Science.gov

Sample records for acquisition energy window

  1. Energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes energy efficient windows for the reduction of home heating and cooling energy consumption. It discusses controlling air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping and by replacing window frames. Reducing heat loss and condensation is discussed by describing the types of glazing materials, the number of glass and air spaces, frame and spacer materials, and the use of movable insulation (shutters, drapes, etc.). A resource list is provided for further information.

  2. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  3. Energy and Power Evaluation Program for Windows

    2000-06-27

    ENPEP for windows has its origins in the DOS version of the software, however, the Windows release is significantly modified and rather different in structure and capabilities from the older DOS version of ENPEP. ENPEP for Windows provides the user with a graphical interface for designing a comprehensive model of the energy system of a country or region. The BALANCE submodel processes a representative network of all energy production, conversion, transport, distribution, and utilization activitiesmore » in a country (or region) as well as the flows of energy and fuels among these activities. The objective of the model is to simulate energy market and determine energy supply and demand balance over a long-term period of up to 75 years. The environmental aspect is also taken into account by calculating the emissions of various pollutants. In addition to the energy costs, the environmental costs are also calculated by the model. These costs can be used to affect the solution found by the market equilibrium algorithm. The main purpose of the software is to provide analytical capability and tools for the various analyses of energy and environmental systems, as well as for development of long-term energy strategy of a country or region.« less

  4. Whole Heart Coronary Imaging with Flexible Acquisition Window and Trigger Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166–220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  5. Definitions as a Window to the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Aram, Dorit; Novogrodsky, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Definitions that children provide can be a valuable measure of their syntax, and specifically, of their ability to produce relative clauses. This research explored the acquisition of subject, object, and indirect object relative clauses in 121 Hebrew-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 8 years, 6 months (3;5-8;6). The children were asked…

  6. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Haglund, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  7. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  8. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  9. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  10. TeraTools: Multiparameter data acquisition software for the Windows 95/NT OS

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1997-12-31

    TeraTools, a general purpose, multiparameter, data acquisition application for Windows 95NT is described. It is based on the Kmax architecture which has been used since 1986 on the Macintosh computer at numerous industrial, education, and research sites world-wide. TeraTools includes high-level support for industry-standard modular instrumentation; a built-in scripting language; drivers for commercially available interfaces; hooks for external code extensions; event file sorting and replay; and a full set of histogramming and display tools. The environment is scalable and may be applied to problems involving a few parameters or many parameters.

  11. Modeling Windows in Energy Plus with Simple Performance Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian; Griffith, Brent

    2009-10-12

    The building energy simulation program, Energy Plus (E+), cannot use standard window performance indices (U, SHGC, VT) to model window energy impacts. Rather, E+ uses more accurate methods which require a physical description of the window. E+ needs to be able to accept U and SHGC indices as window descriptors because, often, these are all that is known about a window and because building codes, standards, and voluntary programs are developed using these terms. This paper outlines a procedure, developed for E+, which will allow it to use standard window performance indices to model window energy impacts. In this 'Block' model, a given U, SHGC, VT are mapped to the properties of a fictitious 'layer' in E+. For thermal conductance calculations, the 'Block' functions as a single solid layer. For solar optical calculations, the model begins by defining a solar transmittance (Ts) at normal incidence based on the SHGC. For properties at non-normal incidence angles, the 'Block' takes on the angular properties of multiple glazing layers; the number and type of layers defined by the U and SHGC. While this procedure is specific to E+, parts of it may have applicability to other window/building simulation programs.

  12. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  14. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-24

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  15. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  16. Evacuated Window Glazings for Energy Efficient Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. K.; Tracy, C. E.

    1985-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a highly insulating window glazing is being studied at SERI. Computer aided design analyses indicate that an all glass, edge sealed vacuum window with spherical glass interpane spacers and a low emittance, coating,on one internal surface could exhibit a thermal conductance of less than 0.6 W/m2K (thermal resistance, R > 10°F ft h/Btu). Cost effective means of mass-producing such a glazing have been explored. A CO2 laser has been used to produce a continuous, leak tight welded glass perimeter at 580°C, and this process appears to be a promising approach. However, at this temperature in vacuum, few low-emissivity coatings retain their desirable properties. Systemmatic measurements were made on tin oxide (fluorine doped) and indium-tin oxide low-e coatings. The indium-tin oxide was shown to be improved by vacuum heating. The ratio of solar weighted transmittance to emittance (313 K black-body weighted), a measure of performance in this application, is shown to have a sharply defined maximum at a coating sheet resistance of approximately 5 ohms per square in both of these oxide semiconductor coatings.

  17. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  18. Effect of energy window on cardiac ejection fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Bonow, R.O.; Findley, S.L.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Larson, S.M.

    1988-03-01

    ECG gated gamma-ray energy spectra from the left ventricle were created each 50 msec during the cardiac cycle. Nine of ten subjects were studied with a nonimaging Nal probe, and the tenth with a high-resolution Germanium detector. Placing multiple energy windows over the energy spectra, EF was found to vary with the energy window selected. Moving a 20% window across the photopeak produced a roughly linear increase in EF with energy (2.3 EF units per 10 keV increase in energy) in eight of the ten subjects. Dividing the photopeak into a low (126-140 keV) and high-energy (140-154 keV) portion gave significantly different EFs (high energy exceeding low energy by 17%). Increasing the width of a narrow window centered about the photopeak produced negligible change in EF. Examining the energy spectra showed that the small-angle scattered radiation (126-139 keV) was proportionately greater at end systole than at end diastole, after normalizing the spectra to the same photopeak area.

  19. Progress Towards Highly Efficient Windows for Zero—Energy Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Energy efficient windows could save 4 quads/year, with an additional 1 quad/year gain from daylighting in commercial buildings. This corresponds to 13% of energy used by US buildings and 5% of all energy used by the US. The technical potential is thus very large and the economic potential is slowly becoming a reality. This paper describes the progress in energy efficient windows that employ low-emissivity glazing, electrochromic switchable coatings and other novel materials. Dynamic systems are being developed that use sensors and controls to modulate daylighting and shading contributions in response to occupancy, comfort and energy needs. Improving the energy performance of windows involves physics in a variety of application: optics, heat transfer, materials science and applied engineering. Technical solutions must also be compatible with national policy, codes and standards, economics, business practice and investment, real and perceived risks, comfort, health, safety, productivity, amenities, and occupant preference and values. The challenge is to optimize energy performance by understanding and reinforcing the synergetic coupling between these many issues.

  20. The Use of Variable Q1 Isolation Windows Improves Selectivity in LC-SWATH-MS Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bilbao, Aivett; Bruderer, Tobias; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    As tryptic peptides and metabolites are not equally distributed along the mass range, the probability of cross fragment ion interference is higher in certain windows when fixed Q1 SWATH windows are applied. We evaluated the benefits of utilizing variable Q1 SWATH windows with regards to selectivity improvement. Variable windows based on equalizing the distribution of either the precursor ion population (PIP) or the total ion current (TIC) within each window were generated by an in-house software, swathTUNER. These two variable Q1 SWATH window strategies outperformed, with respect to quantification and identification, the basic approach using a fixed window width (FIX) for proteomic profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Thus, 13.8 and 8.4% additional peptide precursors, which resulted in 13.1 and 10.0% more proteins, were confidently identified by SWATH using the strategy PIP and TIC, respectively, in the MDDC proteomic sample. On the basis of the spectral library purity score, some improvement warranted by variable Q1 windows was also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the metabolomic profiling of human urine. We show that the novel concept of "scheduled SWATH" proposed here, which incorporates (i) variable isolation windows and (ii) precursor retention time segmentation further improves both peptide and metabolite identifications.

  1. Window performance and building energy use: Some technical options for increasing energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    1985-11-01

    Window system design and operation has a major impact on energy use in buildings as well as on occupants' thermal and visual comfort. Window performance will be a function of optical and thermal properties, window management strategies, climate and orientation, and building type and occupancy. In residences, heat loss control is a primary concern, followed by sun control in more southerly climates. In commercial buildings, the daylight provided by windows may be the major energy benefits but solar gain must be controlled so that increased cooling loads do not exceed daylighting savings. Reductions in peak electrical demand and HVAC system size may also be possible in well-designed daylighted buildings.

  2. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  3. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows.

    PubMed

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-09-19

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being "opaque" to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a "smart" window behave? Is a "smart" window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  4. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    PubMed Central

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being “opaque” to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a “smart” window behave? Is a “smart” window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  5. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-09-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being ``opaque'' to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a ``smart'' window behave? Is a ``smart'' window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  6. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows.

    PubMed

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being "opaque" to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a "smart" window behave? Is a "smart" window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  7. Window Design Strategies to Conserve Energy. NBS Building Science Series 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. Robert; Crenshaw, Richard W.

    A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing, interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows: solar…

  8. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  9. Low-Emissivity, Energy-Control, Retrofit Window Film: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Winckler, Lisa

    2012-07-01

    Solutia Performance Films, utilizing funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Buildings Technologies Program, completed research to develop, validate, and commercialize a range of cost-effective, low-emissivity energy-control retrofit window films with significantly improved emissivity over current technology. These films, sold under the EnerLogic® trade name, offer the energy-saving properties of modern low-e windows, with several advantages over replacement windows, such as: lower initial installation cost, a significantly lower product carbon footprint, and an ability to provide a much faster return on investment. EnerLogic® window films also offer significantly greater energy savings than previously available with window films with similar visible light transmissions. EnerLogic® window films offer these energy-saving advantages over other window films due to its ability to offer both summer cooling and winter heating savings. Unlike most window films, that produce savings only during the cooling season, EnerLogic® window film is an all-season, low-emissivity (low-e) film that produces both cooling and heating season savings. This paper will present technical information on the development hurdles as well as details regarding the following claims being made about EnerLogic® window film, which can be found at www.EnerLogicfilm.com: 1. Other window film technologies save energy. EnerLogic® window film's patent-pending coating delivers excellent energy efficiency in every season, so no other film can match its annual dollar or energy consumption savings. 2. EnerLogic® window film is a low-cost, high-return technology that compares favorably to other popular energy-saving measures both in terms of energy efficiency and cost savings. In fact, EnerLogic® window film typically outperforms most of the alternatives in terms of simple payback. 3. EnerLogic® window film provides unparalleled glass insulating capabilities for window film products. With its

  10. Calcium fluoride windows for high-energy chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Claude A.

    2006-10-01

    The development of high-energy lasers requires optical windows capable of handling megajoule beam energies without compromising the system's performance. Calcium fluoride (CaF2) has been identified as a prime candidate for windows operating at chemical laser wavelengths due to very low bulk absorption and exceptionally small thermal lensing coefficients; it is, however, vulnerable to structural failure owing to poor mechanical strength characteristics and a large thermal stress factor. It is, therefore, essential to properly assess the ultimate potential of this material, which we attempt to do here in the following manner: (a) We assemble reliable numbers for all pertinent properties of (111)-oriented CaF2 single crystals and polycrystalline isotropic aggregates (PIAs), such as fusion-cast CaF2, which requires addressing issues relating to the elastic properties, the stress-optic coefficients, and the flexural strength. (b) We provide correct analytical expressions for evaluating the impact of pressure- and beam-induced effects on wave-front phase distortions and mechanical failure modes, taking advantage of a previous investigation [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043103 (2005)]. (c) We perform detailed calculations on "model" windows made of either (111)CaF2 or (PIA )CaF2 that transmit optimally truncated Gaussian beams at wavelengths of 1.15 and 3.39μm, for run times such that lateral heat conduction and surface cooling can be ignored. Our main conlusions are as follows: (a) With CaF2 windows thermal lensing, as measured in terms of the Strehl ratio and on assuming coating absorptances of no more than 3×10-5, is of no consequence in the sense that catastrophic failure may occur at fluence levels way below the threshold for optical distortion. (b) Evidence of a poor Weibull shape factor (m ≃3.5) degrades the design safety margins, which requires operating at peak intensities of no more than 100kW/cm2 to achieve optimum on-target fluences. (c) Regarding the issue of (111

  11. Experimental evaluation of 350 MHz RF accelerator windows for the low energy demonstration accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, K.; Rees, D.; Roybal, W.

    1997-09-01

    Radio frequency (RF) windows are historically a point where failure occurs in input power couplers for accelerators. To obtain a reliable, high-power, 350 MHz RF window for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project of the Accelerator Production of Tritium program, RF windows prototypes from different vendors were tested. Experiments were performed to evaluate the RF windows by the vendors to select a window for the LEDA project. The Communications and Power, Inc. (CPI) windows were conditioned to 445 kW in roughly 15 hours. At 445 kW a window failed, and the cause of the failure will be presented. The English Electronic Valve, Inc. (EEV) windows were conditioned to 944 kW in 26 hours and then tested at 944 kW for 4 hours with no indication of problems.

  12. The Stevens-Levolor Environmental Simulator and the study of interior shading for energy efficient windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandyck, R. L.; Konen, T. P.

    A window systems and experiments in a unique environmental simulator with an artificial sun were tested. It is shown that interior venetian blind shading is an effective window energy management technique. Predictive methods of generating shading coefficients applicable to modern venetian blinds is confirmed. The findings indicating light colored, as well as highly reflective blinds yielded as significant energy savings.

  13. A Microsoft Windows based application for acquisition and replay of cardiotocograph data.

    PubMed

    Genevier, E S; Allman, A C; Danielian, P J; Deans, A C; Steer, P J

    1995-01-01

    The electronic fetal monitor or cardiotocograph is an integral part of all modern labour wards. It records fetal heart and uterine contractions and charts this data as a cardiotocogram (CTG). The CTG is used to assess fetal well-being by the labour attendants and in some circumstances for research. A means to acquire and display the CTG by microcomputer as an aid to archiving and to obstetric research is presented. A Microsoft Windows-based application was written using Microsoft C version 7.0 to acquire and replay the CTG data. The application acquires the CTG data by using the RS232 serial link fitted on most modern fetal monitors. Additionally, comments and events can be entered by the user throughout recording. The data are saved to disk files which can be replayed on screen in the manner of a CTG. The data replay functions of the application calculates the uterine activity integral and active pressure for each contraction and for 15 min intervals. This calculated data is not available from many fetal monitors but is widely used for research into the mechanics of labour. This application provides an easy, reliable and accurate means of acquiring the CTG data, for archiving and research. It also provides a framework for further CTG analysis.

  14. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    PubMed Central

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows. PMID:27115028

  15. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  16. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows. PMID:27115028

  17. Integrated smart electrochromic windows for energy saving and storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong; Jin, Xiujuan; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-18

    A self-powered electrochromic smart window with tunable transmittance driven by dye-sensitized solar cells has been designed, which also acts as a photocharged electrochromic supercapacitor with high areal capacitance and reversible color changes. PMID:24281715

  18. Integrated smart electrochromic windows for energy saving and storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong; Jin, Xiujuan; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-18

    A self-powered electrochromic smart window with tunable transmittance driven by dye-sensitized solar cells has been designed, which also acts as a photocharged electrochromic supercapacitor with high areal capacitance and reversible color changes.

  19. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  20. Consumer`s guide to buying energy-efficient windows and doors. Revised edition

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    High-performance windows and doors offer significant improvements in solar control, thermal comfort, and energy efficiency by incorporating such innovations as special coatings, inert gas fills, and better edge spacers and frames. This guide explains how these advances in window and door technology work, helping the homeowner make informed decisions about purchasing high-performance windows and doors. Section 2 shows how to assess the home`s current situation and what to look for in windows and doors. Section 3 is a primer of window and door types and terminology. Section 4 discusses how windows perform as part of the house, while section 5 explains the causes of condensation on windows and how to reduce or prevent it. Section 6 introduces the various window rating systems in place, with special emphasis on the Energy Rating (ER) system. Section 7 describes the advances and innovations in window components currently entering the market. Section 8 reviews the benefits of high-performance windows. Section 9 covers what to look for in doors, patio doors, and skylights. Section 20 shows how to develop a checklist before shopping, how to choose a supplier, and how to make informed decisions based on the ER number, cost, and appearance. Section 11 reviews the importance of warranties, choosing a contractor, and proper installation. The final section provides directions on finding further information.

  1. Optimization of energy window and evaluation of scatter compensation methods in MPS using the ideal observer with model mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used the ideal observer (IO) and IO with model mismatch (IO-MM) applied in the projection domain and an anthropomorphic Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) applied to reconstructed images to optimize the acquisition energy window width and evaluate various scatter compensation methods in the context of a myocardial perfusion SPECT defect detection task. The IO has perfect knowledge of the image formation process and thus reflects performance with perfect compensation for image-degrading factors. Thus, using the IO to optimize imaging systems could lead to suboptimal parameters compared to those optimized for humans interpreting SPECT images reconstructed with imperfect or no compensation. The IO-MM allows incorporating imperfect system models into the IO optimization process. We found that with near-perfect scatter compensation, the optimal energy window for the IO and CHO were similar; in its absence the IO-MM gave a better prediction of the optimal energy window for the CHO using different scatter compensation methods. These data suggest that the IO-MM may be useful for projection-domain optimization when model mismatch is significant, and that the IO is useful when followed by reconstruction with good models of the image formation process.

  2. Integration of Microsoft Windows Applications with MDSplus Data Acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dana M. Mastrovito

    2002-03-14

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers (PC's) and specially developed ''turn-key'' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and COM (Component Object Model) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as CCD camer as and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from IDL for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics.

  3. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  4. Optimization of the Energy Window for PETbox4, a Preclinical PET Tomograph With a Small Inner Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Bao, Q.; Taschereau, R.; Wang, H.; Bai, B.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are often designed by employing close geometry configurations. Due to the different characteristics caused by geometrical factors, these tomographs require data acquisition protocols that differ from those optimized for conventional large diameter ring systems. In this work we optimized the energy window for data acquisitions with PETbox4, a 50 mm detector separation (box-like geometry) pre-clinical PET scanner, using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). The fractions of different types of events were estimated using a voxelized phantom including a mouse as well as its supporting chamber, mimicking a realistic mouse imaging environment. Separate code was developed to extract additional information about the gamma interactions for more accurate event type classification. Three types of detector backscatter events were identified in addition to the trues, phantom scatters and randoms. The energy window was optimized based on the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and scatter fraction (SF) with lower-level discriminators (LLD) corresponding to energies from 150 keV to 450 keV. The results were validated based on the calculated image uniformity, spillover ratio (SOR) and recovery coefficient (RC) from physical measurements using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 image quality phantom. These results indicate that when PETbox4 is operated with a more narrow energy window (350-650 keV), detector backscatter rejection is unnecessary. For the NEMA NU-4 image quality phantom, the SOR for the water chamber decreases by about 45% from 15.1% to 8.3%, and the SOR for the air chamber decreases by 31% from 12.0% to 8.3% at the LLDs of 150 and 350 keV, without obvious change in uniformity, further supporting the simulation based optimization. The optimization described in this work is not limited to PETbox4, but also applicable or helpful to other small inner diameter geometry

  5. Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    A summary presentation to inform discussion of the recently announced acquisition of XTO Energy Inc. by Exxon Mobil Corporation, a transaction which is reportedly $41 billion in value. "Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc" presents non-proprietary company-level oil and gas production and reserve data and the relevant U.S. aggregate data published by the Energy Information Administration.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of the Energy-Saving Potential of Electrochromic Windows in Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    Electrochromic windows provide variable tinting that can help control glare and solar heat gain. We used BEopt software to evaluate their performance in prototypical energy models of a single-family home.

  7. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-06-21

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were

  8. Applying 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) for systematic toxicological analysis with liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arnhard, Kathrin; Gottschall, Anna; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has become an indispensable analytical technique in clinical and forensic toxicology for detection and identification of potentially toxic or harmful compounds. Particularly, non-target LC-MS/MS assays enable extensive and universal screening requested in systematic toxicological analysis. An integral part of the identification process is the generation of information-rich product ion spectra which can be searched against libraries of reference mass spectra. Usually, 'data-dependent acquisition' (DDA) strategies are applied for automated data acquisition. In this study, the 'data-independent acquisition' (DIA) method 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) was combined with LC-MS/MS on a quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument for acquiring informative high-resolution tandem mass spectra. SWATH performs data-independent fragmentation of all precursor ions entering the mass spectrometer in 21m/z isolation windows. The whole m/z range of interest is covered by continuous stepping of the isolation window. This allows numerous repeat analyses of each window during the elution of a single chromatographic peak and results in a complete fragment ion map of the sample. Compounds and samples typically encountered in forensic casework were used to assess performance characteristics of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. Our experiments clearly revealed that SWATH is a sensitive and specific identification technique. SWATH is capable of identifying more compounds at lower concentration levels than DDA does. The dynamic range of SWATH was estimated to be three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the >600,000 SWATH spectra matched led to only 408 incorrect calls (false positive rate = 0.06 %). Deconvolution of generated ion maps was found to be essential for unravelling the full identification power of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. With the available software, however, only semi

  9. 76 FR 11985 - Acquisition Regulation: Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation, Government Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Property. On May 15, 2007 (72 FR 27364), in the Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-17, FAR Part 45 was... [65 FR 13735]. DOE has examined the proposed rule and has determined that it does not preempt State... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use, [66 FR 28355, May...

  10. Energy Education in Elementary Social Studies. Windows On Our World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    This document provides elementary teachers with an annotated index according to (Houghton-Mifflin, 1976), followed by suggestions for activities related to the topics. Indexed topics, which comprise a major portion of the document, include basic energy information, society's dependence on energy, problems and advantages of energy alternatives, and…

  11. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  12. Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

    2007-03-15

    China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

  13. Development of trade-off equations for EnergyStar windows

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Joe; Mitchell, Robin; Selkowitz, Steve; Arasteh, Dariush; Clear, Bob

    2004-06-09

    The authors explore the feasibility of adding a performance option to DOE's EnergyStar{copyright} Windows program whereby windows of differing U-factors and SHGCs can qualify so long as they have equivalent annual energy performance. An iterative simulation procedure is used to calculate trade-off equations giving the change in SHGC needed to compensate for a change in U-factor. Of the four EnergyStar{copyright} Window climate zones, trade-off equations are possible only in the Northern and Southern zones. In the North/Central and South/Central zones, equations are not possible either because of large intrazone climate variations or the current SHGC requirements are already near optimum.

  14. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  15. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  16. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  17. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  18. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  19. Rashba-Zeeman-effect-induced spin filtering energy windows in a quantum wire

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Xianbo Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Guanghui; Li, Fei

    2014-06-14

    We perform a numerical study on the spin-resolved transport in a quantum wire (QW) under the modulation of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a perpendicular magnetic field by using the developed Usuki transfer-matrix method in combination with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Wide spin filtering energy windows can be achieved in this system for unpolarized spin injection. In addition, both the width of energy window and the magnitude of spin conductance within these energy windows can be tuned by varying Rashba SOC strength, which can be apprehended by analyzing the energy dispersions and spin-polarized density distributions inside the QW, respectively. Further study also demonstrates that these Rashba-SOC-controlled spin filtering energy windows show a strong robustness against disorders. These findings may not only benefit to further understand the spin-dependent transport properties of a QW in the presence of external fields but also provide a theoretical instruction to design a spin filter device.

  20. Design and characterization of a durable and highly efficient energy-harvesting electrochromic window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amasawa, Eri

    With the growing global energy demands, electrochromic window (ECW) technology has attracted great attention for its ability to reversibly change the transmittance of incoming light through applied moderate potential. While ECW has a great potential to conserve energy from lighting and air conditioning in buildings, ECW still consumes energy; ECW should be self-powered for further energy conservation. In this study, a new design of energy-harvesting electrochromic window (EH-ECW) based on fusion of two technologies, organic electrochromic window and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is presented. Unlike other self-powered smart windows such as photoelectrochromic device that only contains two states (i.e. closed circuit colored state and open circuit bleaching state), EH-ECW allows active tuning of transmittance through varying applied potential and function as a photovoltaic cell based on DSSC. The resulting device demonstrates fast switching rate of 1 second in both bleaching and coloring process through the use of electrochromic polymer as a counter electrode layer. In order to increase the transmittance of the device, cobalt redox couple and light colored yet efficient organic dye are employed. The organic dye utilized contains polymeric structure, which contributes to high cyclic stability. The device exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.5 % under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2), change in transmittance (Delta T = Tmax - Tmin) of 34 % upon applied potential, and shows only 3 % degradation in PCE after 5000 cycles.

  1. Identifying and Resolving Issues in EnergyPlus and DOE-2 Window Heat Transfer Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.

    2012-08-01

    Issues in building energy software accuracy are often identified by comparative, analytical, and empirical testing as delineated in the BESTEST methodology. As described in this report, window-related discrepancies in heating energy predictions were identified through comparative testing of EnergyPlus and DOE-2. Multiple causes for discrepancies were identified, and software fixes are recommended to better align the models with the intended algorithms and underlying test data.

  2. Smart thermochromic glazing for energy saving window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutjunjan, Ruben; Markova, Tatiana; Halopenen, Ilya; Maksimov, Ivan; Tutunnikov, Anatolii; Yanush, Oleg

    2005-08-01

    Thermochromic laminated glazing (TLG) aids in reducing the energy needs of a building and providing indoor comfort. The polymeric interlayer of TLG is doped with transition metal (Fe, Cr, W, etc.) complexes, which change their coordination and the transmission or color of TLG under the influence of light and heat fluxes. At present we have conversions fiom light gray or brown to dark gray or brown and fiom rosy or yellow to blue or green at our disposal. TLG is able to sense changes in the light and adjust accordingly. It can block out the sunlight during the brightest parts of the day or capitalize on the available light during overcast days. As evaluated on the basis of tests, TLG has a good UV stability. It offers practical benefits of a low cost and easy fabrication. No electrical or any other driving power is needed to operate TLG. The energy modeling of the heat transfer in ventilated facades showed that TLG can provide a 15-30% decrease of the building energy consumption during the winter heating time in the climatic conditions of some regions in Russia. During the summer season the reduction of the solar energy gain reaches 30-40%; this is enough to give up air- cooling systems altogether.

  3. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  4. Time-of-flight ERD with a 200 mm2 Si3N4 window gas ionization chamber energy detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julin, Jaakko; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Low energy heavy ion elastic recoil detection work has been carried out in Jyväskylä since 2009 using home made timing detectors, a silicon energy detector and a timestamping data acquisition setup forming a time-of-flight-energy telescope. In order to improve the mass resolution of the setup a new energy detector was designed to replace the silicon solid state detector, which suffered from radiation damage and had poor resolution for heavy recoils. In this paper the construction and operation of an isobutane filled gas ionization chamber with a 14 × 14 mm2 100 nm thick silicon nitride window are described. In addition to greatly improved energy resolution for heavy ions, the detector is also able to detect hydrogen recoils simultaneously in the energy range of 100-1000 keV. Additionally the detector has position sensitivity by means of timing measurement, which can be performed without compromising the performance of the detector in any other way. The achieved position sensitivity improves the depth resolution near the surface.

  5. The Effects of Practicing with a Virtual Ultrasound Trainer on FAST Window Identification, Acquisition, and Diagnosis. CRESST Report 787

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Gyllenhammer, Ruth G.; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of simulator-based virtual ultrasound scanning practice to classroom-based hands-on ultrasound scanning practice on participants' knowledge of FAST window quadrants and interpretation, and on participants' performance on live patient FAST exams. Twenty-five novice participants were randomly assigned to the…

  6. Materials for high-energy laser windows: how thermal lensing and thermal stresses control the performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Claude A.

    2007-09-01

    The engineering of high-energy lasers (HELs) for applications such as the airborne laser (ABL) system requires optical windows capable of handling megajoule beam energies. The selection of a suitable window material involves considerations relating to thermal lensing, i.e., the beam distortion caused by thermally induced phase-aberrations, in addition to issues arising from the thermal stresses generated by beam-induced temperature gradients. In this paper we document analytical methods for evaluating the impact of both beam-induced optical distortions and beam-induced mechanical stresses, which may allow the designer to properly assess the performance of window-material candidates. Specifically, thermal lensing in conjunction with planar stresses control the allowable beam fluence, whereas the two axial-stress related failure modes (thermal-shock induced fracture and yielding in compression) control the allowable beam intensity. We illustrate these considerations in the light of an evaluation of the performance of three window-material candidates for operation at the 1.315-μm wavelength. Currently, fused Si02 is the window material of choice for contemplated HELs operating in the near infrared; it is, however, vulnerable to optical distortion, which renders this material unsuitable for applications that require transmitting large beam fluences. On assuming that stress-birefringence is of no concern, oxyfluoride glass outperforms Si02, but evidence of a poor thermal conductivity degrades this material's ability to transmit high-intensity beams. Fusion-cast CaF2 emerges as the most promising "compromise" solution in the sense that this material combines superior optical features with acceptable thermomechanical properties; in effect, CaF2 windows easily meet requirements as formulated for the first-generation ABL system.

  7. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-10-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m2 mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems.

  8. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows.

    PubMed

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-10-16

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m(2) mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems.

  9. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows.

    PubMed

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m(2) mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems. PMID:25321890

  10. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. PMID:25212514

  11. Energy Choices and Climate Change: A New Interactive Feature on Windows to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Russell, R. M.; Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.; Henderson, S.; Foster, S. Q.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a new, self-paced online module to foster understanding of how choices made about energy production and energy use affect greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The module, entitled “Energy Choices and Climate Change” is available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), an extensive educational Web site used by over 20 million people each year. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change, emphasizing the climate implications of the choices we make. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” allows users to explore two different scenarios through which they make decisions about energy production or use. In the “Ruler of the World” scenario, the user is given the authority to make decisions about the mix of energy sources that will be used worldwide with the aim of reducing emissions while meeting global energy demand and monitoring costs and societal implications. In “The Joules Family” scenario, the user makes decisions about how to change the way a hypothetical family of four uses energy at home and for transportation with the aim of reducing the family’s carbon emissions and fossil fuel use while keeping costs less than long-term savings. While this module is intended for a general public audience, an associated teacher’s guide provides support for secondary educators using the module with students. Windows to the Universe is a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach. Funding for the Energy Choices and Climate Change online module was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  12. Optimization of energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Xing; Ghaly, Michael; Frey, Eric C.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: In yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. Methods: An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a

  13. Performance criteria for dynamic window systems using nanostructured behaviors for energy harvesting and environmental comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andow, Brandon C.; Krietemeyer, Bess; Stark, Peter R. H.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary commercial building types continue to incorporate predominantly glazed envelope systems, despite the associated challenges with thermal regulation, visual comfort, and increased energy consumption. The advantage of window systems that could adaptively respond to changes in the environment while meeting variable demands for building energy use and occupant comfort has led to considerable investment towards the advancement of dynamic window technologies. Although these technologies demonstrate cost warranting improvements in building energy performance, they face challenges with visible clarity, color variability and response time. Furthermore, they remain challenged with respect to their ability to adequately control important qualitative criteria for daylighting such as glare and balanced light redistribution within occupied spaces. The material dependent limitations of advanced glazing technologies have initiated a search for new thin film solutions, with new device possibilities emerging across many fields. Idealized window performance has traditionally been defined as the dynamic control of solar transmittance, glare, solar gain and daylighting at any time to manage energy, comfort and view. However, in the context of wider goals towards building energy self-sufficiency through the achievement of on-site net zero energy, emerging material systems point towards other physical phenomena for achieving transparency modulation and energy harvesting, demanding a broader range of criteria for advanced glazing controls that allow the glazed building envelope to exist as a transfer function that can address and potentially accommodate the following five principal criteria: 1. Thermal management; 2. Daylighting harvesting and modulation; 3. Maintenance of views; 4. Active power capture, transfer, storage and redistribution; 5. Information Display. Building upon the existing set of performance requirements for high-performance glazing, this paper prescribes

  14. A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

    2014-07-23

    A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity. PMID:24863393

  15. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  16. An advanced data-acquisition system for wind energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A. ); Cousineau, K.L. )

    1992-10-01

    NREL has subcontracted with Zond Systems, Inc. to develop an advanced data-acquisition system (ADAS) for wind energy projects. The ADAS can be used to simplify the process of making accurate measurements and analyzing. The system utilizes state-of-the-art electronics and telemetry to provide distributed multi-source, multi-channel data acquisition. Local stand-alone microprocessor-based data acquisition modules (DAMs) can be located near sources of measurement. These allow analog data values to be digitized close to the measurement source, thus eliminating the need for long data runs and slip rings. Signals from digital sensors and transducers can also be directly input to the local DAMS. A PC-based ground station is used to coordinate data transmission to and from all remote DAMS, display real-time values, archive data sets, and process and analyze results. The system is capable of acquiring synchronized time-series data from sensors and transducers under a variety of test configurations in an operational wind-park environment. Data acquisition needs of the wind industry differ significantly from those of most other technologies. Most conventional system designs do not handle data coming from multiple distributed sources, nor do they provide telemetry or the ability to mesh multiple incoming digital data streams. This paper describes the capabilities of the ADAS, and how its design and cost objectives are geared to meet anticipated US wind industry needs.

  17. Optimization of energy window and evaluation of scatter compensation methods in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer with and without model mismatch and an anthropomorphic model observer

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We used the ideal observer (IO) and IO with model mismatch (IO-MM) applied in the projection domain and an anthropomorphic channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) applied to reconstructed images to optimize the acquisition energy window width and to evaluate various scatter compensation methods in the context of a myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) defect detection task. The IO has perfect knowledge of the image formation process and thus reflects the performance with perfect compensation for image-degrading factors. Thus, using the IO to optimize imaging systems could lead to suboptimal parameters compared with those optimized for humans interpreting SPECT images reconstructed with imperfect or no compensation. The IO-MM allows incorporating imperfect system models into the IO optimization process. We found that with near-perfect scatter compensation, the optimal energy window for the IO and CHO was similar; in its absence, the IO-MM gave a better prediction of the optimal energy window for the CHO using different scatter compensation methods. These data suggest that the IO-MM may be useful for projection-domain optimization when MM is significant and that the IO is useful when followed by reconstruction with good models of the image formation process. PMID:26029730

  18. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  19. A Monte Carlo simulation study of the effect of energy windows in computed tomography images based on an energy-resolved photon counting detector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-08-01

    The energy-resolved photon counting detector provides the spectral information that can be used to generate images. The novel imaging methods, including the K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging, are based on the energy-resolved photon counting detector and can be realized by using various energy windows or energy bins. The location and width of the energy windows or energy bins are important because these techniques generate an image using the spectral information defined by the energy windows or energy bins. In this study, the reconstructed images acquired with K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of energy windows or energy bins was investigated with respect to the contrast, coefficient-of-variation (COV) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The three images were compared with respect to the CNR. We modeled the x-ray computed tomography system based on the CdTe energy-resolved photon counting detector and polymethylmethacrylate phantom, which have iodine, gadolinium and blood. To acquire K-edge images, the lower energy thresholds were fixed at K-edge absorption energy of iodine and gadolinium and the energy window widths were increased from 1 to 25 bins. The energy weighting factors optimized for iodine, gadolinium and blood were calculated from 5, 10, 15, 19 and 33 energy bins. We assigned the calculated energy weighting factors to the images acquired at each energy bin. In K-edge images, the contrast and COV decreased, when the energy window width was increased. The CNR increased as a function of the energy window width and decreased above the specific energy window width. When the number of energy bins was increased from 5 to 15, the contrast increased in the projection-based energy weighting images. There is a little difference in the contrast, when the number of energy bin is

  20. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of

  1. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  2. A triple energy window scatter subtraction approach for quantitative anger camera imaging of iodine-131

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, E.J.; Macey, D.J.; Bayouth, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    Dose estimates for organs and tumor volumes in radioimmunotherapy with I-131 frequently depend on in-vivo quantitation methods using planar Anger camera images. Compton scatter and collimator septal penetration result in overestimation of activity and dose. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a triple energy window subtraction method for quantitative imaging of I-131. The energy spectrum of I-131 was modeled as a superposition of the spectra of Cr-51 (320 keV) and Cs-137 (662 keV). Images were acquired with three adjacent 15% energy windows--photopeak(PP), upper scatter(US), and lower scatter(LS)--for small sources of these radionuclides. The PP window was centered at 364 keV for I-131 and Cs-137 and 320 keV for Cr-51. Three scatter multipliers were derived from analysis of count profiles of the Cs-137 and Cr-51 images, and used to sequentially remove septal penetration and scatter events included in the 364 keV photopeak of I-131. This method was tested by acquiring images of an abdominal phantom containing a liver, spleen and spherical {open_quotes}tumor{close_quotes} filled with different concentrations of I-131, both with and without background activity in the surrounding phantom. A body thickness attenuation compensation factor was applied to the geometric mean of the conjugate view counts using a narrow beam linear attenuation coefficient of 0.11 cm{sup -1}. With scatter subtraction, the accuracy and reproducibility of activity quantitation was improved because the background count density was more uniformly scored. Also, the influence of different activity concentrations in source organs relative to background on the accuracy of quantitation was removed, and the perimeters of organs were more clearly defined. This method has been used to provide improved dose estimates for I-131 labeled antibody therapy in breast cancer patients.

  3. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Nouidui, Thierry; Pang, Xiufeng; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAEmore » 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.« less

  4. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Nouidui, Thierry; Pang, Xiufeng; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.

  5. Comparing Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra for the Relative Quantification of Barley Gluten in Selectively Bred Barley Lines.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Lane, Catherine S; Tanner, Gregory J; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-20

    Celiac disease (CD) is a disease of the small intestine that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins for which the only treatment is strict adherence to a life-long gluten-free diet. Barley contains four gluten protein families, and the existence of barley genotypes that do not accumulate the B-, C-, and D-hordeins paved the way for the development of an ultralow gluten phenotype. Using conventional breeding strategies, three null mutations behaving as recessive alleles were combined to create a hordein triple-null barley variety. Proteomics has become an invaluable tool for characterization and quantification of the protein complement of cereal grains. In this study multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, viewed as the gold standard for peptide quantification, was compared to the data-independent acquisition strategy known as SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra). SWATH-MS was comparable (p < 0.001) to MRM-MS for 32/33 peptides assessed across the four families of hordeins (gluten) in eight barley lines. The results of SWATH-MS analysis further confirmed the absence of the B-, C-, and D-hordeins in the triple-null barley line and showed significantly reduced levels ranging from <1% to 16% relative to wild-type (WT) cv Sloop for the minor γ-hordein class. SWATH-MS represents a valuable tool for quantitative proteomics based on its ability to generate reproducible data comparable with MRM-MS, but has the added benefits of allowing reinterrogation of data to improve analytical performance, ask new questions, and in this case perform quantification of trypsin-resistant proteins (C-hordeins) through analysis of their semi- or nontryptic fragments. PMID:27533879

  6. Quantum dot imaging in the second near-infrared optical window: studies on reflectance fluorescence imaging depths by effective fluence rate and multiple image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yebin; Jeong, Sanghwa; Nayoun, Won; Ahn, Boeun; Kwag, Jungheon; Geol Kim, Sang; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dot (QD) imaging capability was investigated by the imaging depth at a near-infrared second optical window (SOW; 1000 to 1400 nm) using time-modulated pulsed laser excitations to control the effective fluence rate. Various media, such as liquid phantoms, tissues, and in vivo small animals, were used and the imaging depths were compared with our predicted values. The QD imaging depth under excitation of continuous 20 mW/cm2 laser was determined to be 10.3 mm for 2 wt% hemoglobin phantom medium and 5.85 mm for 1 wt% intralipid phantom, which were extended by more than two times on increasing the effective fluence rate to 2000 mW/cm2. Bovine liver and porcine skin tissues also showed similar enhancement in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values. A QD sample was inserted into the abdomen of a mouse. With a higher effective fluence rate, the CNR increased more than twofold and the QD sample became clearly visualized, which was completely undetectable under continuous excitation. Multiple acquisitions of QD images and averaging process pixel by pixel were performed to overcome the thermal noise issue of the detector in SOW, which yielded significant enhancement in the imaging capability, showing up to a 1.5 times increase in the CNR.

  7. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  8. Liquid chromatography, in combination with a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (LC QTOF), with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) acquisition: systematic studies on its use for screenings in clinical and forensic toxicology and comparison with information-dependent acquisition (IDA).

    PubMed

    Roemmelt, Andreas T; Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Forensic and clinical toxicological screening procedures are employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques with information-dependent acquisition (IDA) approaches more and more often. It is known that the complexity of a sample and the IDA settings might prevent important compounds from being triggered. Therefore, data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods should be more suitable for systematic toxicological analysis (STA). The DIA method sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH), which uses Q1 windows of 20-35 Da for data-independent fragmentation, was systematically investigated for its suitability for STA. Quality of SWATH-generated mass spectra were evaluated with regard to mass error, relative abundance of the fragments, and library hits. With the Q1 window set to 20-25 Da, several precursors pass Q1 at the same time and are fragmented, thus impairing the library search algorithms to a different extent: forward fit was less affected than reverse fit and purity fit. Mass error was not affected. The relative abundance of the fragments was concentration dependent for some analytes and was influenced by cofragmentation, especially of deuterated analogues. Also, the detection rate of IDA compared to SWATH was investigated in a forced coelution experiment (up to 20 analytes coeluting). Even using several different IDA settings, it was observed that IDA failed to trigger relevant compounds. Screening results of 382 authentic forensic cases revealed that SWATH's detection rate was superior to IDA, which failed to trigger ∼10% of the analytes.

  9. Liquid chromatography, in combination with a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (LC QTOF), with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) acquisition: systematic studies on its use for screenings in clinical and forensic toxicology and comparison with information-dependent acquisition (IDA).

    PubMed

    Roemmelt, Andreas T; Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Forensic and clinical toxicological screening procedures are employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques with information-dependent acquisition (IDA) approaches more and more often. It is known that the complexity of a sample and the IDA settings might prevent important compounds from being triggered. Therefore, data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods should be more suitable for systematic toxicological analysis (STA). The DIA method sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH), which uses Q1 windows of 20-35 Da for data-independent fragmentation, was systematically investigated for its suitability for STA. Quality of SWATH-generated mass spectra were evaluated with regard to mass error, relative abundance of the fragments, and library hits. With the Q1 window set to 20-25 Da, several precursors pass Q1 at the same time and are fragmented, thus impairing the library search algorithms to a different extent: forward fit was less affected than reverse fit and purity fit. Mass error was not affected. The relative abundance of the fragments was concentration dependent for some analytes and was influenced by cofragmentation, especially of deuterated analogues. Also, the detection rate of IDA compared to SWATH was investigated in a forced coelution experiment (up to 20 analytes coeluting). Even using several different IDA settings, it was observed that IDA failed to trigger relevant compounds. Screening results of 382 authentic forensic cases revealed that SWATH's detection rate was superior to IDA, which failed to trigger ∼10% of the analytes. PMID:25329363

  10. Comparison of Imaging Characteristics of 124I PET for Determination of Optimal Energy Window on the Siemens Inveon PET

    PubMed Central

    Yu, A Ram; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Jin Su

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. 124I has a half-life of 4.2 days, which makes it suitable for imaging over several days over its uptake and washout phases. However, it has a low positron branching ratio (23%), because of prompt gamma coincidence due to high-energy γ-photons (602 to 1,691 keV), which are emitted in cascade with positrons. Methods. In this study, we investigated the optimal PET energy window for 124I PET based on image characteristics of reconstructed PET. Image characteristics such as nonuniformities, recovery coefficients (RCs), and the spillover ratios (SORs) of 124I were measured as described in NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results. The maximum and minimum prompt gamma coincidence fraction (PGF) were 33% and 2% in 350~800 and 400~590 keV, respectively. The difference between best and worst uniformity in the various energy windows was less than 1%. The lowest SORs of 124I were obtained at 350~750 keV in nonradioactive water compartment. Conclusion. Optimal energy window should be determined based on image characteristics. Our developed correction method would be useful for the correction of high-energy prompt gamma photon in 124I PET. In terms of the image quality of 124I PET, our findings indicate that an energy window of 350~750 keV would be optimal. PMID:27127782

  11. Collimator and energy window optimization for ⁹⁰Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging: A SIMIND Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Hoda Rezaei; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharepapagh, Esmaeil; Azarm, Ahmadreza; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh

    2016-02-01

    Treatment efficacy of radioembolization using Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microspheres is assessed by the (90)Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging following radioembolization. The radioisotopic image has the potential of providing reliable activity map of (90)Y microspheres distribution. One of the main reasons of the poor image quality in (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging is the continuous and broad energy spectrum of the related bremsstrahlung photons. Furthermore, collimator geometry plays an impressive role in the spatial resolution, sensitivity and image contrast. Due to the relatively poor quality of the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT images, we intend to optimize the medium-energy (ME) parallel-hole collimator and energy window. The Siemens e.cam gamma camera equipped with a ME collimator and a voxelized phantom was simulated by the SImulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors (SIMIND) program. We used the SIMIND Monte Carlo program to generate the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT projection of the digital Jaszczak phantom. The phantom consist of the six hot spheres ranging from 9.5 to 31.8mm in diameter, which are used to evaluate the image contrast. In order to assess the effect of the energy window on the image contrast, three energy windows ranging from 60 to 160 KeV, 160 to 400 KeV, and 60 to 400 KeV were set on a (90)Y bremsstrahlung spectrum. As well, the effect of the hole diameter of a ME collimator on the image contrast and bremsstrahlung spectrum were investigated. For the fixed collimator and septa thickness values (3.28 cm and 1.14 mm, respectively), a hole diameter range (2.35-3.3mm) was chosen based on the appropriate balance between the spatial resolution and sensitivity. The optimal energy window for (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging was extended energy window from 60 to 400 KeV. Besides, The optimal value of the hole diameter of ME collimator was obtained 3.3mm. Geometry of the ME parallel-hole collimator and energy

  12. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2015-10-01

    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  13. Sensitivity of the neutron star r-mode instability window to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, De-Hua; Newton, W. G.; Li, Bao-An

    2012-02-01

    Using a simple model of a neutron star with a perfectly rigid crust constructed with a set of crust and core equations of state that span the range of nuclear experimental uncertainty in the symmetry energy, we calculate the instability window for the onset of the Chandrasekhar-Friedmann-Schutz instability in r-mode oscillations for canonical neutron stars (1.4M⊙) and massive neutron stars (2.0M⊙). In these models the crust-core transition density, and thus crustal thickness, is calculated consistently with the core equation of state (EOS). The EOSs are calculated using a simple model for the energy density of nuclear matter and probe the dependence on the symmetry energy by varying the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density L from 25 MeV (soft symmetry energy and EOS) to 115 MeV (stiff symmetry energy and EOS) while keeping the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter fixed. For the canonical neutron star, the lower bound of the r-mode instability window is reduced in frequency by ≈150 Hz from the softest to the stiffest symmetry energy used, independent of mass and temperature. The instability window also drops by ≈100 Hz, independent of EOS when the mass is raised from 1.4M⊙ to 2.0M⊙. Where temperature estimates are available, the observed neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) have frequencies below the instability window for the 1.4M⊙ models, while some LMXBs fall within the instability window for 2.0M⊙ stars if the symmetry energy is relatively stiff, indicating that a softer symmetry energy is more consistent with observations within this model. Thus we conclude that smaller values of L help stabilize neutron stars against runaway r-mode oscillations. The critical temperature, below which no star can reach the instability window without exceeding its Kepler frequency, varies by nearly an order of magnitude from soft to stiff symmetry energies. When the crust thickness and core EOS are treated consistently, a thicker crust

  14. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  15. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  16. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  17. The energy radiated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from 10-minute P-wave windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rupture process of the Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake lasted for approximately 500 sec, nearly twice as long as the teleseismic time windows between the P and PP arrival times generally used to compute radiated energy. In order to measure the P waves radiated by the entire earthquake, we analyze records that extend from the P-wave to the S-wave arrival times from stations at distances ?? >60??. These 8- to 10-min windows contain the PP, PPP, and ScP arrivals, along with other multiply reflected phases. To gauge the effect of including these additional phases, we form the spectral ratio of the source spectrum estimated from extended windows (between TP and TS) to the source spectrum estimated from normal windows (between TP and TPP). The extended windows are analyzed as though they contained only the P-pP-sP wave group. We analyze four smaller earthquakes that occurred in the vicinity of the Mw 9.1 mainshock, with similar depths and focal mechanisms. These smaller events range in magnitude from an Mw 6.0 aftershock of 9 January 2005 to the Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake that occurred to the south of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 28 March 2005. We average the spectral ratios for these four events to obtain a frequency-dependent operator for the extended windows. We then correct the source spectrum estimated from the extended records of the 26 December 2004 mainshock to obtain a complete or corrected source spectrum for the entire rupture process (???600 sec) of the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Our estimate of the total seismic energy radiated by this earthquake is 1.4 ?? 1017 J. When we compare the corrected source spectrum for the entire earthquake to the source spectrum from the first ???250 sec of the rupture process (obtained from normal teleseismic windows), we find that the mainshock radiated much more seismic energy in the first half of the rupture process than in the second half, especially over the period range from 3 sec to 40 sec.

  18. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  19. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  20. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  1. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  2. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C G M; Hensen, Jan L M; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  3. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  4. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  5. Bilingualism as a Window into the Language Faculty: The Acquisition of Objects in French-Speaking Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Pirvulescu, Mihaela; Roberge, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Where do the two languages of the bilingual child interact? The literature has debated whether bilingual children have delays in the acquisition of direct objects. The variety of methods and languages involved have prevented clear conclusions. In a transitivity-based approach, null objects are a default structural possibility, present in all…

  6. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Hun, Diana E; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  7. Acquisition of building geometry in the simulation of energy performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2001-06-28

    Building geometry is essential to any simulation of building performance. This paper examines the importing of building geometry into simulation of energy performance from the users' point of view. It lists performance requirements for graphic user interfaces that input building geometry, and discusses the basic options in moving from two- to three-dimensional definition of geometry and the ways to import that geometry into energy simulation. The obvious answer lies in software interoperability. With the BLIS group of interoperable software one can interactively import building geometry from CAD into EnergyPlus and dramatically reduce the effort otherwise needed for manual input.The resulting savings may greatly increase the value obtained from simulation, the number of projects in which energy performance simulation is used, and expedite decision making in the design process.

  8. Data acquisition and analysis for the energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamzin, Murat Kamilevich

    In response to the shortcomings of the Anger camera currently being used in conventional SPECT, particularly the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution, a novel energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera, or the ESCSC, has been proposed. A successful clinical implementation of the ESCSC could revolutionize the field of SPECT. Features of this camera include utilization of silicon and CdZnTe detectors in primary and secondary detector systems, list-mode time stamping data acquisition, modular architecture, and post-acquisition data analysis. Previous ESCSC studies were based on Monte Carlo modeling. The objective of this work is to test the theoretical framework developed in previous studies by developing the data acquisition and analysis techniques necessary to implement the ESCSC. The camera model working in list-mode with time stamping was successfully built and tested thus confirming potential of the ESCSC that was predicted in previous simulation studies. The obtained data were processed during the post-acquisition data analysis based on preferred event selection criteria. Along with the construction of a camera model and proving the approach, the post-acquisition data analysis was further extended to include preferred event weighting based on the likelihood of a preferred event to be a true preferred event. While formulated to show ESCSC capabilities, the results of this study are important for any Compton scatter camera implementation as well as for coincidence data acquisition systems in general.

  9. Energy efficient acquisition and reconstruction of EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Singh, W; Shukla, A; Deb, S; Majumdar, A

    2014-01-01

    In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) the energy consumption is dominated by sensing and communication. Previous Compressed Sensing (CS) based solutions to EEG tele-monitoring over WBAN's could only reduce the communication cost. In this work, we propose a matrix completion based formulation that can also reduce the energy consumption for sensing. We test our method with state-of-the-art CS based techniques and find that the reconstruction accuracy from our method is significantly better and that too at considerably less energy consumption. Our method is also tested for post-reconstruction signal classification where it outperforms previous CS based techniques. At the heart of the system is an Analog to Information Converter (AIC) implemented in 65nm CMOS technology. The pseudorandom clock generator enables random under-sampling and subsequent conversion by the 12-bit Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converter (SAR ADC). AIC achieves a sample rate of 0.5 KS/s, an ENOB 9.54 bits, and consumes 108 nW from 1 V power supply. PMID:25570198

  10. Soft X-Ray Emission in the Water Window Region with Nitrogen Filling in a Low Energy Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akel, M.; Lee, S.

    2013-02-01

    For operation of the plasma focus in nitrogen, a focus pinch compression temperature range of 74-173 eV (0.86 × 106-2 × 106 K) is found to be suitable for good yield of nitrogen soft X-rays in the water window region. Using this temperature window, numerical experiments using five phase Lee model have been investigated on UNU/ICTP PFF and APF plasma focus devices with nitrogen filling gas. The Lee model was applied to characterize and optimize these two plasma focus devices. The optimum nitrogen soft X-ray yield was found to be Ysxr = 2.73 J, with the corresponding efficiency of 0.13 % for UNU/ICTP PFF device, while for APF device it was Ysxr = 4.84 J, with the corresponding efficiency of 0.19 % without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments for optimizing soft X-ray yield with reducing L0, varying z0 and `a'. From these numerical experiments we expect to increase the nitrogen soft X-ray yield of low energy plasma focus devices to maximum value of near 8 J, with the corresponding efficiency of 0.4 %, at an achievable L0 = 10 nH.

  11. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub-thorn woodland-thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. The authors compared body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with double labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =50 lizards/ha.). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 site J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/ influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. We suggest causal factors for the difference in daily activity period, and discuss implications of length of daily forging period for adult body size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards.

  12. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub - thorn woodland - thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. Body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with doubly labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient were compared. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =100 lizards/ha) than at the thorn scrub site near the ocean (approx. =50 lizards/ha). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/,> and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/O influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. Causal factors for the difference in daily activity period are suggested, and implications of length of daily foraging period for adult body, size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards are discussed.

  13. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  14. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  15. [Aortopulmonary window].

    PubMed

    González-Marín, María Arántzazu; Jiménez-Díaz, Javier; Centeno-Jiménez, Miriam; García-Cabezas, M Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The aortopulmonary window is a rare cause of heart failure in the neonate. It must be ruled out if there are signs of pulmonary edema without the most frequent left-right shunts. We report the echocardiographic images of a newborn who was admitted with symptoms of heart failure at our institution.

  16. Highly Insulating Windows for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reliability in Fenestration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, David

    2010-11-30

    EverSealed Windows, Inc. (ESW) agreed in early 2006, prior to the contract award, to add three additional deliverables to the Project (new Milestones 30, 31 and 32), and have the results of these three deliverables form the basis of the go/no-go decision for proceeding from BP1 to BP2. ESW completed all three milestones and the DOE agreed in November 2006 to continue the Project. ESW subsequently initiated work on BP2 and its two milestones. These were to (1) Assemble and test glass-to-metal bonded coupons to test the strength of ESW's glass-to-metal bonds (ESW's Test Vehicle 1 or TV1), and (2) to assemble and test the hermeticity of glass and metal packages (ESW's Test Vehicle 2 or TV2). ESW completed both milestones of BP2 in late 2010, demonstrating that its bonds were both strong enough and hermetic enough that vacuum insulating glass units could be assembled and survive a 40+ year service life in any climate in North America. Based on the accomplishments in BP-1, the DOE held a go/no-go meeting in Washington, DC in mid-November 2006 and moved the Project into Budget Period 2 (BP-2). During this go/no-go meeting, the DOE expressed a concern that ESW did not have a back-up plan or process should ESW be unable to make its diffusion bonding process more than adequate for the necessary bond strength and hermeticity of the seal. ESW suggested and volunteered to investigate using a glass frit (i.e., solder glass) as a back-up to its diffusion bonding of glass to oxidized metal.

  17. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  18. Scattering and anelastic attenuation of seismic energy in Northeast India using the multiple lapse time window analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhy, S.

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the intrinsic dissipation and scattering properties of the lithosphere beneath the northeast India by using the seismic waves recorded by a network of ten broadband stations in the region with hypocentral distances ranging from 31 to 200 km. First, we determined coda Q from the amplitude decay rate of the S-wave coda envelopes in five frequency bands from 1.5 to 24 Hz based on single scattering theory and QS by means of the coda normalization method. Assuming a frequency dependent power-law of the form , we found a low Q0 (Q0 < 200) and a high frequency dependent parameter n (n ~ 1) for the whole study area, which indicates that the lithosphere beneath NE India is seismically active and heterogeneous. Then we applied the multiple lapse time window (MLTW) analysis in the hypothesis of velocity and scattering coefficients constant with depth. We calculated the variation of integrated spectral energy with hypocentral distance for three consecutive lapse time windows (0-15, 15-30, 30-45 sec), starting from the onset of the S-wave arrival. The spectral energies over an octave bandwidth with central frequencies at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Hz were calculated to obtain the frequency dependence of attenuation parameters. The results show that intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering in the attenuation process at high frequencies. However, in the hypothesis of uniform medium, the estimates of scattering attenuations obtained by MLTW analysis are overestimated. So the present results are correct to a first order approximation. To obtain more reliable and unbiased estimates of the attenuation parameters and their frequency dependences by considering the probable influence of crustal-mantel heterogeneities, we analyze the events by using the depth dependent MLTW method.

  19. Three-dimensional laser window formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.

  20. Thoracic dual energy CT: acquisition protocols, current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Ohana, M; Jeung, M Y; Labani, A; El Ghannudi, S; Roy, C

    2014-11-01

    Thanks to a simultaneous acquisition at high and low kilovoltage, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can achieve material-based decomposition (iodine, water, calcium, etc.) and reconstruct images at different energy levels (40 to 140keV). Post-processing uses this potential to maximise iodine detection, which elicits demonstrated added value for chest imaging in acute and chronic embolic diseases (increases the quality of the examination and identifies perfusion defects), follow-up of aortic endografts and detection of contrast uptake in oncology. In CT angiography, these unique features are taken advantage of to reduce the iodine load by more than half. This review article aims to set out the physical basis for the technology, the acquisition and post-processing protocols used, its proven advantages in chest pathologies, and to present future developments.

  1. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  2. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  3. Window Insulation: How to Sort Through the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara

    This two-part report explores the efforts of businesses and individuals to improve the thermal performance of windows. Part I discusses the basics of what makes a window product insulate or save energy. Topic areas addressed include saving energy lost through windows, key components of window insulation, three basic types of window insulation,…

  4. A Unix SVR-4-OS9 distributed data acquisition for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Drouhin, F.; Schwaller, B.; Fontaine, J.C.; Charles, F.; Pallares, A.; Huss, D.

    1998-08-01

    The distributed data acquisition (DAQ) system developed by the GRPHE (Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies) group is a combination of hardware and software dedicated to high energy physics. The system described here is used in the beam tests of the CMs tracker. The central processor of the system is a RISC CPU hosted in a VME card, running a POSIX compliant UNIX system. Specialized real-time OS9 VME cards perform the instrumentation control. The main data flow goes over a deterministic high speed network. The Unix system manages a list of OS9 front-end systems with a synchronization protocol running over a TCP/IP layer.

  5. Development of a CdTe pixel detector with a window comparator ASIC for high energy X-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Furukawa, Y.; Honma, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kawase, M.; Koganezawa, T.; Ohata, T.; Sato, M.; Sato, G.; Takagaki, M.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a photon-counting-type CdTe pixel detector (SP8-01). SP8-01 was designed as a prototype of a high-energy X-ray imaging detector for experiments using synchrotron radiation. SP8-01 has a CdTe sensor of 500 μm thickness, which has an absorption efficiency of almost 100% up to 50 keV and 45% even at 100 keV. A full-custom application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was designed as a readout circuit of SP8-01, which is equipped with a window-type discriminator. The upper discriminator realizes a low-background measurement, because X-ray beams from the monochromator contain higher-order components beside the fundamental X-rays in general. ASIC chips were fabricated with a TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS process, and CdTe sensors were bump-bonded to the ASIC chips by a gold-stud bonding technique. Beam tests were performed at SPring-8. SP8-01 detected X-rays up to 120 keV. The capability of SP8-01 as an imaging detector for high-energy X-ray synchrotron radiation was evaluated with its performance characteristics.

  6. Results and lessons learned from conditioning 1 MW CW 350 MHz coaxial vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, K.; Cordova, R.; Rees, D.; Roybal, W.; Risbud, S.; Wilcox, D.

    1998-12-31

    The reliability of the radio frequency (RF) windows on the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) is critical to the success of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Program (APT). On the APT accelerator there will be over 1,000 windows, each passing on the order of 250 kW of CW RF power. This power level is well above power levels historically used in RF windows. Based on the high-power RF test results of the RF window prototypes from vendors, the coaxial windows made by EEV Ltd. of Chelmsford, England, were selected for LEDA. This paper describes the high-power RF testing of the 16 EEV coaxial windows. The RF window diagnostic equipment, data acquisition system and test stand are described. The results of the high power RF testing of the windows are presented. The successes and failures in the conditioning, manufacturing and testing techniques of the windows are presented. The conditioning timeline, power profile and the conditioning waveform are also discussed.

  7. A tool for estimating the mix of energy conservation measures given competing acquisition scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is conducting analyses that are to serve the Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement (RP/EIS). Parts of the RP/EIS are to address the impacts of commercial sector electricity conservation acquisitions under various conservation acquisition alternatives. These impacts include the energy conservation measure (ECM) mix adopted by the commercial sector and the equipment/technology that would be replaced by implementing new ECMs. The goal of this project was to develop a tool that has the capability to detail region-wide numerical estimates of the commercial sector ECM and replaced technology mix. The tool (hereafter called ECMMIX) was to be sufficiently flexible and user friendly that analysts could easily perform sensitivity tests of alternative forecasts of energy conservation acquisitions. It needed to have the capability to assess impacts across different building types, utility regions, vintage and end-use categories, as well as to aggregate similar ECMs across all categories. The aggregation capability was to exist for the replaced technology as well. Chapter 2 presents specific details about the methodology and assumptions adopted in developing ECMMIX. Included is a discussion of data disaggregation, adjustment to forecasted savings estimates, and incorporation of ADM and Ecotope ECMs. Chapter 3 contains a users guide to ECMMIX and concluding comments. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. WINDOW-WALL INTERFACE CORRECTION FACTORS: THERMAL MODELING OF INTEGRATED FENESTRATION AND OPAQUE ENVELOPE SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVED PREDICTION OF ENERGY USE

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Mahabir S; Ravi, Dr. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The boundary conditions for thermal modeling of fenestration systems assume an adiabatic condition between the fenestration system installed and the opaque envelope system. This theoretical adiabatic boundary condition may not be appropriate owing to heat transfer at the interfaces, particularly for aluminum- framed windows affixed to metal- framed walls. In such scenarios, the heat transfer at the interface may increase the discrepancy between real world thermal indices and laboratory measured or calculated indices based on NFRC Rating System.This paper discusses the development of window-wall Interface Correction Factors (ICF) to improve energy impacts of building envelope systems

  9. X-ray polarimetry: A new window on the high energy sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Muleri, F.

    2010-11-01

    Polarimetry is widely considered a powerful observational technique in X-ray astronomy, useful to enhance our understanding of the emission mechanisms, geometry and magnetic field arrangement of many compact objects. However, the lack of suitable sensitive instrumentation in the X-ray energy band has been the limiting factor for its development in the last three decades. Up to now, polarization measurements have been made exclusively with Bragg diffraction at 45∘ or Compton scattering at 90∘ and the only unambiguous detection of X-ray polarization has been obtained for one of the brightest object in the X-ray sky, the Crab Nebula. Only recently, with the development of a new class of high sensitivity imaging detectors, the possibility to exploit the photoemission process to measure the photon polarization has become a reality. We will report on the performance of an imaging X-ray polarimeter based on photoelectric effect. The device derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons imaged by a finely subdivided Gas Pixel Detector. It has a great sensitivity even with telescopes of modest area and can perform simultaneously good imaging, moderate spectroscopy and high rate timing. Being truly 2D it is non-dispersive and does not require any rotation. This device is included in the scientific payload of many proposals of satellite mission which have the potential to unveil polarimetry also in X-rays in a few years.

  10. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  11. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  12. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records frommore » IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of

  13. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen; Mitchell, Robin D.; Kohler, Christian; Vidanovic, Simon V.; Huizenga, Charlie

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  14. Energy signature monitor (ESM), a low cost class B data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1986-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, DOE, has developed the Energy Signature Monitor (ESM), an innovative data acquisition system which addresses the data acquisition and analysis requirements of test programs which involve monitoring of large samples of buildings. Information about the typical number of sensors and the accuracy requirements for such large monitoring projects was incorporated into the development of the ESM in order to meet the needs of most researchers without adding unnecessary and expensive features. The ESM hardware includes a microprocessor-controlled data acquisition program, 16 analog channels, two pulse-count channels, a RS232 computer interface, and a removable EPROM-based data storage module. In conjunction with the hardware a complete data management software package, written to operate on a personal computer, was developed to facilitate analysis of the recorded data. A total of 23 ESMs have been built to date, all of which are being used in a field monitoring study currently being conducted by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Technical support is being provided to two private-sector companies that are interested in marketing a commercial version of the ESM.

  15. Digital data acquisition for the Low Energy Neutron Detector Array (LENDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipschutz, S.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Hill, J.; Liddick, S. N.; Noji, S.; Prokop, C. J.; Scott, M.; Solt, M.; Sullivan, C.; Tompkins, J.

    2016-04-01

    A digital data acquisition system (DDAS) has been implemented for the Low Energy Neutron Detector Array (LENDA). LENDA is an array of 24 BC-408 plastic-scintillator bars designed to measure low-energy neutrons with kinetic energies in the range of 100 keV-10 MeV from (p,n)-type charge-exchange reactions. Compared to the previous data acquisition (DAQ) system for LENDA, DDAS offers the possibility to lower the neutron detection threshold, increase the overall neutron-detection efficiency, decrease the dead time of the system, and allow for easy expansion of the array. The system utilized in this work was XIA's Digital Gamma Finder Pixie-16 250 MHz digitizers. A detector-limited timing resolution of 400 ps was achieved for a single LENDA bar. Using DDAS, the neutron detection threshold of the system was reduced compared to the previous analog system, now reaching below 100 keV. The new DAQ system was successfully used in a recent charge-exchange experiment using the 16C(p,n) reaction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL).

  16. Complete data acquisition and analysis system for low-energy electron-molecule collision studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-09-01

    A complete data acquisition system has been developed that can work with any personal computer irrespective of the operating system installed on it. The software can be used in low and intermediate electron-energy collision studies with ground-state molecules in gas phase using a combination of RS-232, GPIB, and USB-interfaced devices. Various tabletop instruments and nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) -based electronics have been interfaced and have communicated with the software, which is based on LabVIEW. This is tested with dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and polar dissociation studies to oxygen molecule and successfully used in a DEA study of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

  17. Switchable window modeling. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    This document presents the work conducted as part of Subtask A.1, High-Performance Glazing, of Task 12 of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that chromogenic technology (switchable glazing) held considerable promise, and that algorithms to accurately model their dynamic behavior were needed. The purpose of this subtask was to develop algorithms that could be incorporated into building energy analysis programs for predicting the thermal and optical performance of switchable windows. The work entailed a review of current techniques for modelling switchable glazing in windows and switchable windows in buildings and methods for improving upon existing modeling approaches. The proposed approaches correct some of the shortcomings in the existing techniques, and could be adapted for use in other similar programs. The proposed approaches generally provide more detailed calculations needed for evaluating the short-term (hourly and daily) impact of switchable windows on the energy and daylighting performance of a building. Examples of the proposed algorithms are included.

  18. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-05-28

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building.

  19. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  20. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  1. Interior and Exterior Low-E Storm Window Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, Sarah

    2014-09-03

    Until recently, energy-efficient window retrofit options have largely been limited to repair or replacement; leaving the homeowner to decide between affordability and deeper energy savings. A new and improved low-e storm window boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement. A recent whole-home experiment performed by PNNL suggests that attaching low-e storm windows can result in as much energy savings replacing the windows.

  2. The influence of triple energy window scatter correction on activity quantification for 1 7 7Lu molecular radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew P.; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M.; Hamilton, David

    2016-07-01

    Accurate activity quantification is the foundation for all methods of radiation dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy (MRT). The requirements for patient-specific dosimetry using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are challenging, particularly with respect to scatter correction. In this paper data from phantom studies, combined with results from a fully validated Monte Carlo (MC) SPECT camera simulation, are used to investigate the influence of the triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction on SPECT activity quantification for {{}1 7 7} Lu MRT. Results from phantom data show that; (1) activity quantification for the total counts in the SPECT field-of-view demonstrates a significant overestimation in total activity recovery when TEW scatter correction is applied at low activities (≤slant 200 MBq). (2) Applying the TEW scatter correction to activity quantification within a volume-of-interest with no background activity provides minimal benefit. (3) In the case of activity distributions with background activity, an overestimation of recovered activity of up to 30% is observed when using the TEW scatter correction. Data from MC simulation were used to perform a full analysis of the composition of events in a clinically reconstructed volume of interest. This allowed, for the first time, the separation of the relative contributions of partial volume effects (PVE) and inaccuracies in TEW scatter compensation to the observed overestimation of activity recovery. It is shown, that even with perfect partial volume compensation, TEW scatter correction can overestimate activity recovery by up to 11%. MC data is used to demonstrate that even a localized and optimized isotope-specific TEW correction cannot reflect a patient specific activity distribution without prior knowledge of the complete activity distribution. This highlights the important role of MC simulation in SPECT activity quantification.

  3. Optimization and comparison of simultaneous and separate acquisition protocols for dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C

    2015-07-01

    Dual-isotope simultaneous-acquisition (DISA) rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) protocols offer a number of advantages over separate acquisition. However, crosstalk contamination due to scatter in the patient and interactions in the collimator degrade image quality. Compensation can reduce the effects of crosstalk, but does not entirely eliminate image degradations. Optimizing acquisition parameters could further reduce the impact of crosstalk. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the rest Tl-201 energy window width and relative injected activities using the ideal observer (IO), a realistic digital phantom population and Monte Carlo (MC) simulated Tc-99m and Tl-201 projections as a means to improve image quality. We compared performance on a perfusion defect detection task for Tl-201 acquisition energy window widths varying from 4 to 40 keV centered at 72 keV for a camera with a 9% energy resolution. We also investigated 7 different relative injected activities, defined as the ratio of Tc-99m and Tl-201 activities, while keeping the total effective dose constant at 13.5 mSv. For each energy window and relative injected activity, we computed the IO test statistics using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 1,620 triplets of fixed and reversible defect-present, and defect-absent noisy images modeling realistic background variations. The volume under the 3-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface (VUS) was estimated and served as the figure of merit. For simultaneous acquisition, the IO suggested that relative Tc-to-Tl injected activity ratios of 2.6-5 and acquisition energy window widths of 16-22% were optimal. For separate acquisition, we observed a broad range of optimal relative injected activities from 2.6 to 12.1 and acquisition energy window of widths 16-22%. A negative correlation between Tl-201 injected activity and the width of the Tl-201 energy window was observed in these ranges. The results

  4. Optimization and comparison of simultaneous and separate acquisition protocols for dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Dual-isotope simultaneous-acquisition (DISA) rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) protocols offer a number of advantages over separate acquisition. However, crosstalk contamination due to scatter in the patient and interactions in the collimator degrade image quality. Compensation can reduce the effects of crosstalk, but does not entirely eliminate image degradations. Optimizing acquisition parameters could further reduce the impact of crosstalk. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the rest Tl-201 energy window width and relative injected activities using the ideal observer (IO), a realistic digital phantom population and Monte Carlo (MC) simulated Tc-99m and Tl-201 projections as a means to improve image quality. We compared performance on a perfusion defect detection task for Tl-201 acquisition energy window widths varying from 4 to 40 keV centered at 72 keV for a camera with a 9% energy resolution. We also investigated 7 different relative injected activities, defined as the ratio of Tc-99m and Tl-201 activities, while keeping the total effective dose constant at 13.5 mSv. For each energy window and relative injected activity, we computed the IO test statistics using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 1,620 triplets of fixed and reversible defect-present, and defect-absent noisy images modeling realistic background variations. The volume under the 3-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface (VUS) was estimated and served as the figure of merit. For simultaneous acquisition, the IO suggested that relative Tc-to-Tl injected activity ratios of 2.6–5 and acquisition energy window widths of 16–22% were optimal. For separate acquisition, we observed a broad range of optimal relative injected activities from 2.6 to 12.1 and acquisition energy window of widths 16–22%. A negative correlation between Tl-201 injected activity and the width of the Tl-201 energy window was observed in these ranges. The results

  5. Optimization and comparison of simultaneous and separate acquisition protocols for dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-07-01

    Dual-isotope simultaneous-acquisition (DISA) rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) protocols offer a number of advantages over separate acquisition. However, crosstalk contamination due to scatter in the patient and interactions in the collimator degrade image quality. Compensation can reduce the effects of crosstalk, but does not entirely eliminate image degradations. Optimizing acquisition parameters could further reduce the impact of crosstalk. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the rest Tl-201 energy window width and relative injected activities using the ideal observer (IO), a realistic digital phantom population and Monte Carlo (MC) simulated Tc-99m and Tl-201 projections as a means to improve image quality. We compared performance on a perfusion defect detection task for Tl-201 acquisition energy window widths varying from 4 to 40 keV centered at 72 keV for a camera with a 9% energy resolution. We also investigated 7 different relative injected activities, defined as the ratio of Tc-99m and Tl-201 activities, while keeping the total effective dose constant at 13.5 mSv. For each energy window and relative injected activity, we computed the IO test statistics using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 1,620 triplets of fixed and reversible defect-present, and defect-absent noisy images modeling realistic background variations. The volume under the 3-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface (VUS) was estimated and served as the figure of merit. For simultaneous acquisition, the IO suggested that relative Tc-to-Tl injected activity ratios of 2.6-5 and acquisition energy window widths of 16-22% were optimal. For separate acquisition, we observed a broad range of optimal relative injected activities from 2.6 to 12.1 and acquisition energy window of widths 16-22%. A negative correlation between Tl-201 injected activity and the width of the Tl-201 energy window was observed in these ranges. The results

  6. Latchup window tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarewicz, J.; Hardwick, W.

    1983-02-01

    This report addresses the very important issue of latchup windows in integrated circuits. This is a serious problem and requires careful consideration in each individual case of system design. Latchup may cause system failure through burnout of the device or through an upset of the circuit in which latchup occurs. The existence of a latchup window was first reported by researchers performing latchup testing of MOS integrated circuits (Refs. 1,2). It was found that latchup would occur in some devices for only a small range of dose rates. At dose rates below a critical value, the device would not experience latchup. A second higher dose rate range was found where latchup would again not occur. These tests were performed using high-energy electrons (Linac) and were performed on CMOS, CD4000 series devices.

  7. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  8. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  9. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  10. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings. PMID:26953596

  11. Towards Quantification of Functional Breast Images Using Dedicated SPECT With Non-Traditional Acquisition Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Kristy L.; Cutler, Spencer J.; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast lesions can provide valuable information to physicians in deciding patient care or determining treatment efficacy. Physical processes (e.g., scatter, attenuation), detector/collimator characteristics, sampling and acquisition trajectories, and reconstruction artifacts contribute to an incorrect measurement of absolute tracer activity and distribution. For these experiments, a cylinder with three syringes of varying radioactivity concentration, and a fillable 800 mL breast with two lesion phantoms containing aqueous 99mTc pertechnetate were imaged using the SPECT sub-system of the dual-modality SPECT-CT dedicated breast scanner. SPECT images were collected using a compact CZT camera with various 3D acquisitions including vertical axis of rotation, 30° tilted, and complex sinusoidal trajectories. Different energy windows around the photopeak were quantitatively compared, along with appropriate scatter energy windows, to determine the best quantification accuracy after attenuation and dual-window scatter correction. Measured activity concentrations in the reconstructed images for syringes with greater than 10 µCi /mL corresponded to within 10% of the actual dose calibrator measured activity concentration for ±4% and ±8% photopeak energy windows. The same energy windows yielded lesion quantification results within 10% in the breast phantom as well. Results for the more complete complex sinsusoidal trajectory are similar to the simple vertical axis acquisition, and additionally allows both anterior chest wall sampling, no image distortion, and reasonably accurate quantification. PMID:22262925

  12. Towards Quantification of Functional Breast Images Using Dedicated SPECT With Non-Traditional Acquisition Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Perez, Kristy L; Cutler, Spencer J; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P

    2011-10-01

    Quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast lesions can provide valuable information to physicians in deciding patient care or determining treatment efficacy. Physical processes (e.g., scatter, attenuation), detector/collimator characteristics, sampling and acquisition trajectories, and reconstruction artifacts contribute to an incorrect measurement of absolute tracer activity and distribution. For these experiments, a cylinder with three syringes of varying radioactivity concentration, and a fillable 800 mL breast with two lesion phantoms containing aqueous (99m)Tc pertechnetate were imaged using the SPECT sub-system of the dual-modality SPECT-CT dedicated breast scanner. SPECT images were collected using a compact CZT camera with various 3D acquisitions including vertical axis of rotation, 30° tilted, and complex sinusoidal trajectories. Different energy windows around the photopeak were quantitatively compared, along with appropriate scatter energy windows, to determine the best quantification accuracy after attenuation and dual-window scatter correction. Measured activity concentrations in the reconstructed images for syringes with greater than 10 µCi /mL corresponded to within 10% of the actual dose calibrator measured activity concentration for ±4% and ±8% photopeak energy windows. The same energy windows yielded lesion quantification results within 10% in the breast phantom as well. Results for the more complete complex sinsusoidal trajectory are similar to the simple vertical axis acquisition, and additionally allows both anterior chest wall sampling, no image distortion, and reasonably accurate quantification.

  13. Initial evaluation of a modified dual-energy window scatter correction method for CZT-based gamma cameras for breast SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) gamma cameras for SPECT imaging offer significantly improved energy resolution compared to traditional scintillation detectors. However, the photopeak resolution is often asymmetric due to incomplete charge collection within the detector, resulting in many photopeak events incorrectly sorted into lower energy bins ("tailing"). These misplaced events contaminate the true scatter signal, which may negatively impact scatter correction methods that rely on estimates of scatter from the spectra. Additionally, because CZT detectors are organized into arrays, each individual detector element may exhibit different degrees of tailing. Here, we present a modified dualenergy window scatter correction method for emission detection and imaging that attempts to account for positiondependent effects of incomplete charge collection in the CZT gamma camera of our dedicated breast SPECT-CT system. Point source measurements and geometric phantoms were used to estimate the impact of tailing on the scatter signal and extract a better estimate of the ratio of scatter within two energy windows. To evaluate the method, cylindrical phantoms with and without a separate fillable chamber were scanned to determine the impact on quantification in hot, cold, and uniform background regions. Projections were reconstructed using OSEM, and the results for the traditional and modified scatter correction methods were compared. Results show that while modest reduced quantification accuracy was observed in hot and cold regions of the multi-chamber phantoms, the modified scatter correction method yields up to 8% improved quantification accuracy with 4% less added noise than the traditional DEW method within uniform background regions.

  14. Direct measurement of several resonance strengths and energies in 34S(α , γ) 38 Ar within the T = 2 . 2 GK Gamow window with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L. E.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, Ulrike; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiative α capture on 34S can impact nucleosynthesis in several astrophysical environments, including oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning (Type II supernovae), and Type Ia supernovae. However, there exist discrepancies in the literature for the resonance strengths of two strong resonances within the Gamow window for oxygen burning temperatures (E0 +/- Δ / 2 = 3183 +/- 897 keV at T = 2 . 2 GK). Previous measurements suffered from systematic uncertainties inherent in the experimental technique. Furthermore, there are several states in 38Ar in the energy range of interest for which no 34S + α resonance strength/energy measurements have been performed. This measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF in BC, Canada. DRAGON's experimental technique allows direct measurement of quantities such as stopping power and resonance energy, alleviating the need for external inputs and reducing uncertainty. This talk will discuss DRAGON's experimental technique, analysis methods and results.

  15. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting. PMID:27023660

  16. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  17. Taking 'control': Federal energy regulatory Commission policy on acquisitions of electric utility securities

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, David I.; O'Brien, Angela D.

    2009-05-15

    Section 203 of the Federal Power Act remains subject to considerable uncertainty. Therefore, it is important to keep several rules in mind. Each potential acquisition must be separately analyzed under Section 203(a)(1) and 203(a)(2) of the Act. A proposed acquisition that is exempt or preapproved under one provision may still require prior FERC approval under the other one. (author)

  18. Optimization of image acquisition techniques for dual-energy imaging of the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Shkumat, N. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Dhanantwari, A. C.; Williams, D. B.; Richard, S.; Paul, N. S.; Yorkston, J.; Van Metter, R.

    2007-10-15

    Experimental and theoretical studies were conducted to determine optimal acquisition techniques for a prototype dual-energy (DE) chest imaging system. Technique factors investigated included the selection of added x-ray filtration, kVp pair, and the allocation of dose between low- and high-energy projections, with total dose equal to or less than that of a conventional chest radiograph. Optima were computed to maximize lung nodule detectability as characterized by the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in DE chest images. Optimal beam filtration was determined by cascaded systems analysis of DE image SDNR for filter selections across the periodic table (Z{sub filter}=1-92), demonstrating the importance of differential filtration between low- and high-kVp projections and suggesting optimal high-kVp filters in the range Z{sub filter}=25-50. For example, added filtration of {approx}2.1 mm Cu, {approx}1.2 mm Zr, {approx}0.7 mm Mo, and {approx}0.6 mm Ag to the high-kVp beam provided optimal (and nearly equivalent) soft-tissue SDNR. Optimal kVp pair and dose allocation were investigated using a chest phantom presenting simulated lung nodules and ribs for thin, average, and thick body habitus. Low- and high-energy techniques ranged from 60-90 kVp and 120-150 kVp, respectively, with peak soft-tissue SDNR achieved at [60/120] kVp for all patient thicknesses and all levels of imaging dose. A strong dependence on the kVp of the low-energy projection was observed. Optimal allocation of dose between low- and high-energy projections was such that {approx}30% of the total dose was delivered by the low-kVp projection, exhibiting a fairly weak dependence on kVp pair and dose. The results have guided the implementation of a prototype DE imaging system for imaging trials in early-stage lung nodule detection and diagnosis.

  19. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  20. The Benefits of Aluminum Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses benefits of aluminum windows for college construction and renovation projects, including that aluminum is the most successfully recycled material, that it meets architectural glass deflection standards, that it has positive thermal energy performance, and that it is a preferred exterior surface. (EV)

  1. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, A S; Jacobson, V

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc.

  2. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  3. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  4. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  5. Transforming the market for residential windows: design considerations for DOE's Efficient Window Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1998-08-01

    Market adoption of recent, commercially available technological advances that improve the energy performance of windows will lead to immediate economic and energy savings benefits to the nation. This paper is a scoping study intended to inform the design of a major DOE initiative to accelerate market adoption of these windows in the residential sector. We describe the structure of the US residential window market and the interests of the various market players. We then briefly review five recent market transformation initiatives. Finally, we summarize our findings in a list of considerations we believe will be important for the DOE's initiative to transform the US residential window market.

  6. Dual-energy imaging of the chest: Optimization of image acquisition techniques for the 'bone-only' image

    SciTech Connect

    Shkumat, N. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Richard, S.; Paul, N. S.; Yorkston, J.; Van Metter, R.

    2008-02-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine optimal acquisition techniques for bone image decompositions for a prototype dual-energy (DE) imaging system. Technique parameters included kVp pair (denoted [kVp{sup L}/kVp{sup H}]) and dose allocation (the proportion of dose in low- and high-energy projections), each optimized to provide maximum signal difference-to-noise ratio in DE images. Experiments involved a chest phantom representing an average patient size and containing simulated ribs and lung nodules. Low- and high-energy kVp were varied from 60-90 and 120-150 kVp, respectively. The optimal kVp pair was determined to be [60/130] kVp, with image quality showing a strong dependence on low-kVp selection. Optimal dose allocation was approximately 0.5--i.e., an equal dose imparted by the low- and high-energy projections. The results complement earlier studies of optimal DE soft-tissue image acquisition, with differences attributed to the specific imaging task. Together, the results help to guide the development and implementation of high-performance DE imaging systems, with applications including lung nodule detection and diagnosis, pneumothorax identification, and musculoskeletal imaging (e.g., discrimination of rib fractures from metastasis)

  7. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  8. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  9. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  10. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  11. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  12. TRNSYS for windows packages

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.J.; Beckman, W.A.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    TRNSYS 14.1 was released in 1994. This package represents a significant step forward in usability due to several graphical utility programs for DOS. These programs include TRNSHELL, which encapsulates TRNSYS functions, PRESIM, which allows the graphical creation of a simulation system, and TRNSED, which allows the easy sharing of simulations. The increase in usability leads to a decrease in the time necessary to prepare the simulation. Most TRNSYS users operate on PC computers with the Windows operating system. Therefore, the next logical step in increased usability was to port the current TRNSYS package to the Windows operating system. Several organizations worked on this conversion that has resulted in two distinct Windows packages. One package closely resembles the DOS version and includes TRNSHELL for Windows and PRESIM for Windows. The other package incorporates a general front-end, called IISIBat, that is a general simulation tool front-end. 8 figs.

  13. Multi-functional windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  14. Inside storm window

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The work effort to design, build, install, and evaluate an inside storm window is presented. The ISW, made of two separated layers of mylar (like a thermopane window) which when not in use can be rolled up in a shade, is described. The work effort included: development of a prototype model; the development of production facilities to turn out a small number (50) of ISW's; the production of the windows; the installation of the windows into buildings; the building of a test chamber to determine the R value of the ISW and the subsequent determination of the R value; and a survey to determine how the residents of the homes in which ISW's were installed felt about the windows. Comments on each of these tasks are presented and some comments on initial steps towards commercialization are offered. (MCW)

  15. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  16. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  17. Integration Window Position Estimation in TR Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2005-03-15

    Transmitted-reference (TR) receivers avoid the stringent synchronization requirements that exist in conventional pulse detection schemes. However, the performance of such receivers is highly sensitive to precise timing acquisition and tracking as well as the length of their integration window. This window in TR receivers defines the limits of the finite integrator prior to the final decision making block. In this paper, we propose a novel technique that allows us to extract the timing information of the integration window very accurately in UWB-TR receivers in the presence of channel noise. The principles of the method are presented and the BER performance of a modified UWB-TR receiver is investigated by computer simulation. Our studies show that the proposed estimation technique adds value to the conventional TR receiver structure with modest increase in complexity.

  18. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  20. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  1. Site handbook: data acquisition system information, passive solar retrofit Automobile Maintenance Facility, City of Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Data were collected at the City of Philadelphia's Auto Maintenance Facility using an Aeoloan Kinetics PDL-24 data acquisition system. Instantaneous data readings were recorded each 15 seconds by the microprocessor. These channel readings were then averaged to produce hourly values which were then stored on an audio cassette. The energy saving strategies include: styrofoam and concrete roof coverings; weatherstripping; replacement of north windows with combination insulation and view glazing; PVC strips between heated and unheated areas; gas fired radiant heaters at individual work stations; reduction of the number of light fixtures; and the installation of retrofit window units for radiant solar heating, daylighting, ventilation, glare control and vandalism protection.

  2. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  3. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  4. Energy and complex industrial systems environmental emissions data reporting and acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1987-07-01

    The Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNEP and WHO Project on Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental risks from Energy and Other Complex Technologies intends to complile emissions data for mportant energy systems and other complex technologies from a wide variety of countries. To facilitate data generation and compilation, this report: outlines data reporting protocols; identifies potential information sources; demonstrates how to estimate coefficients; presents some compiled US emission coefficients or criteria air pollutants for some energy process; and, compares national air emission standards for electricity generating plants in OECD member countries. 27 refs., 2 fis., 1 tabs.

  5. Improving the reliability of the background extrapolation in transmission electron microscopy elemental maps by using three pre-edge windows.

    PubMed

    Heil, Tobias; Gralla, Benedikt; Epping, Michael; Kohl, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Over the last decades, elemental maps have become a powerful tool for the analysis of the spatial distribution of the elements within specimen. In energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) one commonly uses two pre-edge and one post-edge image for the calculation of elemental maps. However, this so called three-window method can introduce serious errors into the extrapolated background for the post-edge window. Since this method uses only two pre-edge windows as data points to calculate a background model that depends on two fit parameters, the quality of the extrapolation can be estimated only statistically assuming that the background model is correct. In this paper, we will discuss a possibility to improve the accuracy and reliability of the background extrapolation by using a third pre-edge window. Since with three data points the extrapolation becomes over-determined, this change permits us to estimate not only the statistical uncertainly of the fit, but also the systematic error by using the experimental data. Furthermore we will discuss in this paper the acquisition parameters that should be used for the energy windows to reach an optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the elemental maps.

  6. High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  7. High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  8. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 04: An iterative triple energy window (TEW) approach to cross talk correction in quantitative small animal Tc99m and In111 SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, P; Timmins, R; Wells, R G

    2014-08-15

    Dual isotope SPECT allows simultaneous measurement of two different tracers in vivo. With In111 (emission energies of 171keV and 245keV) and Tc99m (140keV), quantification of Tc99m is degraded by cross talk from the In111 photons that scatter and are detected at an energy corresponding to Tc99m. TEW uses counts recorded in two narrow windows surrounding the Tc99m primary window to estimate scatter. Iterative TEW corrects for the bias introduced into the TEW estimate resulting from un-scattered counts detected in the scatter windows. The contamination in the scatter windows is iteratively estimated and subtracted as a fraction of the scatter-corrected primary window counts. The iterative TEW approach was validated with a small-animal SPECT/CT camera using a 2.5mL plastic container holding thoroughly mixed Tc99m/In111 activity fractions of 0.15, 0.28, 0.52, 0.99, 2.47 and 6.90. Dose calibrator measurements were the gold standard. Uncorrected for scatter, the Tc99m activity was over-estimated by as much as 80%. Unmodified TEW underestimated the Tc99m activity by 13%. With iterative TEW corrections applied in projection space, the Tc99m activity was estimated within 5% of truth across all activity fractions above 0.15. This is an improvement over the non-iterative TEW, which could not sufficiently correct for scatter in the 0.15 and 0.28 phantoms.

  9. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  10. Multi-Window Controllers for Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, B, J.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-window controllers select between elementary linear controllers using nonlinear windows based on the amplitude and frequency content of the feedback error. The controllers are relatively simple to implement and perform much better than linear controllers. The commanders for such controllers only order the destination point and are freed from generating the command time-profiles. The robotic missions rely heavily on the tasks of acquisition and tracking. For autonomous and optimal control of the spacecraft, the control bandwidth must be larger while the feedback can (and, therefore, must) be reduced.. Combining linear compensators via multi-window nonlinear summer guarantees minimum phase character of the combined transfer function. It is shown that the solution may require using several parallel branches and windows. Several examples of multi-window nonlinear controller applications are presented.

  11. Evaluation of the wind conditions for the acquisition of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    Inherent in the continuous development of civilization is a constant increase in demand for electricity. The result of this situation could be a threat to cover domestic demand for electricity generated from domestic sources. It is significant therefore, to increase the energy security of the country, as well as to generate a positive impact on the development and dynamics of social and economic processes which is carried by the development of renewable energy sources. A crucial argument for the need to implement new sustainable solutions is growing environmental degradation and pollution resulting from the acquisition and use of non-renewable energy resources. Renewable energy resource for interest of this analysis is the wind. A crucial feature of the wind is its high volatility. Wind speed is characterized by diurnal, seasonal and long-term variation. The study area is Sosnowiec city. The analysis covers the data from the period 2002 - 2011 obtained using a meteorological station located in the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Sosnowiec. Analyzed data are observations of wind speed measured at the height of 10m above the ground - average values of 10 minutes. The mean and maximum daily, monthly and annual values of wind speed have been calculated, and on their basis, a relevant analysis have been made. Average wind speed value for the analyzed area of the analyzed period (2002 - 2011) is 1,70m/s, while the maximum wind speed value is 3,78m/s. Sosnowiec is located in zone IV - unfavorable for the use of wind energy.

  12. Evaluation of the solar conditions for the acquisitions of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The country's energy security risk, as well as a desire to protect the environment from the pollution and degradation which are the results of conventional fuels acquisition - these was a motivation for intensive researches on the use of renewable energy sources in eco - innovative installations. Solar radiation is one of the self - renewable energy sources which can be used both as a source of electricity and heat. The area of research is Sosnowiec city located in the south of Poland in the eastern part of Silesia voivodeship. The solar radiation data covering the years 2003 to 2013 was used. The intra - annual variability of daily averaged solar radiation hesitated in a wide range from 0.6 kWh/m2 (December) to 5.2 kWh/m2 (June). Day duration varies on average from 10 hours in January, November and December to 17 hours in May, June and July. Day occupies 56% of the 8767 hours in year. On average the largest amount of energy reached the analyzed area in July: 157 kWh/m2 (15% of the annual average), while the smallest in December: 18 kWh/m2 (less than 2% of the annual average). The 75% of the average annual total of energy falls on the period from 1st March to 31th August (spring - summer). The range of the annual solar radiation was determined by the minimum of 980 kWh/m2 and the maximum of 1094 kWh/m2. In Sosnowiec the average annual irradiation total on the horizontal surface amounts to 1052 kWh/m2 (2003 - 2013)

  13. VETA x ray data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Jones, Mark T.; Ljungberg, Malin; Nguyen, Dan T.; Roll, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the X-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of X-ray data were acquired, analyzed and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture is presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive is also described.

  14. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  15. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    PubMed

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  16. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    PubMed

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  17. Thermal and Optical Properties of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Widder, Sarah H.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-07-17

    Installing low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows and panels over existing windows has been identified as a cost-effective new approach for improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings where window replacement is impractical or too expensive. As such, it is desirable to characterize the key energy performance properties of low-E storm windows and panels when installed over different types of existing primary windows. this paper presents the representative U-factors, solar heat gain coefficients (SGHCs) and visible transmittance properties of the combined assemblies of various storm windows and panel types installed over different primary windows.

  18. SOT: A rapid prototype using TAE windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Mark; Eike, David; Harris, Elfrieda; Miller, Dana

    1986-01-01

    The development of the window interface extension feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is discussed. This feature is being used to prototype a space station payload interface in order to demonstrate and assess the benefits of using windows on a bit mapped display and also to convey the concept of telescience, the control and operation of space station payloads from remote sites. The prototype version of the TAE with windows operates on a DEC VAXstation 100. This workstation has a high resolution 19 inch bit mapped display, a keyboard and a three-button mouse. The VAXstation 100 is not a stand-alone workstation, but is controlled by software executing on a VAX/8600. A short scenario was developed utilizing the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) as an example payload. In the scenario the end-user station includes the VAXstation 100 plus an image analysis terminal used to display the CCD images. The layout and use of the prototype elements, i.e., the root menu, payload status window, and target acquisition menu is described.

  19. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    SciTech Connect

    Roldán, É.; Martínez, I. A.; Rica, R. A.; Dinis, L.

    2014-06-09

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  20. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, É.; Martínez, I. A.; Dinis, L.; Rica, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  1. Sliding window construction

    SciTech Connect

    Klompenburg, M.V.

    1987-07-28

    A window assembly is described in a window frame. The frame includes a head, a sill, and opposite jambs, the assembly comprising: first and second sashes each having interior and exterior surfaces, a top, a bottom, and opposite first and second sides extending between the top and the bottom: the first sash being laterally movably within the window frame between a closed position and an open position wherein the first sash is substantially in a non-planar position relative to the second sash; track means extending along one of the sill or head of the window frame; first track follower means connected to one of the top or the bottom of the first sash adjacent the first side and cooperating with the track means for supporting and guiding the first sash during lateral movement between the open and closed positions; and the track means having an opening for releasing the track follower means for cooperation only when the first sash is in the open position such that the first sash is pivotal about a vertical axis adjacent the second side between the open position and a maintenance position.

  2. Migration to Windows NT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doles, Daniel T.

    In the constantly changing world of technology, migration is not only inevitable but many times necessary for survival, especially when the end result is simplicity for both users and IT support staff. This paper describes the migration at Franklin College (Indiana). It discusses the reasons for selecting Windows NT, the steps taken to complete…

  3. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  4. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  5. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book, "The Christmas…

  6. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  7. Opening the Literature Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  8. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  9. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  10. Labyrinthine window rupture.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J G; Harborow, P C

    1975-01-01

    Some cases of sensorineural deafness are due to labyrinthine window rupture. Three cases have been presented to illustrate different aspects of diagnosis and managment of this condition. The indications for surgical intervention have been discussed. The importance of making the diagnosis is that operation can relieve vertigo and restore the hearing.

  11. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  12. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  13. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  14. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Galvez, Juan-Manuel; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities. PMID:24721766

  15. Window size impact in human activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Galvez, Juan-Manuel; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1-2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities. PMID:24721766

  16. Data acquisition systems for the high energy and Nuclotron internal target polarimeters with network access to polarization calculation results and raw data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isupov, A. Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Online data acquisition (DAQ) system for the Nuclotron Internal Target Polarimeter (ITP) at the LHE, JINR is explained in respects of design and implementation, based on the distributed data acquisition and processing system qdpb. Software modules specific for this implementation (dependent of ITP data contents and hardware layout) are discussed briefly in comparison with them for the High Energy Polarimeter (HEP) at the LHE, JINR. User access methods to both raw data and results of polarization calculations of the ITP and HEP are described.

  17. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED JUST BELOW THE CHOIR LOFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTAR. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Evaluation of ‘OpenCL for FPGA’ for Data Acquisition and Acceleration in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the data acquisition and processing needs of High Energy Physics experiments has made it more essential to use FPGAs to meet those needs. However harnessing the capabilities of the FPGAs has been hard for anyone but expert FPGA developers. The arrival of OpenCL with the two major FPGA vendors supporting it, offers an easy software-based approach to taking advantage of FPGAs in applications such as High Energy Physics. OpenCL is a language for using heterogeneous architectures in order to accelerate applications. However, FPGAs are capable of far more than acceleration, hence it is interesting to explore if OpenCL can be used to take advantage of FPGAs for more generic applications. To answer these questions, especially in the context of High Energy Physics, two applications, a DAQ module and an acceleration workload, were tested for implementation with OpenCL on FPGAs2. The challenges on using OpenCL for a DAQ application and their solutions, together with the performance of the OpenCL based acceleration are discussed. Many of the design elements needed to realize a DAQ system in OpenCL already exists, mostly as FPGA vendor extensions, but a small number of elements were found to be missing. For acceleration of OpenCL applications, using FPGAs has become as easy as using GPUs. OpenCL has the potential for a massive gain in productivity and ease of use enabling non FPGA experts to design, debug and maintain the code. Also, FPGA power consumption is much lower than other implementations. This paper describes one of the first attempts to explore the use of OpenCL for applications outside the acceleration workloads.

  1. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Imam, M. A.

    2008-05-15

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  2. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N R; Imam, M A

    2008-05-01

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  3. Process window metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  4. Potential Mechanisms for Microbial Energy Acquisition in Oxic Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, John F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) possesses the lowest rates of sedimentation, surface chlorophyll concentration, and primary productivity in the global oceans. As a direct result, deep-sea sediments are thin and contain small amounts of labile organic carbon. It was recently shown that the entire SPG sediment column is oxygenated and may be representative of up to a third of the global marine environment. To understand the microbial processes that contribute to the removal of the labile organic matter at the water-sediment interface, a sediment sample was collected and subjected to metagenomic sequencing and analyses. Analysis of nine partially reconstructed environmental genomes, which represent approximately one-third of the microbial community, revealed that the members of the SPG surface sediment microbial community are phylogenetically distinct from surface/upper-ocean organisms. These genomes represent a wide distribution of novel organisms, including deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, two novel organisms within the Proteobacteria, and new members of the Nitrospirae, Nitrospinae, and candidate phylum NC10. These genomes contain evidence for microbially mediated metal (iron/manganese) oxidation and carbon fixation linked to nitrification. Additionally, despite hypothesized energy limitation, members of the SPG microbial community had motility and chemotaxis genes and possessed mechanisms for the degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter. This study contributes to our understanding of the metabolic potential of microorganisms in deep-sea oligotrophic sediments and their impact on local carbon geochemistry. IMPORTANCE This research provides insight into the microbial metabolic potential of organisms inhabiting oxygenated deep-sea marine sediments. Current estimates suggest that these environments account for up to a third of the global marine sediment habitat. Nine novel deep-sea microbial genomes were reconstructed from a metagenomic data set

  5. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  6. Windows: The Benefits Are Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of specifying windows in a school renovation or building project in order to energize a campus. Explains how windows are psychologically uplifting, how glass accentuates excitement and its shapes signal stability, and how windows convey the institution's confidence in the present. (GR)

  7. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  8. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  9. Search strategy effects on PN acquisition performance. [Pseudonoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper focusses on 'random' and 'expanding window' PN acquisition search strategies and analytically develops the PN acquisition time statistics as functions of salient system parameters such as prediction SNR, detection and false alarm probabilities and a priori information on epoch location. The significance of this analysis is its general applicability to arbitrary postdetection processing schemes. Computed performance results account for the above salient parameters, wherein sequential detection is employed in conjunction with random and selected expanding window search strategies.

  10. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  11. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  12. Windows on animal minds.

    PubMed

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  13. Special Report on The Department of Energy's Acquisition Workforce and its Impact on Implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    Signed by the President on February 17, 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) seeks to strengthen the U.S. economy through the creation of new jobs, aiding State and local governments with budget shortfalls, and investing in the long-term health of the Nation's economic prosperity. Under the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive approximately $40 billion for various energy, environmental, and science programs and initiatives. To have an immediate stimulative impact on the U.S. economy, the Department's stated goal is to ensure that these funds are spent as expeditiously as possible, without risking transparency and accountability. Given the Department's almost total reliance on the acquisition process (contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, etc.) to carry out its mission, enhanced focus on contract administration and, specifically, the work performed by Federal acquisition officials is of vital importance as the unprecedented flow of funds begins under the Recovery Act.

  14. Windows on the axion

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR ® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  16. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR ® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  17. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR ® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  18. Window defect planar mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, F. R.; Minton, U. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of planar mapping defects in a window having an edge surface and a planar surface. The method is comprised of steps for mounting the window on a support surface. Then a light sensitive paper is placed adjacent to the window surface. A light source is positioned adjacent to the window edge. The window is then illuminated with the source of light for a predetermined interval of time. Defects on the surface of the glass, as well as in the interior of the glass are detected by analyzing the developed light sensitive paper. The light source must be in the form of optical fibers or a light tube whose light transmitting ends are placed near the edge surface of the window.

  19. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  20. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  1. Time window-dependent effect of perinatal maternal protein restriction on insulin sensitivity and energy substrate oxidation in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Agnoux, Aurore Martin; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Simard, Gilles; Poupeau, Guillaume; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

    2014-07-15

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that a suboptimal environment during perinatal life programs offspring susceptibility to the development of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the lasting impact of perinatal protein deprivation on mitochondrial fuel oxidation and insulin sensitivity would depend on the time window of exposure. To improve our understanding of underlying mechanisms, an integrative approach was used, combining the assessment of insulin sensitivity and untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in the offspring. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed in adult male rats born from dams fed a low-protein diet during gestation and/or lactation, and subsequently exposed to a Western diet (WD) for 10 wk. Metabolomics was combined with targeted acylcarnitine profiling and analysis of liver gene expression to identify markers of adaptation to WD that influence the phenotype outcome evaluated by body composition analysis. At adulthood, offspring of protein-restricted dams had impaired insulin secretion when fed a standard diet. Moreover, rats who demonstrated catch-up growth at weaning displayed higher gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and lower fatty acid β-oxidation compared with control rats. Postweaning exposure of intrauterine growth restriction-born rats to a WD exacerbated incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation and excess fat deposition. Control offspring nursed by protein-restricted mothers showed peculiar low-fat accretion through adulthood and preserved insulin sensitivity even after WD-exposure. Altogether, our findings suggest a testable hypothesis about how maternal diet might influence metabolic outcomes (insulin sensitivity) in the next generation such as mitochondrial overload and/or substrate oxidation inflexibility dependent on the time window of perinatal dietary manipulation. PMID:24808498

  2. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  3. INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST CABINET. (NOTE THE MIRRORED PANEL IN THE FORWARD SHUTTER’S LOWER SECTION. DURING THE HAMILTONIAN OCCUPANCY, MIRRORS LIKE THESE WERE USED LIBERALLY THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE’S PUBLIC ROOMS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. What Becomes a Window Most: Perceptual Tuning of Virtual Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Stone, Lee (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Viewing a scene through an optical window provides observers with numerous visual properties. In order to create a 'virtual window' that is perceptually compelling, it must be determined which properties are most critical to preserve. We have examined several properties, both static and dynamic, and will discuss which have the greatest impact on apparent realism (and user performance).

  5. Three-dimensional laser window formation for industrial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Kowalski, David

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional, compound-curvature laser windows to extreme accuracies. These windows represent an integral component of specialized nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems that are used in a variety of compressor and turbine research testing facilities. These windows are molded to the flow surface profile of turbine and compressor casings and are required to withstand extremely high pressures and temperatures. This method of glass formation could also be used to form compound-curvature mirrors that would require little polishing and for a variety of industrial applications, including research view ports for testing devices and view ports for factory machines with compound-curvature casings. Currently, sodium-alumino-silicate glass is recommended for three-dimensional laser windows because of its high strength due to chemical strengthening and its optical clarity. This paper discusses the main aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities that are associated with the formation of these windows.

  6. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  7. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  8. Design options for low-conductivity window frames

    SciTech Connect

    Byars, N.; Arasteh, D.

    1990-10-01

    The window industry's commercialization of low-emissivity coatings and low-conductivity gas-filling over the past few years has helped to drastically reduce heat transfer rates through the glazed areas of windows. However, few changes have taken place in the design and construction of window frames and edges, leaving these elements to account for most of the heat transfer through today's state-of-the-art windows. This paper presents design and material requirements for the manufacture of low-conductivity window frames obtained through the use of finite element computer modeling. Such frames will compliment and not degrade today's most energy-efficient insulated glass units. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  10. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  11. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  12. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-12-23

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  13. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  14. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  15. Hardware and Software Developments for the Accurate Time-Linked Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,DALE E.; RUMSEY,MARK A.; ZAYAS,JOSE R.

    1999-11-09

    Wind-energy researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed a new, light-weight, modular data acquisition system capable of acquiring long-term, continuous, multi-channel time-series data from operating wind-turbines. New hardware features have been added to this system to make it more flexible and permit programming via telemetry. User-friendly Windows-based software has been developed for programming the hardware and acquiring, storing, analyzing, and archiving the data. This paper briefly reviews the major components of the system, summarizes the recent hardware enhancements and operating experiences, and discusses the features and capabilities of the software programs that have been developed.

  16. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  17. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  18. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  19. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  20. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  1. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  2. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  3. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  4. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  5. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  6. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  7. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  8. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  9. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  10. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  11. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  12. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in amore » linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.« less

  13. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  14. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  15. Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.

    2016-07-01

    Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.

  16. Tuning vibrational mode localization with frequency windowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Talbot, Justin J.; Steele, Ryan P.

    2016-09-01

    Local-mode coordinates have previously been shown to be an effective starting point for anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy calculations. This general approach borrows techniques from localized-orbital machinery in electronic structure theory and generates a new set of spatially localized vibrational modes. These modes exhibit a well-behaved spatial decay of anharmonic mode couplings, which, in turn, allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of couplings and increased computational efficiency. Fully localized modes, however, have been found to lead to unintuitive mixtures of characteristic motions, such as stretches and bends, and accordingly large bilinear couplings. In this work, a very simple, tunable localization frequency window is introduced, in order to realize the transition from normal modes to fully localized modes. Partial localization can be achieved by localizing only pairs of modes within this traveling frequency window, which allows for intuitive interpretation of modes. The optimal window size is suggested to be a few hundreds of wave numbers, based on small- to medium-sized test systems, including water clusters and polypeptides. The new sets of partially localized coordinates retain their spatial coupling decay behavior while providing a reduced number of potential energy evaluations for convergence of anharmonic spectra.

  17. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Lee A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  18. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOEpatents

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  19. Irradiation conditions of ADS beam window and implications for window material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, P.; Möslang, A.

    2006-09-01

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are aimed at incineration of long living radioactive isotopes of spent nuclear reactor fuel, thus providing a solution for nuclear waste utilization. The idea is to couple a subcritical nuclear reactor with a high-energy proton accelerator. Protons interacting with the liquid metal target inside the reactor will produce neutrons with energy sufficient to transform long living fuel isotopes to those with shorter decay time. In some design variants a proton beam guide and window separate the vacuum of the accelerator from the liquid metal target. The window appears to be the most critical component of the whole facility as besides liquid metal corrosion it undergoes irradiation damage from incident protons, from protons and neutrons produced by spallation inside the target as well as from fission neutrons generated in the reactor fuel assemblies. In the present work we have evaluated irradiation conditions of the ADS beam window using Monte Carlo neutron, photon and charged particle transport code MCNPX. The code and the detailed geometric model of the experimental ADS (XADS) facility allow a realistic simulation of the spallation process and transport of generated nucleons as well as evaluation of various damage and operational characteristics like displacement damage, heat deposition, gas and spallation element production rates. Present results based on the reduced beam parameters provide a hope that apart from the liquid metal corrosion (not considered in the present paper) the window material could sustain full operation during the period of 3-4 month between replacements. These results may allow reconsideration of pro and contra of the window and the windowless XADS concepts.

  20. Time-Resolved Data Acquisition for In Situ Subsurface Planetary Geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnarik, Julia Gates; Burger, Dan M.; Burger, Arnold; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Starr, Richard D.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2012-01-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface geochemistry of planetary bodies in situ. All previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on a constant neutron source produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  1. Time-resolved Neutron-gamma-ray Data Acquisition for in Situ Subsurface Planetary Geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnarik, Julie G.; Burger, Dan Michael; Burger, A.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr R. D.; Stassun, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface elemental composition of planetary bodies in situ. Previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on neutrons produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  2. A hardware windowing circuit for LDA in periodic and aperiodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, C. F.; Watson, S.

    This paper describes a microelectronics circuit for the control of the data acquisition of a DISA 55L90a counter. The circuit achieves a hardware windowing function by controlling the ARM and INHIBIT lines of the counter. Two forms of windowing are possible. In the first the windowing circuit allows the counter to acquire, and transfer to a microcomputer for analysis, all particle signals occurring within a certain time window. In the second the windowing circuit permits the counter to acquire and transfer only the first particle signal to occur after a set point in time. The windowing circuit can be cycled through a sequence of windows of either type by either a free running 1 MHz clock or a phase locked loop (PLL). The output frequency of the clock or the PLL is divided by thumb wheel programmable counters to give a wide range of window repetition frequencies. When driven by the phase locked loop the circuit can be used to strobe periodic flows with the PLL following a peroidic, flow generated signal. Oscillating flows, rotating flows and turbomachinery flows, etc., may be investigated using this circuit to obtain windowed data from the flow cycle. When clock driven the circuit can be used to sample data from aperiodic flows in such a way as to eliminate arrival rate bias.

  3. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  4. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  5. An energy transfer kinetic probe for OH-quenchers in the Nd(3+):YPO4 nanocrystals suitable for imaging in the biological tissue transparency window.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, Elena V; Popov, Alexandr V; Vanetsev, Alexander S; Keevend, Kerda; Orlovskaya, Elena O; Kiisk, Valter; Lange, Sven; Joost, Urmas; Kaldvee, Kaarel; Mäeorg, Uno; Glushkov, Nikolay A; Ryabova, Anastasiya V; Sildos, Ilmo; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Steiner, Rudolf; Loschenov, Victor B; Orlovskii, Yurii V

    2014-12-28

    Tetragonal xenotime-type yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4) Nd(3+) doped nanoparticles suitable for biomedical applications were prepared by microwave-hydrothermal treatment. We applied the energy transfer probing based on the analysis of kinetics of impurity quenching to determine the presence and spatial position of -OH fluorescence quenching acceptors in the impurity-containing nanoparticles. We show that the impurity quenching kinetics of the 0.1 at% Nd(3+) doped YPO4 nanoparticles is a two stage (ordered and disordered) static kinetics, determined by a direct energy transfer to the -OH acceptors. Analyzing the ordered stage, we assume that the origin of the -OH groups is the protonation of the phosphate groups, while analyzing the disordered stage, we assume the presence of water molecules in the mesopores. We determine the dimension of the space of the -OH acceptors as d = 3 and quantify their absolute concentration using the disordered Förster stage of kinetics. We use the late stage of kinetics of fluorescence hopping (CDD ≫ CDA) quenching (the fluctuation asymptotics) at 1 at% Nd(3+) concentration as an energy transfer probe to quantify the relative concentration of -OH molecular groups compared to an optically active rare-earth dopant in the volume of NPs, when energy migration over Nd(3+) donors to the -OH acceptors accelerates fluorescence quenching. In doing so we use just one parameter α = γ(A)/γ(D) = n(A)√[C(DA)]/n(D)√[C(DD)], defined by the relation of concentration of the -OH acceptors to the concentration of an optically active dopant. The higher is the α, the higher is the relative concentration of -OH acceptors in the volume of nanoparticles. We find α = 2.95 for the 1 at% Nd(3+):YPO4 NPs that, according to the equation for α, and the results obtained for the values of the microparameters CDD(Nd-Nd) = 24.6 nm(6) ms(-1) and CDA(Nd-OH) = 0.6 nm(6) ms(-1), suggests twenty times higher concentration for acceptors other than donors. As the

  6. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-03

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  7. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2016-07-12

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  8. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-05

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  9. Transparent ceramics for spacecraft windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical properties of several transparent ceramics were investigated to determine if their use might lighten next generation spacecraft windows. The measured fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters were used as inputs to functions describing the required mass for a desired window life. Transparent magnesium aluminate (spinel, MgAlO4) and AlON exhibit superior slow crack resistance relative to fused silica, which is the historical material of choice. For spinel, slow crack growth, strength and fracture toughness are significantly influenced by the grain size, and alumina rich phases and porosity at the grain boundaries lead to intergranular fracture in coarse grain spinel. The results imply that transparent ceramics can lighten window panes from a slow crack growth perspective.

  10. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ..., Office of Acquisition and Project Management, MA-611, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585..., Office of Acquisition and Project Management, Department of Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ... of Energy (DOE) published a proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (78 FR 35195) to amend...

  11. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  12. Integrated windows-based control system for an electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Shengyang; Kapp, Oscar H.

    1994-12-01

    A Windows application has been developed for management and operation of beam instruments such as electron or ion microscopes. It provides a facility that allows an operator to manage a complicated instrument with minimal effort, primarily under mouse control. The hardware control components used on similar instruments (e.g., the scanning transmission electron microscopes in our lab), such as toggles, buttons, and potentiometers for adjustments on various scales, are all replaced by the controls of the Windows application and are addressable on a single screen. The new controls in this program (via adjustable software settings) offer speed of response and smooth operation providing tailored control of various instrument parameters. Along with the controls offering single parameter adjustment, a two-dimensional control was developed that allows two parameters to be coupled and addressed simultaneously. This capability provides convenience for such tasks as ``finding the beam'' and directing it to a location of interest on the specimen. Using an icon-based display, this Windows application provides better integrated and more robust information for monitoring instrument status than the indicators and meters of the traditional instrument controls. As a Windows application, this program is naturally able to share the resources of the Windows system and is thus able to link to many other applications such as our image acquisition and processing programs. Computer control provides automatic protection and instant diagnostics for the experimental instrument. This Windows application is fully functional and is in daily use to control a new type of electron microscope developed in our lab.

  13. Hole burning with pressure and electric field: A window on the electronic structure and energy transfer dynamics of bacterial antenna complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.M.

    1999-02-12

    Light-harvesting (LH) complexes of cyclic (C{sub n}) symmetry from photosynthetic bacteria are studied using absorption and high pressure- and Stark-hole burning spectroscopies. The B800 absorption band of LH2 is inhomogeneously broadened while the B850 band of LH2 and the B875 band of the LH1 complex exhibit significant homogeneous broadening due to ultra-fast inter-exciton level relaxation. The B800{r_arrow}B850 energy transfer rate of ({approximately}2 ps){sup {minus}1} as determined by hole burning and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopies, is weakly dependent on pressure and temperature, both of which significantly affect the B800-B850 energy gap. The resilience is theoretically explained in terms of a modified Foerster theory with the spectral overlap provided by the B800 fluorescence origin band and weak vibronic absorption bands of B850. Possible explanations for the additional sub-picosecond relaxation channel of B800 observed with excitation on the blue side of B800 are given. Data from pressure and temperature dependent studies show that the B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are weakly and strongly excitonically coupled, respectively, which is consistent with the X-ray structure of LH2. The B875 BChl a molecules are also strongly coupled. It is concluded that electron-exchange, in addition to electrostatic interactions, is important for understanding the strong coupling of the B850 and B875 rings. The large linear pressure shifts of {approximately}{minus}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1}/MPa associated with B850 and B875 can serve as important benchmarks for electronic structure calculations.

  14. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  15. Representing the acquisition and use of energy by individuals in agent-based models of animal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibly, Richard M.; Grimm, Volker; Martin, Benjamin T.; Johnston, Alice S.A.; Kulakowska, Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher J.; Calow, Peter; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    1. Agent-based models (ABMs) are widely used to predict how populations respond to changing environments. As the availability of food varies in space and time, individuals should have their own energy budgets, but there is no consensus as to how these should be modelled. Here, we use knowledge of physiological ecology to identify major issues confronting the modeller and to make recommendations about how energy budgets for use in ABMs should be constructed. 2. Our proposal is that modelled animals forage as necessary to supply their energy needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction. If there is sufficient energy intake, an animal allocates the energy obtained in the order: maintenance, growth, reproduction, energy storage, until its energy stores reach an optimal level. If there is a shortfall, the priorities for maintenance and growth/reproduction remain the same until reserves fall to a critical threshold below which all are allocated to maintenance. Rates of ingestion and allocation depend on body mass and temperature. We make suggestions for how each of these processes should be modelled mathematically. 3. Mortality rates vary with body mass and temperature according to known relationships, and these can be used to obtain estimates of background mortality rate. 4. If parameter values cannot be obtained directly, then values may provisionally be obtained by parameter borrowing, pattern-oriented modelling, artificial evolution or from allometric equations. 5. The development of ABMs incorporating individual energy budgets is essential for realistic modelling of populations affected by food availability. Such ABMs are already being used to guide conservation planning of nature reserves and shell fisheries, to assess environmental impacts of building proposals including wind farms and highways and to assess the effects on nontarget organisms of chemicals for the control of agricultural pests.

  16. 76 FR 31393 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-52; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... implement Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and... specified, all Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) ] and other directive material contained in FAC...

  17. Ecophysiological function of leaf 'windows' in Lithops species - 'Living Stones' that grow underground.

    PubMed

    Martin, C E; Brandmeyer, E A; Ross, R D

    2013-01-01

    Leaf temperatures were lower when light entry at the leaf tip window was prevented through covering the window with reflective tape, relative to leaf temperatures of plants with leaf tip windows covered with transparent tape. This was true when leaf temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer, but not with a fine-wire thermocouple. Leaf tip windows of Lithops growing in high-rainfall regions of southern Africa were larger than the windows of plants (numerous individuals of 17 species) growing in areas with less rainfall and, thus, more annual insolation. The results of this study indicate that leaf tip windows of desert plants with an underground growth habit can allow entry of supra-optimal levels of radiant energy, thus most likely inhibiting photosynthetic activity. Consequently, the size of the leaf tip windows correlates inversely with habitat solar irradiance, minimising the probability of photoinhibition, while maximising the absorption of irradiance in cloudy, high-rainfall regions.

  18. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  19. Notes on UHV beryllium windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques are described for making large ultrahigh vacuum beryllium windows for use in synchrotron radiation installations. Procedures are given for affecting both hard brazed seals and demountable seals involving either lead or copper gaskets. Brazed seals can be made to either stainless steel or copper. Possible alternative methods are suggested.

  20. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  1. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  2. A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

    2004-10-26

    We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.

  3. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  4. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  5. Smart Acquisition EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, K.; Schaffer, B.; Vaughan, G.; Wang, P.; Bleloch, A. L.; Brydson, R.; Brown, A.

    2010-07-01

    Electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging in aberration-corrected electron microscopes are powerful techniques to determine the chemical composition and structure of materials at atomic resolution. We have implemented Smart Acquisition, a flexible system of scanning transmission electron microsocpy (STEM) beam position control and EELS collection, on two aberration-corrected dedicated cold field emission gun (FEG) STEMs located at SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratory. This allows the collection of EEL spectra from spatially defined areas with a much lower electron dose possible than existing techniques such as spectrum imaging.

  6. Methodology for assessing alternative water-acquisition-and-use strategies for energy facilities in the American West

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.J.; Adams, E.E.; Harleman, D.R.F.; Marks, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    A method for assessing alternative strategies for acquiring and using water at western energy plants was developed. The method was tested in a case study of cooling-water use for a hypothetical steam-electric power plant on the Crazy Woman Creek, an unregulated stream in Wyoming. The results from the case study suggest a careful analysis of reservoir design and water-right purchase strategies can reduce the cost of acquiring and using water at an energy facility. The method uses simulation models to assess the capital and operating costs and expected monthly water-consumption rates for different cooling-system designs. The method also uses reservoir operating algorithms to select, for a fixed cooling-system design, the optimal tradeoff between building a make-up water reservoir and purchasing water rights. These tradeoffs can be used to derive the firm's true demand curve for different sources of water. The analysis also reveals the implicit cost of selecting strategies that minimize conflicts with other water users. Results indicate that: (1) cooling ponds are as good as or preferred to wet towers because their costs already include provisions for storing water for use during the normally dry summer months and during occasional drought years; (2) the energy firm's demand for overall water consumption in the cooling system was found to be inversely proportional to both the cost of installing make-up water reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility; and (3) the firm's willingness to pay for existing rights is proportional to both the cost of installing reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility.

  7. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  8. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  9. Windows Program Information Files. How Windows and Non-Windows Programs Cooperate through PIFs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes Program Information Files (PIFs), which run on DOS operating systems with Microsoft Windows to help run other programs. Options available in the standard mode and in the enhanced mode are explained, multitasking options are discussed, and memory options and application shortcut keys are described. (LRW)

  10. Nano-materials enabled thermoelectricity from window glasses.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Salman B; Rader, Kelly R; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2012-01-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m(2) window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology. PMID:23150789

  11. Nano-materials enabled thermoelectricity from window glasses.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Salman B; Rader, Kelly R; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2012-01-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m(2) window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology.

  12. Nano-materials Enabled Thermoelectricity from Window Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayat, Salman B.; Rader, Kelly R.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2012-11-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m2 window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology.

  13. Nano-materials Enabled Thermoelectricity from Window Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Salman B.; Rader, Kelly R.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2012-01-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m2 window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology. PMID:23150789

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  15. Low heat transfer, high strength window materials

    DOEpatents

    Berlad, Abraham L.; Salzano, Francis J.; Batey, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-pane window with improved insulating qualities; comprising a plurality of transparent or translucent panes held in an essentially parallel, spaced-apart relationship by a frame. Between at least one pair of panes is a convection defeating means comprising an array of parallel slats or cells so designed as to prevent convection currents from developing in the space between the two panes. The convection defeating structures may have reflective surfaces so as to improve the collection and transmittance of the incident radiant energy. These same means may be used to control (increase or decrease) the transmittance of solar energy as well as to decouple the radiative transfer between the interior surfaces of the transparent panes.

  16. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  17. Optimisation of acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie; Cobbold, Mark; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Decreasing the acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT) will enable animals to be imaged within the window of stable emission of the bioluminescent source, a higher imaging throughput and minimisation of the time which an animal is anaesthetised. This work investigates, through simulation using a heterogeneous mouse model, two methods of decreasing acquisition time: 1. Imaging at fewer wavelengths (a reduction from five to three); and 2. Increasing the bandwidth of filters used for imaging. The results indicate that both methods are viable ways of decreasing the acquisition time without a loss in quantitative accuracy. Importantly, when choosing imaging wavelengths, the spectral attenuation of tissue and emission spectrum of the source must be considered, in order to choose wavelengths at which a high signal can be achieved. Additionally, when increasing the bandwidth of the filters used for imaging, the bandwidth must be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm.

  18. Window decompression in laser-heated MagLIF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Sefkow, Adam

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept requires pre-magnetized fuel to be pre-heated with a laser before undergoing compression by a thick solid liner. Recent experiments and simulations suggest that yield has been limited to date by poor laser preheat and laser-induced mix in the fuel region. In order to assess laser energy transmission through the pressure-holding window, as well as resultant mix, we modeled window disassembly under different conditions using 1D and 2D simulations in both Helios and HYDRA. We present results tracking energy absorption, time needed for decompression, risk of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) that may scatter laser light, and potential for mix from various window thicknesses, laser spot sizes and gas fill densities. These results indicate that using thinner windows (0.5-1 μm windows) and relatively large laser spot radii (600 μm and above) can avoid deleterious effects and improve coupling with the fuel. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  19. Windows in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Tacconi-Garman, Lowell Evan; Boulanger, Francois; Okumura, Koryo

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were twofold: (1) to study the IRAS emission levels in the vicinity of Baade's Window and in other optically transparent regions near the Galactic Center; and (2) to study the IRAS emission levels along sightlines in the Milky Way that exhibit very little CO emission. Tests were attempted to see whether the optically transparent 'windows' near the Galactic center can be identified (as FIR-weak regions) in the IRAS data base; and if so, whether the CO weak regions found elsewhere in the Milky Way represent similarly FIR weak and thus optically transparent sightlines through the Galaxy. The CO weak regions were also targeted in an effort to study the diffuse intercloud dust and its warming by the interstellar radiation field.

  20. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  1. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-05-04

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  2. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  3. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  4. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  5. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  6. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  7. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  8. Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A., Ed.; Churchill, Eton, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner…

  9. Assessing daily actual evapotranspiration through energy balance: an experiment to evaluate the selfpreservation hypothesis with acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.; Rallo, G.

    2013-10-01

    An operational use of the actual evapotranspiration estimates requires the integration from instantaneous to daily values. This can commonly be achieved under the hypothesis of daytime self-preservation of the evaporative fraction. In this study, it has been evaluated the effect of this assumption on the assessment of daily evapotranspiration from proximity sensing images acquired at hourly intervals over a homogeneous olive groove. Results have been validated by comparison with observations made by a micrometeorological (EC-flux tower) and an eco-physiological (sap flux) sensor. SEBAL model has been applied to thermal and multispectral images acquired during a clear day on August 2009 trough a FLIR A320G thermal camera and a Tetracam MCA II multispectral camera, installed on a tethered helium balloon. Thermal and multispectral images were characterized by very high spatial resolution. This experiment aims to analyze two effects: 1) the consistency of the self-preservation hypothesis for daily estimates of the actual evapotranspiration from hourly assessments at different times of the day; 2) the effects of the spatial resolution on the performances of the energy balance model. To evaluate the effects of the spatial resolution, semi-hourly observations made by a flux tower and sap-flow measures were compared to the evapotranspiration estimates performed using downscaled images at resolutions close to canopy sizes (2, 5 and 10 m). Results show that the best estimates are obtained with a spatial resolution comparable to the average size of the canopy with images taken approximately at 10 UTC.

  10. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  11. WINDOW 4. 0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  12. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  13. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  14. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  15. High Speed Data Acquisition System for Three-Dimensional X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.W.; Claytor, T.N.; Sheats, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Computed tomography for nondestructive evaluation applications has been limited by system cost, resolution, and time requirements for three-dimensional data sets. FlashCT (Flat panel Amorphous Silicon High-Resolution Computed Tomography) is a system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to address these three problems. Developed around a flat panel amorphous silicon detector array, FlashCT is suitable for low to medium energy x-ray and neutron computed tomography at 127-micron resolution. Overall system size is small, allowing rapid transportation to a variety of radiographic sources. System control software was developed in LabVIEW for Windows NT to allow multithreading of data acquisition, data correction, and staging motor control. The system control software simplifies data collection and allows fully automated control of the data acquisition process, leading toward remote or unattended operation. The first generation of the FlashCT Data Acquisition System was completed in Au gust 1998, and since that time the system has been tested using x-ray sources ranging in energy from 60 kV to 20MV. The system has also been used to collect data for thermal neutron computed tomography at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). System improvements have been proposed to provide faster data collection and greater dynamic range during data collection.

  16. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  17. Radiation damage in diagnostic window materials for the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1981-07-01

    The general problem of evaluating diagnostic window materials for the TFTR at the tank wall location is described. Specific evaluations are presented for several materials: vitreous silica, crystal quartz, sapphire, zinc selenide, and several fluorides: lithium fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and calcium fluoride; and seal glasses are discussed. The effects of the neutrons will be minimal. The major problems arise from the high flux of ionizing radiation, mainly the soft x rays which are absorbed near the surface of the materials. Additionally, this large energy deposition causes a significant thermal pulse with attendant thermal stresses. It is thus desirable to protect the windows with cover slips where this is feasible or to reduce the incident radiation by mounting the windows on long pipes. A more detailed summary is given at the end of this report.

  18. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  19. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  20. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  1. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  2. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  3. Interferometer for Space Station Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Inspection of space station windows for micrometeorite damage would be a difficult task insitu using current inspection techniques. Commercially available optical profilometers and inspection systems are relatively large, about the size of a desktop computer tower, and require a stable platform to inspect the test object. Also, many devices currently available are designed for a laboratory or controlled environments requiring external computer control. This paper presents an approach using a highly developed optical interferometer to inspect the windows from inside the space station itself using a self- contained hand held device. The interferometer would be capable as a minimum of detecting damage as small as one ten thousands of an inch in diameter and depth while interrogating a relatively large area. The current developmental state of this device is still in the proof of concept stage. The background section of this paper will discuss the current state of the art of profilometers as well as the desired configuration of the self-contained, hand held device. Then, a discussion of the developments and findings that will allow the configuration change with suggested approaches appearing in the proof of concept section.

  4. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    In a photon counting detector array, each pixel in the array produces an electrical pulse when an incident photon on that pixel is detected. Detection and demodulation of an optical communication signal that modulated the intensity of the optical signal requires counting the number of photon arrivals over a given interval. As the size of photon counting photodetector arrays increases, parallel processing of all the pixels exceeds the resources available in current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and gate array (GA) technology; the desire for a high fill factor in avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays also precludes this. Through the use of downsampling and windowing portions of the detector array, the processing is distributed between the ASIC and GA. This allows demodulation of the optical communication signal incident on a large photon counting detector array, as well as providing architecture amenable to algorithmic changes. The detector array readout ASIC functions as a parallel-to-serial converter, serializing the photodetector array output for subsequent processing. Additional downsampling functionality for each pixel is added to this ASIC. Due to the large number of pixels in the array, the readout time of the entire photodetector is greater than the time between photon arrivals; therefore, a downsampling pre-processing step is done in order to increase the time allowed for the readout to occur. Each pixel drives a small counter that is incremented at every detected photon arrival or, equivalently, the charge in a storage capacitor is incremented. At the end of a user-configurable counting period (calculated independently from the ASIC), the counters are sampled and cleared. This downsampled photon count information is then sent one counter word at a time to the GA. For a large array, processing even the downsampled pixel counts exceeds the capabilities of the GA. Windowing of the array, whereby several subsets of pixels are designated

  5. High-impact resistance optical sensor windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Ceccorulli, Mark L.; Goldman, Lee

    2011-06-01

    Recent field experience with optical sensor windows on both ground and airborne platforms has shown a significant increase in window fracturing from foreign object debris (FOD) impacts and as a by-product of asymmetrical warfare. Common optical sensor window materials such as borosilicate glass do not typically have high impact resistance. Emerging advanced optical window materials such as aluminum oxynitride offer the potential for a significant improvement in FOD impact resistance due to their superior surface hardness, fracture toughness and strength properties. To confirm the potential impact resistance improvement achievable with these emerging materials, Goodrich ISR Systems in collaboration with Surmet Corporation undertook a set of comparative FOD impact tests of optical sensor windows made from borosilicate glass and from aluminum oxynitride. It was demonstrated that the aluminum oxynitride windows could withstand up to three times the FOD impact velocity (as compared with borosilicate glass) before fracture would occur. These highly encouraging test results confirm the utility of this new highly viable window solution for use on new ground and airborne window multispectral applications as well as a retrofit to current production windows. We believe that this solution can go a long way to significantly reducing the frequency and life cycle cost of window replacement.

  6. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly

  7. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-10-04

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  8. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-02-01

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  9. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  10. Lithography process window analysis with calibrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhan; Yu, Jin; Lo, James; Liu, Johnson

    2004-05-01

    As critical-dimension shrink below 0.13 μm, the SPC (Statistical Process Control) based on CD (Critical Dimension) control in lithography process becomes more difficult. Increasing requirements of a shrinking process window have called on the need for more accurate decision of process window center. However in practical fabrication, we found that systematic error introduced by metrology and/or resist process can significantly impact the process window analysis result. Especially, when the simple polynomial functions are used to fit the lithographic data from focus exposure matrix (FEM), the model will fit these systematic errors rather than filter them out. This will definitely impact the process window analysis and determination of the best process condition. In this paper, we proposed to use a calibrated first principle model to do process window analysis. With this method, the systematic metrology error can be filtered out efficiently and give a more reasonable window analysis result.

  11. A window into occupant-driven energy outcomes: Leveraging sub-metering infrastructure to examine psychosocial factors driving long-term outcomes of short-term competition-based energy interventions

    DOE PAGES

    Konis, Kyle; Orosz, Michael; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-01-07

    Competition-based “energy saving” interventions are increasingly promoted as an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption in buildings with large occupant controlled electrical loads. However, the factors that drive energy savings in such interventions are not well understood, nor are the impacts of short-term competitions on long-term energy performance. A total of 39 8-occupant suites in a freshman residence hall were instrumented with “smart” electric meters, which recorded circuit-level electricity consumption at 15-minute intervals. During a three-week Fall 2014 competition, suites competed to reduce their overall electricity demand and achieved a 6.4% reduction in whole-building demand overall and a 12% reductionmore » during hours of peak demand (from 12:00 to 19:00), despite peak seasonal temperatures and all-time record electricity demand. Analysis incorporating weather-normalized HVAC demand after the competition showed a significant “rebound” for a large portion of the suites (19), however 12 suites made further reductions, and the remainder maintained demand at the competition level. As a result, we compared energy data with self-reported survey data and identified self-efficacy beliefs, pro-environmental behaviors, and sense of affiliation with other residents of the hall as key factors distinguishing the suites with the greatest and most persistent reductions in demand from suites that maintained or increased demand.« less

  12. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  13. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  14. Laser with a transmitting window.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, M. B.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of transmission of radiation through one mirror of a laser is investigated. For a laser oscillator the result is to change the effective resonance frequency and Q of the cavity. Using the same model for the cavity, a signal is injected into the active medium through the transmitting window, and its effect on the system studied. When the external signal is strong enough and sufficiently close to the natural frequency of the laser oscillator, the laser locks its frequency to the input signal. The equations describing the system are solved over the range of input frequencies where the laser is locked, and the resulting gain found. In the high-intensity limit the medium saturates, and the gain tends to that of a lossy cavity. As the input intensity vanishes, the gain approaches infinity and the system tends to a laser oscillator.

  15. UW: A Macintosh UNIX window interface. [Macintosh

    SciTech Connect

    Bruner, J.D.

    1985-09-25

    A window interface to a 4.2 BSD UNIX system has been implemented on an Apple Macintosh personal computer. This interface supports a maximum of seven independent terminal sessions, each in its own window. Each window simulates a ''smart'' cursor-addressible 24 x 80 terminal. The implementation requires no changes to the UNIX kernel and imposes so little overhead as to be useful even at the low baud rates of dial-up lines.

  16. 48 CFR 970.3706 - Performance-based acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance-based acquisition. 970.3706 Section 970.3706 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting...

  17. 48 CFR 970.3706 - Performance-based acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance-based acquisition. 970.3706 Section 970.3706 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting...

  18. 48 CFR 945.570-1 - Acquisition of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition of motor vehicles. 945.570-1 Section 945.570-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT... vehicles. (a) GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (GSA-IFMS) is the first source of supply...

  19. Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by Boeing, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Space Station Manufacturing building, the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) will help Space Station crews take some of the best photographs ever snapped from an orbiting spacecraft by eliminating glare and allowing researchers to control their cameras and other equipment from the ground. The WORF is designed to make the best possible use of the high-quality research window in the Space Station's U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Engineers at the MSFC proposed a derivative of the EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Rack already used on the Space Station and were given the go-ahead. The EXPRESS rack can hold a wide variety of experiments and provide them with power, communications, data, cooling, fluids, and other utilities - all the things that Earth-observing experiment instruments would need. WORF will supply payloads with power, data, cooling, video downlink, and stable, standardized interfaces for mounting imaging instruments. Similar to specialized orbital observatories, the interior of the rack is sealed against light and coated with a special low-reflectant black paint, so payloads will be able to observe low-light-level subjects such as the faint glow of auroras. Cameras and remote sensing instruments in the WORF can be preprogrammed, controlled from the ground, or operated by a Station crewmember by using a flexible shroud designed to cinch tightly around the crewmember's waist. The WORF is scheduled to be launched aboard the STS-114 Space Shuttle mission in the year 2003.

  20. THE METABOLOMIC WINDOW INTO HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emergent discipline of metabolomics has attracted considerable research effort in hepatology. Here we review the metabolomic data for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B and C, cholecystitis, cholestasis, liver transplantation and acute hepatotoxicity in animal models. A metabolomic window has permitted a view into the changing biochemistry occurring in the transitional phases between a healthy liver and hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. Whether provoked by obesity and diabetes, alcohol use or oncogenic viruses, the liver develops a core metabolomic phenotype (CMP) that involves dysregulation of bile acid and phospholipid homeostasis. The CMP commences at the transition between the healthy liver (Phase 0) and NAFLD/NASH, ALD or viral hepatitis (Phase 1). This CMP is maintained in the presence or absence of cirrhosis (Phase 2) and whether or not either HCC or CCA (Phase 3) develop. Inflammatory signalling in the liver triggers the appearance of the CMP. Many other metabolomic markers distinguish between Phases 0, 1, 2 and 3. A metabolic remodelling in HCC has been described but metabolomic data from all four Phases demonstrate that the Warburg shift from mitochondrial respiration to cytosolic glycolysis foreshadows HCC and may occur as early as Phase 1. The metabolic remodelling also involves an upregulation of fatty acid β-oxidation, also beginning in Phase 1. The storage of triglycerides in fatty liver provides high energy-yielding substrates for Phases 2 and 3 of liver pathology. The metabolomic window into hepatobiliary disease sheds new light on the systems pathology of the liver. PMID:23714158

  1. 48 CFR 901.301.70 - Other issuances related to acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...://management.energy.gov/policy_guidance/Acquisition_Guide.htm. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other issuances related to acquisition. 901.301.70 Section 901.301.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  2. 48 CFR 901.301.70 - Other issuances related to acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...://management.energy.gov/policy_guidance/Acquisition_Guide.htm. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other issuances related to acquisition. 901.301.70 Section 901.301.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  3. 48 CFR 901.301.70 - Other issuances related to acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...://management.energy.gov/policy_guidance/Acquisition_Guide.htm. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other issuances related to acquisition. 901.301.70 Section 901.301.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  4. 48 CFR 901.301.70 - Other issuances related to acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...://management.energy.gov/policy_guidance/Acquisition_Guide.htm. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other issuances related to acquisition. 901.301.70 Section 901.301.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  5. Performance tests of large thin vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hall Crannell

    2011-02-01

    Tests of thin composition vacuum windows of the type used for the Tagger in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are described. Three different tests have been performed. These include: (1) measurement of the deformation and durability of a window under long term (>8 years) almost continuous vacuum load, (2) measurement of the deformation as a function of flexing of the window as it is cycled between vacuum and atmosphere, and (3) measurement of the relative diffusion rate of gas through a variety of thin window membranes.

  6. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  7. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  8. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable...

  9. Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Concrete sill and spandrel also illustrated. Building 43, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Thermally insulated window sash construction for a casement window

    SciTech Connect

    Biro, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    A window sash member is described comprising: first and second generally parallel sidewalls; first and second spaced, generally parallel transverse walls connecting the first and second sidewalls, extending between and oriented generally perpendicular to the first and second sidewalls to define a first hollow chamber; a third transverse wall, located without the first hollow chamber adjacent to and generally parallel to the first transverse wall, extending from the first sidewall and terminating short of the second sidewall; a first interior wall extending from the third transverse wall to the first transverse wall and oriented generally parallel to the first sidewall to define a second hollow chamber; a fourth transverse wall, located without the first hollow chamber adjacent to and generally to the second transverse wall, extending from the first sidewall and terminating short of the second sidewall; and a second interior wall extending from the fourth transverse wall to the second transverse wall and oriented generally parallel to the second sidewall to define a third hollow chamber.

  11. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General acquisition strategy. 626.4 Section 626.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC...) Futures market price differentials for crude oil and related commodities; and (9) Any other factor...

  12. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General acquisition strategy. 626.4 Section 626.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC...) Futures market price differentials for crude oil and related commodities; and (9) Any other factor...

  13. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General acquisition strategy. 626.4 Section 626.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC...) Futures market price differentials for crude oil and related commodities; and (9) Any other factor...

  14. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General acquisition strategy. 626.4 Section 626.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC...) Futures market price differentials for crude oil and related commodities; and (9) Any other factor...

  15. 48 CFR 907.105 - Contents of written acquisition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition plans. (b)(16) Environmental and energy conservation objectives. Incorporate sustainable building considerations including building location and regional planning considerations into planning for new...

  16. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    2005-01-26

    Control system development and lighting energy monitoring of ceramic thin-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale window systems test-bed facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. The new facility consists of three identically configured side-by-side private offices with large-area windows that face due south. In one room, an array of EC windows with a center-of-glass visible transmittance T_v range of 0.05-0.60 was installed. In the two other rooms, unshaded windows with a T_v = 0.50 or 0.15 were used as reference. The same dimmable fluorescent lighting system was used in all three rooms. This study explains the design and commissioning of an integrated EC window-lighting control system, and then illustrates its performance in the test-bed under clear, partly cloudy, and overcast sky conditions during the equinox period. The performance of an early prototype EC window controller is also analyzed. Lighting energy savings data are presented. Daily lighting energy savings were 44-59% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.15 and 8-23% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.50. The integrated window-lighting control system maintained interior illuminance levels to within +/- 10% of the setpoint range of 510-700 lx for 89-99% of the day. Further work is planned to refine the control algorithms and monitor cooling load, visual comfort, and human factor impacts of this emerging technology. (author)

  17. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a DELTA V penalty. Usually, because of the DELTA V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (4) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO (5) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO.

  18. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  19. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  20. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  1. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  2. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  3. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  4. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  5. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  6. Windows for X-ray Cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavoni, Michael L.; Mulders, Norbert; Lurio, Laurence; Paetkau, Mark; Jemian, Pete R.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec

    2006-09-01

    We have measured the small angle x-ray scattering from Kapton and Mylar films used as cryostat windows. Both Mylar and Kapton can be used to make very simple, demountable, superfluid tight windows using indium o-ring seals. Aluminized Mylar offers the advantage of effectively blocking infrared radiation while simultaneously reducing helium diffusion rates at room temperature by a factor of 25.

  7. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  8. Mouse Driven Window Graphics for Network Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, G. J.; And Others

    Computer enhanced teaching of computational mathematics on a network system driving graphics terminals is being redeveloped for a mouse-driven, high resolution, windowed environment of a UNIX work station. Preservation of the features of networked access by heterogeneous terminals is provided by the use of the X Window environment. A dmonstrator…

  9. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  10. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  11. Reliability study of TWT output RF window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocci, Peter J.

    1990-05-01

    Rome Air Development Center Computer-Aided Systems Engineering Branch (RBES) has documented an in-house effort to evaluate the structural reliability of the output waveguides window on a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT). This window acts as a seal between the TWT's vacuum envelope and output waveguide. Its purpose is to prevent any loss due to leakage of the vacuum while allowing passage of the microwave signal. This particular disk-shaped window is constructed of a ceramic material, beryllia, and contains an inner ring of copper and an outer ring of Monel K-500 (70 to 30 nickle-copper). It was suspected that excessive thermal stresses associated with the very high operating temperatures by this window has caused it to fail. Finite element analyses, along with material failure theories were used to determine the window's response to a time-dependent heat source and operating heat sink temperature.

  12. A redox-flow electrochromic window.

    PubMed

    Jennings, James R; Lim, Wei Yang; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost electrochromic (EC) window based on a redox-flow system that does not require expensive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates is introduced and demonstrated for the first time. An aqueous I3–/I– redox electrolyte is used in place of a TCO to oxidize/reduce a molecular layer of an EC triphenylamine derivative that is anchored to a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold on the inner faces of a double-paned window. The redox electrolyte is electrochemically oxidized/reduced in an external two-compartment cell and circulated through the window cavity using an inexpensive peristaltic pump, resulting in coloration or decoloration of the window due to reaction of the redox solution with the triphenylamine derivative. The absorption characteristics, coloration/decoloration times, and cycling stability of the prototype EC window are evaluated, and prospects for further development are discussed. PMID:25584903

  13. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  14. Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-06-08

    Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

  15. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Petrie, Thomas; Kosny, Jan; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Hulvey, Kimberly D

    2007-11-01

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  16. Combining factual and heuristic knowledge in knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Hull, Richard; Karr, Clark; Hosken, Bruce; Verhagen, William

    1992-01-01

    A knowledge acquisition technique that combines heuristic and factual knowledge represented as two hierarchies is described. These ideas were applied to the construction of a knowledge acquisition interface to the Expert System Analyst (OPERA). The goal of OPERA is to improve the operations support of the computer network in the space shuttle launch processing system. The knowledge acquisition bottleneck lies in gathering knowledge from human experts and transferring it to OPERA. OPERA's knowledge acquisition problem is approached as a classification problem-solving task, combining this approach with the use of factual knowledge about the domain. The interface was implemented in a Symbolics workstation making heavy use of windows, pull-down menus, and other user-friendly devices.

  17. Design goals and challenges for a photovoltaic-powered electrochromic window covering

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Branz, H M

    1994-12-01

    An estimated 1.0%-1.5% of the total cooling energy need in U.S. buildings, and 10%-30% of the peak electric utility power demand, is caused by unwanted solar heat-gain through windows. A large fraction of the approximately two billion square meters of building windows in the United States could benefit from the use of some solar gain control strategy. If a cost-effective, retrofit, electrochromic (EC) window covering were available, this energy savings potential could be realized in a relatively short time. A {open_quotes}glue on{close_quotes}, retrofit EC window treatment, similar to conventional static solar-gain control .films, could accelerate the application of this new technology in buildings. However, the costs of electrical wiring for each retrofitted window could dominate the economics of the retrofit decision and slow market acceptance of EC-windows. By incorporating a photovoltaic (PV) power source into the EC window retrofit, this wiring cost could be reduced or eliminated, and the installation of the EC window treatment could be greatly simplified. In this paper, we suggest the use of an integrated, photovoltaic-powered electrochromic (PV-EC) window treatment that can be applied to an existing window in much the same way that conventional, static, solar-gain control films are now applied. This concept is the subject of a new three-year research and development (R&D) project at our laboratory. We present our design concepts and rationale and identify some of the technical challenges involved.

  18. Double window configuration as a low cost microwave waveguide window for plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.

    1997-12-01

    Waveguide windows are major components of a transmission line used in microwave plasma devices. The function of the waveguide window is to provide vacuum isolation of the source side from the plasma chamber while transmitting microwaves with minimum attenuation. Commonly a single thin dielectric plate is sandwiched between a choke type flange and a flat flange and is used as a waveguide window. To arrive at a better window configuration in terms of the low power reflection coefficient, the voltage standing wave ratio calculation is carried out for different window configurations (single window and double window) and for various window thicknesses. It is found that the power reflection is the minimum in the case of double window configuration. The minimum power reflection is as low as 0.8{percent} for a combination of alumina and a quartz plate each of 1 cm thickness in the double window configuration. Also, it is more advantageous to use radial microwave coupling than axial coupling in order to increase the life time of the microwave waveguide window. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Solid state electrochromic smart windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    The structure under development at EIC Laboratories consists of a multilayer stack of thin films, incorporating the two principal electrochemically active elements, the electrochromic (EC) and counter electrode (CE) layers, respectively. The EC layer changes from colorless to a state of reduced transmission on reduction while the CE layer has the opposite (complementary) behavior (or is colorless in both oxidized and reduced states). These are separated by an ion conducting electrolyte. The stack is completed with top and bottom transparent electrodes. The major achievements are as follows: (1) Tunable thermal emittance for the EC layer over a range of 0.2 to 0.8 was demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of surfaces with adjustable heat transfer properties. (2) Thin film ion conductors based on the Li2O/B2O3 and LiNbO3 were developed using thermal and electron beam evaporation with ionic conductivities greater than 10(exp -8) S/cm, fulfilling a major requirement for this component. (3) A variety of improved vanadium oxide-based counter electrode materials were demonstrated and patented which undergo reversible electrochemical Li insertion reactions and which increase their solar transmission on reduction. (4) Devices incorporating a laminated Li+ conducting polymer electrolyte were demonstrated with bleached state visible transmittance of greater than 65 percent and colored state transmittance of less than 15 percent. These devices were tested for greater than 10(exp 4) complete cycles. (5) An all thin film solid state device was demonstrated with a visible transmission range of 65/13 percent, using the component materials developed on this program. The device was tested for greater than 3000 complete cycles without degradation. A fabrication sequence was specified which forms the basis of initial production cost estimates. (6) Window modeling studies have been used to compare the relative performance of amorphous and crystalline WO3-based electrochromic

  20. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  1. Air leakage of newly instaled residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    Weidt, J.; Weidt, J.

    1980-06-01

    The air-leakage characteristics of five major window designs were measured in a field survey conducted in Twin Cities, Minnesota. A total of 192 windows (16 manufacturers) were tested at 58 sites representing a cross-section of single-family homes, townhouses, low- and high-rise apartments, and condominiums. Air-leakage measurements of the installed windows were compared with the current standard used by industry and government of 0.50 ft/sup 3//min/linear ft of crack. Other parameters studied were: effect of sash and frame material, effect of leakage between window frame and wall, differences among the product lines of a single manufacturer and between manufacturers, effect of installation practices, effect of cold weather on performance, change in performance over time for older windows, and performance of fixed glazing. Based on industry and government standards, 40% of all windows tested showed air-leakage characteristics higher than the 0.50 cfm/lfc standard, and 60% exceeded manufacturers' specifications for performance which in some cases were lower than the general industry standard. Analysis of the impact of various parameters on air-leakage performance showed that the operational design of the window was the most critical determinant although the ranking changes if performance is expressed in cfm/unit area or cfm/opening area. Air leakage was measured using a portable pressurization chamber. Smoke pencils, thermographic techniques and extensive photographic documentation provided additional data as to the location and cause of air leakage problems.

  2. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OF MCNP WEIGHT WINDOWS

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. HENDRICKS; C. N. CULBERTSON

    2000-01-01

    The weight window variance reduction method in the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code MCNPTM has recently been rewritten. In particular, it is now possible to generate weight window importance functions on a superimposed mesh, eliminating the need to subdivide geometries for variance reduction purposes. Our assessment addresses the following questions: (1) Does the new MCNP4C treatment utilize weight windows as well as the former MCNP4B treatment? (2) Does the new MCNP4C weight window generator generate importance functions as well as MCNP4B? (3) How do superimposed mesh weight windows compare to cell-based weight windows? (4) What are the shortcomings of the new MCNP4C weight window generator? Our assessment was carried out with five neutron and photon shielding problems chosen for their demanding variance reduction requirements. The problems were an oil well logging problem, the Oak Ridge fusion shielding benchmark problem, a photon skyshine problem, an air-over-ground problem, and a sample problem for variance reduction.

  4. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  5. Quick Ride: Acquisition Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    Quick Ride is an outgrowth of rapid spacecraft acquisition. It provides a variety of low-cost, short lead time satellite rides for science instruments. Task order contracts with commercial firms will permit placing a order within 30 days. Secondary objectives include a demonstration of a FAR Part 12 commercial acquisition and the exploration of the use of on-ramps.

  6. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  7. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  8. The conformal window from the worldline formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoni, Adi

    2010-02-01

    We use the worldline formalism to derive a universal relation for the lower boundary of the conformal window in non-supersymmetric QCD-like theories. The derivation relies on the convergence of the expansion of the fermionic determinant in terms of Wilson loops. The expansion shares a similarity with the lattice strong coupling expansion and the genus expansion in string theory. Our result relates the lower boundary of the conformal window in theories with different representations and different gauge groups. Finally, we use SQCD to estimate the boundary of the conformal window in QCD-like theories and compare it with other approaches.

  9. Demonstration of the Performance of Highly Insulating (R-5) Windows in a Matched Pair of Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-12-05

    Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home’s windows has the potential to significantly improve the home’s overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high-quality installation will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the building envelope, decreasing infiltration and thus contributing to reduced heat transmission through building envelope. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. In addition to improvements in energy efficiency, highly insulating windows can have important impacts on occupant comfort by minimizing or eliminating the cold draft many homeowners experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably cooler than the room air temperature. Energy efficiency measures, such as highly insulating windows, also have the potential to decrease peak energy use in a home, which can lead to measurable peak load decreases for a utility service territory if implemented on a large scale. High-performance windows now feature triple-pane glass, double low-e coatings, and vinyl insulated frames to achieve U-factors as low as 0.2 , as compared to double-pane clear glass windows with a U-factor of 0.67, which are common in existing homes across the United States. The highly insulating windows (as they will be referred to in this document) are now available from several manufacturers and show promise to yield considerable energy savings and thermal comfort improvements in homes.

  10. [Analyse Output Specurum in Miniature Transmission X-Ray Tube of Aluminum Window and Silver Target by MC Simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ge, Liang-quan; Lu, Zhen-rui; Luo, Yao-yao; Zhao, Jian-kun; Chen, Shuang

    2015-10-01

    The miniature transmission X-ray tube is widely used in energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA). The miniature transmission X-ray tube with a small, low power consumption, X-ray emission efficiency that can be made the excitation source of handheld X-ray energy dispersive fluorescence analyzer. Beryllium (Be) is the most commonly used X-ray window material. But beryllium is expensive and toxic. At the same time set filtering window by aluminum (Al) to reducing low-energy scattering rays. This paper be adopted Al for exit window material of miniature transmission X-ray tube, achieve high-energy rays transmission and low-energy scattered radiation shielding, at the same time reduce production cost and difficulty. The present paper simulate the X-ray tube output spectrum of silver (Ag) target and aluminum window with different thickness by MCNP5. We consider the X-ray of low energy part is completely shielded when aluminum windows thickness is greater than 1.5 mm. We can conclude that 2 μm and 0.8 mm are the best combination of target thickness and aluminum windows through comparative analysis of existing research results. Then we can get flux of high energy part is big and low energy part is small when the target is 2 μm thick Ag and the window is 0.8 mm thick Al. PMID:26904839

  11. High-efficiency nanostructured window GaAs solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Kang, Yangsen; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Cui, Yi; Harris, James S

    2013-10-01

    Nanostructures have been widely used in solar cells due to their extraordinary optical properties. In most nanostructured cells, high short circuit current has been obtained due to enhanced light absorption. However, most of them suffer from lowered open circuit voltage and fill factor. One of the main challenges is formation of good junction and electrical contact. In particular, nanostructures in GaAs only have shown unsatisfactory performances (below 5% in energy conversion efficiency) which cannot match their ideal material properties and the record photovoltaic performances in industry. Here we demonstrate a completely new design for nanostructured solar cells that combines nanostructured window layer, metal mesa bar contact with small area, high quality planar junction. In this way, we not only keep the advanced optical properties of nanostructures such as broadband and wide angle antireflection, but also minimize its negative impact on electrical properties. High light absorption, efficient carrier collection, leakage elimination, and good lateral conductance can be simultaneously obtained. A nanostructured window cell using GaAs junction and AlGaAs nanocone window demonstrates 17% energy conversion efficiency and 0.982 V high open circuit voltage.

  12. Motion-blurred star acquisition method of the star tracker under high dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2013-08-26

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices used in spacecraft due to its extremely high accuracy. However, high dynamic performance is still one of its constraints. Smearing appears, making it more difficult to distinguish the energy dispersive star point from the noise. An effective star acquisition approach for motion-blurred star image is proposed in this work. The correlation filter and mathematical morphology algorithm is combined to enhance the signal energy and evaluate slowly varying background noise. The star point can be separated from most types of noise in this manner, making extraction and recognition easier. Partial image differentiation is then utilized to obtain the motion parameters from only one image of the star tracker based on the above process. Considering the motion model, the reference window is adopted to perform centroid determination. Star acquisition results of real on-orbit star images and laboratory validation experiments demonstrate that the method described in this work is effective and the dynamic performance of the star tracker could be improved along with more identified stars and guaranteed position accuracy of the star point.

  13. Large temporal window contrast measurement using optical parametric amplification and low-sensitivity detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Rahul C; Johnson, Randall P; Shimada, Tsutomu; Hegelich, Bjorn M

    2008-01-01

    To address few-shot pulse contrast measurement, we present a correlator coupling the high gain of an optical parametric amplification scheme with large pulse tilt. This combination enables a low sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) to observe features in the pulse intensity within a 50 ps single-shot window with inter-window dynamic range > 10{sup 7} and < 0.5 mJ input energy. Partitioning of the single window with optical densities to boost the CCD dynamic range is considered.

  14. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to the earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a delta V penalty. Usually, because of the delta V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: 1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO); 4) Two impulsive maneuvers form LEO; and 5) Three impulsive maneuvers form LEO. The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric data

  15. Human Exploration Missions Study Launch Window from Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    2001-01-01

    The determination of orbital launch window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a Delta(V) penalty. Usually, because of the Delta(V) penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (3) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (4) One impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), (5) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric

  16. DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS. WINDOWS AND WINDOW FRAMES REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  18. Modeling of building integrated low concentration photovoltaic glazing windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruchi, Itay; Ben Chorin, Moshe; Freedman, Barak; Sovran, Ido

    2010-08-01

    We have developed a transparent photovoltaic double glazed unit which exhibits three main features - concentrating direct solar rays on PV cells, allowing a viewer to see through the window a non-distorted image and having good thermal isolation properties. We describe the structure of the unit, and explain its fundamental optical properties. A model which simulates seasonal and day/night variations of the optical and thermal behavior of the window as a function of installation location is presented. The outputs of the model include the PV power generation and the change in the required power for heating/cooling due to the elimination of direct irradiation into the room. These outputs are used to optimize the optical design in order to achieve best overall energy saving performance.

  19. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Paul R.; Shapira, Hanna B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  20. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1979-12-07

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  1. Polarization gating of high harmonic generation in the water window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Yin, Yanchun; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2016-06-01

    We implement the polarization gating (PG) technique with a two-cycle, 1.7 μm driving field to generate an attosecond supercontinuum extending to the water window spectral region. The ellipticity dependence of the high harmonic yield over a photon energy range much broader than previous work is measured and compared with a semi-classical model. When PG is applied, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) is swept to study its influence on the continuum generation. PG with one-cycle (5.7 fs) and two-cycle (11.3 fs) delay are tested, and both give continuous spectra spanning from 50 to 450 eV under certain CEP values, strongly indicating the generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the water window region.

  2. The window of opportunity for treatment withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2011-03-01

    Physicians sometimes refer to a "window of opportunity" for withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in patients with acute severe brain injury. There is a period of critical illness and physiological instability when treatment withdrawal is likely to be followed by death but prognosis is uncertain. If decisions are delayed, greater prognostic certainty can be achieved, but with the risk that the patient is no longer dependent on life support and survives with very severe disability. In this article I draw on the example of birth asphyxia and highlight the role that the window of opportunity sometimes plays in decisions about life-sustaining treatment in intensive care. I outline the potential arguments in favor of and against taking the window into account. I argue that it is, at least sometimes, ethical and appropriate for physicians and parents to be influenced by the window of opportunity in their decisions about life-sustaining treatment.

  3. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  4. Holographic window for solar power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  5. WINDOW 4.0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  6. STIS target acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  7. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  8. Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-05-31

    This study examines the performance of exterior and interior low-e storm panels with a controlled whole home experimental design using PNNL's Lab Homes. Summing the estimated annual average heating and cooling savings, the installation of low-e storm panels resulted in approximately 10% annual energy savings. The results of the experiment will be used to determine and validate performance of low-e storm windows over double pane clear glass windows in a whole home setting.

  9. Highly transparent light-harvesting window film.

    PubMed

    Cocilovo, Byron; Hashimura, Aki; Tweet, Douglas J; Voutsas, Tolis; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-10-20

    We have simulated unique textured window films that capture solar radiation without compromising the window's transparency by scattering infrared light toward photovoltaic strips located at the edges of the window. These films are ideal for powering electrochromic glass, which is difficult to install as each window requires its own power source. Our most promising design consists of an embedded array of 35° cones coated with a five-layer SiO2-Ag stack that was simulated to direct 1.4% of the incident light toward the edges and generate 1 W of power under a collimated 1000  W/m2 AM1.5G source at 60° and an average of 0.5 W over a full year when applied to a 1  m×1  m window. The internal visible transmittance of the window with the applied film is 95% at normal incidence, and remains above 85% for viewing angles up to 60°. The haze is 0.6% at normal incidence and 3.9% at 60°. PMID:26560389

  10. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  11. Noise Transmission Characteristics of Damped Plexiglas Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    2002-01-01

    Most general aviation aircraft utilize single layer plexiglas material for the windshield and side windows. Adding noise control treatments to transparent panels is a challenging problem. In this paper, damped plexiglas windows are evaluated for replacement of conventional windows in general aviation aircraft to reduce the structure-borne and airborne noise transmitted into the interior. In contrast to conventional solid windows, the damped plexiglas window panels are fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Results from acoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility are used to compare different designs of the damped plexiglas panels with solid windows of the same nominal thickness. Comparisons of the solid and damped plexiglas panels show reductions in the radiated sound power of up to 8 dB at low frequency resonances and as large as 4.5 dB over a 4000 Hz bandwidth. The weight of the viscoelastic treatment was approximately 1% of the panel mass. Preliminary FEM/BEM modeling shows good agreement with experimental results for radiated sound power.

  12. Scale up of large ALON windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Kashalikar, Uday; Foti, Robyn; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet has established a robust manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, and ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in our production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for larger sizes and higher quantities, is currently underway. ALON® transparent armor represents the state of the art in protection against armor piercing threats, offering a factor of two in weight and thickness savings over conventional glass laminates. Tiled and monolithic windows have been successfully produced and tested against a range of threats. Large ALON® window are also of interest to a range of visible to Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) sensor applications. These applications often have stressing imaging requirements which in turn require that these large windows have optical characteristics including excellent homogeneity of index of refraction and very low stress birefringence. Surmet is currently scaling up its production facility to be able to make and deliver ALON® monolithic windows as large as ~19x36-in. Additionally, Surmet has plans to scale up to windows ~3ftx3ft in size in the coming years. Recent results with scale up and characterization of the resulting blanks will be presented.

  13. Snap-shot multispectral imaging of vascular dynamics in a mouse window-chamber model.

    PubMed

    Hendargo, Hansford C; Zhao, Yulin; Allenby, Taylor; Palmer, Gregory M

    2015-07-15

    Understanding tumor vascular dynamics through parameters such as blood flow and oxygenation can yield insight into tumor biology and therapeutic response. Hyperspectral microscopy enables optical detection of hemoglobin saturation or blood velocity by either acquiring multiple images that are spectrally distinct or by rapid acquisition at a single wavelength over time. However, the serial acquisition of spectral images over time prevents the ability to monitor rapid changes in vascular dynamics and cannot monitor concurrent changes in oxygenation and flow rate. Here, we introduce snap shot-multispectral imaging (SS-MSI) for use in imaging the microvasculature in mouse dorsal-window chambers. By spatially multiplexing spectral information into a single-image capture, simultaneous acquisition of dynamic hemoglobin saturation and blood flow over time is achieved down to the capillary level and provides an improved optical tool for monitoring rapid in vivo vascular dynamics. PMID:26176452

  14. Acquisition signal transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An encoded information transmitter which transmits a radio frequency carrier that is amplitude modulated by a constant frequency waveform and thereafter amplitude modulated by a predetermined encoded waveform, the constant frequency waveform modulated carrier constituting an acquisition signal and the encoded waveform modulated carrier constituting an information bearing signal, the acquisition signal providing enhanced signal acquisition and interference rejection favoring the information bearing signal. One specific application for this transmitter is as a distress transmitter where a conventional, legislated audio tone modulated signal is transmitted followed first by the acquisition signal and then the information bearing signal, the information bearing signal being encoded with, among other things, vehicle identification data. The acquistion signal enables a receiver to acquire the information bearing signal where the received signal is low and/or where the received signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio in an environment where there are multiple signals in the same frequency band as the information bearing signal.

  15. Defense acquisition programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The continuing instability in the overall defense budget and the recent changes in Eastern Europe are forcing DOD and the military services to reexamine the need, priority, and annual funding levels for many weapon system acquisition programs. GAO reviewed six weapon system acquisition programs that DOD was scheduled to make an acquisition milestone decision on during fiscal year 1991. Under milestone authorization, up to five years funding can be approved to cover the entire acquisition phase for either full-scale development or full-rate production. This report examines the Non-Line-of-Sight Missile, the Light Helicopter, the MK-50 Torpedo, the Sensor Fuzed Weapon, the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Class 2 Terminals.

  16. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  17. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  18. A PC-based single-ADC multi-parameter data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, M.; Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    A personal computer (PC) based mult parameter data acquisition system using the Microsoft Window operating environment has been designed and constructed. An IBI AT compatible personal computer with an Intel 486DX5 microprocessor was combined with a National Instruments ATIDIO 32 digital I/O card, a single Canberra 8713 ADC with 13-bit resolution and a modified Canberra 8223 8-input analog multiplexer to acquil data from experiments carried out at the UML Van de Graa accelerator. The accelerator data acquisition (ADAC) computer environment was programmed in Microsoft Visual BASIC for use i Windows. ADAC allows event-mode data acquisition with up to eight parameters (modifiable to 64) and the simultaneous display parameters during acquisition. Additional features of ADAC include replay of event-mode data and graphical analysis/display of data. TV ADAC environment is easy to upgrade or expand, inexpensive 1 implement, and is specifically designed to meet the needs of nuclei spectroscopy.

  19. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  20. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  1. Graphene oxide windows for in situ environmental cell photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolmakov, Andrei; Dikin, Dmitriy A; Cote, Laura J; Huang, Jiaxing; Abyaneh, Majid Kazemian; Amati, Matteo; Gregoratti, Luca; Günther, Sebastian; Kiskinova, Maya

    2011-08-28

    The performance of new materials and devices often depends on processes taking place at the interface between an active solid element and the environment (such as air, water or other fluids). Understanding and controlling such interfacial processes require surface-specific spectroscopic information acquired under real-world operating conditions, which can be challenging because standard approaches such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy generally require high-vacuum conditions. The state-of-the-art approach to this problem relies on unique and expensive apparatus including electron analysers coupled with sophisticated differentially pumped lenses. Here, we develop a simple environmental cell with graphene oxide windows that are transparent to low-energy electrons (down to 400 eV), and demonstrate the feasibility of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on model samples such as gold nanoparticles and aqueous salt solution placed on the back side of a window. These proof-of-principle results show the potential of using graphene oxide, graphene and other emerging ultrathin membrane windows for the fabrication of low-cost, single-use environmental cells compatible with commercial X-ray and Auger microprobes as well as scanning or transmission electron microscopes.

  2. Eco-efficiency evaluation of a smart window prototype.

    PubMed

    Syrrakou, E; Papaefthimiou, S; Yianoulis, P

    2006-04-15

    An eco-efficiency analysis was conducted using indicators suitably defined to evaluate the performance of an electrochromic window acting as an energy saving component in buildings. Combining the indicators for various parameters (control scenario, expected lifetime, climatic type, purchase cost) significant conclusions are drawn for the development and the potential applications of the device compared to other commercial fenestration products. The reduction of the purchase cost (to 200 euros/m2) and the increase of the lifetime (above 15 years) are the two main targets for achieving both cost and environmental efficiency. An electrochromic device, implemented in cooling dominated areas and operated with an optimum control strategy for the maximum expected lifetime (25 years), can reduce the building energy requirements by 52%. Furthermore, the total energy savings provided will be 33 times more than the energy required for its production while the emission of 615 kg CO2 equivalent per electrochromic glazing unit can be avoided.

  3. X-Windows Socket Widget Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Socket Widget Class ("Class" is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network connections for graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. UNIX Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) socket programming libraries require many method calls to configure, operate, and destroy sockets. Most X Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Socket Widget Class encapsulates UNIX TCP/IP socket-management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X Windows GUI programs can treat one or more network socket instances in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program sockets. Wrapping ISP socket programming libraries inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat a network interface as though it were a GUI.

  4. Damped Windows for Aircraft Interior Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2004-01-01

    Windows are a significant path for structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission into aircraft. To improve the acoustical performance, damped windows were fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. In this paper, numerical and experimental results are used to evaluate the acoustic benefits of damped windows. Tests were performed in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to measure the transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation and radiated sound power for point force excitation. Comparisons between uniform and damped plexiglas windows showed increased transmission loss of 6 dB at the first natural frequency, 6 dB at coincidence, and 4.5 dB over a 50 to 4k Hz range. Radiated sound power was reduced up to 7 dB at the lower natural frequencies and 3.7 dB over a 1000 Hz bandwidth. Numerical models are presented for the prediction of radiated sound power for point force excitation and transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation. Radiated sound power and transmission loss predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. A parametric study is presented that evaluates the optimum configuration of the damped plexiglas windows for reducing the radiated sound power.

  5. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  6. Optimizing the performance of bandpass photon detectors for inverse photoemission: Transmission of alkaline earth fluoride window crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, Christian Schmidt, Anke B.; Donath, Markus

    2015-08-15

    Bandpass photon detectors are widely used in inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode at energies in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range. The energy bandpass of gas-filled counters is usually formed by the ionization threshold of the counting gas as high-pass filter and the transmission cutoff of an alkaline earth fluoride window as low-pass filter. The transmission characteristics of the window have, therefore, a crucial impact on the detector performance. We present transmission measurements in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range for alkaline earth fluoride window crystals in the vicinity of the transmission cutoff as a function of crystal purity, surface finish, surface contamination, temperature, and thickness. Our findings reveal that the transmission characteristics of the window crystal and, thus, the detector performance depend critically on these window parameters.

  7. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  8. Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel, casements. Concrete stoop, entry overhang and pipe rail detail also illustrated. Building 36, facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Raised panel door front entry also illustrated. Ground floor detail Building 19, facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Broad overhanging eave also illustrated. Second story detail. Building 13, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  12. 49 CFR 238.113 - Emergency window exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency window exits. 238.113 Section 238.113... § 238.113 Emergency window exits. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of... window exits. At least one emergency window exit shall be located in each side of each end (half) of...

  13. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  14. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  15. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  16. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the...

  17. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  18. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  19. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  20. Investigation of heat transfer in a triple-glazing type window at greek climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrachopoulos, Michalis; Koukou, Maria; Filos, George; Moraitis, Christos

    2013-12-01

    Heat loss through building windows has a major effect on the energy efficiency of the buildings. The window studied in this paper is a triple-glazing type window pane in which spaces contain dry air. The window is placed in a specially developed test chamber at the Energy and Environmental Research Laboratory of Central Greece University of Applied Sciences at Chalkida. At one side of the test chamber variable temperature environment for different temperature waving scenarios (20-30°C, 25-35°C, 20-35°C) adequate for Greek climate and at the other side steady constant temperature environment (20°C, 25°C) representing indoors conditions were created. Glass surface temperatures at both sides of the tested window pane and heat flux through it were measured. For triple-glazing thermal transmittance calculation a model of equations in visual basic was developed which accounts for the equations of conduction, convection and radiation in every layer of window pane. A sufficient agreement between the experimental results and the results of the model is noticed.

  1. Measurement of the solar heat gain coefficient and U value of windows with insect screens

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, A.; Dubrous, F.M.; Harrison, S.

    1999-07-01

    Energy ratings are currently being used in a number of countries to assist in the selection of windows and doors based on energy performance. Developed for simple comparison purposes, these rating numbers do not take into account window removable attachments such as insect screens that are, nevertheless, widely used. Research was carried out to assess the effect of insect screens on the heat gains and losses of windows. The work reported in this paper deals with the effect of one screen type on the performance of a base-case, double-glazed window. Using an indoor solar simulator facility, measurements of the window solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and U value were made for different screen attachment configurations and climatic conditions. Results with the sample window tested indicate that insect screens placed on the outdoor side can reduce its SHGC by 46% with only a 7% reduction in its U value (0.19 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C), and that insect screens placed on the indoor side can reduce its SHGC by 15% while reducing its U value by 14% (0.38 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C).

  2. Eco-innovation Strategies in the Construction Sector: Impacts on Nanotech Innovation in the Window Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. M.; Molin, M.

    In this paper we examine the strategic response of the construction companies to the climate agenda and the emerging nanotechnologies. A case is brought on the Danish window industry. The construction industry has for a long time been considered little innovative and this also goes for the window section. It seems that a combination of an intensified focus on climate issues and the potential of nanotechnology is invoking a new innovation potential and pressure in the window industry. Specifically we identify a strategic shift among the major players towards more systemic innovations that places the window as a part of the wider energy system of the house, a trend that isn’t driven by but could be reinforced by the new nanotech opportunities that so far only play a limited strategic role.

  3. The Development of a Hibachi Window for Electron Beam Transmission in a KrF Laser

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; R. Parsells; J.E. Butler; J.D. Sethian; L. Ciebiera; F. Hegeler; C. Jun; S. Langish; M. Myers

    2003-11-07

    In support of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), a 150 {micro}m thick silicon (Si) wafer coated on one side with a 1.2 {micro}m nanocrystalline diamond foil is being fabricated as an electron beam transmission (hibachi) window for use in KrF lasers. The hibachi window separates the lasing medium from the electron beam source while allowing the electron beam to pass through. The hibachi window must be capable of withstanding the challenging environment presented in the lasing chamber, which include: fluorine gas, delta pressure >2 atm at 5 Hz, and a high heat flux due to the transmission of electrons passing through the foil. Tests at NRL/Electra and at PPPL have shown that a device employing these novel components in the stated configuration provide for a robust hibachi window with structural integrity.

  4. The influence of opening windows and doors on the natural ventilation rate of a residential building

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased building energy efficiency is important in reducing national energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. An analysis of air change rates due to door and window openings in a research test house located in a residential environment are presented. These data inform developme...

  5. Combined Pressure and Thermal Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svartstrom, Kirk Nils (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a vehicle comprising a pressure and thermal window pane, a seal system, and a retainer system. The pressure and thermal window pane may be configured to provide desired pressure protection and desired thermal protection when exposed to an environment around the vehicle during operation of the vehicle. The pressure and thermal window pane may have a desired ductility. The seal system may be configured to contact the pressure and thermal window pane to seal the pressure and thermal window pane. The retainer system may be configured to hold the seal system and the pressure and thermal window pane.

  6. High-Temperature Optical Window Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeloffs, Norman; Taranto, Nick

    1995-01-01

    A high-temperature optical window is essential to the optical diagnostics of high-temperature combustion rigs. Laser Doppler velocimetry, schlieren photography, light sheet visualization, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy are a few of the tests that require optically clear access to the combustor flow stream. A design was developed for a high-temperature window that could withstand the severe environment of the NASA Lewis 3200 F Lean Premixed Prevaporized (LPP) Flame Tube Test Rig. The development of this design was both time consuming and costly. This report documents the design process and the lessons learned, in an effort to reduce the cost of developing future designs for high-temperature optical windows.

  7. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  8. Integral window hermetic fiber optic components

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  9. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  10. Radcalc for Windows. Volume 2: Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-09-27

    Radcalc for Windows is a user-friendly menu-driven Windows-compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive waste using NRC-accepted methodology. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as radioactive, Type A or Type B, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled, and fissile excepted using DOT definitions and methodologies, as outlined in 49 CFR Subchapter C. The code has undergone extensive testing and validation. Volume I is a User`s Guide, and Volume II is the Technical Manual for Radcalc for Windows

  11. X-Band Acquisition Aid Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Strain, Martha M.; Wert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The X-band Acquisition Aid (AAP) software is a low-cost acquisition aid for the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas, and is used while acquiring a spacecraft shortly after it has launched. When enabled, the acquisition aid provides corrections to the antenna-predicted trajectory of the spacecraft to compensate for the variations that occur during the actual launch. The AAP software also provides the corrections to the antenna-predicted trajectory to the navigation team that uses the corrections to refine their model of the spacecraft in order to produce improved antenna-predicted trajectories for each spacecraft that passes over each complex. The software provides an automated Acquisition Aid receiver calibration, and provides graphical displays to the operator and remote viewers via an Ethernet connection. It has a Web server, and the remote workstations use the Firefox browser to view the displays. At any given time, only one operator can control any particular display in order to avoid conflicting commands from more than one control point. The configuration and control is accomplished solely via the graphical displays. The operator does not have to remember any commands. Only a few configuration parameters need to be changed, and can be saved to the appropriate spacecraft-dependent configuration file on the AAP s hard disk. AAP automates the calibration sequence by first commanding the antenna to the correct position, starting the receiver calibration sequence, and then providing the operator with the option of accepting or rejecting the new calibration parameters. If accepted, the new parameters are stored in the appropriate spacecraft-dependent configuration file. The calibration can be performed on the Sun, greatly expanding the window of opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft traditionally used for calibration is in view typically twice per day, and only for about ten minutes each pass.

  12. Examination of the technical potential of near-infrared switching thermochromic windows for commercial building applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Lee, Eleanor S.; Clavero, César

    2014-01-29

    Current thermochromic windows modulate solar transmission primarily within the visible range, resulting in reduced space-conditioning energy use but also reduced daylight, thereby increasing lighting energy use compared to conventional static, near-infrared selective, low-emittance windows. To better understand the energy savings potential of improved thermochromic devices, a hypothetical near-infrared switching thermochromic glazing was defined based on guidelines provided by the material science community. In this paper, EnergyPlus simulations were conducted on a prototypical large office building and a detailed analysis was performed showing the progression from switching characteristics to net window heat flow and perimeter zone loads and then to perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use for a mixed hot/cold climate and a hot, humid climate in the US. When a relatively high daylight transmission is maintained when switched (Tsol=0.10–0.50 and Tvis=0.30–0.60) and if coupled with a low-e inboard glazing layer (e=0.04), the hypothetical thermochromic window with a low critical switching temperature range (14–20 °C) achieved reductions in total site annual energy use of 14.0–21.1 kW h/m2-floor-yr or 12–14% for moderate- to large-area windows (WWR≥0.30) in Chicago and 9.8–18.6 kW h/m2-floor-yr or 10–17% for WWR≥0.45 in Houston compared to an unshaded spectrally-selective, low-e window (window E1) in south-, east-, and west-facing perimeter zones. Finally, if this hypothetical thermochromic window can be offered at costs that are competitive to conventional low-e windows and meet esthetic requirements defined by the building industry and end users, then the technology is likely to be a viable energy-efficiency option for internal load dominated commercial buildings.

  13. Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne

    2010-01-15

    Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations. (author)

  14. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  15. [Research on spectral characteristic of miniature X-ray tube and determination of beryllium window thickness].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi; Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Ge, Liang-Quan; Fan, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Zhu, Zhen-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Applying Monte Carlo method, the present paper simulates the emitted X-ray spectrum of miniature X-ray tube with thirteen thickness of beryllium window in the range from 50 to 500 microm. By analyzing the characteristic of the spectrums, the reasonable choice of thickness of beryllium window relies on the application and for the beryllium window it is not the thinner the better. Taking in-situ EDXRF as an example, though the emission X-ray intensity is higher as the thickness of the beryllium window becomes thinner, the proportion of useless low-energy X-ray (<5 keV) intensity to all energy X-ray intensity also is higher (>20%). The accuracy of in-situ EDXRF will be reduced when the high-throughput low-energy X-ray enters the detector. Therefore, this paper puts forward several parameters as judgment index for beryllium window thickness, which is described as follows: 1)The intensity ratios of the K-series X-ray to middle-energy (5-25 keV) bremsstrahlung and middle-high-energy (5-50 keV) bremsstrahlung (F1 and F3); 2)The intensity ratios of useless low-energy X-ray (<5 keV) to middle-energy (5-25 keV) X-ray and middle-high-energy (5-50 keV) X-ray (F2 and F4), it can reflect the relative intensity of useless low-energy X-ray. The simulation results demonstrate that with the increase in the beryllium window thickness, the value of F1 (F3) improves slowly, and the value of F2 (F4) decreases rapidly. In addition to the judgment index discussed above, and considering the X-ray shielded by beryllium window, the beryllium window of miniature X-ray tube can be determined. Based on simulation analysis, the thickness of around 250 microm is appropriate to miniature X-ray tube applied in the in-situ EDXRF. Comparing the emitted spectrum with 50 microm-thick beryllium window, 71.66% of low-energy X-rays are shielded, only 21.31% of X-rays with energy from 5 to 50 keV is shielded, the intensity ratio of low-energy X-ray to total energy X-ray is less than 10%, and the intensity

  16. Experimental study of the plasma window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ben-Liang; Huang, Sheng; Zhu, Kun; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The plasma window is an advanced apparatus that can work as the interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region. It can be used in many applications that need atmosphere-vacuum interface, such as a gas target, electron beam welding, synchrotron radiation and a spallation neutron source. A test bench of the plasma window is constructed in Peking University. A series of experiments and the corresponding parameter measurements have been presented in this article. The experiment result indicates the feasibility of such a facility acting as an interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region.

  17. Window for radiation detectors and the like

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.; Ogle, J.C.

    1975-10-28

    An improved x- and gamma-radiation and particle transparent window for the environment-controlling enclosure of various types of radiation and particle detectors is provided by a special graphite foil of a thickness of from about 0.1 to 1 mil. The graphite must have very parallel hexagonal planes with a mosaic spread no greater than 5$sup 0$ to have the necessary strength in thin sections to support one atmosphere or more of pressure. Such graphite is formed by hot- pressing and annealing pyrolytically deposited graphite and thereafter stripping off layers of sufficient thickness to form the window.

  18. Multi-echo acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Posse, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of fMRI was paralleled early on by the adaptation of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) methods to quantify water relaxation changes during brain activation. This review describes the evolution of multi-echo acquisition from high-speed MRSI to multi-echo EPI and beyond. It highlights milestones in the development of multi-echo acquisition methods, such as the discovery of considerable gains in fMRI sensitivity when combining echo images, advances in quantification of the BOLD effect using analytical biophysical modeling and interleaved multi-region shimming. The review conveys the insight gained from combining fMRI and MRSI methods and concludes with recent trends in ultra-fast fMRI, which will significantly increase temporal resolution of multi-echo acquisition. PMID:22056458

  19. Tips for daylighting with windows

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alastair; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing “how-to” practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decision—which typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.

  20. Trends in data acquisition instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanar, George J.

    1993-10-01

    Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including BNL, FNAL, CERN, SLAC, etc., as well as LeCroy Corporation's 26 year history in the field of physics research instrumentation. Finally, instrumentation needs for the next generation of high energy, hadron colliders including the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be reviewed and compared to current technologies.

  1. Aberration and boresight error correction for conformal aircraft windows using the inner window surface and tilted fixed correctors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhu; Cui, Qingfeng; Mao, Shan

    2016-04-01

    A static solution to aberrations and boresight error for tilted conformal aircraft windows at different look angles is reported. The solution uses the inner window surface to correct the window aberrations at a 0° look angle and uses fixed correctors behind the window to correct the residual window aberrations at other look angles. Then, the boresight error for the window at different look angles is corrected by tilting the fixed correctors. The principle of the solution is discussed, and a design example shows that the solution is effective in correcting the aberrations and boresight error for a tilted conformal aircraft window at different look angles.

  2. Analog Spectrophotometers in the Digital Age: Data Acquisition on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarenko, Alexander Y.; Nazarenko, Natalie A.

    2005-01-01

    The interfacing of various spectrometers with analog output to a personal computer running Microsoft Excel in the Windows environment is described. This low cost data acquisition solution is a useful replacement of a chart recorder for various UV-visible and infrared scanning spectrophotometers.

  3. Simultaneous bilateral real-time 3-d transcranial ultrasound imaging at 1 MHz through poor acoustic windows.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Brooks D; Nicoletto, Heather A; Bennett, Ellen R; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Smith, Stephen W

    2013-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a rapid, portable alternative imaging modality to examine stroke patients in pre-hospital or emergency room settings. However, in performing transcranial ultrasound examinations, 8%-29% of patients in a general population may present with window failure, in which case it is not possible to acquire clinically useful sonographic information through the temporal bone acoustic window. In this work, we describe the technical considerations, design and fabrication of low-frequency (1.2 MHz), large aperture (25.3 mm) sparse matrix array transducers for 3-D imaging in the event of window failure. These transducers are integrated into a system for real-time 3-D bilateral transcranial imaging-the ultrasound brain helmet-and color flow imaging capabilities at 1.2 MHz are directly compared with arrays operating at 1.8 MHz in a flow phantom with attenuation comparable to the in vivo case. Contrast-enhanced imaging allowed visualization of arteries of the Circle of Willis in 5 of 5 subjects and 8 of 10 sides of the head despite probe placement outside of the acoustic window. Results suggest that this type of transducer may allow acquisition of useful images either in individuals with poor windows or outside of the temporal acoustic window in the field.

  4. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  5. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech. PMID:25147539

  6. Novel high-pressure windows made of glass-like carbon for x-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testemale, Denis; Prat, Alain; Lahera, Eric; Hazemann, Jean-Louis

    2016-07-01

    Original high-pressure glass-like carbon windows developed for x-ray spectroscopy applications are presented. The scientific and technological background of this new technical development is exposed, in particular the limitations of our existing beryllium windows in the context of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of solutions with very low solute concentrations at hydrothermal conditions (0.1-200 MPa, 30-600 °C). The benefits of glass-like carbon are exposed, notably its non-crystalline character, the absence of impurities which has been verified by micro-fluorescence laboratory measurements, and its non-toxicity which makes its machining safer. Finite elements mechanical calculations and experimental pressure tests were conducted to determine the pressure limits of windows with two different geometries: cylindrical (thickness 0.5 mm) and inversed-dome shape (thickness 0.5 mm at the tip of the dome). The former break at 150 MPa and the latter show no sign of rupture at 400 MPa. Recent XAS measurements conducted with the new dome shaped windows are presented to show the advantages of the design that allow for the detection of very low concentrations in the transmission mode (down to 30 ppm) and the acquisition of fluorescence XAS spectra in diluted solutions at high pressure. Eventually the perspectives of this original development are discussed.

  7. Novel high-pressure windows made of glass-like carbon for x-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Testemale, Denis; Prat, Alain; Lahera, Eric; Hazemann, Jean-Louis

    2016-07-01

    Original high-pressure glass-like carbon windows developed for x-ray spectroscopy applications are presented. The scientific and technological background of this new technical development is exposed, in particular the limitations of our existing beryllium windows in the context of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of solutions with very low solute concentrations at hydrothermal conditions (0.1-200 MPa, 30-600 °C). The benefits of glass-like carbon are exposed, notably its non-crystalline character, the absence of impurities which has been verified by micro-fluorescence laboratory measurements, and its non-toxicity which makes its machining safer. Finite elements mechanical calculations and experimental pressure tests were conducted to determine the pressure limits of windows with two different geometries: cylindrical (thickness 0.5 mm) and inversed-dome shape (thickness 0.5 mm at the tip of the dome). The former break at 150 MPa and the latter show no sign of rupture at 400 MPa. Recent XAS measurements conducted with the new dome shaped windows are presented to show the advantages of the design that allow for the detection of very low concentrations in the transmission mode (down to 30 ppm) and the acquisition of fluorescence XAS spectra in diluted solutions at high pressure. Eventually the perspectives of this original development are discussed. PMID:27475603

  8. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hweeling; Noppeney, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech, or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogs of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms). Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past 3 years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech.

  9. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracting office pursuant to 48 CFR part 51, DOE contractors working under cost-reimbursement-type contracts... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies...

  10. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting office pursuant to 48 CFR part 51, DOE contractors working under cost-reimbursement-type contracts... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies...

  11. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contracting office pursuant to 48 CFR part 51, DOE contractors working under cost-reimbursement-type contracts... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies...

  12. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contracting office pursuant to 48 CFR part 51, DOE contractors working under cost-reimbursement-type contracts... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies...

  13. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracting office pursuant to 48 CFR part 51, DOE contractors working under cost-reimbursement-type contracts... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies...

  14. 41 CFR 109-26.501-53 - Acquisitions by transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisitions by transfer... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND... transfer. (a) The acquisition of passenger motor vehicles by transfer from another Government agency or...

  15. 41 CFR 109-26.501-53 - Acquisitions by transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acquisitions by transfer... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND... transfer. (a) The acquisition of passenger motor vehicles by transfer from another Government agency or...

  16. 41 CFR 109-26.501-53 - Acquisitions by transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acquisitions by transfer... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND... transfer. (a) The acquisition of passenger motor vehicles by transfer from another Government agency or...

  17. Considerations When Upgrading and Renovating Window Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Today's educational facilities managers face many challenges. As stewards of their campus' physical assets, these professionals are charged with improving students' learning environments, saving money, and maintaining the historical and aesthetic integrity of their buildings. For schools and universities that have not replaced their windows in…

  18. Schools Facing the Expiration of Windows XP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft's plans to end support for Windows XP, believed to be the dominant computer operating system in K-12 education, could pose big technological and financial challenges for districts nationwide--issues that many school systems have yet to confront. The giant software company has made it clear for years that it plans to stop supporting XP…

  19. Windows 8: What Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2012, Microsoft will release the commercial version of its next operating system, presently called "Windows 8." This version represents a significant departure from the past. Microsoft wants this operating system to meet user needs regardless of physical platform (e.g., desktop, notebook, tablet, mobile phone). As part of this mission,…

  20. Inexpensive anti-fog coating for windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmin, D. L., Jr.; Morrison, H. D.

    1971-01-01

    Coating applications include anti-fog protection for deep-sea diving equipment, fire protection helmets, and windows of vehicles used in hazardous environments. Basic coating composition includes liquid detergent, deionized water, and oxygen compatible fire-resistant oil. Composition prevents visor fogging under maximum metabolic load for 5 hours and longer.