to grammatical structure may be much simpler that has been proposed in other research programs. It also suggests that part of the residual complexity is in the conceptual system itself.

  20. The influence of clinical and acquisition parameters on the interpretability of adenosine stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion.

    PubMed

    van Rosendael, Alexander R; de Graaf, Michiel A; Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C; van Zwet, Erik W; van den Hoogen, Inge J; Kharbanda, Rohit K; Bax, Jeroen J; Kroft, Lucia J; Scholte, Arthur J

    2017-02-01

    The interpretation of adenosine stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is often hampered by image artefacts caused by cardiac motion, beam hardening, and cone beam. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the influence of the heart-rate response during adenosine infusion, patient characteristics, and medication use on the interpretability of stress myocardial CTP examinations. Interpretability of stress myocardial CTP examinations was evaluated in 120 patients who underwent sequentially coronary CTA and adenosine stress myocardial CTP (320-row CT scanner, temporal resolution 175 ms) and scored as follows: excellent = absence of any artefact (n = 27, 22%); good = presence of artefacts that do not interfere with the study interpretability (n = 56, 47%); fair = artefacts that do interfere with interpretability (n = 35, 29%); poor = uninterpretable study due to artefacts (n = 2, 2%). 'Fair' and 'poor' were merged into 'reduced' for comparisons. Increasing heart rate during stress myocardial CTP acquisition was related to worse interpretability (excellent: 61.7 ± 13.4 bpm vs. good: 69.8 ± 13.5 bpm vs. reduced: 78.1 ± 17.0 bpm, P < 0.001). Thirteen (11%) of all examinations were considered non-diagnostic. In patients with a heart rate exceeding 85 bpm, 76% of the studies were 'reduced' interpretable. In multivariate analysis, no use of beta blocker (baseline or additional use prior to coronary CTA) (OR: 0.2, P = 0.012), increasing heart rate during coronary CTA (OR: 1.09, P = 0.032), younger age (OR: 0.92, P = 0.021), and the use of calcium antagonist (OR: 6.48, P = 0.017) were independently associated with a heart rate ≥85 bpm during stress myocardial CTP. Higher heart rate during the acquisition of stress myocardial CTP was related to worse interpretability. Furthermore, increasing heart rate during and no beta blocker use prior to the previously performed coronary CTA, younger age, and the use of calcium antagonist were independently

  1. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement based on preoperative computed tomography versus intraoperative data set acquisition for spinal navigation system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Weikai; Liu, Tao; Meng, Bin; Yang, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement based on preoperative computed tomography in comparison with intraoperative data set acquisition for spinal navigation system. The PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Web of Science were systematically searched for the literature published up to September 2015. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3. The dichotomous data for the pedicle violation rate was summarized using relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the fixed-effects model. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. For this meta-analysis, seven studies used a total of 579 patients and 2981 screws. The results revealed that the accuracy of intraoperative data set acquisition method is significantly higher than preoperative one using 2 mm grading criteria (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.04, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference between two kinds of methods at the 0 mm grading criteria (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.46, I(2) = 17%, p = 0.34). Using the 2-mm grading criteria, there was a higher accuracy of pedicle screw insertion in O-arm-assisted navigation than CT-based navigation method (RR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.64, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.03). The accuracy between CT-based navigation and two-dimensional-based navigation showed no significant difference (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.35-3.03, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.97). The intraoperative data set acquisition method may decrease the incidence of perforated screws over 2 mm but not increase the number of screws fully contained within the pedicle compared to preoperative CT-based navigation system. A significantly higher accuracy of intraoperative (O-arm) than preoperative CT-based navigation was revealed using 2 mm grading criteria.

  2. The Effect of Emphasizing Mathematical Structure in the Acquisition of Whole Number Computation Skills (Addition and Subtraction) By Seven- and Eight-Year Olds: A Clinical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, A. Edward; Collura, Carolyn

    This investigation sought to determine the effect of emphasizing mathematical structure in the acquisition of computational skills by seven- and eight-year-olds. The meaningful development-of-structure approach emphasized closure, commutativity, associativity, and the identity element of addition; the inverse relationship between addition and…

  3. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzer, Julian

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of two with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the factor of two increase in the number of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to three different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis on the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition system. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow for efficient display of the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. The design of the framework aims at reliability, flexibility, and robustness of the system and takes into account the operational experience gained during Run 1. The Level-1 Central Trigger was successfully operated with high efficiency during the cosmic-ray, beam-splash and first Run 2 data taking with the full ATLAS detector.

  4. Description of the ACCESS data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Treichel, B.A.; Koehl, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    The ACCESS data acquisition system is designed to acquire, process, and store samples of analog data produced by the Reversing Flow Test Apparatus. Data acquisition requires minimal interaction with the user, being governed primarily by trigger pulses generated in a shaft encoder coupled to a camshaft in the apparatus. A complete scan of 32 input data channels is made 18 times per camshaft revolution at speeds up to 30 revolutions per second. At higher speeds, up to the maximum apparatus speed of 50 revolutions per second, data channels are scanned 9 times per revolution. The programs for this data acquisition system are written for the Hewlett-Packard MCU 2250 measurement and control processor, operating in conjunction with an HP-1000 system computer.

  5. Durability patch and damage dosimeter: a portable battery-powered data acquisition computer and durability patch design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugse, Eric D.; Johnson, Patrick E.; Smith, David L.; Rogers, Lynn C.

    2000-05-01

    Repairs of secondary structure can be accomplished by restoring structural integrity at the damaged area and increasing the structure's damping in the repair region. Increased damping leads to a reduction in resonant response and a repair that will survive for the life of the aircraft. In order to design a repair with effective damping properties, the in-service structural strains and temperatures must be known. A rugged, small and lightweight data acquisition unit called the Damage Dosimeter has been developed to accomplish this task with minimal impact to the aircraft system. Running autonomously off of battery power, the Damage Dosimeter measures three channels of strain at sample rates as high as 15 kilo-samples per second and a single channel of temperature. It merges the functionality of both analog signal conditioning and a digital single board computer on one 3.5 by 5 inch card. The Damage Dosimeter allows an engineer to easily instrument an in-service aircraft to assess the structural response characteristics necessary to properly select damping materials. This information in conjunction with analysis and design procedures can be used to design a repair with optimum effectiveness. This paper will present the motivation behind the development of the Damage Dosimeter along with an overview of its functional capabilities and design. In-service flight data and analysis results will be discussed for two applications. The paper will also describe how the Damage Dosimeter is used to enable the Durability Patch design process.

  6. Evaluation of Different EEG Acquisition Systems Concerning Their Suitability for Building a Brain–Computer Interface: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2016-01-01

    One important aspect in non-invasive brain–computer interface (BCI) research is to acquire the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a proper way. From an end-user perspective, it means with maximum comfort and without any extra inconveniences (e.g., washing the hair), whereas from a technical perspective, the signal quality has to be optimal to make the BCI work effectively and efficiently. In this work, we evaluated three different commercially available EEG acquisition systems that differ in the type of electrodes (gel-, water-, and dry-based), the amplifier technique, and the data transmission method. Every system was tested regarding three different aspects, namely, technical, BCI effectiveness and efficiency (P300 communication and control), and user satisfaction (comfort). We found that water-based system had the lowest short circuit noise level, the hydrogel-based system had the highest P300 spelling accuracies, and the dry electrode-based system caused the least inconveniences. Therefore, building a reliable BCI is possible with all the evaluated systems, and it is on the user to decide which system meets the given requirements best. PMID:27746714

  7. Evaluation of Different EEG Acquisition Systems Concerning Their Suitability for Building a Brain-Computer Interface: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-01-01

    One important aspect in non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research is to acquire the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a proper way. From an end-user perspective, it means with maximum comfort and without any extra inconveniences (e.g., washing the hair), whereas from a technical perspective, the signal quality has to be optimal to make the BCI work effectively and efficiently. In this work, we evaluated three different commercially available EEG acquisition systems that differ in the type of electrodes (gel-, water-, and dry-based), the amplifier technique, and the data transmission method. Every system was tested regarding three different aspects, namely, technical, BCI effectiveness and efficiency (P300 communication and control), and user satisfaction (comfort). We found that water-based system had the lowest short circuit noise level, the hydrogel-based system had the highest P300 spelling accuracies, and the dry electrode-based system caused the least inconveniences. Therefore, building a reliable BCI is possible with all the evaluated systems, and it is on the user to decide which system meets the given requirements best.

  8. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redness in your cut or hand Swelling or warmth in your cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  9. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  10. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  11. Increasing session-to-session transfer in a brain-computer interface with on-site background noise acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hohyun; Ahn, Minkyu; Kim, Kiwoong; Jun, Sung Chan

    2015-12-01

    Objective. A brain-computer interface (BCI) usually requires a time-consuming training phase during which data are collected and used to generate a classifier. Because brain signals vary dynamically over time (and even over sessions), this training phase may be necessary each time the BCI system is used, which is impractical. However, the variability in background noise, which is less dependent on a control signal, may dominate the dynamics of brain signals. Therefore, we hypothesized that an understanding of variations in background noise may allow existing data to be reused by incorporating the noise characteristics into the feature extraction framework; in this way, new session data are not required each time and this increases the feasibility of the BCI systems. Approach. In this work, we collected background noise during a single, brief on-site acquisition session (approximately 3 min) immediately before a new session, and we found that variations in background noise were predictable to some extent. Then we implemented this simple session-to-session transfer strategy with a regularized spatiotemporal filter (RSTF), and we tested it with a total of 20 cross-session datasets collected over multiple days from 12 subjects. We also proposed and tested a bias correction (BC) in the RSTF. Main results. We found that our proposed session-to-session strategies yielded a slightly less or comparable performance to the conventional paradigm (each session training phase is needed with an on-site training dataset). Furthermore, using an RSTF only and an RSTF with a BC outperformed existing approaches in session-to-session transfers. Significance. We inferred from our results that, with an on-site background noise suppression feature extractor and pre-existing training data, further training time may be unnecessary.

  12. Optimizing 4D cone beam computed tomography acquisition by varying the gantry velocity and projection time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ricky T.; Cooper, Benjamin J.; Keall, Paul J.

    2013-03-01

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging clinical image guidance strategy for tumour sites affected by respiratory motion. In current generation 4DCBCT techniques, both the gantry rotation speed and imaging frequency are constant and independent of the patient’s breathing which can lead to projection clustering. We present a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model for respiratory motion guided-4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) which regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient’s respiratory signal, so that a full set of evenly spaced projections can be taken in a number of phase, or displacement, bins during the respiratory cycle. In each respiratory bin, an image can be reconstructed from the projections to give a 4D view of the patient’s anatomy so that the motion of the lungs, and tumour, can be observed during the breathing cycle. A solution to the full MIQP model in a practical amount of time, 10 s, is not possible with the leading commercial MIQP solvers, so a heuristic method is presented. Using parameter settings typically used on current generation 4DCBCT systems (4 min image acquisition, 1200 projections, 10 respiratory bins) and a sinusoidal breathing trace with a 4 s period, we show that the root mean square (RMS) of the angular separation between projections with displacement binning is 2.7° using existing constant gantry speed systems and 0.6° using RMG-4DCBCT. For phase based binning the RMS is 2.7° using constant gantry speed systems and 2.5° using RMG-4DCBCT. The optimization algorithm presented is a critical step on the path to developing a system for RMG-4DCBCT.

  13. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Imaging Dose during CBCT Scan Acquisition and Accuracy of CBCT Based Dose Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, David Matthew

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a recent development in radiotherapy for use in image guidance. Image guided radiotherapy using CBCT allows visualization of soft tissue targets and critical structures prior to treatment. Dose escalation is made possible by accurately localizing the target volume while reducing normal tissue toxicity. The kilovoltage x-rays of the cone beam imaging system contribute additional dose to the patient. In this study a 2D reference radiochromic film dosimetry method employing GAFCHROMIC(TM) model XR-QA film is used to measure point skin doses and dose profiles from the Elekta XVI CBCT system integrated onto the Synergy linac. The soft tissue contrast of the daily CBCT images makes adaptive radiotherapy possible in the clinic. In order to track dose to the patient or utilize on-line replanning for adaptive radiotherapy the CBCT images must be used to calculate dose. A Hounsfield unit calibration method for scatter correction is investigated for heterogeneity corrected dose calculation in CBCT images. Three Hounsfield unit to density calibration tables are used for each of four cases including patients and an anthropomorphic phantom, and the calculated dose from each is compared to results from the clinical standard fan beam CT. The dose from the scan acquisition is reported and the effect of scan geometry and total output of the x-ray tube on dose magnitude and distribution is shown. The ability to calculate dose with CBCT is shown to improve with the use of patient specific density tables for scatter correction, and for high beam energies the calculated dose agreement is within 1%.

  14. Optimizing 4D cone beam computed tomography acquisition by varying the gantry velocity and projection time interval.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ricky T; Cooper, Benjamin J; Keall, Paul J

    2013-03-21

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging clinical image guidance strategy for tumour sites affected by respiratory motion. In current generation 4DCBCT techniques, both the gantry rotation speed and imaging frequency are constant and independent of the patient's breathing which can lead to projection clustering. We present a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model for respiratory motion guided-4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) which regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient's respiratory signal, so that a full set of evenly spaced projections can be taken in a number of phase, or displacement, bins during the respiratory cycle. In each respiratory bin, an image can be reconstructed from the projections to give a 4D view of the patient's anatomy so that the motion of the lungs, and tumour, can be observed during the breathing cycle. A solution to the full MIQP model in a practical amount of time, 10 s, is not possible with the leading commercial MIQP solvers, so a heuristic method is presented. Using parameter settings typically used on current generation 4DCBCT systems (4 min image acquisition, 1200 projections, 10 respiratory bins) and a sinusoidal breathing trace with a 4 s period, we show that the root mean square (RMS) of the angular separation between projections with displacement binning is 2.7° using existing constant gantry speed systems and 0.6° using RMG-4DCBCT. For phase based binning the RMS is 2.7° using constant gantry speed systems and 2.5° using RMG-4DCBCT. The optimization algorithm presented is a critical step on the path to developing a system for RMG-4DCBCT.

  15. Design and development of an automated, portable and handheld tablet personal computer-based data acquisition system for monitoring electromyography signals during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Nizam U; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Poo, Tarn S

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the design of a robust, inexpensive, easy-to-use, small, and portable online electromyography acquisition system for monitoring electromyography signals during rehabilitation. This single-channel (one-muscle) system was connected via the universal serial bus port to a programmable Windows operating system handheld tablet personal computer for storage and analysis of the data by the end user. The raw electromyography signals were amplified in order to convert them to an observable scale. The inherent noise of 50 Hz (Malaysia) from power lines electromagnetic interference was then eliminated using a single-hybrid IC notch filter. These signals were sampled by a signal processing module and converted into 24-bit digital data. An algorithm was developed and programmed to transmit the digital data to the computer, where it was reassembled and displayed in the computer using software. Finally, the following device was furnished with the graphical user interface to display the online muscle strength streaming signal in a handheld tablet personal computer. This battery-operated system was tested on the biceps brachii muscles of 20 healthy subjects, and the results were compared to those obtained with a commercial single-channel (one-muscle) electromyography acquisition system. The results obtained using the developed device when compared to those obtained from a commercially available physiological signal monitoring system for activities involving muscle contractions were found to be comparable (the comparison of various statistical parameters) between male and female subjects. In addition, the key advantage of this developed system over the conventional desktop personal computer-based acquisition systems is its portability due to the use of a tablet personal computer in which the results are accessible graphically as well as stored in text (comma-separated value) form.

  16. Graphics Standards in the Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) Program, Fiscal Year 1989. Volume 1. Test Requirements Document and Extended CGM (CGEM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    1989 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCEVOLUME 1 : TEST National Institute of Standards and Technology National Computer Systems LaboratoryREQUIREMENTS...Galthersburg, MD 208999 DOCUMENT, may 19. EXTENDED CGM Accesioro For NTIS CRA&I (CGEM) D,,’ ,i 1 r KI , |iI iu U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE93-03 667 Robert A...STANDARDS IN THE COMPUTER-AIDED ACQUISITION AND LOGISTIC SUPPORT (CALS) PROGRAM, Daniel R. BenigniEditor FISCAL YEAR 1989 U.S. DI[PAJ"TMDr Of COMM[EM[VOLUME 1

  17. Adaptive Automation Triggered by EEG-Based Mental Workload Index: A Passive Brain-Computer Interface Application in Realistic Air Traffic Control Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aricò, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Golfetti, Alessia; Pozzi, Simone; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Géraud; Benhacene, Raïlane; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Automation (AA) is a promising approach to keep the task workload demand within appropriate levels in order to avoid both the under- and over-load conditions, hence enhancing the overall performance and safety of the human-machine system. The main issue on the use of AA is how to trigger the AA solutions without affecting the operative task. In this regard, passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems are a good candidate to activate automation, since they are able to gather information about the covert behavior (e.g., mental workload) of a subject by analyzing its neurophysiological signals (i.e., brain activity), and without interfering with the ongoing operational activity. We proposed a pBCI system able to trigger AA solutions integrated in a realistic Air Traffic Management (ATM) research simulator developed and hosted at ENAC (École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse, France). Twelve Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) students have been involved in the experiment and they have been asked to perform ATM scenarios with and without the support of the AA solutions. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed pBCI system, since it enabled the AA mostly during the high-demanding conditions (i.e., overload situations) inducing a reduction of the mental workload under which the ATCOs were operating. On the contrary, as desired, the AA was not activated when workload level was under the threshold, to prevent too low demanding conditions that could bring the operator's workload level toward potentially dangerous conditions of underload. PMID:27833542

  18. Adaptive Automation Triggered by EEG-Based Mental Workload Index: A Passive Brain-Computer Interface Application in Realistic Air Traffic Control Environment.

    PubMed

    Aricò, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Golfetti, Alessia; Pozzi, Simone; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Géraud; Benhacene, Raïlane; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Automation (AA) is a promising approach to keep the task workload demand within appropriate levels in order to avoid both the under- and over-load conditions, hence enhancing the overall performance and safety of the human-machine system. The main issue on the use of AA is how to trigger the AA solutions without affecting the operative task. In this regard, passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems are a good candidate to activate automation, since they are able to gather information about the covert behavior (e.g., mental workload) of a subject by analyzing its neurophysiological signals (i.e., brain activity), and without interfering with the ongoing operational activity. We proposed a pBCI system able to trigger AA solutions integrated in a realistic Air Traffic Management (ATM) research simulator developed and hosted at ENAC (École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse, France). Twelve Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) students have been involved in the experiment and they have been asked to perform ATM scenarios with and without the support of the AA solutions. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed pBCI system, since it enabled the AA mostly during the high-demanding conditions (i.e., overload situations) inducing a reduction of the mental workload under which the ATCOs were operating. On the contrary, as desired, the AA was not activated when workload level was under the threshold, to prevent too low demanding conditions that could bring the operator's workload level toward potentially dangerous conditions of underload.

  19. CEBAF Distributed Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Thomas Powers

    2005-05-01

    There are thousands of signals distributed throughout Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) that are useful for troubleshooting and identifying instabilities. Many of these signals are only available locally or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system will sample and record these signals simultaneously at rates up to 40 Msps. Its primary function will be to provide waveform records from signals throughout CEBAF to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The waveforms will be collected after the occurrence of an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults. The waveform data can then be processed to quickly identify beam transport issues, thus reducing down time and increasing CEBAF performance. The Dist DAQ system will be comprised of multiple standalone chassis distributed throughout CEBAF. They will be interconnected via a fiber optic network to facilitate the global triggering of events. All of the chassis will also be connected directly to the CEBAF Ethernet and run EPICS locally. This allows for more flexibility than the typical configuration of a single board computer and other custom printed circuit boards (PCB) installed in a card cage.

  20. The new data acquisition system at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Essel, H.G.; Hoffmann, J.; Kurz, N.; Mayer, R.S.; Ott, W.; Schall, D.

    1996-02-01

    The new general purpose data acquisition system developed at GSI is currently installed at about 30 experiments at GSI and other sites. It is based on the LynxOS operating system. Several CPUs, i.e. GSI developed CAMAC computer boards, VME processor boards, and Aleph Event Builders, are connected by a memory mapped bus, i.e. a VSB or VME bus. It can be configured easily for various hardware setups and is highly optimized for fast trigger rates and data throughput. The first and successful experiment taking data with the system was the SHIP production run for elements 110 and 111.

  1. TH-E-17A-07: Improved Cine Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4D CT) Acquisition and Processing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, S; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Pan, T; Ibbott, G; Balter, P; Hobbs, B; Dai, J; Guerrero, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Artifacts arising from the 4D CT acquisition and post-processing methods add systematic uncertainty to the treatment planning process. We propose an alternate cine 4D CT acquisition and post-processing method to consistently reduce artifacts, and explore patient parameters indicative of image quality. Methods: In an IRB-approved protocol, 18 patients with primary thoracic malignancies received a standard cine 4D CT acquisition followed by an oversampling 4D CT that doubled the number of images acquired. A second cohort of 10 patients received the clinical 4D CT plus 3 oversampling scans for intra-fraction reproducibility. The clinical acquisitions were processed by the standard phase sorting method. The oversampling acquisitions were processed using Dijkstras algorithm to optimize an artifact metric over available image data. Image quality was evaluated with a one-way mixed ANOVA model using a correlation-based artifact metric calculated from the final 4D CT image sets. Spearman correlations and a linear mixed model tested the association between breathing parameters, patient characteristics, and image quality. Results: The oversampling 4D CT scans reduced artifact presence significantly by 27% and 28%, for the first cohort and second cohort respectively. From cohort 2, the inter-replicate deviation for the oversampling method was within approximately 13% of the cross scan average at the 0.05 significance level. Artifact presence for both clinical and oversampling methods was significantly correlated with breathing period (ρ=0.407, p-value<0.032 clinical, ρ=0.296, p-value<0.041 oversampling). Artifact presence in the oversampling method was significantly correlated with amount of data acquired, (ρ=-0.335, p-value<0.02) indicating decreased artifact presence with increased breathing cycles per scan location. Conclusion: The 4D CT oversampling acquisition with optimized sorting reduced artifact presence significantly and reproducibly compared to the phase

  2. QR-on-a-chip: a computer-recognizable micro-pattern engraved microfluidic device for high-throughput image acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kyungwon; Lee, Hyunjae; Bang, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Noo Li

    2016-02-21

    This study proposes a novel way to achieve high-throughput image acquisition based on a computer-recognizable micro-pattern implemented on a microfluidic device. We integrated the QR code, a two-dimensional barcode system, onto the microfluidic device to simplify imaging of multiple ROIs (regions of interest). A standard QR code pattern was modified to arrays of cylindrical structures of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Utilizing the recognition of the micro-pattern, the proposed system enables: (1) device identification, which allows referencing additional information of the device, such as device imaging sequences or the ROIs and (2) composing a coordinate system for an arbitrarily located microfluidic device with respect to the stage. Based on these functionalities, the proposed method performs one-step high-throughput imaging for data acquisition in microfluidic devices without further manual exploration and locating of the desired ROIs. In our experience, the proposed method significantly reduced the time for the preparation of an acquisition. We expect that the method will innovatively improve the prototype device data acquisition and analysis.

  3. Spirometer-triggered high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function measurements during an acute exacerbation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T E; Leung, A N; Northway, W H; Blankenberg, F G; Bloch, D A; Oehlert, J W; Al-Dabbagh, H; Hubli, S; Moss, R B

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring system, clinical parameters, and pulmonary function measurements in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) before and after therapy for a pulmonary exacerbation. Patients (n = 17) were evaluated by spirometer-triggered HRCT imaging, clinical parameters, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) before and after treatment. HRCT scans were reviewed by 3 radiologists using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, and air trapping were identified in all subjects on initial evaluation. The initial total HRCT score correlated significantly with the Brasfield score (r = -.91, P <.001) and several PFT measures. After treatment, there were improvements in the acute change clinical score (ACCS) (P <.001), most pulmonary function measurements, and total HRCT score (P <.05). Bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, and air trapping did not significantly change. Mucus plugging subcomponent HRCT score, slow vital capacity (SVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), and forced vital capacity (FVC) (percent predicted) and reversible and total HRCT scores were most sensitive to change by effect size analysis. Improvements occurred with treatment in total and reversible HRCT scores, PFTs, and ACCS. Total and reversible HRCT scores and percent predicted SVC, FEV1, and FVC were the most sensitive to change. The greatest change was seen in the mucus plugging subcomponent HRCT score.

  4. Optimization of acquisition parameters and accuracy of target motion trajectory for four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography with a dynamic thorax phantom.

    PubMed

    Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Araki, Fujio; Maruyama, Masato; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Nakato, Kengo; Nagasue, Nozomu; Kai, Yudai

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the performance of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CBCT) and to optimize the acquisition parameters. We evaluated the relationship between the acquisition parameters of 4D-CBCT and the accuracy of the target motion trajectory using a dynamic thorax phantom. The target motion was created three dimensionally using target sizes of 2 and 3 cm, respiratory cycles of 4 and 8 s, and amplitudes of 1 and 2 cm. The 4D-CBCT data were acquired under two detector configurations: "small mode" and "medium mode". The projection data acquired with scan times ranging from 1 to 4 min were sorted into 2, 5, 10, and 15 phase bins. The accuracy of the measured target motion trajectories was evaluated by means of the root mean square error (RMSE) from the setup values. For the respiratory cycle of 4 s, the measured trajectories were within 2 mm of the setup values for all acquisition times and target sizes. Similarly, the errors for the respiratory cycle of 8 s were <4 mm. When we used 10 or more phase bins, the measured trajectory errors were within 2 mm of the setup values. The trajectory errors for the two detector configurations showed similar trends. The acquisition times for achieving an RMSE of 1 mm for target sizes of 2 and 3 cm were 2 and 1 min, respectively, for respiratory cycles of 4 s. The results obtained in this study enable optimization of the acquisition parameters for target size, respiratory cycle, and desired measurement accuracy.

  5. Second-generation dual-energy computed tomography of the abdomen: radiation dose comparison with 64- and 128-row single-energy acquisition.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, Carlo Nicola; Darnell, Anna; Macías, Napoleón; Ayuso, Juan Ramón; Rodríguez, Sonia; Rimola, Jordi; Pagés, Mario; García-Criado, Ángeles; Rengo, Marco; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Laghi, Andrea; Ayuso, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the radiation dose in abdominal dual-energy (DE) and single-energy (SE) acquisitions obtained in clinical practice with a second-generation DE computed tomography (DECT) and to analyze the dose variation in comparison with an SE acquisition performed with a 64-row SECT (SECT). A total of 130 patients divided into 2 groups underwent precontrast and portal abdominal 128-row CT examination. In group A, DE portal acquisition was performed using a detector configuration of 2 × 40 × 0.6 mm, tube A at 80 kVp and a reference value of 559 mAs, tube B at 140 kVp and a reference value of 216 mAs, pitch 0.6, and online dose modulation; group B underwent SE portal acquisition using a detector configuration of 64 × 0.6 mm, 120 kVp and a reference value of 180 mAs, pitch 0.75, and online dose modulation. Group C consisted of 32 subjects from group A previously studied with 64-row SECT using the following parameters: detector configuration 64 × 0.6 mm, 120 kVp and a reference value of 180 mAs, pitch 0.75, and online dose modulation. In each group, the portal phase dose-length product and radiation dose (mSv) were calculated and normalized for a typical abdominal acquisition of 40 cm. After normalization to standard 40-cm acquisition, a dose-length product of 599.0 ± 133.5 mGy · cm (range, 367.5 ± 1231.2 mGy · cm) in group A, 525.9 ± 139.2 mGy · cm (range, 215.7-882.8 mGy · cm) in group B, and 515.9 ± 111.3 mGy · cm (range, 305.5-687.2 mGy · cm) in group C was calculated for portal phase acquisition.A significant radiation dose increase (P < 0.05) was observed in group A (10.2 ± 2.3 mSv) compared with group B (8.9 ± 2.4) and group C (8.8 ± 1.9 mSv). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was reported between SE 64- and 128-row acquisitions. A significant positive correlation between radiation dose and body mass index was observed in each group (group A, r = 0.59, P < 0.0001; group B, r = 0.35, P < 0.0001; group C, r = 0.20, P = 0

  6. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  7. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  8. Optimizing Radiation Dose Levels in Prospectively Electrocardiogram-Triggered Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Using Iterative Reconstruction Techniques: A Phantom and Patient Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yang; Zheng, Jiahe; Wang, Yuke; Yu, Mei; Vembar, Mani; Guo, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the potential of reducing the radiation dose in prospectively electrocardiogram-triggered coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) while maintaining diagnostic image quality using an iterative reconstruction technique (IRT). Methods and Materials Prospectively-gated CCTA were first performed on a phantom using 256-slice multi-detector CT scanner at 120 kVp, with the tube output gradually reduced from 210 mAs (Group A) to 125, 105, 84, and 63 mAs (Group B–E). All scans were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and five IRT levels (L2-6), image quality (IQ) assessment was performed. Based on the IQ assessment, Group D(120 kVp, 84 mAs) reconstructed with L5 was found to provide IQ comparable to that of Group A with FBP. In the patient study, 21 patients underwent CCTA using 120 kV, 210 mAs with FBP reconstruction (Group 1) followed by 36 patients scanned with 120 kV, 84 mAs with IRT L5 (Group 2). Subjective and objective IQ and effective radiation dose were compared between two groups. Results In the phantom scans, there were no significant differences in image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) curves between Group A and the 84 mAs, 63 mAs groups (Groups D and E). Group D (120 kV, 84 mAs and L5) provided an optimum balance, producing equivalent image quality to Group A, at the lowest possible radiation dose. In the patient study, there were no significant difference in image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and CNR between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.71, 0.31, 0.5, respectively). The effective radiation dose in Group 2 was 1.21±0.14 mSv compared to 3.20±0.58 mSv (Group 1), reflecting dose savings of 62.5% (p<0.05). Conclusion iterative reconstruction technique used in prospectively ECG-triggered 256-slice coronary CTA can provide radiation dose reductions of up to 62.5% with acceptable image quality. PMID:23437110

  9. Detection of parathyroid adenomas using a monophasic dual-energy computed tomography acquisition: diagnostic performance and potential radiation dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Flors, Lucia; Durst, Christopher R; Hou, Qinghua; Patrie, James T; Wintermark, Max; Mukherjee, Sugoto

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the diagnostic performance of a combination of virtual non-contrast (VNC) images and arterial images obtained from a single-phase dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisition and standard non-contrast and arterial images from a biphasic protocol and to study the potential radiation dose reduction of the former approach. All DECT examinations performed for evaluation of parathyroid adenomas during a 13-month period were retrospectively reviewed. An initial single-energy unenhanced acquisition was followed by a dual-energy arterial phase acquisition. "Virtual non-contrast images" were generated from the dual-energy acquisition. Two independent and blinded radiologists evaluated three different sets of images during three reading sessions: single arterial phase, single-phase DECT (virtual non-contrast and arterial phase), and standard biphasic protocol (true non-contrast and arterial phase). The accuracy of interpretation in lateralizing an adenoma to the side of the neck and localizing it to a quadrant in the neck was evaluated. Sixty patients (mean age, 65.5 years; age range, 38-87 years) were included in the study. The lateralization and localization accuracy, sensitivity, and positive predicted value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) of the different image datasets were comparable. The combination of VNC and arterial images was more specific than arterial images alone to lateralize a parathyroid lesion (OR = 1.93, p = 0.043). The use of the single-phase protocol resulted in a calculated radiation exposure reduction of 52.8 %. Virtual non-contrast and arterial images from a single DECT acquisition showed similar diagnostic accuracy than a biphasic protocol, providing a significant dose reduction.

  10. [Usefulness of high helical pitch acquisition for reduction of patient radiation dose in cardiac multidetector computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Sano, Tomonari; Matsutani, Hideyuki; Kondo, Takeshi; Sekine, Takako; Arai, Takehiro; Morita, Hitomi; Takase, Shinichi

    2009-07-20

    Helical pitch (HP) usually has been decided automatically by the software (Heart Navi) included in the MDCT machine (Aquilion 64) depending on gantry rotation speed (r) and heart rate (HR). To reduce radiation dose, 255 consecutive patients with low HR (< or =60 bpm) and without arrhythmia underwent cardiac MDCT using high HP. We had already reported that the relationship among r, HP, and the maximum data acquisition time interval (Tmax) does not create the data deficit in arrhythmia. It was represented as Tmax= (69.88/HP-0.64) r; (equation 1). From equation 1, HP=69.88 r/ (Tmax+0.64 r); (equation 2) was derived. We measured the maximum R-R interval (R-Rmax) on ECG before MDCT acquisition, and R-Rmaxx1.1 was calculated as Tmax in consideration of R-Rmax prolongation during MDCT acquisition. The HP of high HP acquisition was calculated from equation 2. In HR< or =50 bpm, Heart Navi determined r: 0.35 sec/rot and HP: 9.8, and in 51 bpm< or =HR< or =66 bpm, r: 0.35 sec/rot and HP: 11.2. HP of the high HP (16.4+/-1.2) was significantly (p<0.0001) higher than that of Heart Navi HP (10.9+/-0.6). The scanning time (6.5+/-0.6 sec) of high HP was significantly (p<0.0001) shorter than that of Heart Navi (9.0+/-0.8 sec), and the dose length product of high HP (675+/-185 mGy x cm) was significantly (p<0.0001) lower than that of Heart Navi (923+/-252 mGy x cm). The high HP could produce fine images in 251/255 patients. In conclusion, the high HP acquisition is useful for reduction of radiation dose and scanning time.

  11. Multilevel adaptive process control of acquisition and post-processing of computed radiographic images in picture archiving and communication system environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Huang, H K

    1998-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) has become a widely used imaging modality replacing the conventional screen/film procedure in diagnostic radiology. After a latent image is captured in a CR imaging plate, there are seven key processes required before a CR image can be reliably archived and displayed in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment. Human error, computational bottlenecks, software bugs, and CR system errors often crash the CR acquisition and post-processing computers which results in a delay of transmitting CR images for proper viewing at the workstation. In this paper, we present a control theory and a fault tolerance algorithm, as well as their implementation in the PACS environment to circumvent such problems. The software implementation of the control theory and the algorithm is based on the event-driven, multilevel adaptive processing structure. The automated software has been used to provide real-time monitoring and control of CR image acquisition and post-processing in the intensive care unit module of the PACS operation at the University of California, San Francisco. Results demonstrate that the multilevel adaptive process control structure improves CR post-processing time, increases the reliability of the CR images delivery, minimizes user intervention, and speeds up the previously time-consuming quality assurance procedure.

  12. SCCT guidelines for the performance and acquisition of coronary computed tomographic angiography: A report of the society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee: Endorsed by the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI).

    PubMed

    Abbara, Suhny; Blanke, Philipp; Maroules, Christopher D; Cheezum, Michael; Choi, Andrew D; Han, B Kelly; Marwan, Mohamed; Naoum, Chris; Norgaard, Bjarne L; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Schoenhagen, Paul; Villines, Todd; Leipsic, Jonathon

    In response to recent technological advancements in acquisition techniques as well as a growing body of evidence regarding the optimal performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA), the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee has produced this update to its previously established 2009 "Guidelines for the Performance of Coronary CTA" (1). The purpose of this document is to provide standards meant to ensure reliable practice methods and quality outcomes based on the best available data in order to improve the diagnostic care of patients. Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines for the Interpretation is published separately (2). The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee ensures compliance with all existing standards for the declaration of conflict of interest by all authors and reviewers for the purpose ofclarity and transparency.

  13. The trigger supervisor: Managing triggering conditions in a high energy physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.

    1987-01-01

    A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment.

  14. Optimization of helical acquisition parameters to preserve uniformity of mouse whole body using multipinhole collimator in single-photon emission computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukon, Naoyuki; Kubo, Naoki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Zhao, Songji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji

    Focusing on whole-body uniformity in small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we examined the optimal helical acquisition parameters using five-pinhole collimators for mouse imaging. SPECT images of an 80-mm-long cylindrical phantom with 99mTc solution were acquired using an Inveon multimodality imaging platform. The bed travels used in this study were 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mm, and the numbers of revolutions traversed during the SPECT scan were 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Artifacts that degrade uniformity in reconstructed images were conspicuous when the bed travel was smaller than the object length. Regarding the distal-to-center ratio (DCR) of SPECT values in the object's axial direction, the DCR nearest to the ideal ratio of 1.00 was 1.02 in the optimal uniformity with 4.0 revolutions and a bed travel of 120 mm. Moreover, the helical acquisition using these parameters suppressed the formation of artifacts. We proposed the optimal parameters in whole-body helical SPECT; the bed travel was sufficiently larger than the object length; the 4.0 or more revolutions were required for a pitch of approximately 30 mm/revolution. The optimal acquisition parameters in SPECT to preserve uniformity would contribute to the accurate quantification of whole-body biodistribution.

  15. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  16. Assessment of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction and regional wall motion with retrospective electrocardiogram triggered 320-detector computed tomography: a comparison with 2D-echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Nasis, Arthur; Moir, Stuart; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Cameron, James D; Mottram, Philip M

    2012-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional wall motion (LVRWM) have important treatment and prognostic implications in patients with coronary artery disease. We sought to determine the accuracy of 320-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the assessment of LV volumes, LVEF and LVRWM, using 2D-echocardiography as the reference standard. We evaluated 50 consecutive patients (mean age 60 ± 14 years, 66% male) who underwent 320-detector MDCT (dose-modulated retrospective electrocardiogram-triggering) and 2D-echocardiography within 14 days for investigation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. Two blinded readers measured LV volumes on MDCT and visually assessed LVRWM with a 3-point scale using a 17-segment model. A separate experienced echocardiologist, blinded to MDCT findings, assessed LVRWM on 2D-echocardiograms and determined LV volumes and LVEF using Simpson's biplane method. 2D-echocardiography served as the reference standard. Mean LVEF was 59 ± 9% (range 26-75%) on 2D-echocardiography and 60 ± 9% (range 27-76%) on MDCT. Using linear regression analysis, MDCT agreed very well with 2D-echocardiography for assessment of LVEDV (r(2) = 0.88; P < 0.001), LVESV (r(2) = 0.95; P < 0.001) and LVEF (r(2) = 0.90; P < 0.001). Mean differences (±standard deviation) of 14 ± 13 ml, 5 ± 7 ml and 1 ± 3% were observed between MDCT and 2D-echocardiography for LVEDV, LVESV and LVEF, respectively. On 2D-echocardiography, 81/850 (9.5%) segments had abnormal LVRWM. Agreement for assessment of LVRWM between 2D-echocardiography and MDCT was excellent (96%, k = 0.76). Accurate assessment of LV volumes, LVEF and LVRWM is feasible with 320-detector MDCT, with MDCT demonstrating slightly larger LV volumes than 2D-echocardiography.

  17. Variability of repeated coronary artery calcium scoring and radiation Dose on 64- and 16-slice computed tomography by prospective electrocardiographically-triggered axial and retrospective electrocardiographically-gated spiral computed tomography: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Jun; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako; Arie, Ryuichi; Shen, Yun; Sunasaka, Kenichi; Kitagawa, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Hideya; Ito, Katsuhide

    2008-08-01

    We sought to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, the variability and radiation doses on 64- and 16-slice computed tomography (CT) scanners by both prospective electrocardiographically (ECG)-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated scans. Coronary artery models (n = 3) with different plaque CT densities (approximately 240 Hounsfield units [HU], approximately 600 HU, and approximately 1000 HU) of four sizes (1, 3, 5, and 10 mm in length) on a cardiac phantom were scanned three times in five heart rate sequences. The tube current-time products were set to almost the same on all four protocols (32.7 mAs for 64-slice prospective and retrospective scans, 33.3 mAs for 16-slice prospective and retrospective scans). Slice thickness was set to 2.5 mm to keep the radiation dose low. Overlapping reconstruction with a 1.25-mm increment was applied on the retrospective ECG-gated scan. The CAC scores were not different between the four protocols (one-factor analysis of variance: Agatston, P = .32; volume, P = .19; and mass, P = .09). Two-factor factorial analysis of variance test revealed that the interscan variability was different between protocols (P < .01) and scoring algorithms (P < .01). The average variability of Agatston/volume/mass scoring and effective doses were as follows: 64-slice prospective scan: 16%/15%/11% and 0.5 mSv; 64-slice retrospective scan: 11%/11%/8% and 3.7 mSv; 16-slice prospective scan: 20%/18%/13% and 0.6 mSv; and 16-slice retrospective scan: 16%/15%/11% and 2.9 to 3.5 mSv (depending on the pitch). Retrospective ECG-gated 64-slice CT showed the lowest variability. Prospective ECG-triggered 64-slice CT, with low radiation dose, shows low variability on CAC scoring comparable to retrospective ECG-gated 16-slice CT.

  18. Firearm trigger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  19. Portfolio Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-14

    pmodigliani@mitre.org (703) 983-9131 14 May 15 Portfolio Acquisition NPS Acquisition Research Symposium 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Portfolio Acquisition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Portfolio Acquisition Concept Elevate acquisition elements up to a portfolio structure for speed

  20. Dual-energy computed tomography with advanced postimage acquisition data processing: improved determination of urinary stone composition.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Michael N; Pierre, Sean A; Simmons, Walter Neal; Paulson, Erik K; Albala, David M; Preminger, Glenn M

    2010-03-01

    The characterization of urinary calculi using noninvasive methods has the potential to affect clinical management. CT remains the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary calculi, but has not reliably differentiated varying stone compositions. Dual-energy CT (DECT) has emerged as a technology to improve CT characterization of anatomic structures. This study aims to assess the ability of DECT to accurately discriminate between different types of urinary calculi in an in vitro model using novel postimage acquisition data processing techniques. Fifty urinary calculi were assessed, of which 44 had >or=60% composition of one component. DECT was performed utilizing 64-slice multidetector CT. The attenuation profiles of the lower-energy (DECT-Low) and higher-energy (DECT-High) datasets were used to investigate whether differences could be seen between different stone compositions. Postimage acquisition processing allowed for identification of the main different chemical compositions of urinary calculi: brushite, calcium oxalate-calcium phosphate, struvite, cystine, and uric acid. Statistical analysis demonstrated that this processing identified all stone compositions without obvious graphical overlap. Dual-energy multidetector CT with postprocessing techniques allows for accurate discrimination among the main different subtypes of urinary calculi in an in vitro model. The ability to better detect stone composition may have implications in determining the optimum clinical treatment modality for urinary calculi from noninvasive, preprocedure radiological assessment.

  1. EIAGRID: In-field optimization of seismic data acquisition by real-time subsurface imaging using a remote GRID computing environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, B. Z.; Vallenilla Ferrara, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    The constant growth of contaminated sites, the unsustainable use of natural resources, and, last but not least, the hydrological risk related to extreme meteorological events and increased climate variability are major environmental issues of today. Finding solutions for these complex problems requires an integrated cross-disciplinary approach, providing a unified basis for environmental science and engineering. In computer science, grid computing is emerging worldwide as a formidable tool allowing distributed computation and data management with administratively-distant resources. Utilizing these modern High Performance Computing (HPC) technologies, the GRIDA3 project bundles several applications from different fields of geoscience aiming to support decision making for reasonable and responsible land use and resource management. In this abstract we present a geophysical application called EIAGRID that uses grid computing facilities to perform real-time subsurface imaging by on-the-fly processing of seismic field data and fast optimization of the processing workflow. Even though, seismic reflection profiling has a broad application range spanning from shallow targets in a few meters depth to targets in a depth of several kilometers, it is primarily used by the hydrocarbon industry and hardly for environmental purposes. The complexity of data acquisition and processing poses severe problems for environmental and geotechnical engineering: Professional seismic processing software is expensive to buy and demands large experience from the user. In-field processing equipment needed for real-time data Quality Control (QC) and immediate optimization of the acquisition parameters is often not available for this kind of studies. As a result, the data quality will be suboptimal. In the worst case, a crucial parameter such as receiver spacing, maximum offset, or recording time turns out later to be inappropriate and the complete acquisition campaign has to be repeated. The

  2. Influence of acquisition orbit on phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging for assessment of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony.

    PubMed

    Misaka, Tomofumi; Hosono, Makoto; Kudo, Takashi; Ito, Takamichi; Syomura, Tsutomu; Uemura, Masanobu; Okajima, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    The association between left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony parameters, given by phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and acquisition orbits is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the dependence of LV dyssynchrony parameters on acquisition orbits. Ninety-nine patients who underwent (201)Tl-gated SPECT MPI were categorized into minor hypoperfusion or major hypoperfusion groups. Forty-four patients who underwent (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin-gated SPECT MPI were categorized into minor hypoperfusion or major hypoperfusion groups. The major hypoperfusion group with (201)Tl was divided into inferior or non-inferior wall hypoperfusion subgroups, and anteroseptal or non-anteroseptal wall hypoperfusion subgroups. Gated SPECT MPI data over a 360° acquisition orbit (360° images) and a 180° acquisition orbit (180° images) were reconstructed, and histogram bandwidth (HBW) and phase standard deviation (PSD) were compared. Between 360° and 180° images with (201)Tl, there were significant differences in HBW and PSD both globally (HBW 34.8 ± 16.6 vs. 29.1 ± 10.2; PSD 8.8 ± 4.9 vs. 7.0 ± 2.3, p < 0.05 for both) and in the inferior wall (HBW 29.5 ± 15.5 vs. 23.3 ± 9.0; PSD 7.6 ± 4.6 vs. 5.6 ± 2.4, p < 0.001 for both) in the major hypoperfusion group, and also in the inferior wall in all subgroups of the major hypoperfusion group. In contrast, no segment had any significant differences in HBW or PSD between 360° and 180° images with (99m)Tc. Differences in acquisition orbit had a significant influence on HBW and PSD with (201)Tl-gated SPECT MPI in the inferior wall in patients with major hypoperfusion myocardium.

  3. Location and acquisition of objects in unpredictable locations. [a teleoperator system with a computer for manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A. J.; Park, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    A teleoperator system with a computer for manipulator control to combine the capabilities of both man and computer to accomplish a task is described. This system allows objects in unpredictable locations to be successfully located and acquired. By using a method of characterizing the work-space together with man's ability to plan a strategy and coarsely locate an object, the computer is provided with enough information to complete the tedious part of the task. In addition, the use of voice control is shown to be a useful component of the man/machine interface.

  4. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  5. The H1 Trigger with Emphasis on Tracking Triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedlberger, J.

    1995-11-01

    Since the commissioning of the electron proton collider HERA in 1992 at DESY the H1 experiment collected data with stable performance. The collision frequency of 10.4 MHz necessitates a pipelined design of the data acquisition and the trigger. A multilevel trigger is used to provide the required selectivity on physics processes and to allow for fast rejection of background events. Subdetector-based, deadtime-free triggers are combined to produce a first level trigger. The dcr φ trigger described herein, extracts its data from the central driftchamber. The drifttime of the signals is measured online and logical functions are applied on the digitized time measurements. To account for different performance parameters of the driftchamber the hardware demands a high flexibility, thus leading to a design with Programmable Gate Arrays (XILINX). Track-finding is achieved by means of ten thousand look-up tables, each with typically 20 inputs. Although the signals for one event will arrive within 1.1 μs, it is possible to determine the timing of the event online within one bunchcrossing (0.096 μs).

  6. Upgrades of the Data Acquisition System for the KOTO Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Stephanie; Ameel, Jon; Beaufore, Lucas; Beckford, Brian; Beechert, Jacqueline; Bogdan, Mircea; Bryant, Khalil; Campbell, Myron; Hutcheson, Melissa; Lee, Roman; McNeal, Noah; Micallef, Jessica; Robinson, Joshua; Rymph, Christopher; Schamis, Hanna; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki; Tajima, Yasuhisa; Taylor, Molly; Tecchio, Monica; Wah, Yau

    2017-01-01

    The KOTO data acquisition system (DAQ) collects detector PMT waveform signals and saves digitized events to permanent storage using frontend ADC modules, two levels of hardware triggers, and a computing farm. The KOTO DAQ system ran stably in 2013 with 24 kW beam power. To maintain high DAQ livetime with increasing beam power, we implemented lossless data compression inside the ADC modules and developed a new L3 computing farm. The upgraded KOTO DAQ system was able to maintain livetime above 80% with 42 kW beam power during the 2015 and 2016 runs. To sustain high DAQ livetime for data taking with beam power of 50 kW and above, an upgrade of our hardware trigger is proposed.

  7. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    Description of the Proposed Activity/REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE or PIAB: This ECN changes the computer systems design description support document describing the computers system used to control, monitor and archive the processes and outputs associated with the Hydrogen Mitigation Test Pump installed in SY-101. There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this computer system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status.

  8. Value of computed tomography arthrography with delayed acquisitions in the work-up of ganglion cysts of the tarsal tunnel: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Omoumi, Patrick; de Gheldere, Antoine; Leemrijse, Thibaut; Galant, Christine; Van den Bergh, Peter; Malghem, Jacques; Simoni, Paolo; Vande Berg, Bruno C; Lecouvet, Frédéric E

    2010-04-01

    Ganglion cysts are a common cause of tarsal tunnel syndrome. As in other locations, these cysts are believed to communicate with neighboring joints. The positive diagnosis and preoperative work-up of these cysts require identification and location of the cyst pedicles so that they may be excised and the risk of recurrence decreased. This can be challenging with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present three cases of symptomatic ganglion cysts of the tarsal tunnel, diagnosed by MR imaging, where computed tomography (CT) arthrography with delayed acquisitions helped to confirm the diagnosis and identify precisely the topography of the communication with the subtalar joint. These cases provide new evidence of the articular origin of ganglion cysts developing in the tarsal tunnel.

  9. Accuracy and benefits of 3D bone surface modelling: a comparison of two methods of surface data acquisition reconstructed by laser scanning and computed tomography outputs.

    PubMed

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Prokop, Josef; Horák, Martin; Jancárek, Alexandr; Velemínská, Jana

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two different methods of frontal bone surface model acquisition. Three dimensional models acquired by laser scanning were compared with models of the same bones acquired by virtual replicas reconstructed from a sequence of computed tomography (CT) images. The influence of volumetric CT data processing (namely thresholding), which immediately preceded the generation of the three-dimensional surface model, was also considered and explored in detail in one sample. Despite identifying certain areas where both models showed deviations across all samples, their conformity can be generally classified as satisfactory, and the differences can be regarded as minimal. The average deviation of registered surface models was 0.27 mm for 90% of the data, and its value was therefore very close to the resolution of the laser scanner used.

  10. Early Intervention with Children of Dyslexic Parents: Effects of Computer-Based Reading Instruction at Home on Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regtvoort, Anne G. F. M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary basis of dyslexia makes it possible to identify children at risk early on. Pre-reading children genetically at risk received during 14 weeks a home- and computer-based training in phonemic awareness and letter-sound relationships in the context of reading instruction. At posttest training effects were found for both phonemic…

  11. Peer-Monitoring vs. Micro-Script Fading for Enhancing Knowledge Acquisition when Learning in Computer-Supported Argumentation Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouyias, Yannis; Demetriadis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has strongly emphasized the value of providing student support with micro-scripts, which should withdraw (fade-out) allowing students to practice the acquired skills. However, research on fading shows conflicting results and some researchers suggest that the impact of fading is enhanced…

  12. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  13. Early Intervention with Children of Dyslexic Parents: Effects of Computer-Based Reading Instruction at Home on Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regtvoort, Anne G. F. M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary basis of dyslexia makes it possible to identify children at risk early on. Pre-reading children genetically at risk received during 14 weeks a home- and computer-based training in phonemic awareness and letter-sound relationships in the context of reading instruction. At posttest training effects were found for both phonemic…

  14. A real-time expert system for trigger-logic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clearwater, S.; Cleland, W.; Provost, F.; Stern, E.; Zhang, Z.

    1990-08-01

    We are developing a novel real-time expert system to monitor the performance of a triggering system in a high-energy/nuclear physics experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Experiment 814). The system runs on an 80386 processor that is completely independent of the data-acquisition computer for the experiment. Artificial intelligence techniques are seen as especially important for the diagnostic capability of the system. In particular, a separation of the diagnostic knowledge from the control procedures facilitates modification of the expert system and hence the diagnostic capability of the overall system. This is highly desirable as changes in the trigger conditions often occur during the course of a physics run. In addition, one of the objectives of this research is to develop a system which is capable of detecting fault conditions in a serial trigger processor and to aid in locating their cause.

  15. A high-speed DAQ framework for future high-level trigger and event building clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Ardila Perez, L. E.; Balzer, M.; Dritschler, T.; Kopmann, A.; Mohr, H.; Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Weber, M.

    2017-03-01

    Modern data acquisition and trigger systems require a throughput of several GB/s and latencies of the order of microseconds. To satisfy such requirements, a heterogeneous readout system based on FPGA readout cards and GPU-based computing nodes coupled by InfiniBand has been developed. The incoming data from the back-end electronics is delivered directly into the internal memory of GPUs through a dedicated peer-to-peer PCIe communication. High performance DMA engines have been developed for direct communication between FPGAs and GPUs using "DirectGMA (AMD)" and "GPUDirect (NVIDIA)" technologies. The proposed infrastructure is a candidate for future generations of event building clusters, high-level trigger filter farms and low-level trigger system. In this paper the heterogeneous FPGA-GPU architecture will be presented and its performance be discussed.

  16. Acquisition and analysis of spectral image data by linear un-mixing, cluster computing and a novel spectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Paul R.; Edens, Richard J.; Vojnovic, B.

    2005-03-01

    We describe how spectral imaging, linear un-mixing and cluster computing have been combined to aid biomedical researchers and allow the spatial segmentation and quantitative analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue section images. A novel cost-effective spectral imager, with a bandwidth of 15 nm between 400 and 700 nm, allows us to record both spatial and spectral data from absorptive and fluorescent chemical probes. The linear un-mixing of this data separates the stain distributions revealing areas of co-localisation and extracts quantitative values of optical density. This has been achieved at the single-pixel level of an image by non-negative least squares fitting. This process can be computationally expensive but great processing speed increases have been achieved through the use of cluster computing. We describe how several personal computers, running Microsoft WindowsXP, can be used in parallel, linked by the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard. We describe how the free MPICH libraries have been incorporated into our spectral imaging application under the C language and how this has been extended to support features of MPI2 via the commercial WMPI II libraries. A cluster of 8 processors, in 4 dual-Athlon-2600+ computers, offered a speed up of a factor of 5 compared to a singleton. This includes the time required to transfer the data throughout the cluster and reflects a processing efficiency of 0.62 (a Cluster Efficacy of 3.0). The cluster was based on a 1000Base-T Ethernet network and appears to be scalable efficiently beyond 8 processors.

  17. The acquisition of inquiry skills and computer skills by 8th grade urban middle school students in a technology-supported environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffin, Monya Aisha

    The evolution of increased global accessibility and dependency on computer technologies has revolutionized most aspects of everyday life, including a rapid transformation of 21st century schools. Current changes in education reflect the need for the integration of effective computer technologies in school curricula. The principal objective of this investigation was to examine the acquisition of computer skills and inquiry skills by urban eighth grade students in a technology-supported environment. The study specifically focused on students' ability to identify, understand, and work through the process of scientific inquiry, while also developing computer technology tool skills. The unique component of the study was its contextualization within a local historically significant setting---an African-American cemetery. Approximately seventy students, in a local middle school, participated in the five-week treatment. Students conducted research investigations on site and over the Internet, worked in collaborative groups, utilized technology labs, and received inquiry and computer technology instruction. A mixed method design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Two pilot studies conducted in an after-school science club format helped sharpen the research question, data collection methods, and survey used in the school-based study. Complete sets of data from pre and post surveys and journals were collected from sixty students. Six students were randomly selected to participate in in-depth focus group interviews. Researcher observations and inferences were also included in the analysis. The research findings showed that, after the treatment, students: (a) acquired more inquiry skills and computer skills, (b) broadened their basic conceptual understanding and perspective about science, (c) engaged actively in a relevant learning process, (d) created tangible evidence of their inquiry skills and computer skills, and (e) recalled and retained more details

  18. Computer Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study of the Influence of High Computer Access on Students' Thinking, Learning, and Interactions. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Robert J.; And Others

    In this study, six students were followed through 4 years of high school, documenting the impact of unlimited access to new learning tools--such as computers, scanners, and videodisc players--on their thinking, their approach to learning, and their interactions with others. The students were in two different classes and the years of case studies…

  19. Development of autonomous triggering instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Steve E.; Swift, Theresa M.; Fonda, James W.

    2008-03-01

    Triggering instrumentation for autonomous monitoring of load-induced strain is described for economical, fast bridge inspection. The development addresses one aspect for the management of transportation infrastructure - bridge monitoring and inspection. The objectives are to provide quantitative performance information from a load test, to minimize the setup time at the bridge, and to minimize the closure time to traffic. Multiple or networked measurements can be made for a prescribed loading sequence. The proposed smart system consists of in-situ strain sensors, an embedded data acquisition module, and a measurement triggering system. A companion control unit is mounted on the truck serving as the load. As the truck moves to the proper position, the desired measurement is automatically relayed back to the control unit. In this work, the testing protocol is developed and the performance parameters for the triggering and data acquisition are measured. The test system uses a dedicated wireless sensor mote and an infrared positioning system. The electronic procedure offers improvements in available information and economics.

  20. XSTREAM: A Highly Efficient High Speed Real-time Satellite Data Acquisition and Processing System using Heterogeneous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Kumar, K.; Mahendra, P.; Ramakrishna rReddy, V.; Tirupathi, T.; Akilan, A.; Usha Devi, R.; Anuradha, R.; Ravi, N.; Solanki, S. S.; Achary, K. K.; Satish, A. L.; Anshu, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the remote sensing community has observed a significant growth in number of satellites, sensors and their resolutions, thereby increasing the volume of data to be processed each day. Satellite data processing is a complex and time consuming activity. It consists of various tasks, such as decode, decrypt, decompress, radiometric normalization, stagger corrections, ephemeris data processing for geometric corrections etc., and finally writing of the product in the form of an image file. Each task in the processing chain is sequential in nature and has different computing needs. Conventionally the processes are cascaded in a well organized workflow to produce the data products, which are executed on general purpose high-end servers / workstations in an offline mode. Hence, these systems are considered to be ineffective for real-time applications that require quick response and just-intime decision making such as disaster management, home land security and so on. This paper discusses anovel approach to processthe data online (as the data is being acquired) using a heterogeneous computing platform namely XSTREAM which has COTS hardware of CPUs, GPUs and FPGA. This paper focuses on the process architecture, re-engineering aspects and mapping of tasks to the right computing devicewithin the XSTREAM system, which makes it an ideal cost-effective platform for acquiring, processing satellite payload data in real-time and displaying the products in original resolution for quick response. The system has been tested for IRS CARTOSAT and RESOURCESAT series of satellites which have maximum data downlink speed of 210 Mbps.

  1. Metrology data reduction system: PDP-11/34 computer system. [MOUNT, for thermistor mount data acquisition, in FORTRAN IV

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A PDP-11/34 computer system was installed to acquire, correct, scale, display, store, and process data obtained by microwave and dc area coupler controllers. The system is used to calibrate power sensors and impedance and dc measurement standards on a real-time basis. The microwave data input is from a digital voltmeter and scanner arrangement, which also may be controlled from a P-ROM control board. The dc data input is from a passive device interface or from a terminal keyboard. 5 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Effects of competitive computer-assisted learning versus conventional teaching methods on the acquisition and retention of knowledge in medical surgical nursing students.

    PubMed

    Fernández Alemán, José Luis; Carrillo de Gea, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez Mondéjar, Juan José

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of computer-assisted learning for nursing education in university undergraduate courses. The most innovative aspect of the proposal is the design of nursing assignments as on-line competitions. The effects of competitive e-learning versus conventional teaching methods on the acquisition and retention of knowledge were compared in a course on medical-surgical nursing. A total of 116 students of mixed gender, age, computer experience and educational background in a second-year course on medical-surgical nursing participated in the study. Data were collected from nursing students at four time points. The on-line activities were carried out using a web-based automatic evaluation system. The study revealed that the competitive e-learning method produced significant cognitive gains for the experimental group students in the immediate follow-up test. Nevertheless, both teaching methods resulted in similar knowledge retention in the 10-week follow-up test. Significant benefits were found following our approach. The work of the students could be evaluated along the course, the workload of instructors was reduced and students received immediate feedback by the on-line judge, which promoted both independent learning and reflective thinking. The approach is applicable to any other nursing educational institution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The LHCb trigger: Algorithms and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Hugo; LHCb Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    This article describes the hardware architecture of the LHCb trigger system, as well as the algorithms that it executes in order to identify the relevant B meson decays. The expected performance on simulated data and the trigger commissioning status and plans are also presented. The LHCb trigger consists of two phases: the Level 0 and the High Level Trigger. The former is synchronous and implemented in custom electronics, and it reduces the rate to 1 MHz. The High Level Trigger is a C++ algorithm running in a farm of about 1000 16-core computing nodes and further reducing the rate to 2 kHz. The Level 0 efficiency computed on B meson events that would be offline-selected range between 90% for decays containing muons and 50% for purely hadronic decays, the later suffering from higher light quark backgrounds. Overall High Level Trigger efficiencies range between 60% and 80%.

  4. Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography with a circle-plus-two-arcs data acquisition orbit: preliminary phantom study.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ruola; Tang, Xiangyang; Conover, David; Yu, Rongfeng

    2003-07-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been investigated in the past two decades due to its potential advantages over a fan beam CT. These advantages include (a) great improvement in data acquisition efficiency, spatial resolution, and spatial resolution uniformity, (b) substantially better utilization of x-ray photons generated by the x-ray tube compared to a fan beam CT, and (c) significant advancement in clinical three-dimensional (3D) CT applications. However, most studies of CBCT in the past are focused on cone beam data acquisition theories and reconstruction algorithms. The recent development of x-ray flat panel detectors (FPD) has made CBCT imaging feasible and practical. This paper reports a newly built flat panel detector-based CBCT prototype scanner and presents the results of the preliminary evaluation of the prototype through a phantom study. The prototype consisted of an x-ray tube, a flat panel detector, a GE 8800 CT gantry, a patient table and a computer system. The prototype was constructed by modifying a GE 8800 CT gantry such that both a single-circle cone beam acquisition orbit and a circle-plus-two-arcs orbit can be achieved. With a circle-plus-two-arcs orbit, a complete set of cone beam projection data can be obtained, consisting of a set of circle projections and a set of arc projections. Using the prototype scanner, the set of circle projections were acquired by rotating the x-ray tube and the FPD together on the gantry, and the set of arc projections were obtained by tilting the gantry while the x-ray tube and detector were at the 12 and 6 o'clock positions, respectively. A filtered backprojection exact cone beam reconstruction algorithm based on a circle-plus-two-arcs orbit was used for cone beam reconstruction from both the circle and arc projections. The system was first characterized in terms of the linearity and dynamic range of the detector. Then the uniformity, spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were assessed using

  5. The D0 level three data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    D. Chapin et al.

    2004-03-17

    The DZERO experiment located at Fermilab has recently started RunII with an upgraded detector. The RunII physics program requires the Data Acquisition to readout the detector at a rate of 1 KHz. Events fragments, totaling 250 KB, are readout from approximately 60 front end crates and sent to a particular farm node for Level 3 Trigger processing. A scalable system, capable of complex event routing, has been designed and implemented based on commodity components: VMIC 7750 Single Board Computers for readout, a Cisco 6509 switch for data flow, and close to 100 Linux-based PCs for high-level event filtering.

  6. Practical considerations for optimizing cardiac computed tomography protocols for comprehensive acquisition prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Khalique, Omar K; Pulerwitz, Todd C; Halliburton, Sandra S; Kodali, Susheel K; Hahn, Rebecca T; Nazif, Tamim M; Vahl, Torsten P; George, Isaac; Leon, Martin B; D'Souza, Belinda; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is performed frequently in patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at high risk or inoperable for open surgical aortic valve replacement. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the gold standard imaging modality for pre-TAVR cardiac anatomic and vascular access assessment. Traditionally, cardiac CTA has been most frequently used for assessment of coronary artery stenosis, and scanning protocols have generally been tailored for this purpose. Pre-TAVR CTA has different goals than coronary CTA and the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the TAVR patient population creates a particular need to optimize protocols for a reduction in iodinated contrast volume. This document reviews details which allow the physician to tailor CTA examinations to maximize image quality and minimize harm, while factoring in multiple patient and scanner variables which must be considered in customizing a pre-TAVR protocol.

  7. Radiation dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) using a new implementation of wavelet denoising in low tube current acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yinghua; Brunner, Stephen; Tang, Jie; Speidel, Michael; Rowley, Howard; VanLysel, Michael; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Radiation dose reduction remains at the forefront of research in computed tomography. X-ray tube parameters such as tube current can be lowered to reduce dose; however, images become prohibitively noisy when the tube current is too low. Wavelet denoising is one of many noise reduction techniques. However, traditional wavelet techniques have the tendency to create an artificial noise texture, due to the nonuniform denoising across the image, which is undesirable from a diagnostic perspective. This work presents a new implementation of wavelet denoising that is able to achieve noise reduction, while still preserving spatial resolution. Further, the proposed method has the potential to improve those unnatural noise textures. The technique was tested on both phantom and animal datasets (Catphan phantom and timeresolved swine heart scan) acquired on a GE Discovery VCT scanner. A number of tube currents were used to investigate the potential for dose reduction.

  8. Dynamics of infection with human herpesvirus-6 in EBV-negative infectious mononucleosis: data acquisition for computer modeling.

    PubMed

    Krueger, G R; Bertram, G; Ramon, A; Koch, B; Ablashi, D V; Brandt, M E; Wang, G; Buja, L M

    2001-01-01

    Ten adult patients with active HHV-6 variant A infections and clinical infectious mononucleosis-like disease (IM) were studied over a period of 32 weeks after onset of disease for their viral DNA load, changes in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes and subpopulations and frequency of cell death in peripheral blood cells. The data were collected as the basis for an advanced computer simulation study for which available data in the literature were too varied. Since the exact time of primary infection of the patients was not known and thus no time relationship of viral effects at cellular level were determined, we supplemented such data from separate tissue culture studies using HHV-6 alpha infection of HSB2 cells. Patients with IM demonstrate an increase in-HHV-6 DNA copies from 0 to 8.2 log 10/5 microL blood within 4 weeks return to normal by 16 weeks. Total T-lymphocytes follow infection with a 20-fold increase above normal peaking at 8-10 weeks and then return to normal by 24-28 weeks. Coincidently, less mature lymphoid cells carrying markers for stem cells, thymic cortical and medullary cells increase 8-10-fold indicating an enhanced mobilization of such cells from premature cell compartments. Cell death in peripheral mononuclear cells peaked with 30% at 8 weeks after onset of clinical disease and normalized by 24 weeks. HHV-6 replication in cell culture as determined by antigen expression, electron microscopy and harvest of infectious virus indicated a complete cycle of virus infection and replication of at least 6 days. The presented data compare well with others from the literature and will serve for testing in a computer simulation model, which is the subject of a forthcoming paper.

  9. Jefferson Lab's Distributed Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Thomas Powers

    2006-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) occasionally experiences fast intermittent beam instabilities that are difficult to isolate and result in downtime. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system is being developed to detect and quickly locate such instabilities. It will consist of multiple Ethernet based data acquisition chassis distributed throughout the seven-eights of a mile CEBAF site. Each chassis will monitor various control system signals that are only available locally and/or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The chassis will collect data at rates up to 40 Msps in circular buffers that can be frozen and unrolled after an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults and be distributed via a custom fiber optic event trigger network. This triggering scheme will allow all the data acquisition chassis to be triggered simultaneously and provide a snapshot of relevant CEBAF control signals. The data will then be automatically analyzed for frequency content and transients to determine if and where instabilities exist.

  10. Jefferson Lab's Distributed Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Trent; Powers, Tom

    2006-11-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) occasionally experiences fast intermittent beam instabilities that are difficult to isolate and result in downtime. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system is being developed to detect and quickly locate such instabilities. It will consist of multiple Ethernet based data acquisition chassis distributed throughout the seven-eighths of a mile CEBAF site. Each chassis will monitor various control system signals that are only available locally and/or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The chassis will collect data at rates up to 40 Msps in circular buffers that can be frozen and unrolled after an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults and be distributed via a custom fiber optic event trigger network. This triggering scheme will allow all the data acquisition chassis to be triggered simultaneously and provide a snapshot of relevant CEBAF control signals. The data will then be automatically analyzed for frequency content and transients to determine if and where instabilities exist.

  11. Jefferson Lab's Distributed Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Trent; Powers, Tom

    2006-11-20

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) occasionally experiences fast intermittent beam instabilities that are difficult to isolate and result in downtime. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system is being developed to detect and quickly locate such instabilities. It will consist of multiple Ethernet based data acquisition chassis distributed throughout the seven-eighths of a mile CEBAF site. Each chassis will monitor various control system signals that are only available locally and/or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The chassis will collect data at rates up to 40 Msps in circular buffers that can be frozen and unrolled after an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults and be distributed via a custom fiber optic event trigger network. This triggering scheme will allow all the data acquisition chassis to be triggered simultaneously and provide a snapshot of relevant CEBAF control signals. The data will then be automatically analyzed for frequency content and transients to determine if and where instabilities exist.

  12. The design and use of a computer-based digital image acquisition, management, and communications system for conferencing in pathology.

    PubMed

    Wray, B E; Lai-Goldman, M

    1995-01-01

    The Roche ImageManager is a PC computer-based system, running under Windows 3.1. This system allows the storage, viewing, printing, and transmission of, and conferencing on large sets of high resolution, color images from various sources. Images may be acquired at resolutions up to 3072 x 2320 pixels under software control, and transmitted for conferencing or stored in the database using JPEG compression. Each image is stored with associated information, text notes, annotations, and a "thumbnail" image. The stored information may be searched for matching images, for example representative images of a particular disease for training, or images to be reviewed for a particular patient. Images may be transmitted with all associated information between sites which have telephone service, worldwide. Support is being added for LAN use with a multi-user database, ISDN and Switch56 communications, and remote microscope control. Interactive conferencing allows rapid transmission of low resolution images for specimen scanning, viewing of multiple high resolution still images, and real-time interactive pointers for detailed discussions of image features. The ImageManager is being used and evaluated for conferencing and training purposes. A study was performed by Roche Biomedical Laboratories to compare the ability of pathologists to make a diagnosis on complex cases using transmitted images vs. routine microscopic examination. The effectiveness of the system in providing images of a sufficient quality to allow diagnosis in a private practice setting will be presented.

  13. Dynamics of chronic active herpesvirus-6 infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: data acquisition for computer modeling.

    PubMed

    Krueger, G R; Koch, B; Hoffmann, A; Rojo, J; Brandt, M E; Wang, G; Buja, L M

    2001-01-01

    Ten adult patients with persistent active HHV-6 variant A infection and clinical chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were studied over a period of 24 months after initial clinical diagnosis. CFS was diagnosed according to IIIP-revised CDC-criteria as defined by the CFS Expert Advisory Group to the German Federal Ministry of Health in 1994. Changes in HHV-6 antibody titer, viral DNA load, peripheral blood T lymphocytes and subpopulations, as well as CD4/CD8 cell ratio and cell death (apoptosis) were monitored. Data were collected for comparison with respective changes in acute HHV-6 infection and as a basis for future computer simulation studies. The results showed variable but slightly elevated numbers of HHV-6 DNA copies in the blood of patients with CFS, while PBL (peripheral blood lymphocyte) apoptosis rates were clearly increased. CD4/CD8 cell ratios varied from below 1 up to values as seen in autoimmune disorders. Contrary to acute HHV-6 infection, T lymphocytes do not exhibit the usual response to HHV-6, that is elevation of mature and immature populations suggesting a certain degree of unresponsiveness. The data suggest that persistent low-dose stimulation by HHV-6 may favor imbalanced immune response rather than overt immune deficiency. This hypothesis requires confirmation through additional functional studies.

  14. Wavelength band optimization in spectral near-infrared optical tomography improves accuracy while reducing data acquisition and computational burden

    PubMed Central

    Eames, Matthew E.; Wang, Jia; Pogue, Brian W.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral near-infrared (NIR) tomographic imaging has the potential to provide information about molecules absorbing light in tissue, as well as subcellular structures scattering light, based on transmission measurements. However, the choice of possible wavelengths used is crucial for the accurate separation of these parameters, as well as for diminishing crosstalk between the contributing chromophores. While multispectral systems are often restricted by the wavelengths of laser diodes available, continuous-wave broadband systems exist that have the advantage of providing broadband NIR spectroscopy data, albeit without the benefit of the temporal data. In this work, the use of large spectral NIR datasets is analyzed, and an objective function to find optimal spectral ranges (windows) is examined. The optimally identified wavelength bands derived from this method are tested using both simulations and experimental data. It is found that the proposed method achieves images as qualitatively accurate as using the full spectrum, but improves crosstalk between parameters. Additionally, the judicious use of these spectral windows reduces the amount of data needed for full spectral tomographic imaging by 50%, therefore increasing computation time dramatically. PMID:19021417

  15. Computing and data handling requirements for SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) and LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, A.J.

    1990-05-01

    A number of issues for computing and data handling in the online in environment at future high-luminosity, high-energy colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are outlined. Requirements for trigger processing, data acquisition, and online processing are discussed. Some aspects of possible solutions are sketched. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Proceedings of the conference on computing in high energy physics `94

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, S. C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Triggering, data acquisition, online and control systems; hardware architectures; networks and interconnections; data handling and storage systems; software methodologies, languages and tools; user interfaces and visualization; computation; and information systems and multimedia. The individual papers have been indexed and cataloged for the database.

  17. Data acquisition system for the Belle experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Itoh, R.; Fujii, H.

    2000-04-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the Belle experiment at the KEK B-factory. The system is designed to record the signals from the detectors at 500 Hz trigger rate with a less than 10% dead time fraction. A typical event size is 30 kbyte, which corresponds to a data transfer rate of 15 Mbyte/s. Main components are two kinds of detector readout systems, an event builder, an online computer farm and a data storage system. The system has been reliably in operation at the design performance for a half year. We have completed cosmic-ray data taking for 2.5 months and have started physics data taking on Jun. 1, 1999.

  18. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  19. Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. Methods A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120 kV) and heart rates (50–90 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100 kV vs. 120 kV) were compared. Results Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09 ± 0.31 mm, 2 ± 8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3 ± 8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 0–1 ± 6–8 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90 bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0 mGy vs. 2829.8 mGy CTDIvol, p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a

  20. Computing competition for light in the GREENLAB model of plant growth: a contribution to the study of the effects of density on resource acquisition and architectural development.

    PubMed

    Cournède, Paul-Henry; Mathieu, Amélie; Houllier, François; Barthélémy, Daniel; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    The dynamical system of plant growth GREENLAB was originally developed for individual plants, without explicitly taking into account interplant competition for light. Inspired by the competition models developed in the context of forest science for mono-specific stands, we propose to adapt the method of crown projection onto the x-y plane to GREENLAB, in order to study the effects of density on resource acquisition and on architectural development. The empirical production equation of GREENLAB is extrapolated to stands by computing the exposed photosynthetic foliage area of each plant. The computation is based on the combination of Poisson models of leaf distribution for all the neighbouring plants whose crown projection surfaces overlap. To study the effects of density on architectural development, we link the proposed competition model to the model of interaction between functional growth and structural development introduced by Mathieu (2006, PhD Thesis, Ecole Centrale de Paris, France). The model is applied to mono-specific field crops and forest stands. For high-density crops at full cover, the model is shown to be equivalent to the classical equation of field crop production (Howell and Musick, 1985, in Les besoins en eau des cultures; Paris: INRA Editions). However, our method is more accurate at the early stages of growth (before cover) or in the case of intermediate densities. It may potentially account for local effects, such as uneven spacing, variation in the time of plant emergence or variation in seed biomass. The application of the model to trees illustrates the expression of plant plasticity in response to competition for light. Density strongly impacts on tree architectural development through interactions with the source-sink balances during growth. The effects of density on tree height and radial growth that are commonly observed in real stands appear as emerging properties of the model.

  1. Evaluation of linear measurements of implant sites based on head orientation during acquisition: An ex vivo study using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sabban, Hanadi; Mahdian, Mina; Dhingra, Ajay; Lurie, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of various head orientations during cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image acquisition on linear measurements of potential implant sites. Materials and Methods Six dry human skulls with a total of 28 implant sites were evaluated for seven different head orientations. The scans were acquired using a Hitachi CB-MercuRay CBCT machine. The scanned volumes were reconstructed. Horizontal and vertical measurements were made and were compared to measurements made after simulating the head position to corrected head angulations. Data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test. Results Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the mean errors in vertical measurements with a marked difference observed at the extension head position (P<0.05). Statistical analysis failed to yield any significant interaction between the mean errors in horizontal measurements at various head positions. Conclusion Head orientation could significantly affect the vertical measurements in CBCT scans. The main head position influencing the measurements is extension. PMID:26125001

  2. Investigations on the Flat-Detector Computed Tomography-Based CBV Map Acquisition Using a Left Ventricle Contrast Media Injection Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chaoyan, Song; Qiang, Zhang; Qi, Sun; Hao, Zhang; Tonghui, Shan; Wenlong, Pan; Mei, Wang; Jingfeng, Han; Yu, Deuerling-Zheng; Ruxiang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) acquired with the use of flat-detector computed tomography with contrast media (CM) injected at the ascending aorta provides real-time brain functional information with minimized CM usage; however, unexpected asymmetric perfusion is observed for certain patients without cerebral circulatory disorders. This work tested the feasibility of left ventricle (LV) CM injection to achieve symmetric perfusion. CBV maps were acquired for 10 patients without perfusion-related cerebral abnormities. Perfusion symmetry was predicted with the use of color-coded quantitative digital subtracted angiography with CM injected at ascending aorta. Time density curves were extracted at bilateral common carotid arteries with area under curves calculated. Planes were selected on CBV maps with regions of interest defined covering characteristic regions, where asymmetric perfusion most likely to appear. No adverse physiological changes were detected for any patient. Non-uniform CM distributions were detected for 4 patients with relative area under curves 0.66 ± 0.03, indicating asymmetric perfusion using ascending aorta injection. With LV injection, all the patients demonstrated good perfusion symmetry with relative CBV 1.03 ± 0.07. CBV maps acquisition with LV injection offered an approach to acquire immediate brain functional information for patients who are limited by asymmetric perfusion using ascending aorta injection and are sensitive to CM dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Defense ADP Acquisition Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    through its Institute of Computer Sciences and Technology. The FIPS Publication Series pro- vides general guidelines for numerous specific functions...some of which have constrained the efficient acquisition of ADP. NBS, through 11-24 its Institute for Computer Sciences and Tech- nology, provides...process is what drives the solution orientation and the hardware focus of the DAR. Decentralizing the requirements approval process is a step in the right

  4. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  5. A PCI Based Data Acquisition System for Ground Array Detectors with Wireless Synchronization through GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Melo, L.; Pimenta, M.; Silva, J. C.; Varela, J.

    2003-07-01

    The synchronization of ground based cosmic ray detectors is a recurring problem. Traditional acquisition systems usually drive signal cables from each station of an array of detectors to a central acquisition system. In the context of ULTRA, a support experiment for the EUSO mission, a distributed wireless acquisition system based on a PCI board with synchronization through GPS was developed. The System is composed by several units, one per station and timetags each event on each station. The time differences between the several stations are computed offline. Each unit includes a low-cost, commercial GPS receiver (GPSboard), a custom PCI board (LIP-PAD) and a Personal Computer. The PCI board performs the fine time-tagging and also acquires the PMT signals of the ground array detector. PMT signals are shaped, amplified and then digitized by a 10 bits flash ADC with a frequency of 100 MHz. A digital trigger unit allows to implement several online trigger conditions. On trigger, event data is stored on an onboard memory. The board control and data readout is performed using the PCI bus. The overall time accuracy has been estimated to be better than 5ns.

  6. Language Acquisition and Machine Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the field of machine learning and examine its implications for computational models of language acquisition . As...limitations of the earlier work and propose an alternative approach to modeling the mechanisms underlying language acquisition . (Author)

  7. Microform Developments Related to Acquisitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on significant developments of the recent past in acquisition and control of library microforms. Highlights include reference works essential to acquisition of microforms and microform equipment, microform utilization in libraries, bibliographic control, computer output microfilm (COM) and the Copyright Law, technological developments,…

  8. Microform Developments Related to Acquisitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on significant developments of the recent past in acquisition and control of library microforms. Highlights include reference works essential to acquisition of microforms and microform equipment, microform utilization in libraries, bibliographic control, computer output microfilm (COM) and the Copyright Law, technological developments,…

  9. Guideline for minimizing radiation exposure during acquisition of coronary artery calcium scans with the use of multidetector computed tomography: a report by the Society for Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention Tomographic Imaging and Prevention Councils in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Voros, Szilard; Rivera, Juan J; Berman, Daniel S; Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Cury, Ricardo C; Desai, Milind Y; Dey, Damini; Halliburton, Sandra S; Hecht, Harvey S; Nasir, Khurram; Santos, Raul D; Shapiro, Michael D; Taylor, Allen J; Valeti, Uma S; Young, Phillip M; Weissman, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning is an important tool for risk stratification in intermediate-risk, asymptomatic subjects without previous coronary disease. However, the clinical benefit of improved risk prediction needs to be balanced against the risk of the use of ionizing radiation. Although there is increasing emphasis on the need to obtain CAC scans at low-radiation exposure to the patient, very few practical documents exist to aid laboratories and health care professionals on how to obtain such low-radiation scans. The Tomographic Imaging Council of the Society for Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, in collaboration with the Prevention Council and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, created a task force and writing group to generate a practical document to address parameters that can be influenced by careful attention to image acquisition. Patient selection for CAC scanning should be based on national guidelines. It is recommended that laboratories performing CAC examinations monitor radiation exposure (dose-length-product [DLP]) and effective radiation dose (E) in all patients. DLP should be <200 mGy × cm; E should average 1.0-1.5 mSv and should be <3.0 mSv. On most scanner platforms, CAC imaging should be performed in an axial mode with prospective electrocardiographic triggering, using tube voltage of 120 kVp. Tube current should be carefully selected on the basis of patient size, potentially using chest lateral width measured on the topogram. Scan length should be limited for the coverage of the heart only. When patients and imaging parameters are selected appropriately, CAC scanning can be performed with low levels of radiation exposure.

  10. HYPERCP data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Luebke, W.R.; Chakravorty, A.

    1997-12-31

    For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data axe acquired from the front-end digitization systems at {approx} 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of {approx} 1 {mu}s per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with {approx_lt}30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates.

  11. Library Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This special supplement to "Library Journal" and "School Library Journal" includes articles on technological dependency, promise of computers for reluctant readers, copyright and database downloading, access to neighborhood of Mister Rogers, library acquisitions, circulating personal computers, "microcomputeritis,"…

  12. An enhanced multiwavelength ultraviolet biological trigger lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achey, Alexander; Bufton, Jack; Dawson, Jeffrey; Huang, Wen; Lee, Sangmin; Mehta, Nikhil; Prasad, Coorg R.

    2004-12-01

    A compact Ultraviolet Biological Trigger Lidar (UBTL) instrument for detection and discrimination of bio-warfare-agent (BWA) simulant aerosol clouds was developed by us [Prasad, et al, 2004] using a 5mW, 375nm semiconductor UV optical source (SUVOS) laser diode. It underwent successful field tests at Dugway Proving Ground and demonstrated measurement ranges of over 300m for elastic scattering and >100m for fluorescence. The UBTL was modified during mid-2004 to enhance its detection and discrimination performance with increased range of operation and sensitivity. The major optical modifications were: 1. increase in telescope collection aperture to 200 mm diameter: 2. addition of 266nm and 977nm laser transmitters: 3. addition of three detection channels for 266nm and 977nm elastic backscatter and fluorescence centered at 330nm. Also the commercial electronics of the original UBTL were replaced with a multi-channel field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip for laser diode modulation and data acquisition that allowed simultaneous and continuous operation of the UBTL sensor on all of its transmitter and receiver wavelengths. A notebook computer was added for data display and storage. Field tests were performed during July 2004 at the Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center in Maryland to establish the enhanced performance of UBTL subsystems. Results of these tests are presented and discussed.

  13. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  14. Micro-single-photon emission computed tomography image acquisition and quantification of sodium-iodide symporter-mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Michael P; Kloos, Richard T; Shen, Daniel H; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yu-Yu; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2012-06-01

    Micro-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a noninvasive way to evaluate the effects of genetic and/or pharmacological modulation on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands. However, parameters affecting image acquisition and analysis of mouse thyroids and salivary glands have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of region-of-interest (ROI) selection, collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on image acquisition and quantification of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in mice. The effects of data window minima and maxima on thyroidal and salivary ROI selection using a visual boundary method were examined in SPECT images acquired from mice injected with (123)I NaI. The effects of collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on counting linearity and signal intensity were investigated using phantoms filled with various activities of (123)I NaI or Tc-99m pertechnetate. Spatial resolution of target organs in whole-animal images was compared between circular orbit with parallel-hole collimation and spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimation. Lastly, the inter-experimental variability of the same mouse scanned multiple times was compared with the intra-experimental variability among different mice scanned at the same time. Thyroid ROI was separated from salivary glands by empirically increasing the data window maxima. Counting linearity within the range of 0.5-14.2 μCi was validated by phantom imaging using single- or multiple-pinhole collimators with circular or spiral imaging orbit. Scanning time could be shortened to 15 minutes per mouse without compromising counting linearity despite proportionally decreased signal intensity. Whole-animal imaging using a spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimators achieved a high spatial resolution and counting linearity. Finally, the extent of inter-experimental variability of NIS

  15. Micro–Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Image Acquisition and Quantification of Sodium-Iodide Symporter–Mediated Radionuclide Accumulation in Mouse Thyroid and Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Michael P.; Kloos, Richard T.; Shen, Daniel H.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Background Micro–single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a noninvasive way to evaluate the effects of genetic and/or pharmacological modulation on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)–mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands. However, parameters affecting image acquisition and analysis of mouse thyroids and salivary glands have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of region-of-interest (ROI) selection, collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on image acquisition and quantification of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in mice. Methods The effects of data window minima and maxima on thyroidal and salivary ROI selection using a visual boundary method were examined in SPECT images acquired from mice injected with 123I NaI. The effects of collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on counting linearity and signal intensity were investigated using phantoms filled with various activities of 123I NaI or Tc-99m pertechnetate. Spatial resolution of target organs in whole-animal images was compared between circular orbit with parallel-hole collimation and spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimation. Lastly, the inter-experimental variability of the same mouse scanned multiple times was compared with the intra-experimental variability among different mice scanned at the same time. Results Thyroid ROI was separated from salivary glands by empirically increasing the data window maxima. Counting linearity within the range of 0.5–14.2 μCi was validated by phantom imaging using single- or multiple-pinhole collimators with circular or spiral imaging orbit. Scanning time could be shortened to 15 minutes per mouse without compromising counting linearity despite proportionally decreased signal intensity. Whole-animal imaging using a spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimators achieved a high spatial resolution and counting linearity. Finally, the extent of inter

  16. Time-Resolved C-Arm Computed Tomographic Angiography Derived From Computed Tomographic Perfusion Acquisition: New Capability for One-Stop-Shop Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment in the Angiosuite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengfei; Niu, Kai; Wu, Yijing; Struffert, Tobias; Dorfler, Arnd; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-12-01

    Multimodal imaging using cone beam C-arm computed tomography (CT) may shorten the delay from ictus to revascularization for acute ischemic stroke patients with a large vessel occlusion. Largely because of limited temporal resolution, reconstruction of time-resolved CT angiography (CTA) from these systems has not yielded satisfactory results. We evaluated the image quality and diagnostic value of time-resolved C-arm CTA reconstructed using novel image processing algorithms. Studies were done under an Institutional Review Board approved protocol. Postprocessing of data from 21 C-arm CT dynamic perfusion acquisitions from 17 patients with acute ischemic stroke were done to derive time-resolved C-arm CTA images. Two observers independently evaluated image quality and diagnostic content for each case. ICC and receiver-operating characteristic analysis were performed to evaluate interobserver agreement and diagnostic value of this novel imaging modality. Time-resolved C-arm CTA images were successfully generated from 20 data sets (95.2%, 20/21). Two observers agreed well that the image quality for large cerebral arteries was good but was more limited for small cerebral arteries (distal to M1, A1, and P1). receiver-operating characteristic curves demonstrated excellent diagnostic value for detecting large vessel occlusions (area under the curve=0.987-1). Time-resolved CTAs derived from C-arm CT perfusion acquisitions provide high quality images that allowed accurate diagnosis of large vessel occlusions. Although image quality of smaller arteries in this study was not optimal ongoing modifications of the postprocessing algorithm will likely remove this limitation. Adding time-resolved C-arm CTAs to the capabilities of the angiography suite further enhances its suitability as a one-stop shop for care for patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  18. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Dealing With Asthma Triggers KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Asthma Triggers ... or the flu weather conditions exercise continue Managing Asthma Asthma can't be cured but it can ...

  19. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  20. Immersive, Interactive, Web-Enabled Computer Simulation as a Trigger for Learning: The next Generation of Problem-Based Learning in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Reardon, R. M.; Becker, J. D.; Shakeshaft, C.; Bacon, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of advanced computer technology in an innovative educational leadership program. This program integrates full-motion video scenarios that simulate the leadership challenges typically faced by principals over the course of a full school year. These scenarios require decisions that are then coupled to consequences and…

  1. Acquisition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vore, Helen L.

    1970-01-01

    A policy to insure acquisition of primary international libraries' collections for a library system pertaining to the environmental sciences was prepared by a newly formed Technical Processes Section, Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA). (Author/NH)

  2. The ALICE high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  3. Systematic review of perfusion imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance in acute ischemic stroke: heterogeneity of acquisition and postprocessing parameters: a translational medicine research collaboration multicentre acute stroke imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dani, Krishna A; Thomas, Ralph G R; Chappell, Francesca M; Shuler, Kirsten; Muir, Keith W; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2012-02-01

    Heterogeneity of acquisition and postprocessing parameters for magnetic resonance- and computed tomography-based perfusion imaging in acute stroke may limit comparisons between studies, but the current degree of heterogeneity in the literature has not been precisely defined. We examined articles published before August 30, 2009 that reported perfusion thresholds, average lesion perfusion values, or correlations of perfusion deficit volumes from acute stroke patients <24 hours postictus. We compared acquisition parameters from published studies with guidance from the Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap(1). In addition, we assessed the consistency of postprocessing parameters. Twenty computed tomography perfusion and 49 perfusion-weighted imaging studies were included from 7152 articles. Although certain parameters were reported frequently, consistently, and in line with the Roadmap proposals, we found substantial heterogeneity in other parameters, and there was considerable variation and underreporting of postprocessing methodology. There is substantial scope to increase homogeneity in future studies, eg, through reporting standards.

  4. Higher level trigger systems for the HERA-B experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, M.; Dippel, R.; Erhan, S.

    1998-08-01

    The HERA-B experiment is designed for observation of CP violation in the B-meson system at the HERA machine in DESY. The data acquisition and triggering system must cope with a half million detector channels, a 40 MHz interaction rate and a signal to background ratio of 10{sup {minus}10}. A highly selective multi-level trigger and high bandwidth data acquisition system has been designed and is currently being implemented. The second-level event buffer and mid-level trigger switch will be built from DSP boards carrying SHARC processors. The second and third level trigger code will run on a farm of 100--200 Pentium processors under Linux. The switch to the 4th level trigger farm will be based on Fast-Ethernet.

  5. Undergraduate Laboratory Data Acquisition With a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a flexible, multichannel, highly accurate, digital data acquisition system for use with a microcomputer. Includes a description of instrumentation for computer data acquisition, data acquisition systems, software, uses in the curriculum, library interaction and action, and use in a mechanical engineering laboratory. (DS)

  6. The acquisition of syntactic knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Berwick, R.

    1985-01-01

    This work in computational linguistics describes a break-through in the design of expert systems because it suggests how extensive knowledge might be acquired automatically, without outside intervention. Computationally, the author looks at the developmental problem of the interaction between innate genetic endowment and environmental input, using computational methods to uncover the constraints on the acquisition of syntactic knowledge. Learning and syntax problems are also explored: how lexical categories, phonological rule systems, and phrase structure rules are learned; the role of semantic-syntactic interaction in language acquisition; how a ''parameter setting'' model may be formalized as a learning procedure; how multiple constraints interact to aid acquisition; how transformational-type rules may be learned; and the role of lexical ambiguity in language acquisition.

  7. Update of the trigger system of the PandaX-II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Ren, X.; Chen, X.; Ji, X.; Liu, J.; Lei, S.; Wang, M.; Xiao, M.; Xie, P.; Yan, B.; Yang, Y.

    2017-08-01

    PandaX-II experiment is a dark matter direct detection experiment using about half-ton of liquid xenon as the sensitive target. The electrical pulses detected by photomultiplier tubes from scintillation photons of xenon are recorded by waveform digitizers. The data acquisition of PandaX-II relies on a trigger system that generates common trigger signals for all waveform digitizers. Previously an analog device-based trigger system was used for the data acquisition system. In this paper we present a new FPGA-based trigger system. The design of this system and trigger algorithms are described. The performance of this system on real data is presented.

  8. The digital trigger system for the RED-100 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, P. P. Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.

    2015-12-15

    The system for forming a trigger for the liquid xenon detector RED-100 is developed. The trigger can be generated for all types of events that the detector needs for calibration and data acquisition, including the events with a single electron of ionization. In the system, a mechanism of event detection is implemented according to which the timestamp and event type are assigned to each event. The trigger system is required in the systems searching for rare events to select and keep only the necessary information from the ADC array. The specifications and implementation of the trigger unit which provides a high efficiency of response even to low-energy events are considered.

  9. Data acquisition with Masscomp

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.J.

    1988-12-31

    Applications and products for data acquisition and control are abundant. Systems and boards for Apple or IBM products collect, store, and manipulate data up to rates in the 10`s of thousands. These systems may suit your application; if so, it would be good for you to obtain one of these systems. However, if you need speed in the hundreds of thousands of samples per second and you want to store, process, and display data in real time, data acquisition becomes much more complex. Operating system code has to be sufficient to handle the load. A company known as Massachusetts Computer Corporation has modified UNIX operating system code to allow real time data acquisition and control. They call this operating system Real Time Unix, or RTU. They have built a family of computer systems around this operating system with specialized hardware to handle multiple processes and quick communications, which a real time operating system needs to function. This paper covers the basics of an application using a Masscomp 5520 computer. The application is for the KYLE Project Cold Tests in SRL. KYLE is a classified weapons program. The data flow from source to Masscomp, the generic features of Masscomp systems, and the specifics of the Masscomp computer related to this application will be presented.

  10. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo; Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification, triggered pain is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia but no study to date has been designed to address this issue directly. In this study, we set out to determine, in patients with trigeminal neuralgia, how frequently triggers are present, which manoeuvres activate them and where cutaneous and mucosal trigger zones are located. Methods Clinical characteristics focusing on trigger factors were collected from 140 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, in a cross-sectional study design. Results Provocation of paroxysmal pain by various trigger manoeuvres was reported by 136 of the 140 patients. The most frequent manoeuvres were gentle touching of the face (79%) and talking (54%). Trigger zones were predominantly reported in the perioral and nasal region. Conclusion This study confirms that in trigeminal neuralgia, paroxysmal pain is associated with triggers in virtually all patients and supports the use of triggers as an essential diagnostic feature of trigeminal neuralgia.

  11. Stay away from asthma triggers

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  12. Evaluation of reperfused myocardial infarction by low-dose multidetector computed tomography using prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggering: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Min; Hong, Yoo Jin; Rim, Se-Joong; Hong, Bum Ki; Min, Phil Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Kwon, Hyuck Moon

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the potential of prospective electrocardiography (ECG)- gated 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for evaluation of myocardial enhancement, infarct size, and stent patency after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting in patients with myocardial infarction. Seventeen patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarction were examined with prospective ECG-gated 64-slice cardiac MDCT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after reperfusion using PCI with stenting. Cardiac MDCT was performed with two different phases: arterial and delayed phases. We evaluated the stent patency on the arterial phase, and nonviable myocardium on the delayed phase of computed tomography (CT) image, and they were compared with the results from the delayed MR images. Total mean radiation dose was 7.7 +/- 0.5 mSv on the two phases of CT images. All patients except one showed good patency of the stent at the culprit lesion on the arterial phase CT images. All patients had hyperenhanced area on the delayed phase CT images, which correlated well with those on the delayed phase MR images, with a mean difference of 1.6% (20 +/- 10% vs. 22 +/- 10%, r = 0.935, p = 0.10). Delayed MR images had a better contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than delayed CT images (27.1 +/- 17.8% vs. 4.3 +/- 2.1%, p < 0.001). Prospective ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT provides the potential to evaluate myocardial viability on delayed phase as well as for stent patency on arterial phase with an acceptable radiation dose after PCI with stenting in patients with myocardial infarction.

  13. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter high level triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchetti, F.; Blanco, F.; Figueredo, M.; Knospe, A. G.; Xaplanteris, L.

    2012-12-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector yields a huge sample of data from different sub-detectors. On-line data processing is applied to select and reduce the volume of the stored data. ALICE applies a multi-level hardware trigger scheme where fast detectors are used to feed a three-level (L0, L1, and L2) deep chain. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is a fourth filtering stage sitting logically between the L2 trigger and the data acquisition event building. The EMCal detector comprises a large area electromagnetic calorimeter that extends the momentum measurement of photons and neutral mesons up to pT = 250 GeV/c, which improves the ALICE capability to perform jet reconstruction with measurement of the neutral energy component of jets. An online reconstruction and trigger chain has been developed within the HLT framework to sharpen the EMCal hardware triggers, by combining the central barrel tracking information with the shower reconstruction (clusters) in the calorimeter. In the present report the status and the functionality of the software components developed for the EMCal HLT online reconstruction and trigger chain will be discussed, as well as preliminary results from their commissioning performed during the 2011 LHC running period.

  14. NOvA Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Susan M.

    The NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) experiment is a long-baseline neutrino experiment using the NuMI main injector neutrino beam at Fermilab and is designed to search for νμ (øνμ) to νe (øνe) oscillations. The experiment will consist of two detectors; both positioned 14 mrad off the beam axis: a 220 ton Near Detector to be located in an underground cavern at Fermilab and a 14 kton Far Detector to be located in Ash River, MN, 810 km from the beam source. In addition, a prototype Near Detector is currently in operation in a surface building at Fermilab. The detectors have similar design, and consist of planes of PVC extrusion cells containing liquid scintillator and wavelength shifting fibers. The fiber ends are readout by Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs). The primary task for the Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is to concentrate the data from the large number of APD channels (360000 channels at the Far Detector, 16000 channels at the Near Detector), buffer this data long enough to apply an online trigger, and record the selected data. The concentration of data is accomplished through the use of a custom hardware component Data Concentrator Module (DCM). The intermediate buffering of the data is accomplished through a computing buffer farm, in which each node runs software to apply an online trigger to a time slice of data received from the DCMs. Data correlated with the beam spill time as well as random data samples for calibration purposes and events with interesting topology may be selected by the online trigger. In addition to those components involved in managing the data flow, the DAQ system consists of components for control, configuration, monitoring and timing. The design of the DAQ system, with emphasis on the DAQ software, will be discussed as will experience with its deployment on the prototype Near Detector.

  15. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  16. Mergers + acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  17. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  18. Review of combinations of experimental and computational techniques to identify and understand genes involved in innate immunity and effector-triggered defence.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Henrik U; de Oliveira Almeida, Rodrigo; Davey, Neil; Steuber, Volker; Valente, Guilherme T

    2017-09-01

    The innate immune system includes a first layer of defence that recognises conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are essential for microbial fitness. Resistance (R) gene-based recognition of pathogen effectors, which function in modulation or avoidance of host immunity, activates a second layer of plant defence. In this review, experimental and computational techniques are considered to improve understanding of the plant immune system. Biocomputation contributes to discovery of the molecular genetic basis of host resistance against pathogens. Sequenced genomes have been used to identify R genes in plants. Resistance gene enrichment sequencing based on conserved protein domains has increased the number of R genes with nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat domains. Network analysis will contribute to an improved understanding of the innate immune system and identify novel genes for partial disease resistance. Machine learning algorithms are expected to become important in defining aspects of the immune system that are less well characterised, including identification of R genes that lack conserved protein domains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  20. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  1. Feature Acquisition with Imbalanced Training Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.; Jones, Dayton L.

    2011-01-01

    This work considers cost-sensitive feature acquisition that attempts to classify a candidate datapoint from incomplete information. In this task, an agent acquires features of the datapoint using one or more costly diagnostic tests, and eventually ascribes a classification label. A cost function describes both the penalties for feature acquisition, as well as misclassification errors. A common solution is a Cost Sensitive Decision Tree (CSDT), a branching sequence of tests with features acquired at interior decision points and class assignment at the leaves. CSDT's can incorporate a wide range of diagnostic tests and can reflect arbitrary cost structures. They are particularly useful for online applications due to their low computational overhead. In this innovation, CSDT's are applied to cost-sensitive feature acquisition where the goal is to recognize very rare or unique phenomena in real time. Example applications from this domain include four areas. In stream processing, one seeks unique events in a real time data stream that is too large to store. In fault protection, a system must adapt quickly to react to anticipated errors by triggering repair activities or follow- up diagnostics. With real-time sensor networks, one seeks to classify unique, new events as they occur. With observational sciences, a new generation of instrumentation seeks unique events through online analysis of large observational datasets. This work presents a solution based on transfer learning principles that permits principled CSDT learning while exploiting any prior knowledge of the designer to correct both between-class and withinclass imbalance. Training examples are adaptively reweighted based on a decomposition of the data attributes. The result is a new, nonparametric representation that matches the anticipated attribute distribution for the target events.

  2. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Kinetic Systems and Langley Research Center determined that high speed CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) data acquisition systems could significantly improve Langley's ARTS (Advanced Real Time Simulation) system. The ARTS system supports flight simulation R&D, and the CAMAC equipment allowed 32 high performance simulators to be controlled by centrally located host computers. This technology broadened Kinetic Systems' capabilities and led to several commercial applications. One of them is General Atomics' fusion research program. Kinetic Systems equipment allows tokamak data to be acquired four to 15 times more rapidly. Ford Motor company uses the same technology to control and monitor transmission testing facilities.

  3. Prospective ECG triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts compared with retrospective ECG gating on 256-slice CT.

    PubMed

    Symersky, Petr; Habets, Jesse; Westers, Paul; de Mol, Bas A J M; Prokop, Mathias; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2012-06-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has diagnostic value for the evaluation of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction but it is hampered by artefacts. We hypothesised that image acquisition using prospective triggering instead of retrospective gating would reduce artefacts related to pulsating PHV. In a pulsatile in vitro model, a mono- and bileaflet PHV were imaged using 256 MDCT at 60, 75 and 90 beats per minute (BPM) with either retrospective gating (120 kV, 600 mAs, pitch 0.2, CTDI(vol) 39.8 mGy) or prospective triggering (120 kV, 200 mAs, CTDI(vol) 13.3 mGy). Two thresholds (>175 and <-45HU), derived from the density of surrounding structures, were used for quantification of hyper- and hypodense artefacts. Image noise and artefacts were compared between protocols. Prospective triggering reduced hyperdense artefacts for both valves at every BPM (P = 0.001 all comparisons). Hypodense artefacts were reduced for the monoleaflet valve at 60 (P = 0.009), 75 (P = 0.016) and 90 BPM (P = 0.001), and for the bileaflet valves at 60 (P = 0.001), 90 (P = 0.001) but not at 75 BPM (P = 0.6). Prospective triggering reduced image noise at 60 (P = 0.001) and 75 (P < 0.03) but not at 90 BPM. Compared with retrospective gating, prospective triggering reduced most artefacts related to pulsating PHV in vitro. • Computed tomographic images are often degraded by prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts • Prospective triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts in vitro • Artefact reduction at 90 beats per minute occurs without image noise reduction • Prospective triggering may improve CT image quality of moving hyperdense structures.

  4. Schmitt trigger multivibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zrubek, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Schmitt trigger multivibrator circuit, capable of astable, monostable or bistable operation, incorporates an input circuit in conjunction with a Schmitt trigger circuit. The circuits form two output signal levels, are useful in switching circuit applications, initiates oscillations, and forms highly unsymmetrical wave forms.

  5. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  6. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  7. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ALTERNATIVES TO CAMAC FOR DATA ACQUISITION AT DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    KELLMAN,D.H; CAMPBELL,G.L; FERRON,J.R; PIGLOWSKI,D.A; AUSTIN,M.E; MCKEE,G.R

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 For over twenty years, data acquisition hardware at DIII-D has been based on the CAMAC platform. These rugged and reliable systems, however, are gradually becoming obsolete due to end-of-life issues, ever-decreasing industry support of older hardware, and the availability of modern alternative hardware with superior performance. Efforts are underway at DIII-D to adopt new data acquisition solutions which exploit modern technologies and surpass the limitations of the CAMAC standard. These efforts have involved the procurement and development of data acquisition systems based on the PCI and Compact-PCI platform standards. These systems are comprised of rack-mount computers containing data acquisition boards (digitizers), Ethernet connectivity, and the drivers and software necessary for control. Each digitizer contains analog-to-digital converters, control circuitry, firmware and memory to collect, store, and transfer waveform data acquired using internal or external triggers and clocks. Software has been developed which allows DIII-D computers to program the operational parameters of the digitizers, as well as to upload acquired data into the DIII-D acquisition database. All communication between host computers and the new acquisition systems occurs via standard Ethernet connections, a vast improvement over the slower, serial loop highways used for control and data transfer with CAMAC systems. In addition, the capabilities available in modern integrated and printed circuit manufacture result in digitizers with high channel count and memory density. Cost savings are also realized by utilizing a platform based on standards of the personal computer industry. Details of the new systems at DIII-D are presented, along with initial experience with their use, and plans for future expansion and improvement.

  8. DSPS in data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-12-31

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance.

  9. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  10. Technical evaluation of different respiratory monitoring systems used for 4D CT acquisition under free breathing.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Christian; Reiner, Michael; Belka, Claus; Walter, Franziska; Söhn, Matthias

    2015-03-08

    Respiratory monitoring systems are required to supply CT scanners with information on the patient's breathing during the acquisition of a respiration-correlated computer tomography (RCCT), also referred to as 4D CT. The information a respiratory monitoring system has to provide to the CT scanner depends on the specific scanner. The purpose of this study is to compare two different respiratory monitoring systems (Anzai Respiratory Gating System; C-RAD Sentinel) with respect to their applicability in combination with an Aquilion Large Bore CT scanner from Toshiba. The scanner used in our clinic does not make use of the full time dependent breathing signal, but only single trigger pulses indicating the beginning of a new breathing cycle. Hence the attached respiratory monitoring system is expected to deliver accurate online trigger pulse for each breathing cycle. The accuracy of the trigger pulses sent to the CT scanner has to be ensured by the selected respiratory monitoring system. Since a trigger pulse (output signal) of a respiratory monitoring system is a function of the measured breathing signal (input signal), the typical clinical range of the input signal is estimated for both examined respiratory monitoring systems. Both systems are analyzed based on the following parameters: time resolution, signal amplitude, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal linearity, trigger compatibility, and clinical examples. The Anzai system shows a better SNR (≥ 28 dB) than the Sentinel system (≥ 14.6 dB). In terms of compatibility with the cycle-based image sorting algorithm of the Toshiba CT scanner, the Anzai system benefits from the possibility to generate cycle-based triggers, whereas the Sentinel system is only able to generate amplitude-based triggers. In clinical practice, the combination of a Toshiba CT scanner and the Anzai system will provide better results due to the compatibility of the image sorting and trigger release methods.

  11. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  12. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  13. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  14. STIR vs. T1-weighted fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of bone marrow edema of the knee: computer-assisted quantitative comparison and influence of injected contrast media volume and acquisition parameters.

    PubMed

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Breitenseher, Martin J; Kramer, Josef; Aigner, Nicolas; Norden, Cornelia; Hofmann, Siegfried

    2005-12-01

    To compare short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted (T1w) gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced fat-suppressed MRI of bone marrow edema (BME) of the knee, and investigate the influence of injected contrast media volume and variation of major acquisition parameters on apparent BME volume and signal contrast. STIR and T1w Gd-enhanced fat-suppressed images were obtained from 30 patients with BME of the knee. Two groups of patients were examined with different MR scanners, acquisition parameters, and contrast media volumes. For both sequences, BME volume and signal contrast were assessed by computer-assisted quantification, and were compared through their arithmetic means and correlation coefficients (r(2)). The injected contrast media volume was also correlated with BME volume and signal contrast differences between sequences. A strong correlation between the STIR and Gd-enhanced T1w images was found for BME volume (r(2) = 0.96-0.99) and BME signal contrast (r(2) = 0.86-0.94). Despite the differences in MR acquisition parameters and injected contrast media volume, both sequences depicted an almost identical BME volume in both groups. Contrast media volume showed a moderate correlation (r(2) = 0.40) with BME volume differences. STIR is the optimum method for determining the size and signal contrast of BME. The injected contrast media volume appears to have only a limited influence on apparent BME volume.

  15. Relationship between diverse patient body size- and image acquisition-related factors, and quantitative and qualitative image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography: a multicenter observational study.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Awai, Kazuo; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kim, Tonsok; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of patient- and image acquisition-related factors on the image quality in coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We enrolled 1197 patients (728 men; 65 ± 12 years). All underwent CCTA under the routine scan protocol in 23 participating hospitals. The subjective image quality (3-point Likert scale: excellent, good, and poor) and the attenuation of the left and right coronary artery (LCA, RCA) were recorded; the effects of patient and image acquisition-related factors on vascular attenuation were then compared. The mean LCA attenuation was 515.2 ± 65.8 (excellent), 401.4 ± 63.4 (good), and 319.5 ± 47.6 HU (poor). The corresponding RCA attenuation was 496.6 ± 67.6, 390.5 ± 58.5, and 308.5 ± 50.7 HU, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between sufficient coronary attenuation (> 400 HU) and the age, gender, body surface area (BSA), number of detectors, contrast synchronization, scan mode, and the fractional contrast dose. Multivariate analysis revealed that the bolus tracking method, prospective electrocardiogram gating, and fractional contrast dose were significantly associated with sufficient coronary enhancement. BSA and fractional contrast dose are the most important patient- and image acquisition-related factors for sufficient coronary attenuation in CCTA.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system in 2015

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2017-05-18

    During 2015 the ATLAS experiment recorded 3.8fb–1 of proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13TeV. The ATLAS trigger system is a crucial component of the experiment, responsible for selecting events of interest at a recording rate of approximately 1 kHz from up to 40 MHz of collisions. This paper presents a short overview of the changes to the trigger and data acquisition systems during the first long shutdown of the LHC and shows the performance of the trigger system and its components based on the 2015 proton–proton collision data.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antrim, D. J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Bajic, M.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burger, A. M.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carlson, B. T.; Carminati, L.; Carney, R. M. D.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, F.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Duncan, A. K.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Ezzi, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Flierl, B. M.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Ganguly, S.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gasnikova, K.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. 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    2017-05-01

    During 2015 the ATLAS experiment recorded 3.8 {fb}^{-1} of proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 {TeV}. The ATLAS trigger system is a crucial component of the experiment, responsible for selecting events of interest at a recording rate of approximately 1 kHz from up to 40 MHz of collisions. This paper presents a short overview of the changes to the trigger and data acquisition systems during the first long shutdown of the LHC and shows the performance of the trigger system and its components based on the 2015 proton-proton collision data.

  18. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system in 2015.

    PubMed

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Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    During 2015 the ATLAS experiment recorded [Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text]. The ATLAS trigger system is a crucial component of the experiment, responsible for selecting events of interest at a recording rate of approximately 1 kHz from up to 40 MHz of collisions. This paper presents a short overview of the changes to the trigger and data acquisition systems during the first long shutdown of the LHC and shows the performance of the trigger system and its components based on the 2015 proton-proton collision data.

  19. Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

  20. Networked event-triggered control: an introduction and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Sabih, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    A physical system can be studied as either continuous time or discrete-time system depending upon the control objectives. Discrete-time control systems can be further classified into two categories based on the sampling: (1) time-triggered control systems and (2) event-triggered control systems. Time-triggered systems sample states and calculate controls at every sampling instant in a periodic fashion, even in cases when states and calculated control do not change much. This indicates unnecessary and useless data transmission and computation efforts of a time-triggered system, thus inefficiency. For networked systems, the transmission of measurement and control signals, thus, cause unnecessary network traffic. Event-triggered systems, on the other hand, have potential to reduce the communication burden in addition to reducing the computation of control signals. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the event-triggered methods for control systems and highlights the potential research directions.

  1. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  2. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  3. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. 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B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kothekar, K.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. 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F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  4. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  5. Issues in Tool Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Cafm-go Mellon wishes to include people Y6 thol refard to race erlc’ riat rlti ongin. sex. hrandcap, religion, Creed, anrecty beief. age. ve’warr...Figure 1-5 Full IPSE Model 21 IAccession For rFNTS -- ’RA& I D.TIC TAF ~ E Dist fcla CMU/SEI-91 -TR-8 i iv CMU/SEI-91 -TR-8 Issues in Tool Acquisition...available, the price for computing resources adequate for CASE tools declines. In addition, the de facto stan- dardization of the Xl 1 windowing system

  6. Operation and modeling of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The fast on-orbit recording of transient events satellite (FORTE) will carry a multiple-narrow-band trigger designed to detect impulsive VHF signals embedded in a high-noise background. The FORTE trigger boxes consist of eight VHF channels spaced across twenty MHz of bandwidth. A trigger is generated when a sufficiently bright signal is seen in a user-defined number of these channels within a specified coincidence window. In addition, the trigger circuitry incorporates a feature to reject events caused by the actuation of narrow-band carriers. This report describes the trigger`s operating principles and their implementation in the satellite hardware. We then discuss a computer model which can be used to simulate the performance of the trigger circuit.

  7. CDF - Secondary vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lucchesi

    2002-10-25

    At the beginning of 2002 a new data taking with an upgraded trigger system started for the CDF collaboration. One of the major improvements is the track trigger. A fast processor reconstructs tracks in the central drift chamber and the Silicon Vertex Tracker combines these tracks with the silicon vertex detector information to have track parameters with a precision as good as the offine reconstruction. This system allows CDF to trigger on tracks significantly displaced from the primary vertex with high efficiency for signal events like charm and beauty and to keep low background rates. The performances, in terms of resolution and efficiency, of both the processors are illustrated and the firsts physics results are discussed.

  8. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  9. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Tremors Triggered along the Queen Charlotte Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, deep tectonic tremors have been observed in numerous tectonic environments surrounding the Pacific and Caribbean plates. In these regions, tremors triggered by both regional and distant earthquakes have also been observed. Despite the ubiquitous observations of triggered tremors, tremors triggered in differing strike-slip environments are less understood. Here, we conduct a preliminary search of tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes along the transpressive Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) located between the Cascadia subduction zone and Alaska. Tectonic tremors have not been previously reported along the QCF. We select teleseismic earthquakes during the 1990-2012 period as having magnitude M ≥ 6.5 and occurring at least 1,000 km away from the region. We reduce the number of mainshocks by selecting those that generate greater than 1 kPa dynamic stress estimated from surface-wave magnitude equations [e.g. van der Elst and Brodsky, 2010]. Our mainshock waveforms are retrieved from the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN), processed, and filtered for triggered tremor observations. We characterize triggered tremors as high-frequency signals visible among several stations and coincident with broadband surface wave peaks. So far, we have found tremors triggered along the QCF by surface waves of five great earthquakes - the 2002/11/03 Mw7.9 Denali Fault, 2004/12/26 Mw9.0 Sumatra, 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Chile, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Japan, and 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquakes. We compare our results to tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes on strike-slip faults in central and southern California, as well as Cuba [Peng et al., 2012]. Among strike-slip faults in these regions, we also compare triggered tremor amplitudes to peak ground velocities from the mainshocks and compute dynamic stresses to determine a triggering threshold for the QCF. We find that in most cases tremors in the QCF are triggered primarily by the Love waves, and additional

  11. Upgrade of the trigger system of CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeitler, Manfred; CMS Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    Various parts of the CMS trigger and in particular the Level-1 hardware trigger will be upgraded to cope with increasing luminosity, using more selective trigger conditions at Level 1 and improving the reliability of the system. Many trigger subsystems use FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the electronics and will benefit from developments in this technology, allowing us to place much more logic into a single FPGA chip, thus reducing the number of chips, electronic boards and interconnections and in this way improving reliability. A number of subsystems plan to switch from the old VME bus to the new microTCA crate standard. Using similar approaches, identical modules and common software wherever possible will reduce costs and manpower requirements and improve the serviceability of the whole trigger system. The computer-farm based High-Level Trigger will not only be extended by using increasing numbers of more powerful PCs but there are also concepts for making it more robust and the software easier to maintain, which will result in better efficiency of the whole system.

  12. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  13. Triggered Nanoparticles as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Soo; Duncan, Bradley; Creran, Brian; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drug delivery systems (DDSs) face several challenges including site-specific delivery, stability, and the programmed release of drugs. Engineered nanoparticle (NP) surfaces with responsive moieties can enhance the efficacy of DDSs for in vitro and in vivo systems. This triggering process can be achieved through both endogenous (biologically controlled release) and exogenous (external stimuli controlled release) activation. In this review, we will highlight recent examples of the use of triggered release strategies of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24159362

  14. Trigger Circuit for Marx Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-08

    A trigger circuit is provided for a trigger system for a Marx generator column. The column includes a plurality of metal electrode pairs wherein the...electrode (trigatron) spark gap switch forming the first spark gap of the Marx generator column. The triggering circuit includes a trigger

  15. New methods for trigger electronics development

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  16. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  17. An Acquisition Guide for Executives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide covers the following subjects; What is Acquisition?, Purpose and Primary Functions of the Agency’s Acquisition System, Key Organizations in Acquisitions, Legal Framework, Key Players in Acquisitions, Acquisition Process, Acquisition Thresholds

  18. EBT data acquisition and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, R.D.; Greenwood, D.E.; Stanton, J.S.; Geoffroy, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    This document describes the design and implementation of a data acquisition and analysis system for the EBT fusion experiment. The system includes data acquisition on five computers, automatic transmission of that data to a large, central data base, and a powerful data retrieval system. The system is flexible and easy to use, and it provides a fully documented record of the experiments.

  19. Global Search of Triggered Tectonic Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Chao, K.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Wang, B.; Ojha, L.; Yang, H.

    2013-05-01

    Deep tectonic tremor has been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. While regular or ambient tremor occurs spontaneously or accompanies slow-slip events, tremor could be also triggered by large distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. Because triggered tremor occurs on the same fault patches as ambient tremor and is relatively easy to identify, a systematic global search of triggered tremor could help to identify the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions for tremor generation. Here we conduct a global search of tremor triggered by large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major faults with significant strain accumulations where no tremor has been reported before. These includes subduction zones in Central and South America, strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and the Denali fault in the western Canada and Alaska, the Sumatra-Java subduction zone, the Himalaya frontal thrust faults, as well as major strike-slip faults around Tibet. In each region, we first compute the predicted dynamic stresses σd from global earthquakes with magnitude>=5.0 in the past 20 years, and select events with σd > 1 kPa. Next, we download seismic data recorded by stations from local or global seismic networks, and identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. In cases where station distributions are dense enough, we also locate tremor based on the standard envelope cross-correlation techniques. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential for the Love and Rayleigh waves with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. So far we have found several new places that are capable of generating triggered tremor. We will summarize these observations and discuss their implications on physical mechanisms of tremor and remote triggering.

  20. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  1. Common Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bedroom. Wash your bedding on the hottest water setting. Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. ... newspaper to plan your activities for when air pollution levels will be ... home by removing as many water and food sources as you can. Cockroaches are ...

  2. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  3. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  4. Computer assisted development of diagnostic expert systems. A domain-independent package (EMPTY) for acquisition and use of expert's medical knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Molino, G.; Molino, F.; Torasso, P.; Console, L.; Ardissono, L.; Pogliano, P.

    1992-01-01

    The package EMPTY has been developed with the aim of providing a tool based on well assessed methodological principles which can support both the organisation and use of medical knowledge for diagnostic and educational purposes. EMPTY is domain-independent and results in two interactive programs: ASK guides the acquisition of medical knowledge and RUN supports medical decision-making and provides facilities for medical education. The knowledge bases developed on ASK have a standard formal structure: they include taxonomies, definitions and descriptions of diseases, clinical findings and investigations; production rules for activation and refinement of diagnostic hypotheses; frame-like profiles of diseases; and quantitative criteria for scoring the clinical evidence on the base of available data. PMID:1482894

  5. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  6. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Van der Baan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microseismic events are commonly recorded during hydraulic fracturing experiments. In microseismic interpretations, each event is often regarded as independent and uncorrelated to neighboring ones. In reality, both the rock deformation (static stresses) and transient wave motion (dynamic stresses) associated with microseismic events add to the stress field together with the external loading (fluid injection). We believe the resulting static and dynamic stress perturbations will influence both the timing and spatial evolution of the microseismic cloud. We study the dynamic triggering of microseismicity using numerical simulations of a biaxial deformation test by means of a bonded particle method (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004), where crack development can be tracked and analyzed independently. Our methodology is to compare the stress changes due to one specific event with the occurrence of the next few events in the numerical simulations. In addition, we compute the dynamic stress perturbations for recorded large events analytically given their (non-double couple) failure mechanisms. Our results show that cracks following a major event tend to form in zones affected by the dynamic stresses by promoting new failure in areas that are critically stressed. This confirms that dynamic triggering during hydraulic fracturing operations but also larger scale seismicity is likely. It also demonstrates the often complex interplay between the dynamic and static stress changes and their effect on the temporal and spatial evolution of rock deformation at all scales.

  7. 48 CFR 12.212 - Computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computer software. 12.212... ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.212 Computer software. (a) Commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation shall be acquired...

  8. 48 CFR 12.212 - Computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computer software. 12.212... ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.212 Computer software. (a) Commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation shall be acquired...

  9. 48 CFR 12.212 - Computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computer software. 12.212... ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.212 Computer software. (a) Commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation shall be acquired...

  10. 48 CFR 12.212 - Computer software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computer software. 12.212... ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.212 Computer software. (a) Commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation shall be acquired...

  11. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  12. Effects of Computer-Based Video Instruction on the Acquisition and Generalization of Grocery Purchasing Skills for Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goo, Minkowan; Therrien, William J.; Hua, Youjia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) on teaching grocery purchasing skills to students with moderate intellectual disability (ID). Four high school students with mild to moderate ID participated in the study. A multiple-probe design across students was used to examine the effects. Results…

  13. Are Educational Computer Micro-Games Engaging and Effective for Knowledge Acquisition at High-Schools? A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Cyril; Preuss, Michal; Klement, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Curricular schooling can benefit from the usage of educational computer games, but it is difficult to integrate them in the formal schooling system. Here, we investigate one possible approach to this integration, which capitalizes on using a micro-game that can be played with a teacher's guidance as a supplement after a traditional expository…

  14. Effects of Computer-Based Video Instruction on the Acquisition and Generalization of Grocery Purchasing Skills for Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goo, Minkowan; Therrien, William J.; Hua, Youjia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) on teaching grocery purchasing skills to students with moderate intellectual disability (ID). Four high school students with mild to moderate ID participated in the study. A multiple-probe design across students was used to examine the effects. Results…

  15. Are Educational Computer Micro-Games Engaging and Effective for Knowledge Acquisition at High-Schools? A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Cyril; Preuss, Michal; Klement, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Curricular schooling can benefit from the usage of educational computer games, but it is difficult to integrate them in the formal schooling system. Here, we investigate one possible approach to this integration, which capitalizes on using a micro-game that can be played with a teacher's guidance as a supplement after a traditional expository…

  16. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  17. Trigger developments for ARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ming-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a planned large-scale neutrino detector at the South Pole aiming at observing ultra-high-energy cosmogenic neutrinos via detecting radio Cherenkov radiation from neutrinos' interaction with Antarctic ice. By the end of the austral summer of 2012/13 three detector stations have been deployed at depths of up to 200 m. A prototype detector station has been taking data for two years. The final array is planned to consist of 37 stations with a 200 km^2 coverage, and provide high sensitivity in the range of 10 PeV to 10 EeV. In order to increase the discover potential of the stations, advanced triggering schemes are in development which take into account the topology of signal events. Here a brief status and the triggering schemes in development will be presented, and based on simulations their improvements to ARA neutrino sensitivity will be discussed.

  18. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  19. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  20. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Band, D.; Kippen, M.

    2004-09-28

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  2. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  3. Dopamine triggers Heterosynaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua; Neumann, Peter A.; Winters, Bradley D.; Grace, Anthony A.; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically-located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the VTA-to-NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal. PMID:23595734

  4. The ALICE high-level trigger read-out upgrade for LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, H.; Alt, T.; Breitner, T.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Kollegger, T.; Krzewicki, M.; Lehrbach, J.; Rohr, D.; Kebschull, U.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment uses an optical read-out protocol called Detector Data Link (DDL) to connect the detectors with the computing clusters of Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High-Level Trigger (HLT). The interfaces of the clusters to these optical links are realized with FPGA-based PCI-Express boards. The High-Level Trigger is a computing cluster dedicated to the online reconstruction and compression of experimental data. It uses a combination of CPU, GPU and FPGA processing. For Run 2, the HLT has replaced all of its previous interface boards with the Common Read-Out Receiver Card (C-RORC) to enable read-out of detectors at high link rates and to extend the pre-processing capabilities of the cluster. The new hardware also comes with an increased link density that reduces the number of boards required. A modular firmware approach allows different processing and transport tasks to be built from the same source tree. A hardware pre-processing core includes cluster finding already in the C-RORC firmware. State of the art interfaces and memory allocation schemes enable a transparent integration of the C-RORC into the existing HLT software infrastructure. Common cluster management and monitoring frameworks are used to also handle C-RORC metrics. The C-RORC is in use in the clusters of ALICE DAQ and HLT since the start of LHC Run 2.

  5. Development of a Data Acquisition Program for the Purpose of Monitoring Processing Statistics Throughout the BaBar Online Computing Infrastructure's Farm Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Stonaha, P.

    2004-09-03

    A current shortcoming of the BaBar monitoring system is the lack of systematic gathering, archiving, and access to the running statistics of the BaBar Online Computing Infrastructure's farm machines. Using C, a program has been written to gather the raw data of each machine's running statistics and compute various rates and percentages that can be used for system monitoring. These rates and percentages then can be stored in an EPICS database for graphing, archiving, and future access. Graphical outputs show the reception of the data into the EPICS database. The C program can read if the data are 32- or 64-bit and correct for overflows. This program is not exclusive to BaBar and can be easily modified for any system.

  6. Two Demonstrations with a New Data-Acquisition System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of data-acquisition systems in undergraduate laboratories is routine. Many computer-assisted experiments became possible with the PASCO scientific data-acquisition system based on the 750 Interface and DataStudio software. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO includes the 850 Universal Interface and Capstone software.…

  7. Two Demonstrations with a New Data-Acquisition System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of data-acquisition systems in undergraduate laboratories is routine. Many computer-assisted experiments became possible with the PASCO scientific data-acquisition system based on the 750 Interface and DataStudio software. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO includes the 850 Universal Interface and Capstone software.…

  8. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  9. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  10. The data acquisition system for SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Sherden, D.J.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition system planned for the SLD detector, which is being constructed for use with the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Analog electronics, heavily incorporating hybrid and custom VLSI circuitry, is mounted on the detector itself. Extensive use is made of multiplexing through optical fibers to a FASTBUS readout system. The low repetition rate of the SLC allows a relatively simple software-based trigger. Hardware and software processors within the acquisition modules are used to reduce the large volume of data per event and to calibrate the electronics. A farm of microprocessors is used for full reconstruction of a sample of events prior to transmission to the host.

  11. PHENIX on-line and off-line computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, S. S.; Chujo, T.; Desmond, E. J.; Ewell, L.; Ghosh, T. K.; Haggerty, J. S.; Ichihara, T.; Jacak, B. V.; Johnson, S. C.; Kehayias, H.-J.; Lauret, J.; Maguire, C. F.; Messer, M.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitchell, J. T.; Morrison, D. P.; Ojha, I. D.; Pinkenburg, C. H.; Pollack, M.; Pope, K.; Purschke, M. L.; Sorensen, S.; Sourikova, I.; Thomas, T. L.; Velkovsky, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Witzig, C.; Yokkaichi, S.; Zajc, W. A.; PHEN. I. X. Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    Data handling in PHENIX is carried out by the On-Line Computing System (ONCS) and Off-Line Computing System (Off-Line). ONCS provides the overall control and monitoring of the front-end electronics, trigger and data acquisition system and detector ancillary systems. It configures and initializes the on-line system, monitors and controls the data flow, coordinates calibration processes, interlocks the data acquisition process with the slow control subsystems and performs a number of other functions. ONCS uses CORBA software to monitor and control the hardware. Off-Line provides all aspects of data handling not directly connected to the collection of data and monitoring, such as event simulation and reconstruction, data analysis and information management. The impact of the unprecedented data volumes on the design is presented, along with a detailed discussion of the tasks and methods of simulating, obtaining and monitoring the data.

  12. Event Triggered Reinforcement Learning Approach for Unknown Nonlinear Continuous Time System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-06

    samples the state only when an event is triggered and therefore the computational cost is reduced. We demonstrate The views, opinions and/or...therefore the computational cost is reduced. We demonstrate the theoretical analysis on the stability of the event-triggered method, and integrate it... computational cost is reduced. We demonstrate the theoretical analysis on the stability of the event-triggered method, and integrate it with the ADP

  13. CMMI-Acquisition Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-04

    Acquisition Module • Air Force Space and Missile Command (SMC) developed a CMMI-A for SMC programs • General Motors and the SEI have initiated a...representatives for the Advisory Group 5 General Motors /SEI Joint Project: The Initial CMMI-Acquisition • Project Goal: Develop an Acquisition Model that...Acquisition Verification Core Processes *based on initial CMMI-Acquisition model developed by General Motors /SEI 7 Pilot Participation • Pilot initial GM

  14. Data-acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned.

  15. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  16. Grammatical Acquisition: Inductive Bias and Coevolution of Language and the Language Acquisition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted

    2000-01-01

    An account of grammatical acquisition is developed within the parameter setting framework applied to a generalized categorical grammar (GCG). Computational simulation shows that several resulting acquisition procedures are effective on a parameter set expressing major typological distinctions based on constituent order, and defining 70 distinct…

  17. Grammatical Acquisition: Inductive Bias and Coevolution of Language and the Language Acquisition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted

    2000-01-01

    An account of grammatical acquisition is developed within the parameter setting framework applied to a generalized categorical grammar (GCG). Computational simulation shows that several resulting acquisition procedures are effective on a parameter set expressing major typological distinctions based on constituent order, and defining 70 distinct…

  18. Language acquisition and language change.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, David

    2010-09-01

    Children acquire a mature language system and sometimes this system differs from that of their parents. This is a significant part of language change and understanding acquisition is key to understanding this kind of change in people's internal grammars. I outline one approach to language acquisition, based on children finding cues expressed in the input they are exposed to. This enables us to understand historical change in grammars: change in external language sometimes triggers a new internal grammar as cues come to be expressed differently. Work on language variation, acquisition, and change converges, and these three areas are mutually dependent; empirical work in one area may enrich understanding more generally, opening the way to new kinds of empirical work. Seen this way, language is a complex system and language change can be treated productively in the context of complexity science. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. TU-G-204-05: The Effects of CT Acquisition and Reconstruction Conditions On Computed Texture Feature Values of Lung Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, P; Young, S; Kim, G; Hoffman, J; Brown, M; McNitt-Gray, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Texture features have been investigated as a biomarker of response and malignancy. Because these features reflect local differences in density, they may be influenced by acquisition and reconstruction parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radiation dose level and reconstruction method on features derived from lung lesions. Methods: With IRB approval, 33 lung tumor cases were identified from clinically indicated thoracic CT scans in which the raw projection (sinogram) data were available. Based on a previously-published technique, noise was added to the raw data to simulate reduced-dose versions of each case at 25%, 10% and 3% of the original dose. Original and simulated reduced dose projection data were reconstructed with conventional and two iterative-reconstruction settings, yielding 12 combinations of dose/recon conditions. One lesion from each case was contoured. At the reference condition (full dose, conventional recon), 17 lesions were randomly selected for repeat contouring (repeatability). For each lesion at each dose/recon condition, 151 texture measures were calculated. A paired differences approach was employed to compare feature variation from repeat contours at the reference condition to the variation observed in other dose/recon conditions (reproducibility). The ratio of standard deviation of the reproducibility to repeatability was used as the variation measure for each feature. Results: The mean variation (standard deviation) across dose levels and kernel was significantly different with a ratio of 2.24 (±5.85) across texture features (p=0.01). The mean variation (standard deviation) across dose levels with conventional recon was also significantly different with 2.30 (7.11) (p=0.025). The mean variation across reconstruction settings of original dose has a trend in showing difference with 1.35 (2.60) among all features (p=0.09). Conclusion: Texture features varied considerably with variations in dose and

  20. Naive Physics, Event Perception, Lexical Semantics, and Language Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AD-A276 799 Technical Report 1456 P Naive Physics, Event Perception, Lexical Semantics, and Language Acquisition DTICS ELFCTE MAR 0 91094D v F...Event Perception, Lexical Semantics, and Language Acquisition by .Jeffrev Mark Siskiiid Accesion For B.A. Computer Science (1979) NTIS CRAM Technion...hypotheses about child language acquisition , these systems use only positive examples to drive their acquisition of a language model. MAIMRA. the

  1. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  2. Design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution Board for CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jianhui; Dong, Hai; Cuevas, R; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Heyes, William; Jastrzembski, Edward; Kaneta, Scott; Nganga, Nicholas; Moffit, Bryan; Raydo, Benjamin; Timmer, Carl; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2012-10-01

    The design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution (TID) board for the 12 GeV Upgrade at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at TJNAL is described. The TID board distributes a low jitter system clock, synchronized trigger, and synchronized multi-purpose SYNC signal. The TID also initiates data acquisition for the crate. With the TID boards, a multi-crate system can be setup for experiment test and commissioning. The TID board can be selectively populated as a Trigger Interface (TI) board, or a Trigger Distribution (TD) board for the 12 GeV upgrade experiments. When the TID is populated as a TI, it can be located in the VXS crate and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VXS P0 connector; it can also be located in the standard VME64 crate, and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VME P2 connector or front panel. It initiates the data acquisition for the front crate where the TI is positioned in. When the TID is populated as a TD, it fans out the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC from trigger supervisor to the front end crates through optical fibres. The TD monitors the trigger processing on the TIs, and gives feedback to the TS for trigger flow control. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is utilised on TID board to provide programmability. The TID boards were intensively tested on the bench, and various setups.

  3. Pediatric Trigger Digits.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Andrea S; Bae, Donald S

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric trigger thumb presents not at birth but early in childhood. Most evidence suggests that it is caused by a developmental size mismatch between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and its sheath. Patients generally present with the thumb interphalangeal joint locked in flexion. Surgical reviews report near universally excellent outcomes after open release of the A1 pulley. However, recent reports indicate that there may be a role for nonsurgical treatment for families that are willing to wait several years for possible spontaneous resolution of the deformity. Triggering in digits other than the thumb in children is generally associated with an underlying diagnosis including anatomic abnormalities of the tendons, and metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious etiologies. Although some have advocated nonsurgical treatment, surgery is often necessary to address the underlying anatomic etiology. More extensive surgery beyond simple A1 pulley release is often required, including release of the A3 pulley and resection of a slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  5. Design of the Digital Sky Survey DA and online system---A case history in the use of computer aided tools for data acquisition system design

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berman, E.; Nicinski, T.; Rechenmacher, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Stoughton, C.

    1991-06-01

    As part of its expanding Astrophysics program, Fermilab is participating in the Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Fermilab is part of a collaboration involving University of Chicago, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies (at Princeton). DSS main results will be a photometric imaging survey and a redshift survey of galaxies and color-selected quasars over {pi} steradians of the Northern Galactic Cap. This paper focuses on our use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) in specifying the data system for DSS. Extensions to standard'' methodologies were necessary to compensate for tool shortcomings and to improve communication amongst the collaboration members. One such important extension was the incorporation of CASE information into the specification document. 7 refs.

  6. The effects of computer-assisted instruction and locus of control upon preservice elementary teachers' acquisition of the integrated science process skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesley, Beth Eddinger; Krockover, Gerald H.; Devito, Alfred

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus a text mode of programmed instruction (PI), and the cognitive style of locus of control, on preservice elementary teachers' achievement of the integrated science process skills. Eighty-one preservice elementary teachers in six sections of a science methods class were classified as internally or externally controlled. The sections were randomly assigned to receive instruction in the integrated science process skills via a microcomputer or printed text. The study used a pretest-posttest control group design. Before assessing main and interaction effects, analysis of covariance was used to adjust posttest scores using the pretest scores. Statistical analysis revealed that main effects were not significant. Additionally, no interaction effects between treatments and loci of control were demonstrated. The results suggest that printed PI and tutorial CAI are equally effective modes of instruction for teaching internally and externally oriented preservice elementary teachers the integrated science process skills.

  7. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  8. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  9. Digital trigger system for the RED-100 detector based on the unit in VME standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. Yu; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Naumov, P. P.

    2016-02-01

    The system for forming a trigger for the RED-100 liquid xenon detector has been developed. The trigger can be generated for all types of events required to calibrate the detector and data acquisition, including events with one ionization electron. The system has an event detection mechanism where each event is assigned with the timestamp and event type. The trigger system is required in the systems searching for rare events to keep only the necessary information from the ADC array. The characteristics and implementation of the trigger system that provides high efficiency operation even at low-energy events have been described.

  10. A novel time stamping technique for distributed data acquisition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, E. T.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a synchronizing technique for data acquisition systems, which can effectively use the normal, standard local area network cables to provide a time stamp, with a range up to 32 days, resolution of 10 ns, and synchronization within ± 5 ns. This system may be used to synchronize data being collected by independent heterogeneous data acquisition modules, that acquire events independently. Such distributed systems are generally designed with a tree-like structure or independent self-triggered acquisition boxes. These leaf edges are connected through branches to the root node, via non-bus based inter-connecting links. The present system has been tested with a set of self-triggered digital signal processing based data acquisition engines, having a 100 MHz analog to digital converter front end.

  11. A novel time stamping technique for distributed data acquisition systems.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E T

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a synchronizing technique for data acquisition systems, which can effectively use the normal, standard local area network cables to provide a time stamp, with a range up to 32 days, resolution of 10 ns, and synchronization within ± 5 ns. This system may be used to synchronize data being collected by independent heterogeneous data acquisition modules, that acquire events independently. Such distributed systems are generally designed with a tree-like structure or independent self-triggered acquisition boxes. These leaf edges are connected through branches to the root node, via non-bus based inter-connecting links. The present system has been tested with a set of self-triggered digital signal processing based data acquisition engines, having a 100 MHz analog to digital converter front end.

  12. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202 Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation....

  13. 48 CFR 227.7203 - Noncommercial computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... software and noncommercial computer software documentation. 227.7203 Section 227.7203 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203 Noncommercial computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation....

  14. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    PubMed

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  15. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  16. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  17. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  18. Integration and reuse in cognitive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Dario D

    2013-07-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to mechanisms that proceduralize knowledge into more efficient forms, skill acquisition requires tight integration of newly acquired knowledge and previously learned knowledge. Skill acquisition also benefits from reuse of existing knowledge across disparate task domains, relying on indexicals to reference and share necessary information across knowledge components. To demonstrate these ideas, the article proposes a computational model of skill acquisition from instructions focused on integration and reuse, and applies this model to account for behavior across seven task domains. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Computed Tomography of the Head and Neck Region for Tumor Staging-Comparison of Dual-Source, Dual-Energy and Low-Kilovolt, Single-Energy Acquisitions.

    PubMed

    May, Matthias Stefan; Bruegel, Joscha; Brand, Michael; Wiesmueller, Marco; Krauss, Bernhard; Allmendinger, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Wuest, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to intra-individually compare the image quality obtained by dual-source, dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) examinations and different virtual monoenergetic reconstructions to a low single-energy (SE) scan. Third-generation DSDE-CT was performed in 49 patients with histologically proven malignant disease of the head and neck region. Weighted average images (WAIs) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) for low (40 and 60 keV) and high (120 and 190 keV) energies were reconstructed. A second scan aligned to the jaw, covering the oral cavity, was performed for every patient to reduce artifacts caused by dental hardware using a SE-CT protocol with 70-kV tube voltages and matching radiation dose settings. Objective image quality was evaluated by calculating contrast-to-noise ratios. Subjective image quality was evaluated by experienced radiologists. Highest contrast-to-noise ratios for vessel and tumor attenuation were obtained in 40-keV VMI (all P < 0.05). Comparable objective results were found in 60-keV VMI, WAI, and the 70-kV SE examinations. Overall subjective image quality was also highest for 40-keV, but differences to 60-keV VMI, WAI, and 70-kV SE were nonsignificant (all P > 0.05). High kiloelectron volt VMIs reduce metal artifacts with only limited diagnostic impact because of insufficiency in case of severe dental hardware. CTDIvol did not differ significantly between both examination protocols (DSDE: 18.6 mGy; 70-kV SE: 19.4 mGy; P = 0.10). High overall image quality for tumor delineation in head and neck imaging were obtained with 40-keV VMI. However, 70-kV SE examinations are an alternative and modified projections aligned to the jaw are recommended in case of severe artifacts caused by dental hardware.

  20. Accuracy in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures, external root resorptions, and root perforations using cone-beam computed tomography with different voxel sizes of acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Bragatto, Fernanda Paula; Iwaki Filho, Liogi; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; Chicarelli, Mariliani; Queiroz, Alfredo Franco; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of images acquired with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the identification of three different root alterations. Materials and Methods: Forty human premolars were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 10): sound teeth (control), vertical root fracture (VRF), external root resorption (ERR), and root perforation (RP). After the root alterations had been produced, four teeth were randomly assembled into 10 macerated mandibles and submitted to CBCT. Images were acquired with five voxel sizes (0.125, 0.200, 0.250, 0.300, and 0.400 mm) and assessed by three experienced dental radiologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (accuracy) were calculated. The accuracy of imaging in different voxel sizes was compared with Tukey exact binomial test (α=5%). Results: Accuracy with voxel sizes 0.125, 0.200, and 0.250 mm was significantly higher in the detection of ERRs and VRFs than voxel sizes 0.300 and 0.400 mm. No statistical difference was found in terms of accuracy among any of the studied voxel sizes in the identification of RPs. Conclusions: Voxel size 0.125 mm produced images with the best resolution without increasing radiation levels to the patient when compared to voxel sizes 0.200 and 0.250 mm. Voxel sizes 0.300 and 0.400 mm should be avoided in the identification of root alterations. PMID:27994322

  1. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    to the child. And finally, on this active view of language acquisition , it is maintained that sentences are used as data by the acquisition mechanism only when they are to some degree understood. (Author)

  2. Multiple-user data acquisition and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Manzella, V.; Chrien, R.E.; Gill, R.L.; Liou, H.I.; Stelts, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear physics program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) employs a pair of PDP-11 computers for the dual functions of data acquisition and analysis. The data acquisition is accomplished through CAMAC and features a microprogrammed branch driver to accommodate various experimental inputs. The acquisition computer performs the functions of multi-channel analyzers, multiscaling and time-sequenced multichannel analyzers and gamma-ray coincidence analyzers. The data analysis computer is available for rapid processing of data tapes written by the acquisition computer. The ability to accommodate many users is facilitated by separating the data acquisition and analysis functions, and allowing each user to tailor the analysis to the specific requirements of his own experiment. The system is to be upgraded soon by the introduction of a dual port disk to allow a data base to be available to each computer.

  3. The CMS Level-1 trigger system for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadamuro, L.

    2017-03-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. During Run II, the LHC has increased the centre-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions up to 13 TeV and may progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2×1034 cm‑2 s‑1 or higher. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics programme under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition system has been upgraded. The upgraded CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger benefits from the recent μTCA technology and is designed to maintain the performance under high instantaneous luminosity conditions. More sophisticated, innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of CMS: this drastically reduces the trigger rate and improves the trigger efficiency for a wide variety of physics processes. In this document, we present the overall architecture of the upgraded Level-1 trigger system. The performance of single object triggers, measured on collision data recorded during the 2016 running period, are also summarised.

  4. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, K.L.

    THIS PAPER IS A STUDY OF A CHILD'S EARLIEST PRETRANSFORMATIONAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES. A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS (1) THAT SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION OCCURS THROUGH THE TESTING OF HYPOTHESES REFLECTING THE INITIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACQUISITION MECHANISM AND THE LANGUAGE DATA TO WHICH THE CHILD IS EXPOSED, AND (2) THAT…

  5. The Lick Observatory CCD data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, L. B.; Stover, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An evolving system for CCD data acquisition is described. The electronics are subdivided into those attached to the dewar, a 'smart' controller near the dewar, and a computer connected by serial link to the smart controller. Software for the smart controller is in assembler code, while the data acquisition and on-line analysis software is written in 'C' and uses the UNIX operating system.

  6. Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes caused by trigger points (TrPs) in muscle are a common cause of local and generalized pain. Trigger points are hyperirritable zones in contracted bands of muscle, thought to be caused by muscle overload or stress. Stress TrPs have characteristic electromyographic features, and can be visualized with ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography. Trigger point needling or injection can be effective in inactivating TrP, but correcting triggers is also critical. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  8. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, N. R.; Daniels, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man-machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ``groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  9. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  10. Multi-user data acquisition environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The typical data acquisition environment involves data collection and monitoring by a single user. However, in order to support experiments on the Mars facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have had to create a multi-user data acquisition environment where any user can control the data acquisition and several users can monitor and analyze data being collected in real time. This paper describes how we accomplished this on an HP A600 computer. It focuses on the overall system description and user communication with the tasks within the system. Our current implementation is one phase of a long-term software development project.

  11. EPICS personal computer evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kramper, B.; MacKinnon, B.

    1984-02-01

    This document is an evaluation of five personal computers to be used as intelligent terminals on the beamline control system (EPICS). It is not intended to be a general comment on the computers themselves. Rather, it is an evaluation of these computers for a specific need. Nevertheless, this document should be useful for those considering the acquisition of a personal computer.

  12. Peripheral electrical stimulation triggered by self-paced detection of motor intention enhances motor evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Imran Khan; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Jiang, Ning; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes the development and experimental tests of a self-paced asynchronous brain-computer interfacing (BCI) system that detects movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) produced during motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion and triggers peripheral electrical stimulations timed with the occurrence of MRCPs to induce corticospinal plasticity. MRCPs were detected online from EEG signals in eight healthy subjects with a true positive rate (TPR) of 67.15 ± 7.87% and false positive rate (FPR) of 22.05 ±9.07%. The excitability of the cortical projection to the target muscle (tibialis anterior) was assessed before and after the intervention through motor evoked potentials (MEP) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The peak of the evoked potential significantly (P=0.02) increased after the BCI intervention by 53 ± 43% (relative to preintervention measure), although the spinal excitability (tested by stretch reflexes) did not change. These results demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to alter the corticospinal projections to the tibialis anterior muscle by using an asynchronous BCI system based on online motor imagination that triggered peripheral stimulation. This type of repetitive proprioceptive feedback training based on self-generated brain signal decoding may be a requirement for purposeful skill acquisition in intact humans and in the rehabilitation of persons with brain damage.

  13. The PHENIX Muon Trigger Upgrade Level-1 Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, John; Kempel, Todd

    2010-02-01

    The PHENIX Muon Trigger Upgrade adds a set of Level-1 trigger detectors to the existing muon spectrometers and will enhance the ability of the experiment to pursue a rich program of spin physics in polarized proton collisions. The upgrade will allow the experiment to select high momentum muons from the decay of W bosons and reject both beam-associated and low-momentum collision background, enabling the study of quark and antiquark polarization in the proton. The Muon Trigger Upgrade will add momentum and timing information to the present muon Level-1 trigger, which only makes use of tracking in the PHENIX muon identifier (MuID) panels. Signals from new Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) and re-instrumented planes in the existing muon tracking (MuTr) chambers will provide momentum and timing information for the new Level-1 trigger. An RPC timing resolution of ˜2 ns will permit rejection of beam related backgrounds while tracking information from the RPCs and MuTr station will be used by the trigger to select events with high momentum muon candidates. The RPC and MuTr hit information will be sent by optical fibers to a set of Level-1 trigger processors that will make use of cutting edge FPGA technology to provide very high data densities in a compact form factor. The layout of the upgrade, details of the Level-1 electronics and trigger algorithm development will be presented. )

  14. VLSI-based Video Event Triggering for Image Data Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.

  15. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography: analysis of the impact on image quality of altered electrocardiography waves during data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Tong, Haibin; Zhao, Qing; Song, Qingqiao; Luo, Ping; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Min; Yang, Shuhua; Wang, Qun; Wang, Ping; Shi, Fengxiang; Xu, Lei; Rong, Peijing

    2012-06-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) "altered waves" sometimes occur during data acquisition when computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is performed with the prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch (Flash spiral) mode using a second-generation dual-source CT. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the ECG altered waves on image quality. Seventy-three consecutive patients with stable sinus rhythm ≤ 65 beats per minute were retrospectively enrolled in this study. CTCA was performed using the Flash spiral mode in which the data acquisition was prospectively triggered at 60 % of the R-R interval and completed within one cardiac cycle. The ECG waves before and during data acquisition were analyzed for grouping purposes. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (1 = best, 4 = unevaluatable). Thirty patients (group 1) were found to have ECG altered waves during data acquisition, while 43 patients (group 2) had ECG "stable waves." The altered waves were seen as the baseline drifting; the broad, erected, or inverted P wave or QRS complexes; and a new wave. However, the length of the R-R interval did not change during the data acquisition. There were no significant differences in image quality scores between the two groups on the per-patient (2 ± 0.87 vs. 2.2 ± 0.74, P = 0.273) or per-segment (1.27 ± 0.54 vs. 1.32 ± 0.55, P = 0.577) basis. There were no significant differences in coronary evaluatability as well (per-patient; 93.3 vs. 95.3 %, P = 0.352; per-segment; 99.4 vs. 99.6 %, P = 1.0). CTCA image quality is not affected by ECG altered waves during data acquisition using the Flash spiral mode in low and stable heart rate patients. Thus, the ECG altered waves are considered artifacts.

  16. Acquisition performance of various QPSK carrier tracking loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Shah, B.

    1992-01-01

    The frequency and phase acquisition performance of three quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) carrier tracking loops, the MAP estimation loop, the Costas crossover loop, and the generalized Costas loop, is described. Acquisition time and probability of acquisition as a function of both loop signal-to-noise ratio and frequency offset to loop bandwidth ratio are obtained via computer simulations for type II and III loops. It is shown that the MAP loop, which results in the smallest squaring loss for all signal-to-noise ratios, is sometimes outperformed by the other two loops in terms of acquisition time and acquisition probability.

  17. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 10(6). A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  18. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagliesi, M. G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5 μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  19. Fermi GBM Early Trigger Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Paciesas, Bill; Meegan, Charles

    2009-05-25

    Since the launch of the Fermi observatory on June 11 2008, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has seen approximately 250 triggers of which about 150 were cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GBM operates dozens of trigger algorithms covering various energy bands and timescales and is therefore sensitive to a wide variety of phenomena, both astrophysical and not.

  20. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  1. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I-V and P-V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I-V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  2. Enhanced neural responses to self-triggered voice pitch feedback perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanjun; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-triggered voice fundamental frequency (F0) feedback perturbation on auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during vocalization and listening. Auditory ERPs were examined in response to self-triggered and computer-triggered −200 cents pitch-shift stimuli while participants vocalized or listened to the playback of their self-vocalizations. The stimuli were either presented with a delay of 500–1000 ms after the participants pressed a button or delivered by a computer with an interstimulus interval of 500–1000 ms. Results showed that self-triggered stimuli elicited larger ERPs compared with computer-triggered stimuli during both vocalization and listening conditions. These findings suggest that self-triggered perturbation of self-vocalization auditory feedback may enhance auditory responses to voice feedback pitch perturbation during vocalization and listening. PMID:20386347

  3. A guide to LIDAR data acquisition and processing for the forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is an emerging remote-sensing technology with promising potential to assist in mapping, monitoring, and assessment of forest resources. Continuous technological advancement and substantial reductions in data acquisition cost have enabled acquisition of laser data over entire states and regions. These developments have triggered an...

  4. The Current Means for Detection of Migraine Headache Trigger Sites.

    PubMed

    Guyuron, Bahman; Nahabet, Edward; Khansa, Ibrahim; Reed, Deborah; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2015-10-01

    The authors' 15-year experience with migraine surgery has led them to believe that the most common reasons for incomplete response are failure to detect all of the trigger sites or, on rare occasions, inadequate surgery on the trigger sites. Thus, accurate identification of trigger sites is essential. The purpose of this article is to share the authors' current stepwise algorithm for accurately detecting the migraine trigger sites, which has evolved through surgery on nearly 1000 patients. To begin, a thorough history is taken. Each patient's constellation of symptoms can point toward one or multiple trigger points. The patient is asked to point to the most frequent site from which migraine headaches originate with one fingertip, and then the site is explored with a Doppler. If an arterial Doppler signal is identified at the site, it is considered an active arterial trigger site. Response to a nerve block with a local anesthetic in a patient with an active migraine headache confirms the presence of a trigger site. If the patient does not have pain at the time of the office visit, an injection of botulinum toxin A at the suspected trigger site may be considered. Although positive responses to botulinum toxin A and nerve block are very helpful and reliable in confirming the trigger sites, negative responses must be interpreted with extreme caution. In patients with a migraine headache starting from the retrobulbar site, a computed tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses is obtained to look for contact points and other pathology that would confirm rhinogenic trigger sites.

  5. Excessive Acquisition in Hoarding

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Tolin, David F.; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E.; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  6. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms.

  7. Making Effective Use of Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1992-01-01

    Six computer applications in education are word processing, computer-assisted instruction, computer-aided design, computer authoring systems, computer data systems, and computer storage. Computers may assist students with three learning stages: acquisition, transformation, and evaluation of information. Advances in computer programing, software,…

  8. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  9. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    acquisition and development of software-reliant systems . Novak has more than 25 years of experience with real-time embedded software product development...Problem Poor acquisition program performance inhibits military performance by depriving the warfighter of critical systems to achieve mission...objectives • Delayed systems withhold needed capabilities • Wasted resources drain funding needed for new systems Acquisitions fail for both technical

  10. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  11. Pulsed thyristor trigger control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A trigger control circuit is provided for producing firing pulses for the thyristor of a thyristor control system such as a power factor controller. The control circuit overcomes thyristor triggering problems involved with the current lag associated with controlling inductive loads and utilizes a phase difference signal, already present in the power factor controller, in deriving a signal for inhibiting generation of a firing pulse until no load current is flowing from the preceding half cycle and thereby ensuring that the thyristor is triggered on during each half cycle.

  12. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  13. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  14. The Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during the summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site in Florida. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck or by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATLLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within {approximately}7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of {approximately}2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications. 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  16. The Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Larry A.

    1968-01-01

    Describes sources from which the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Clearinghouse on Reading obtains materials and discusses the criteria by which these materials are selected for acquisition. (MD)

  17. Unique portable signal acquisition/processing station

    SciTech Connect

    Garron, R.D.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1983-05-16

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, there are experimental applications requiring digital signal acquisition as well as data reduction and analysis. A prototype Signal Acquisition/Processing Station (SAPS) has been constructed and is currently undergoing tests. The system employs an LSI-11/23 computer with Data Translation analog-to-digital hardware. SAPS is housed in a roll-around cart which has been designed to withstand most subtle EMI/RFI environments. A user-friendly menu allows a user to access powerful data acquisition packages with a minimum of training. The software architecture of SAPS involves two operating systems, each being transparent to the user. Since this is a general purpose workstation with several units being utilized, an emphasis on low cost, reliability, and maintenance was stressed during conception and design. The system is targeted for mid-range frequency data acquisition; between a data logger and a transient digitizer.

  18. Mechanism for Triggered Waves in Atrial Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Yohannes; Aistrup, Gary L; Wasserstrom, J Andrew

    2017-08-08

    Excitation-contraction coupling in atrial cells is mediated by calcium (Ca) signaling between L-type Ca channels and Ryanodine receptors that occurs mainly at the cell boundary. This unique architecture dictates essential aspects of Ca signaling under both normal and diseased conditions. In this study we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy, along with an experimentally based computational model, to understand the Ca cycling dynamics of an atrial cell subjected to rapid pacing. Our main finding is that when an atrial cell is paced under Ca overload conditions, Ca waves can then nucleate on the cell boundary and propagate to the cell interior. These propagating Ca waves are referred to as "triggered waves" because they are initiated by L-type Ca channel openings during the action potential. These excitations are distinct from spontaneous Ca waves originating from random fluctuations of Ryanodine receptor channels, and which occur after much longer waiting times. Furthermore, we argue that the onset of these triggered waves is a highly nonlinear function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca load. This strong nonlinearity leads to aperiodic response of Ca at rapid pacing rates that is caused by the complex interplay between paced Ca release and triggered waves. We argue further that this feature of atrial cells leads to dynamic instabilities that may underlie atrial arrhythmias. These studies will serve as a starting point to explore the nonlinear dynamics of atrial cells and will yield insights into the trigger and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can Weather Changes Trigger Migraines?

    MedlinePlus

    ... uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 27, 2015. Triggers: Environmental and physical factors. National Headache Foundation. http://www.headaches.org/education/Tools_for_Sufferers/Headache_-_Frequently_Asked_Questions/Environmental_ ...

  20. Offline Processing in the Online Computer Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, L. G.; Gaspar, C.; Callot, O.; Closier, J.; Neufeld, N.; Frank, M.; Jost, B.; Charpentier, P.; Liu, G.

    2012-12-01

    LHCb is one of the 4 experiments at the LHC accelerator at CERN. LHCb has approximately 1500 PCs for processing the High Level Trigger (HLT) during physics data acquisition. During periods when data acquisition is not required or the resources needed for data acquisition are reduced most of these PCs are idle or very little used. In these periods it is possible to profit from the unused processing capacity to reprocess earlier datasets with the newest applications (code and calibration constants), thus reducing the CPU capacity needed on the Grid. The offline computing environment is based on LHCbDIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) to process physics data on the Grid. In DIRAC, agents are started on Worker Nodes, pull available jobs from the DIRAC central WMS (Workload Management System) and process them on the available resources. A Control System was developed which is able to launch, control and monitor the agents for the offline data processing on the HLT Farm. It can do so without overwhelming the offline resources (e.g. DBs) and in case of change of the accelerator planning it can easily return the used resources for online purposes. This control system is based on the existing Online System Control infrastructure, the PVSS SCADA and the FSM toolkit.