Science.gov

Sample records for acquisition energy window

  1. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  2. Acoustic window planning for ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    Göbl, Rüdiger; Virga, Salvatore; Rackerseder, Julia; Frisch, Benjamin; Navab, Nassir; Hennersperger, Christoph

    2017-03-11

    Autonomous robotic ultrasound has recently gained considerable interest, especially for collaborative applications. Existing methods for acquisition trajectory planning are solely based on geometrical considerations, such as the pose of the transducer with respect to the patient surface.

  3. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  4. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Haglund, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  5. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Su-Jin; Yu, A. Ram; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99 m (99mTc) and thallium-201 (201Tl), the most commonly used isotopes in SPECT imaging, using CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy. We experimentally investigated quantitative measurements with respect to primary count rate, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and scatter fraction (SF) within various energy window settings using Triumph X-SPECT. The two ways of energy window settings were considered: an on-peak window and an off-peak window. In the on-peak window setting, energy centers were set on the photopeaks. In the off-peak window setting, the ratios of energy differences between the photopeak from the lower- and higher-threshold varied from 4:6 to 3:7. In addition, the energy-window width for 99mTc varied from 5% to 20%, and that for 201Tl varied from 10% to 30%. The results of this study enabled us to determine the optimal energy windows for each isotope in terms of primary count rate, CNR, and SF. We selected the optimal energy window that increases the primary count rate and CNR while decreasing SF. For 99mTc SPECT imaging, the energy window of 138-145 keV with a 5% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was determined to be the optimal energy window. For 201Tl SPECT imaging, the energy window of 64-85 keV with a 30% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal energy window. Our results demonstrated that the proper energy window should be carefully chosen based on quantitative measurements in order to take advantage of desirable characteristics of CZT-based small-animal SPECT. These results provided valuable reference information for the establishment of new protocol for CZT

  6. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  7. Optimum energy window setting on Hg-201 x-rays photopeak for effective Tl-201 imaging.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Akihiro; Takaki, Akihiro; Noguchi, Teruya; Matsumoto, Masanori; Katsuda, Noboru; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2005-10-01

    For more effective Tl-201 imaging, the location and width of the energy window set on the Hg-201 x-rays photopeak was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation and phantom experiments. We calculated energy spectra and investigated the amount of primary and scattered photons within various energy windows set on the x-rays photopeak. The energy resolution (ER) at 71 keV (the peak of the x-rays photopeak) was changed to 10%, 12%, 14% and 16%. The relationships between the energy window and the primary counts rate or the scatter fraction (= scattered counts/primary counts, SF) were obtained. By compromise between the primary counts rate and the SF for ER = 12%, the optimum energy window was determined as a wider off-peak window, 77 keV +/- 14.3% (66-88 keV). This off-peak window increased the primary counts rate by 12.5% and decreased the SF by -17% as compared with the conventional on-peak energy window (71 keV +/- 10%, 64-78 keV). When this off-peak widow acquisition was compared with the conventional on-peak window one on a gamma camera, planar and SPECT images using the off-peak widow clearly showed superior results qualitatively and quantitatively.

  8. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  9. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  10. Whole Heart Coronary Imaging with Flexible Acquisition Window and Trigger Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166–220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  11. Whole heart coronary imaging with flexible acquisition window and trigger delay.

    PubMed

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166-220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  12. Energy Performance Analysis of Pelotint Dynamic Sun Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surel, Ali

    This study presents the energy performance test results of the Pleotint Sun Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) windows by using the Iowa Energy Center Energy Resource Station (ERS) test systems and data acquisition resources. The data includes experimental test results by using the ERS test, instrumentation and data acquisition resources. The experimental procedures were conducted under controlled environments. The controlled environments consists of test rooms, office space, air handling units and air cooled chillers. The weather data were also collected at the facility and used for both experimental and simulation test procedures. The experimental performance results presented in this thesis for the SRT windows include the analysis of natural gas and electricity energy use for heating loads, cooling loads, pump energy, fan energy and lighting energy at the test room level. Considering energy efficiency, the results of this study show that Pleotint SRT window technology can save more energy compared to Low-E dark tinted performance windows while still satisfying comfort level requirements. The results of the study show that most of the energy savings were from lighting energy compared to cooling and heating loads.

  13. Definitions as a Window to the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Aram, Dorit; Novogrodsky, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Definitions that children provide can be a valuable measure of their syntax, and specifically, of their ability to produce relative clauses. This research explored the acquisition of subject, object, and indirect object relative clauses in 121 Hebrew-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 8 years, 6 months (3;5-8;6). The children were asked…

  14. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  15. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  16. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  17. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-24

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  18. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  20. A balanced filterless K-edge energy window multilayer detector for dual energy computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.

    2010-04-01

    Ross (or balanced) filter-based systems have been studied extensively in the past, however they have only recently been studied for medical applications such as computed tomography and contrast-enhanced mammography. Balanced filters are filters composed of different materials which have thicknesses designed to match the attenuation for all radiation energies except those within a certain energy window (between the K-edges of the filter materials). Images obtained using different filters to attenuate the incident x-rays can be subtracted to obtain an image which contains information solely within the energy window. The disadvantage of this image acquisition method is the requirement of a separate exposure for each filter. This can lead to motion artifacts in the resulting image for example due to cardiac, respiratory, or patient movement. In this paper we investigate a filterless, multilayer detector design using the general concept of balanced filters. In the proposed detector, energy discrimination is achieved using stacked layers of different conversion materials. Similar to how the thicknesses of balanced filters are chosen, the thicknesses of the conversion layers are designed to match the attenuation of x-rays except between the K-edges of the conversion materials. Motion artifacts are suppressed in the final image due to the simultaneous acquisition of images on all layers during a single exposure. The proposed multilayer design can be used for a number of applications depending on the energy range of interest. To study the proposed design, we consider dual energy computed tomography (CT) using a gadolinium-based contrast agent.

  1. Triple energy window scatter correction technique in PET.

    PubMed

    Shao, L; Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1994-01-01

    A practical triple energy window technique (TEW) is proposed, which is based on using the information in two lower energy windows and one single calibration, to estimate the scatter within the photopeak window. The technique is basically a conventional dual-window technique plus a modification factor, which can partially compensate object-distribution dependent scatters. The modification factor is a function of two lower scatter windows of both the calibration phantom and the actual object. In order to evaluate the technique, a Monte Carlo simulation program, which simulates the PENN-PET scanner geometry, was used. Different phantom activity distributions and phantom sizes were tested to simulate brain studies, including uniform and nonuniform distributions. The results indicate that the TEW technique works well for a wide range of activity distributions and object sizes. The comparisons between the TEW and dual window techniques show better quantitative accuracy for the TEW, especially for different phantom sizes. The technique is also applied to experimental data from a PENN-PET scanner to test its practicality.

  2. New window design options for CEBAF energy upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.; Mammosser, J.; Nguyen, V.

    1997-07-01

    As the Jefferson Laboratory upgrades the existing CEBAF electron accelerator to operate at higher energies, the fundamental power coupler windows will be required to operate with lower RF dissipation and increased immunity to radiation from cavity field emission. New designs and modifications to existing designs which can achieve these goals are described.

  3. User Data Package - Energy-Efficient Windows and Window Coverings for Naval Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    This should be evaluated using cost vs . savings analysis, as shown in the UDP. " It is recommended that window installation be performed by qualified and...1 1.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN............................................ 2 2. FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF WINDOWS AND WINDOW ...113 Appendix D - ( Performance Data for Some Whole Window Units Without Window Coverings

  4. TeraTools: Multiparameter data acquisition software for the Windows 95/NT OS

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1997-12-31

    TeraTools, a general purpose, multiparameter, data acquisition application for Windows 95NT is described. It is based on the Kmax architecture which has been used since 1986 on the Macintosh computer at numerous industrial, education, and research sites world-wide. TeraTools includes high-level support for industry-standard modular instrumentation; a built-in scripting language; drivers for commercially available interfaces; hooks for external code extensions; event file sorting and replay; and a full set of histogramming and display tools. The environment is scalable and may be applied to problems involving a few parameters or many parameters.

  5. Window performance and building energy use: Some technical options for increasing energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    1985-11-01

    Window system design and operation has a major impact on energy use in buildings as well as on occupants' thermal and visual comfort. Window performance will be a function of optical and thermal properties, window management strategies, climate and orientation, and building type and occupancy. In residences, heat loss control is a primary concern, followed by sun control in more southerly climates. In commercial buildings, the daylight provided by windows may be the major energy benefits but solar gain must be controlled so that increased cooling loads do not exceed daylighting savings. Reductions in peak electrical demand and HVAC system size may also be possible in well-designed daylighted buildings.

  6. Detection with Enhanced Energy Windowing Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, David A.; Enders, Alexander L.

    2016-12-01

    This document reviews the progress of Phase I of the Detection with Enhanced Energy Windowing (DEEW) project. The DEEW project is the implementation of software incorporating an algorithm which reviews data generated by radiation portal monitors and utilizes advanced and novel techniques for detecting radiological and fissile material while not alarming on Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. Independent testing indicated that the Enhanced Energy Windowing algorithm showed promise at reducing the probability of alarm in the stream of commerce compared to existing algorithms and other developmental algorithms, while still maintaining adequate sensitivity to threats. This document contains a brief description of the project, instructions for setting up and running the applications, and guidance to help make reviewing the output files and source code easier.

  7. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  8. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-09-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being ``opaque'' to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a ``smart'' window behave? Is a ``smart'' window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  9. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows.

    PubMed

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-09-19

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being "opaque" to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a "smart" window behave? Is a "smart" window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  10. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    PubMed Central

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being “opaque” to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a “smart” window behave? Is a “smart” window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  11. Window Design Strategies to Conserve Energy. NBS Building Science Series 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. Robert; Crenshaw, Richard W.

    A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing, interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows: solar…

  12. Low-Emissivity, Energy-Control, Retrofit Window Film: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Winckler, Lisa

    2012-07-01

    Solutia Performance Films, utilizing funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Buildings Technologies Program, completed research to develop, validate, and commercialize a range of cost-effective, low-emissivity energy-control retrofit window films with significantly improved emissivity over current technology. These films, sold under the EnerLogic® trade name, offer the energy-saving properties of modern low-e windows, with several advantages over replacement windows, such as: lower initial installation cost, a significantly lower product carbon footprint, and an ability to provide a much faster return on investment. EnerLogic® window films also offer significantly greater energy savings than previously available with window films with similar visible light transmissions. EnerLogic® window films offer these energy-saving advantages over other window films due to its ability to offer both summer cooling and winter heating savings. Unlike most window films, that produce savings only during the cooling season, EnerLogic® window film is an all-season, low-emissivity (low-e) film that produces both cooling and heating season savings. This paper will present technical information on the development hurdles as well as details regarding the following claims being made about EnerLogic® window film, which can be found at www.EnerLogicfilm.com: 1. Other window film technologies save energy. EnerLogic® window film's patent-pending coating delivers excellent energy efficiency in every season, so no other film can match its annual dollar or energy consumption savings. 2. EnerLogic® window film is a low-cost, high-return technology that compares favorably to other popular energy-saving measures both in terms of energy efficiency and cost savings. In fact, EnerLogic® window film typically outperforms most of the alternatives in terms of simple payback. 3. EnerLogic® window film provides unparalleled glass insulating capabilities for window film products. With its

  13. Effects of simulation-based practice on focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) window identification, acquisition, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Gregory K W K; Gyllenhammer, Ruth G; Baker, Eva L; Savitsky, Eric

    2013-10-01

    We compared the effects of simulator-based virtual ultrasound scanning practice with classroom-based ultrasound scanning practice on participants' knowledge of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) window quadrants and interpretation, and on participants' performance on live patient FAST examinations. Novices with little or no ultrasound training experience received simulation-based practice (n = 24) or classroom-based practice (n = 24). Participants who received simulation-based practice scored significantly higher on interpreting static images of FAST windows. On live patient examinations where participants scanned the right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), and suprapubic quadrant of a normal patient and an ascites-positive patient, the classroom-based practice condition had a shorter scan time for the LUQ and a higher number of participants attaining high-quality window on the RUQ (normal patient only) and suprapubic quadrant (positive patient only) and correct window interpretation on the LUQ (normal patient only). Overall, classroom-based practice appeared to promote physical acquisition skills and simulator-based practice appeared to promote window interpretation skills. Accurate window interpretation is critical to identification of blunt abdominal trauma injuries. The simulator used (SonoSimulator) appears promising as a training tool to increase probe time and to increase exposure to FAST windows reflecting various anatomy and disease states.

  14. g-PRIME: A Free, Windows Based Data Acquisition and Event Analysis Software Package for Physiology in Classrooms and Research Labs.

    PubMed

    Lott, Gus K; Johnson, Bruce R; Bonow, Robert H; Land, Bruce R; Hoy, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    We present g-PRIME, a software based tool for physiology data acquisition, analysis, and stimulus generation in education and research. This software was developed in an undergraduate neurophysiology course and strongly influenced by instructor and student feedback. g-PRIME is a free, stand-alone, windows application coded and "compiled" in Matlab (does not require a Matlab license). g-PRIME supports many data acquisition interfaces from the PC sound card to expensive high throughput calibrated equipment. The program is designed as a software oscilloscope with standard trigger modes, multi-channel visualization controls, and data logging features. Extensive analysis options allow real time and offline filtering of signals, multi-parameter threshold-and-window based event detection, and two-dimensional display of a variety of parameters including event time, energy density, maximum FFT frequency component, max/min amplitudes, and inter-event rate and intervals. The software also correlates detected events with another simultaneously acquired source (event triggered average) in real time or offline. g-PRIME supports parameter histogram production and a variety of elegant publication quality graphics outputs. A major goal of this software is to merge powerful engineering acquisition and analysis tools with a biological approach to studies of nervous system function.

  15. Experimental evaluation of 350 MHz RF accelerator windows for the low energy demonstration accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, K.; Rees, D.; Roybal, W.

    1997-09-01

    Radio frequency (RF) windows are historically a point where failure occurs in input power couplers for accelerators. To obtain a reliable, high-power, 350 MHz RF window for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project of the Accelerator Production of Tritium program, RF windows prototypes from different vendors were tested. Experiments were performed to evaluate the RF windows by the vendors to select a window for the LEDA project. The Communications and Power, Inc. (CPI) windows were conditioned to 445 kW in roughly 15 hours. At 445 kW a window failed, and the cause of the failure will be presented. The English Electronic Valve, Inc. (EEV) windows were conditioned to 944 kW in 26 hours and then tested at 944 kW for 4 hours with no indication of problems.

  16. The Use of Variable Q1 Isolation Windows Improves Selectivity in LC-SWATH-MS Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bilbao, Aivett; Bruderer, Tobias; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2015-10-02

    As tryptic peptides and metabolites are not equally distributed along the mass range, the probability of cross fragment ion interference is higher in certain windows when fixed Q1 SWATH windows are applied. We evaluated the benefits of utilizing variable Q1 SWATH windows with regards to selectivity improvement. Variable windows based on equalizing the distribution of either the precursor ion population (PIP) or the total ion current (TIC) within each window were generated by an in-house software, swathTUNER. These two variable Q1 SWATH window strategies outperformed, with respect to quantification and identification, the basic approach using a fixed window width (FIX) for proteomic profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Thus, 13.8 and 8.4% additional peptide precursors, which resulted in 13.1 and 10.0% more proteins, were confidently identified by SWATH using the strategy PIP and TIC, respectively, in the MDDC proteomic sample. On the basis of the spectral library purity score, some improvement warranted by variable Q1 windows was also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the metabolomic profiling of human urine. We show that the novel concept of "scheduled SWATH" proposed here, which incorporates (i) variable isolation windows and (ii) precursor retention time segmentation further improves both peptide and metabolite identifications.

  17. Integrated smart electrochromic windows for energy saving and storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong; Jin, Xiujuan; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-18

    A self-powered electrochromic smart window with tunable transmittance driven by dye-sensitized solar cells has been designed, which also acts as a photocharged electrochromic supercapacitor with high areal capacitance and reversible color changes.

  18. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    PubMed Central

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows. PMID:27115028

  19. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  20. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  1. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  2. Optimization of energy window and evaluation of scatter compensation methods in MPS using the ideal observer with model mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used the ideal observer (IO) and IO with model mismatch (IO-MM) applied in the projection domain and an anthropomorphic Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) applied to reconstructed images to optimize the acquisition energy window width and evaluate various scatter compensation methods in the context of a myocardial perfusion SPECT defect detection task. The IO has perfect knowledge of the image formation process and thus reflects performance with perfect compensation for image-degrading factors. Thus, using the IO to optimize imaging systems could lead to suboptimal parameters compared to those optimized for humans interpreting SPECT images reconstructed with imperfect or no compensation. The IO-MM allows incorporating imperfect system models into the IO optimization process. We found that with near-perfect scatter compensation, the optimal energy window for the IO and CHO were similar; in its absence the IO-MM gave a better prediction of the optimal energy window for the CHO using different scatter compensation methods. These data suggest that the IO-MM may be useful for projection-domain optimization when model mismatch is significant, and that the IO is useful when followed by reconstruction with good models of the image formation process.

  3. Optimization of the Energy Window for PETbox4, a Preclinical PET Tomograph With a Small Inner Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Bao, Q.; Taschereau, R.; Wang, H.; Bai, B.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are often designed by employing close geometry configurations. Due to the different characteristics caused by geometrical factors, these tomographs require data acquisition protocols that differ from those optimized for conventional large diameter ring systems. In this work we optimized the energy window for data acquisitions with PETbox4, a 50 mm detector separation (box-like geometry) pre-clinical PET scanner, using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). The fractions of different types of events were estimated using a voxelized phantom including a mouse as well as its supporting chamber, mimicking a realistic mouse imaging environment. Separate code was developed to extract additional information about the gamma interactions for more accurate event type classification. Three types of detector backscatter events were identified in addition to the trues, phantom scatters and randoms. The energy window was optimized based on the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and scatter fraction (SF) with lower-level discriminators (LLD) corresponding to energies from 150 keV to 450 keV. The results were validated based on the calculated image uniformity, spillover ratio (SOR) and recovery coefficient (RC) from physical measurements using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 image quality phantom. These results indicate that when PETbox4 is operated with a more narrow energy window (350-650 keV), detector backscatter rejection is unnecessary. For the NEMA NU-4 image quality phantom, the SOR for the water chamber decreases by about 45% from 15.1% to 8.3%, and the SOR for the air chamber decreases by 31% from 12.0% to 8.3% at the LLDs of 150 and 350 keV, without obvious change in uniformity, further supporting the simulation based optimization. The optimization described in this work is not limited to PETbox4, but also applicable or helpful to other small inner diameter geometry

  4. Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding (the Company) is located in Concord, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Concord, New Hampshire.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of the Energy-Saving Potential of Electrochromic Windows in Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    Electrochromic windows provide variable tinting that can help control glare and solar heat gain. We used BEopt software to evaluate their performance in prototypical energy models of a single-family home.

  6. Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    A summary presentation to inform discussion of the recently announced acquisition of XTO Energy Inc. by Exxon Mobil Corporation, a transaction which is reportedly $41 billion in value. "Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc" presents non-proprietary company-level oil and gas production and reserve data and the relevant U.S. aggregate data published by the Energy Information Administration.

  7. Integrated window systems: An advanced energy-efficient residential fenestration product

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.; Griffith, B.; LaBerge, P.

    1994-03-01

    The last several years have produced a wide variety of new window products aimed at reducing the energy impacts associated with residential windows. Improvements have focused on reducing the rate at which heat flows through the total window product by conduction/convection and thermal radiation (quantified by the U-factor) as well as in controlling solar heat gain (measured by the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or Shading Coefficient (SC)). Significant improvements in window performance have been made with low-E coated glazings, gas fills in multiple pane windows and with changes in spacer and frame materials and designs. These improvements have been changes to existing design concepts. They have pushed the limits of the individual features and revealed weaknesses. The next generation of windows will have to incorporate new materials and ideas, like recessed night insulation, seasonal sun shades and structural window frames, into the design, manufacturing and construction process, to produce an integrated window system that will be an energy and comfort asset.

  8. Reducing lighting energy use in retail display windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Frering, Daniel; Taylor, Jennifer; Narendran, Nadarajah; Rizzo, Patricia

    2006-08-01

    A field study was conducted at three clothing stores to validate previous laboratory findings indicating that colored LEDs used as background display lighting could: 1) lower the power demand of accent lighting by up to 50 percent; and 2) provide greater attention capture and visual appeal than current lighting practice. Blue LEDs provided a colored background for window mannequins by illuminating white backdrops. Eliminating fluorescent general lighting and reducing the number and wattage of halogen accent lamps in the display windows reduced the lighting power demand by up to 50 percent. During an eight-week period, more than 700 shoppers rated the attractiveness, eye-catching ability, comfort, and visibility of four different lighting conditions. The results of this field study showed that by introducing color contrast between the displayed objects and the background, the power demand of the accent lighting could be reduced by up to 50 percent without sacrificing visual appeal, visibility, ability to capture the attention of shoppers, and the ability to see the colors of the objects on display. Furthermore, the sales of the products on display were not affected by the 50 percent reduction in lighting.

  9. Savings from energy efficient windows: Current and future savings from new fenestration technologies in the residential market

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.; Arasteh, D.; Eto, J.

    1993-04-01

    Heating and cooling energy lost through windows in the residential sector (estimated at two-thirds of the energy lost through windows in all sectors) currently accounts for 3 percent (or 2.8 quads) of total US energy use, costing over $26 billion annually in energy bills. Installation of energy-efficient windows is acting to reduce the amount of energy lost per unit window area. Installation of more energy efficient windows since 1970 has resulted in an annual savings of approximately 0.6 quads. If all windows utilized existing cost effective energy conserving technologies, then residential window energy losses would amount to less than 0.8 quads, directly saving $18 billion per year in avoided energy costs. The nationwide installation of windows that are now being developed could actually turn this energy loss into a net energy gain. Considering only natural replacement of windows and new construction, appropriate fenestration policies could help realize this potential by reducing annual residential window energy losses to 2.2 quids by the year 2012, despite a growing housing stock.

  10. Energy Education in Elementary Social Studies. Windows On Our World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    This document provides elementary teachers with an annotated index according to (Houghton-Mifflin, 1976), followed by suggestions for activities related to the topics. Indexed topics, which comprise a major portion of the document, include basic energy information, society's dependence on energy, problems and advantages of energy alternatives, and…

  11. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  12. Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

    2007-03-15

    China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

  13. Development of trade-off equations for EnergyStar windows

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Joe; Mitchell, Robin; Selkowitz, Steve; Arasteh, Dariush; Clear, Bob

    2004-06-09

    The authors explore the feasibility of adding a performance option to DOE's EnergyStar{copyright} Windows program whereby windows of differing U-factors and SHGCs can qualify so long as they have equivalent annual energy performance. An iterative simulation procedure is used to calculate trade-off equations giving the change in SHGC needed to compensate for a change in U-factor. Of the four EnergyStar{copyright} Window climate zones, trade-off equations are possible only in the Northern and Southern zones. In the North/Central and South/Central zones, equations are not possible either because of large intrazone climate variations or the current SHGC requirements are already near optimum.

  14. Smart thermochromic glazing for energy saving window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutjunjan, Ruben; Markova, Tatiana; Halopenen, Ilya; Maksimov, Ivan; Tutunnikov, Anatolii; Yanush, Oleg

    2005-08-01

    Thermochromic laminated glazing (TLG) aids in reducing the energy needs of a building and providing indoor comfort. The polymeric interlayer of TLG is doped with transition metal (Fe, Cr, W, etc.) complexes, which change their coordination and the transmission or color of TLG under the influence of light and heat fluxes. At present we have conversions fiom light gray or brown to dark gray or brown and fiom rosy or yellow to blue or green at our disposal. TLG is able to sense changes in the light and adjust accordingly. It can block out the sunlight during the brightest parts of the day or capitalize on the available light during overcast days. As evaluated on the basis of tests, TLG has a good UV stability. It offers practical benefits of a low cost and easy fabrication. No electrical or any other driving power is needed to operate TLG. The energy modeling of the heat transfer in ventilated facades showed that TLG can provide a 15-30% decrease of the building energy consumption during the winter heating time in the climatic conditions of some regions in Russia. During the summer season the reduction of the solar energy gain reaches 30-40%; this is enough to give up air- cooling systems altogether.

  15. Airborne spectrometry: extraction of low energy γ-rays using two or three spectral windows.

    PubMed

    Martin-Burtart, Nicolas; Guillot, Ludovic; Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2012-08-01

    Airborne γ-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) is a recognized tool for emergency mapping. The maps produced usually look for natural isotopes ((40)K, (238)U, (232)Th) and (137)Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nowadays a new thematic emerges as nuclear materials tracking. Such materials emitting at low energies require new algorithms and a new method is presented here based on counts observed in two or three spectral windows. Since altitude is an important factor to be taken into account, an improvement is proposed to follow flight altitude changes. An extension to medium energies is proposed and compared to windows methods and to peak detection.

  16. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  17. Identifying and Resolving Issues in EnergyPlus and DOE-2 Window Heat Transfer Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.

    2012-08-01

    Issues in building energy software accuracy are often identified by comparative, analytical, and empirical testing as delineated in the BESTEST methodology. As described in this report, window-related discrepancies in heating energy predictions were identified through comparative testing of EnergyPlus and DOE-2. Multiple causes for discrepancies were identified, and software fixes are recommended to better align the models with the intended algorithms and underlying test data.

  18. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  19. Rashba-Zeeman-effect-induced spin filtering energy windows in a quantum wire

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Xianbo Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Guanghui; Li, Fei

    2014-06-14

    We perform a numerical study on the spin-resolved transport in a quantum wire (QW) under the modulation of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a perpendicular magnetic field by using the developed Usuki transfer-matrix method in combination with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Wide spin filtering energy windows can be achieved in this system for unpolarized spin injection. In addition, both the width of energy window and the magnitude of spin conductance within these energy windows can be tuned by varying Rashba SOC strength, which can be apprehended by analyzing the energy dispersions and spin-polarized density distributions inside the QW, respectively. Further study also demonstrates that these Rashba-SOC-controlled spin filtering energy windows show a strong robustness against disorders. These findings may not only benefit to further understand the spin-dependent transport properties of a QW in the presence of external fields but also provide a theoretical instruction to design a spin filter device.

  20. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  1. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  2. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  3. Integration of Microsoft Windows Applications with MDSplus Data Acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dana M. Mastrovito

    2002-03-14

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers (PC's) and specially developed ''turn-key'' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and COM (Component Object Model) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as CCD camer as and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from IDL for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics.

  4. Applying Acquisition Lessons Learned to Operational Energy Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    modernization strategy. Adoption of the agile acquisition capabilities lifecycle process and the Network Integration Evaluation will enable the OE-CB to...investment strategies to build an informed and secure operational energy network . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Network Integration Evaluation, Capability Set...Initiatives Report Date: March 2013 Page Count: 44 Word Count: 6,818 Key Terms: Network Integration Evaluation

  5. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows.

    PubMed

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-10-16

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m(2) mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems.

  6. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-10-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m2 mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems.

  7. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows

    PubMed Central

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m2 mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems. PMID:25321890

  8. Gamma camera energy windows for Tc-99m bone scintigraphy: effect of asymmetry on contrast resolution. Work in progress.

    PubMed

    Collier, B D; Palmer, D W; Knobel, J; Isitman, A T; Hellman, R S; Zielonka, J S

    1984-05-01

    By raising the lower threshold of the Tc-99m energy window, rejection of scattered photons can be made more efficient. Unfortunately, with most gamma cameras significant nonuniformities are produced when the window is changed to an asymmetric setting. Recently introduced designs with gain stabilization of the photomultiplier tubes and improved energy correction maintain field uniformity even for an asymmetric window. To assess the impact of an asymmetric energy window on clinical images, 33 Tc-99m-MDP scintigrams of the lumbar spine were taken with symmetrical (126-154 keV) and asymmetric windows (135-154 keV). Bone:soft tissue ratios improved with the asymmetric window, and the resulting images were preferred by the physicians questioned.

  9. Optimal Acquisition Time Window and Simplified Quantification of Dopamine Transporter Availability Using 18F-FE-PE2I in Healthy Controls and Parkinson Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Ida; Fazio, Patrik; Schain, Martin; Halldin, Christer; Svenningsson, Per; Farde, Lars; Varrone, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    (18)F-(E)-N-(3-iodoprop-2-enyl)-2β-carbofluoroethoxy-3β-(4'methylphenyl)nortropane ((18)F-FE-PE2I) is a newly developed dopamine transporter (DAT) PET radioligand. Full quantification methods rely on dynamic acquisition of (18)F-FE-PE2I, but in a clinical setting a simplified protocol is preferable. The aims of this study were to identify the optimal acquisition time window for (18)F-FE-PE2I and to validate the specific binding ratio (SBR) as a simplified quantification method.

  10. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops.

  11. Performance criteria for dynamic window systems using nanostructured behaviors for energy harvesting and environmental comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andow, Brandon C.; Krietemeyer, Bess; Stark, Peter R. H.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary commercial building types continue to incorporate predominantly glazed envelope systems, despite the associated challenges with thermal regulation, visual comfort, and increased energy consumption. The advantage of window systems that could adaptively respond to changes in the environment while meeting variable demands for building energy use and occupant comfort has led to considerable investment towards the advancement of dynamic window technologies. Although these technologies demonstrate cost warranting improvements in building energy performance, they face challenges with visible clarity, color variability and response time. Furthermore, they remain challenged with respect to their ability to adequately control important qualitative criteria for daylighting such as glare and balanced light redistribution within occupied spaces. The material dependent limitations of advanced glazing technologies have initiated a search for new thin film solutions, with new device possibilities emerging across many fields. Idealized window performance has traditionally been defined as the dynamic control of solar transmittance, glare, solar gain and daylighting at any time to manage energy, comfort and view. However, in the context of wider goals towards building energy self-sufficiency through the achievement of on-site net zero energy, emerging material systems point towards other physical phenomena for achieving transparency modulation and energy harvesting, demanding a broader range of criteria for advanced glazing controls that allow the glazed building envelope to exist as a transfer function that can address and potentially accommodate the following five principal criteria: 1. Thermal management; 2. Daylighting harvesting and modulation; 3. Maintenance of views; 4. Active power capture, transfer, storage and redistribution; 5. Information Display. Building upon the existing set of performance requirements for high-performance glazing, this paper prescribes

  12. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  13. Optimization of energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Xing; Ghaly, Michael; Frey, Eric C.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: In yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. Methods: An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a

  14. Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High-Energy-Saving Dynamic Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    greenhouse gas HVAC heating, ventilation, air-conditioning IGU insulated glass unit ISO International Organization for Standardization JCI Johnson...from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 24%, representing an annual savings of ~$680M. At the same time, replacing existing...If broadly adopted, View’s dynamic windows technology could reduce global DoD energy consumption from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG

  15. A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

    2014-07-23

    A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity.

  16. A Monte Carlo simulation study of the effect of energy windows in computed tomography images based on an energy-resolved photon counting detector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-08-07

    The energy-resolved photon counting detector provides the spectral information that can be used to generate images. The novel imaging methods, including the K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging, are based on the energy-resolved photon counting detector and can be realized by using various energy windows or energy bins. The location and width of the energy windows or energy bins are important because these techniques generate an image using the spectral information defined by the energy windows or energy bins. In this study, the reconstructed images acquired with K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of energy windows or energy bins was investigated with respect to the contrast, coefficient-of-variation (COV) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The three images were compared with respect to the CNR. We modeled the x-ray computed tomography system based on the CdTe energy-resolved photon counting detector and polymethylmethacrylate phantom, which have iodine, gadolinium and blood. To acquire K-edge images, the lower energy thresholds were fixed at K-edge absorption energy of iodine and gadolinium and the energy window widths were increased from 1 to 25 bins. The energy weighting factors optimized for iodine, gadolinium and blood were calculated from 5, 10, 15, 19 and 33 energy bins. We assigned the calculated energy weighting factors to the images acquired at each energy bin. In K-edge images, the contrast and COV decreased, when the energy window width was increased. The CNR increased as a function of the energy window width and decreased above the specific energy window width. When the number of energy bins was increased from 5 to 15, the contrast increased in the projection-based energy weighting images. There is a little difference in the contrast, when the number of energy bin is

  17. An advanced data-acquisition system for wind energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A. ); Cousineau, K.L. )

    1992-10-01

    NREL has subcontracted with Zond Systems, Inc. to develop an advanced data-acquisition system (ADAS) for wind energy projects. The ADAS can be used to simplify the process of making accurate measurements and analyzing. The system utilizes state-of-the-art electronics and telemetry to provide distributed multi-source, multi-channel data acquisition. Local stand-alone microprocessor-based data acquisition modules (DAMs) can be located near sources of measurement. These allow analog data values to be digitized close to the measurement source, thus eliminating the need for long data runs and slip rings. Signals from digital sensors and transducers can also be directly input to the local DAMS. A PC-based ground station is used to coordinate data transmission to and from all remote DAMS, display real-time values, archive data sets, and process and analyze results. The system is capable of acquiring synchronized time-series data from sensors and transducers under a variety of test configurations in an operational wind-park environment. Data acquisition needs of the wind industry differ significantly from those of most other technologies. Most conventional system designs do not handle data coming from multiple distributed sources, nor do they provide telemetry or the ability to mesh multiple incoming digital data streams. This paper describes the capabilities of the ADAS, and how its design and cost objectives are geared to meet anticipated US wind industry needs.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of

  19. Analytical stress modeling of high-energy laser windows: Application to fusion-cast calcium fluoride windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Claude A.

    2005-08-01

    The performance of a laser-window material must be assessed not only in terms of its ability to transmit high-power beams without generating undue optical distortion but also in terms of the constraints imposed by stress-related failure modes. In operational use, the stress field images the superposition of stresses originating from the mechanical load created by the pressure differential and the thermal load created by the laser beam. Here, we provide the tools to carry out an analysis of both pressure- and beam-induced stresses, and illustrate the procedure in the context of assessing the performance of a "model" window made of fusion-cast CaF2. The analysis assumes (a) operation on a time scale such that lateral heat diffusion can be ignored, and (b) cylindrically symmetric Gaussian beam shapes, which permit straightforward calculations of stress distributions that should be representative of worst case situations. Pressure-induced stresses strongly depend on the window's aspect ratio, which suggests increasing the thickness to minimize the stress, but considerations relating to the optical performance require minimum allowable thicknesses based on a Weibull statistical analysis of the fracture probability. Beam-induced stresses are best evaluated in terms of (a) thickness-averaged radial and azimuthal stresses, which increase linearly with exposure time and depend on radial distances through the truncation parameter, and (b) across-the-thickness stress deviations relative to the average stress, which are caused by surface absorption and reach steady-state configurations on a time scale much shorter than the characteristic time for lateral heat transport. The average stress is always compressive and equibiaxial in the central region of the window, but its azimuthal component turns tensile in the rim region, thus threatening the structural integrity through brittle fracture. In addition, the coating-induced stress results in on-axis surface compressions that may

  20. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  1. Energy Metabolism in the Acquisition and Maintenance of Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Folmes, Clifford D. L.; Terzic, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Energy metabolism is traditionally considered a reactive homeostatic system addressing stage-specific cellular energy needs. There is however growing appreciation of metabolic pathways in the active control of vital cell functions. Case in point, the stem cell lifecycle – from maintenance and acquisition of stemness to lineage commitment and specification – is increasingly recognized as a metabolism-dependent process. Indeed, metabolic reprogramming is an early contributor to the orchestrated departure from or reacquisition of stemness. Recent advances in metabolomics have helped decipher the identity and dynamics of metabolic fluxes implicated in fueling cell fate choices by regulating the epigenetic and transcriptional identity of a cell. Metabolic cues, internal and/or external to the stem cell niche, facilitate progenitor pool restitution, long-term tissue renewal or ensure adoption of cytoprotective behavior. Convergence of energy metabolism with stem cell fate regulation opens a new avenue in understanding primordial developmental biology principles with future applications in regenerative medicine practice. PMID:26868758

  2. Data Acquisition System for Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Yu, Xiaoqi; Yang, Tao

    2005-12-01

    A Data Acquisition System (DAQ) for electron energy loss coincident spectrometers (EELCS) has been developed. The system is composed of a Multiplex Time-Digital Converter (TDC) that measures the flying time of positive and negative ions and a one-dimension position-sensitive detector that records the energy loss of scattering electrons. The experimental data are buffered in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) memory module, then transferred from the FIFO memory to PC by the USB interface. The DAQ system can record the flying time of several ions in one collision, and allows of different data collection modes. The system has been demonstrated at the Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers at the Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, USTC. A detail description of the whole system is given and experimental results shown.

  3. Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E. S.; Papamichael, K.; Rubin, Michael; Selkowitz, Steven E.

    1994-09-01

    The paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows under a variety of state-switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electricity use and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. We simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated location of Blythe, California. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. Our results show that when a daylighting strategy is used to reduce electric lighting requirements, control algorithms based on daylight illuminance results in the best overall annual energy performance. If daylighting is not a design option, controls based on space cooling load yield the best performance through solar heat gain reduction. The performance of incident total solar radiation control strategies varies as a function of the switching setpoints; for small to moderate window sizes which result in small to moderate solar gains, a large setpoint-range was best since it provides increased illuminance for daylighting without much cooling penalty; for larger window sizes, which provide adequate daylight, a smaller setpoint-range was best to reduce unwanted solar heat gains and the consequential increased cooling requirement. Of particular importance is the fact that reduction in peak electric demand was found to be independent of the type of control strategy used for electrochromic switching. This is because the electrochromics are generally in their most colored state under peak conditions, and the mechanism used for achieving such a state is not important.

  4. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; ...

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAEmore » 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.« less

  5. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Nouidui, Thierry; Pang, Xiufeng; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.

  6. The Effects of Practicing with a Virtual Ultrasound Trainer on FAST Window Identification, Acquisition, and Diagnosis. CRESST Report 787

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Gyllenhammer, Ruth G.; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of simulator-based virtual ultrasound scanning practice to classroom-based hands-on ultrasound scanning practice on participants' knowledge of FAST window quadrants and interpretation, and on participants' performance on live patient FAST exams. Twenty-five novice participants were randomly assigned to the…

  7. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  8. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  9. Energy-windowed, pixellated X-ray diffraction using the Pixirad CdTe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flynn, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Pinchera, M.; Spandre, G.; Moss, R.; Speller, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful tool for material identification. In order to interpret XRD data, knowledge is required of the scattering angles and energies of X-rays which interact with the sample. By using a pixellated, energy-resolving detector, this knowledge can be gained when using a spectrum of unfiltered X-rays, and without the need to collimate the scattered radiation. Here we present results of XRD measurements taken with the Pixirad detector and a laboratory-based X-ray source. The cadmium telluride sensor allows energy windows to be selected, and the 62 μm pixel pitch enables accurate spatial information to be preserved for XRD measurements, in addition to the ability to take high resolution radiographic images. Diffraction data are presented for a variety of samples to demonstrate the capability of the technique for materials discrimination in laboratory, security and pharmaceutical environments. Distinct diffraction patterns were obtained, from which details on the molecular structures of the items under study were determined.

  10. Comparison of Imaging Characteristics of (124)I PET for Determination of Optimal Energy Window on the Siemens Inveon PET.

    PubMed

    Yu, A Ram; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Jin Su

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. (124)I has a half-life of 4.2 days, which makes it suitable for imaging over several days over its uptake and washout phases. However, it has a low positron branching ratio (23%), because of prompt gamma coincidence due to high-energy γ-photons (602 to 1,691 keV), which are emitted in cascade with positrons. Methods. In this study, we investigated the optimal PET energy window for (124)I PET based on image characteristics of reconstructed PET. Image characteristics such as nonuniformities, recovery coefficients (RCs), and the spillover ratios (SORs) of (124)I were measured as described in NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results. The maximum and minimum prompt gamma coincidence fraction (PGF) were 33% and 2% in 350~800 and 400~590 keV, respectively. The difference between best and worst uniformity in the various energy windows was less than 1%. The lowest SORs of (124)I were obtained at 350~750 keV in nonradioactive water compartment. Conclusion. Optimal energy window should be determined based on image characteristics. Our developed correction method would be useful for the correction of high-energy prompt gamma photon in (124)I PET. In terms of the image quality of (124)I PET, our findings indicate that an energy window of 350~750 keV would be optimal.

  11. Collimator and energy window optimization for ⁹⁰Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging: A SIMIND Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Hoda Rezaei; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharepapagh, Esmaeil; Azarm, Ahmadreza; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh

    2016-02-01

    Treatment efficacy of radioembolization using Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microspheres is assessed by the (90)Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging following radioembolization. The radioisotopic image has the potential of providing reliable activity map of (90)Y microspheres distribution. One of the main reasons of the poor image quality in (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging is the continuous and broad energy spectrum of the related bremsstrahlung photons. Furthermore, collimator geometry plays an impressive role in the spatial resolution, sensitivity and image contrast. Due to the relatively poor quality of the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT images, we intend to optimize the medium-energy (ME) parallel-hole collimator and energy window. The Siemens e.cam gamma camera equipped with a ME collimator and a voxelized phantom was simulated by the SImulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors (SIMIND) program. We used the SIMIND Monte Carlo program to generate the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT projection of the digital Jaszczak phantom. The phantom consist of the six hot spheres ranging from 9.5 to 31.8mm in diameter, which are used to evaluate the image contrast. In order to assess the effect of the energy window on the image contrast, three energy windows ranging from 60 to 160 KeV, 160 to 400 KeV, and 60 to 400 KeV were set on a (90)Y bremsstrahlung spectrum. As well, the effect of the hole diameter of a ME collimator on the image contrast and bremsstrahlung spectrum were investigated. For the fixed collimator and septa thickness values (3.28 cm and 1.14 mm, respectively), a hole diameter range (2.35-3.3mm) was chosen based on the appropriate balance between the spatial resolution and sensitivity. The optimal energy window for (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging was extended energy window from 60 to 400 KeV. Besides, The optimal value of the hole diameter of ME collimator was obtained 3.3mm. Geometry of the ME parallel-hole collimator and energy

  12. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  13. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  14. Comparing Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra for the Relative Quantification of Barley Gluten in Selectively Bred Barley Lines.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Lane, Catherine S; Tanner, Gregory J; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-20

    Celiac disease (CD) is a disease of the small intestine that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins for which the only treatment is strict adherence to a life-long gluten-free diet. Barley contains four gluten protein families, and the existence of barley genotypes that do not accumulate the B-, C-, and D-hordeins paved the way for the development of an ultralow gluten phenotype. Using conventional breeding strategies, three null mutations behaving as recessive alleles were combined to create a hordein triple-null barley variety. Proteomics has become an invaluable tool for characterization and quantification of the protein complement of cereal grains. In this study multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, viewed as the gold standard for peptide quantification, was compared to the data-independent acquisition strategy known as SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra). SWATH-MS was comparable (p < 0.001) to MRM-MS for 32/33 peptides assessed across the four families of hordeins (gluten) in eight barley lines. The results of SWATH-MS analysis further confirmed the absence of the B-, C-, and D-hordeins in the triple-null barley line and showed significantly reduced levels ranging from <1% to 16% relative to wild-type (WT) cv Sloop for the minor γ-hordein class. SWATH-MS represents a valuable tool for quantitative proteomics based on its ability to generate reproducible data comparable with MRM-MS, but has the added benefits of allowing reinterrogation of data to improve analytical performance, ask new questions, and in this case perform quantification of trypsin-resistant proteins (C-hordeins) through analysis of their semi- or nontryptic fragments.

  15. The energy radiated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from 10-minute P-wave windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rupture process of the Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake lasted for approximately 500 sec, nearly twice as long as the teleseismic time windows between the P and PP arrival times generally used to compute radiated energy. In order to measure the P waves radiated by the entire earthquake, we analyze records that extend from the P-wave to the S-wave arrival times from stations at distances ?? >60??. These 8- to 10-min windows contain the PP, PPP, and ScP arrivals, along with other multiply reflected phases. To gauge the effect of including these additional phases, we form the spectral ratio of the source spectrum estimated from extended windows (between TP and TS) to the source spectrum estimated from normal windows (between TP and TPP). The extended windows are analyzed as though they contained only the P-pP-sP wave group. We analyze four smaller earthquakes that occurred in the vicinity of the Mw 9.1 mainshock, with similar depths and focal mechanisms. These smaller events range in magnitude from an Mw 6.0 aftershock of 9 January 2005 to the Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake that occurred to the south of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 28 March 2005. We average the spectral ratios for these four events to obtain a frequency-dependent operator for the extended windows. We then correct the source spectrum estimated from the extended records of the 26 December 2004 mainshock to obtain a complete or corrected source spectrum for the entire rupture process (???600 sec) of the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Our estimate of the total seismic energy radiated by this earthquake is 1.4 ?? 1017 J. When we compare the corrected source spectrum for the entire earthquake to the source spectrum from the first ???250 sec of the rupture process (obtained from normal teleseismic windows), we find that the mainshock radiated much more seismic energy in the first half of the rupture process than in the second half, especially over the period range from 3 sec to 40 sec.

  16. Quantum dot imaging in the second near-infrared optical window: studies on reflectance fluorescence imaging depths by effective fluence rate and multiple image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yebin; Jeong, Sanghwa; Nayoun, Won; Ahn, Boeun; Kwag, Jungheon; Geol Kim, Sang; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dot (QD) imaging capability was investigated by the imaging depth at a near-infrared second optical window (SOW; 1000 to 1400 nm) using time-modulated pulsed laser excitations to control the effective fluence rate. Various media, such as liquid phantoms, tissues, and in vivo small animals, were used and the imaging depths were compared with our predicted values. The QD imaging depth under excitation of continuous 20 mW/cm2 laser was determined to be 10.3 mm for 2 wt% hemoglobin phantom medium and 5.85 mm for 1 wt% intralipid phantom, which were extended by more than two times on increasing the effective fluence rate to 2000 mW/cm2. Bovine liver and porcine skin tissues also showed similar enhancement in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values. A QD sample was inserted into the abdomen of a mouse. With a higher effective fluence rate, the CNR increased more than twofold and the QD sample became clearly visualized, which was completely undetectable under continuous excitation. Multiple acquisitions of QD images and averaging process pixel by pixel were performed to overcome the thermal noise issue of the detector in SOW, which yielded significant enhancement in the imaging capability, showing up to a 1.5 times increase in the CNR.

  17. Data acquisition system for intermediate energy nuclear experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D'Isep, F.; Maggiora, A.; Minetti, B.; Maron, G.; Morando, M.; Balestra, F.; Masoni, A.

    1989-02-01

    The data acquisition system for the OBELIX experiment at the LEAR antiproton beam is presented. The experimental setup is composed by 5 detectors with different read-out systems. The data acquisition is designed to allow the 5 detectors running all together as well as in stand alone mode., the introduction of some steps of data reduction, global hardware control and statistically significant event control. These goals are reached through a tree of VME crates controlled by a medium range computer and four workstations; the main flux of data flows on a combination of VME and VSB busses, while the system is completely controlled via the Ethernet bus. This design allows a high modularity either in the hardware or in the software.

  18. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  19. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  20. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  1. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C G M; Hensen, Jan L M; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  2. Determination of electron energy, spectral width, and beam divergence at the exit window for clinical megavoltage x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Sawkey, D L; Faddegon, B A

    2009-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray beams typically take parameters of the electron beam in the accelerating waveguide to be free parameters. In this paper, a methodology is proposed and implemented to determine the energy, spectral width, and beam divergence of the electron source. All treatment head components were removed from the beam path, leaving only the exit window. With the x-ray target and flattener out of the beam, uncertainties in physical characteristics and relative position of the target and flattening filter, and in spot size, did not contribute to uncertainty in the energy. Beam current was lowered to reduce recombination effects. The measured dose distributions were compared with Monte Carlo simulation of the electron beam through the treatment head to extract the electron source characteristics. For the nominal 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams, the energies were 6.51 +/- 0.15 and 13.9 +/- 0.2 MeV, respectively, with the uncertainties resulting from uncertainties in the detector position in the measurement and in the stopping power in the simulations. Gaussian spectral distributions were used, with full widths at half maximum ranging from 20 +/- 4% at 6 MV to 13 +/- 4% at 18 MV required to match the fall-off portion of the percent-depth ionization curve. Profiles at the depth of maximum dose from simulations that used the manufacturer-specified exit window geometry and no beam divergence were 2-3 cm narrower than measured profiles. Two simulation configurations yielding the measured profile width were the manufacturer-specified exit window thickness with electron source divergences of 3.3 degrees at 6 MV and 1.8 degrees at 18 MV and an exit window 40% thicker than the manufacturer's specification with no beam divergence. With the x-ray target in place (and no flattener), comparison of measured to simulated profiles sets upper limits on the electron source divergences of 0.2 degrees at 6 MV and 0.1 degrees at 18 MV. A method of determining source

  3. An Examination of Energy Considerations in the Product Acquisition Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    everyone. Richard C. Dorf , in his book Energy, Resources, & Policy, states that the conservation of energy can cause a signifi- cant drop in the energy...Department of the Air Force. AF Regulation 70-15. Source Selection Policy and Procedures. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1976. Dorf , Richard C...Btu’s) of energy ( Dorf , 1978; McRae, et al, 1977; AFIT School of Civil Engineering, 1975; Tetra Tech, Inc., 1977). This is approximately one-third of the

  4. Develop interior insulating window panels that are energy-saving, decorative, and easy to install. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Domning, B.A. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    An insulating sheathing board with an R value of 3.6 at 75/sup 0/F for a 1/2'' thickness was selected as the panel material for this project. The material is manufactured in 4' x 8' sheets by Temple from low density polyurethane foam with an aluminum foil facing on both sides. The 1/2'' thick sheathing is readily available to consumers through building supply outlets. All panels were fabricated to a 1'' thickness by laminating two 1/2'' sheets together with solvent base contact cement. Standard 2'' wide aluminum colored air conditioning duct tape was used to cover all exposed foam material at the edges of the panels. Finishes were primarily wallpaper and exterior latex paint. Hinges were fabricated from the same duct tape used to finish the panel edges. All non-removable panels were fastened to the window areas with small tacks. A total of 22 panels were fabricated in varying configurations of the following types: removable panel, shutter-type panel, half-shutter panel, and bi-fold panel. The result of the project was covering 233 sq. ft. of window area (12% of the exterior wall area), of the grantee's home with decorative panels that provide energy loss protection five (5) times greater than storm windows for less cost.

  5. Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites with Ultrawide Zero-Temperature Coefficient Windows for Electrical Energy Storage and Conversion under Extreme Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-03-01

    Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.

  6. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  7. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  8. Window insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, W. A.

    1985-10-01

    An insulator for mounting to a window. A pair of plastic layers including a plurality of partitions positioned therebetween form air pockets between the layers. A plurality of suction cups and suction grooves arranged in rows on one outer surface of the sheet removably secure the sheet to a window. The sheet includes a circumferentially extending recessed portion receiving the window frame.

  9. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  10. Data acquisition and analysis for the energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamzin, Murat Kamilevich

    In response to the shortcomings of the Anger camera currently being used in conventional SPECT, particularly the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution, a novel energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera, or the ESCSC, has been proposed. A successful clinical implementation of the ESCSC could revolutionize the field of SPECT. Features of this camera include utilization of silicon and CdZnTe detectors in primary and secondary detector systems, list-mode time stamping data acquisition, modular architecture, and post-acquisition data analysis. Previous ESCSC studies were based on Monte Carlo modeling. The objective of this work is to test the theoretical framework developed in previous studies by developing the data acquisition and analysis techniques necessary to implement the ESCSC. The camera model working in list-mode with time stamping was successfully built and tested thus confirming potential of the ESCSC that was predicted in previous simulation studies. The obtained data were processed during the post-acquisition data analysis based on preferred event selection criteria. Along with the construction of a camera model and proving the approach, the post-acquisition data analysis was further extended to include preferred event weighting based on the likelihood of a preferred event to be a true preferred event. While formulated to show ESCSC capabilities, the results of this study are important for any Compton scatter camera implementation as well as for coincidence data acquisition systems in general.

  11. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub-thorn woodland-thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. The authors compared body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with double labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =50 lizards/ha.). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 site J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/ influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. We suggest causal factors for the difference in daily activity period, and discuss implications of length of daily forging period for adult body size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards.

  12. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub - thorn woodland - thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. Body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with doubly labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient were compared. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =100 lizards/ha) than at the thorn scrub site near the ocean (approx. =50 lizards/ha). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/,> and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/O influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. Causal factors for the difference in daily activity period are suggested, and implications of length of daily foraging period for adult body, size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards are discussed.

  13. Highly Insulating Windows for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reliability in Fenestration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, David

    2010-11-30

    EverSealed Windows, Inc. (ESW) agreed in early 2006, prior to the contract award, to add three additional deliverables to the Project (new Milestones 30, 31 and 32), and have the results of these three deliverables form the basis of the go/no-go decision for proceeding from BP1 to BP2. ESW completed all three milestones and the DOE agreed in November 2006 to continue the Project. ESW subsequently initiated work on BP2 and its two milestones. These were to (1) Assemble and test glass-to-metal bonded coupons to test the strength of ESW's glass-to-metal bonds (ESW's Test Vehicle 1 or TV1), and (2) to assemble and test the hermeticity of glass and metal packages (ESW's Test Vehicle 2 or TV2). ESW completed both milestones of BP2 in late 2010, demonstrating that its bonds were both strong enough and hermetic enough that vacuum insulating glass units could be assembled and survive a 40+ year service life in any climate in North America. Based on the accomplishments in BP-1, the DOE held a go/no-go meeting in Washington, DC in mid-November 2006 and moved the Project into Budget Period 2 (BP-2). During this go/no-go meeting, the DOE expressed a concern that ESW did not have a back-up plan or process should ESW be unable to make its diffusion bonding process more than adequate for the necessary bond strength and hermeticity of the seal. ESW suggested and volunteered to investigate using a glass frit (i.e., solder glass) as a back-up to its diffusion bonding of glass to oxidized metal.

  14. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  15. Energy acquisition and allocation in an ectothermic predator exposed to a common environmental stressor.

    PubMed

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Talent, Larry G

    2007-04-01

    Stressors are commonly encountered by organisms and often prove to be energetically costly. Certain stressors can simultaneously affect multiple components of an animal's energy budget and can either exacerbate energetic costs to the individual or offset one another. Here we used a commonly encountered stressor, the pesticide carbaryl, to examine the complex effects that acute environmental disturbances can have on energy expenditure, allocation, and acquisition, important processes that influence growth and reproduction. After exposing lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) to carbaryl, we measured their metabolism over a 48 h period and assessed their food consumption over 96 h. We found no difference in total energy expenditure among treatment groups, but lizards exposed to the highest dose of carbaryl allocated energy differently than other groups. Compared to controls, these lizards exhibited a 16-30% increase in standard metabolic rate (SMR), which was offset by a 45-58% decrease in additional energy expenditures. Lizards in the highest dose group also exhibited a 30-34% decrease in energy acquisition compared to controls. The net result was a 1.83 kJ decrease in energy assimilation, equivalent to 5 times their daily SMR requirements. Our results indicate that energetic consequences of stressors may result in complex energetic trade-offs, and emphasize the need to simultaneously examine the effect of stressors on multiple portions of an animal's energy budget.

  16. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Hun, Diana E; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  17. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  18. Thoracic dual energy CT: acquisition protocols, current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Ohana, M; Jeung, M Y; Labani, A; El Ghannudi, S; Roy, C

    2014-11-01

    Thanks to a simultaneous acquisition at high and low kilovoltage, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can achieve material-based decomposition (iodine, water, calcium, etc.) and reconstruct images at different energy levels (40 to 140keV). Post-processing uses this potential to maximise iodine detection, which elicits demonstrated added value for chest imaging in acute and chronic embolic diseases (increases the quality of the examination and identifies perfusion defects), follow-up of aortic endografts and detection of contrast uptake in oncology. In CT angiography, these unique features are taken advantage of to reduce the iodine load by more than half. This review article aims to set out the physical basis for the technology, the acquisition and post-processing protocols used, its proven advantages in chest pathologies, and to present future developments.

  19. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  20. Windows and daylighting: A brighter outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This is an overview of energy efficient window glazing and framing technology. The topics of the report include: windows and energy use, a point of view; a challenging federal opportunity; DOE window research; advanced optical technologies such as spectrally selective glazing, switchable glazing, super windows with low-emissivity coatings and noble gas fills; and performance evaluation and design tools.

  1. Development of a CdTe pixel detector with a window comparator ASIC for high energy X-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Furukawa, Y.; Honma, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kawase, M.; Koganezawa, T.; Ohata, T.; Sato, M.; Sato, G.; Takagaki, M.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a photon-counting-type CdTe pixel detector (SP8-01). SP8-01 was designed as a prototype of a high-energy X-ray imaging detector for experiments using synchrotron radiation. SP8-01 has a CdTe sensor of 500 μm thickness, which has an absorption efficiency of almost 100% up to 50 keV and 45% even at 100 keV. A full-custom application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was designed as a readout circuit of SP8-01, which is equipped with a window-type discriminator. The upper discriminator realizes a low-background measurement, because X-ray beams from the monochromator contain higher-order components beside the fundamental X-rays in general. ASIC chips were fabricated with a TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS process, and CdTe sensors were bump-bonded to the ASIC chips by a gold-stud bonding technique. Beam tests were performed at SPring-8. SP8-01 detected X-rays up to 120 keV. The capability of SP8-01 as an imaging detector for high-energy X-ray synchrotron radiation was evaluated with its performance characteristics.

  2. Intelligent Thermochromic Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkin, Ivan P.; Manning, Troy D.

    2006-03-01

    This article covers the background and related science associated with a thermochromic window. A thermochromic window is a device that changes its reflectance and transmission properties at a specific critical temperature. At this temperature the material undergoes a semiconductor-to-metal transition—at low temperature the window will let in all of the sun's energy while above the critical temperature it will reflect the infrared portion of the sun's energy. Hence a thermochromic window could be used to significantly reduce air conditioning costs, which has consequential positive benefit in reducing electricity consumption and hence green house gas emissions. This article details the underlying science in making a new thin-film thermochromic coating by chemical vapor deposition; it describes the underlying physical chemistry associated with the semiconductor-to-metal transition and shows how substitutional doping within a crystal lattice can be used to lower the thermochromic switching temperature.

  3. Daylight Redirecting Window Film

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    EW-201014) Daylight Redirecting Window Film December 2013 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution...DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Daylight Redirecting Window Film 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...CCE cost of conserved energy DoD Department of Defense DRF daylight redirecting film EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ESTCP

  4. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  5. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; ...

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  6. Window generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William K.; May, Roger A.

    1989-03-01

    The present invention relates generally to video target recognition systems and more specifically to a window generator which receives a field of video data and applies an identification code to rectangular subregions to identify distinct target areas within a given background area. The present invention comprises a window generator which provides a 6 bit target identification number for up to 63 target areas and one background area in a frame of serially scanned data. The window generator receives a field of video data from an image data source. This video data consists of digitized frames of serially scanned data similar to a conventional television screen image, which is divided horizontally in pixels, and vertically in lines. The window generator permits any given frame to be subdivided into specific rectangular subregions, which may be located anywhere on the video picture. By allowing statistics to be collected on the individual subregions (or target areas) the window generator permits local processing of video data within the specified target areas as opposed to processing of video data over the entire video field. One embodiment of the window generator is composed of: a microprocessor, a random access memory (RAM), a comparator, a line memory, two counters, an OR gate, a frame initialization circuit, and a buffer. These elements function as described below.

  7. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  8. Switchable window modeling. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    This document presents the work conducted as part of Subtask A.1, High-Performance Glazing, of Task 12 of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that chromogenic technology (switchable glazing) held considerable promise, and that algorithms to accurately model their dynamic behavior were needed. The purpose of this subtask was to develop algorithms that could be incorporated into building energy analysis programs for predicting the thermal and optical performance of switchable windows. The work entailed a review of current techniques for modelling switchable glazing in windows and switchable windows in buildings and methods for improving upon existing modeling approaches. The proposed approaches correct some of the shortcomings in the existing techniques, and could be adapted for use in other similar programs. The proposed approaches generally provide more detailed calculations needed for evaluating the short-term (hourly and daily) impact of switchable windows on the energy and daylighting performance of a building. Examples of the proposed algorithms are included.

  9. Window survivability in endoatmospheric environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, Stewart B.; Majeski, Judith A.; Mills, J. S.

    1993-06-01

    An optical seeker window has been shown to survive hypersonic, endoatmospheric environments such as those encountered during Theater Defense or National Missile Defense engagements. The two periods most critical to the window are shroud removal and the subsequent cooling during acquisition and homing. The loads encountered during shroud removal are predicted by applying scaling functions to wind tunnel data. A nonlinear dynamic transient stress analysis is shown to match the wind tunnel strain measurements. The predicted stresses are then input into a Weibull statistical method to predict the probability of window survival during shroud separation. After the shroud is away, the window requires cooling to prevent excessive distortion caused by rapid heating. Analyses show that deflections of the window are small. The thermally induced stresses are low compared to stresses during shroud removal.

  10. Complete data acquisition and analysis system for low-energy electron-molecule collision studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-09-01

    A complete data acquisition system has been developed that can work with any personal computer irrespective of the operating system installed on it. The software can be used in low and intermediate electron-energy collision studies with ground-state molecules in gas phase using a combination of RS-232, GPIB, and USB-interfaced devices. Various tabletop instruments and nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) -based electronics have been interfaced and have communicated with the software, which is based on LabVIEW. This is tested with dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and polar dissociation studies to oxygen molecule and successfully used in a DEA study of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

  11. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  12. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-05-28

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building.

  13. The influence of triple energy window scatter correction on activity quantification for 1 7 7Lu molecular radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew P.; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M.; Hamilton, David

    2016-07-01

    Accurate activity quantification is the foundation for all methods of radiation dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy (MRT). The requirements for patient-specific dosimetry using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are challenging, particularly with respect to scatter correction. In this paper data from phantom studies, combined with results from a fully validated Monte Carlo (MC) SPECT camera simulation, are used to investigate the influence of the triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction on SPECT activity quantification for {{}1 7 7} Lu MRT. Results from phantom data show that; (1) activity quantification for the total counts in the SPECT field-of-view demonstrates a significant overestimation in total activity recovery when TEW scatter correction is applied at low activities (≤slant 200 MBq). (2) Applying the TEW scatter correction to activity quantification within a volume-of-interest with no background activity provides minimal benefit. (3) In the case of activity distributions with background activity, an overestimation of recovered activity of up to 30% is observed when using the TEW scatter correction. Data from MC simulation were used to perform a full analysis of the composition of events in a clinically reconstructed volume of interest. This allowed, for the first time, the separation of the relative contributions of partial volume effects (PVE) and inaccuracies in TEW scatter compensation to the observed overestimation of activity recovery. It is shown, that even with perfect partial volume compensation, TEW scatter correction can overestimate activity recovery by up to 11%. MC data is used to demonstrate that even a localized and optimized isotope-specific TEW correction cannot reflect a patient specific activity distribution without prior knowledge of the complete activity distribution. This highlights the important role of MC simulation in SPECT activity quantification.

  14. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  15. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  16. Window Insulation: How to Sort Through the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara

    This two-part report explores the efforts of businesses and individuals to improve the thermal performance of windows. Part I discusses the basics of what makes a window product insulate or save energy. Topic areas addressed include saving energy lost through windows, key components of window insulation, three basic types of window insulation,…

  17. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  18. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen; Mitchell, Robin D.; Kohler, Christian; Vidanovic, Simon V.; Huizenga, Charlie

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  19. Initial evaluation of a modified dual-energy window scatter correction method for CZT-based gamma cameras for breast SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) gamma cameras for SPECT imaging offer significantly improved energy resolution compared to traditional scintillation detectors. However, the photopeak resolution is often asymmetric due to incomplete charge collection within the detector, resulting in many photopeak events incorrectly sorted into lower energy bins ("tailing"). These misplaced events contaminate the true scatter signal, which may negatively impact scatter correction methods that rely on estimates of scatter from the spectra. Additionally, because CZT detectors are organized into arrays, each individual detector element may exhibit different degrees of tailing. Here, we present a modified dualenergy window scatter correction method for emission detection and imaging that attempts to account for positiondependent effects of incomplete charge collection in the CZT gamma camera of our dedicated breast SPECT-CT system. Point source measurements and geometric phantoms were used to estimate the impact of tailing on the scatter signal and extract a better estimate of the ratio of scatter within two energy windows. To evaluate the method, cylindrical phantoms with and without a separate fillable chamber were scanned to determine the impact on quantification in hot, cold, and uniform background regions. Projections were reconstructed using OSEM, and the results for the traditional and modified scatter correction methods were compared. Results show that while modest reduced quantification accuracy was observed in hot and cold regions of the multi-chamber phantoms, the modified scatter correction method yields up to 8% improved quantification accuracy with 4% less added noise than the traditional DEW method within uniform background regions.

  20. Interior and Exterior Low-E Storm Window Installation

    ScienceCinema

    Witters, Sarah

    2016-07-12

    Until recently, energy-efficient window retrofit options have largely been limited to repair or replacement; leaving the homeowner to decide between affordability and deeper energy savings. A new and improved low-e storm window boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement. A recent whole-home experiment performed by PNNL suggests that attaching low-e storm windows can result in as much energy savings replacing the windows.

  1. Interior and Exterior Low-E Storm Window Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, Sarah

    2014-09-03

    Until recently, energy-efficient window retrofit options have largely been limited to repair or replacement; leaving the homeowner to decide between affordability and deeper energy savings. A new and improved low-e storm window boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement. A recent whole-home experiment performed by PNNL suggests that attaching low-e storm windows can result in as much energy savings replacing the windows.

  2. Direct measurement of several resonance strengths and energies in 34S(α , γ) 38 Ar within the T = 2 . 2 GK Gamow window with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L. E.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, Ulrike; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiative α capture on 34S can impact nucleosynthesis in several astrophysical environments, including oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning (Type II supernovae), and Type Ia supernovae. However, there exist discrepancies in the literature for the resonance strengths of two strong resonances within the Gamow window for oxygen burning temperatures (E0 +/- Δ / 2 = 3183 +/- 897 keV at T = 2 . 2 GK). Previous measurements suffered from systematic uncertainties inherent in the experimental technique. Furthermore, there are several states in 38Ar in the energy range of interest for which no 34S + α resonance strength/energy measurements have been performed. This measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF in BC, Canada. DRAGON's experimental technique allows direct measurement of quantities such as stopping power and resonance energy, alleviating the need for external inputs and reducing uncertainty. This talk will discuss DRAGON's experimental technique, analysis methods and results.

  3. A Dual-Responsive Nanocomposite toward Climate-Adaptable Solar Modulation for Energy-Saving Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heng Yeong; Cai, Yufeng; Bi, Shuguang; Liang, Yen Nan; Song, Yujie; Hu, Xiao Matthew

    2017-02-22

    In this work, a novel fully autonomous photothermotropic material made by hybridization of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel and antimony-tin oxide (ATO) is presented. In this photothermotropic system, the near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing ATO acts as nanoheater to induce the optical switching of the hydrogel. Such a new passive smart window is characterized by excellent NIR shielding, a photothermally activated switching mechanism, enhanced response speed, and solar modulation ability. Systems with 0, 5, 10, and 15 atom % Sb-doped ATO in PNIPAM were investigated, and it was found that a PNIPAM/ATO nanocomposite is able to be photothermally activated. The 10 atom % Sb-doped PNIPAM/ATO exhibits the best response speed and solar modulation ability. Different film thicknesses and ATO contents will affect the response rate and solar modulation ability. Structural stability tests at 15 cycles under continuous exposure to solar irradiation at 1 sun intensity demonstrated the performance stability of such a photothermotropic system. We conclude that such a novel photothermotropic hybrid can be used as a new generation of autonomous passive smart windows for climate-adaptable solar modulation.

  4. Constraints on relaxion windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Im, Sang Hui

    2016-12-01

    We examine the low energy phenomenology of the relaxion solution to the weak scale hierarchy problem. Assuming that the Hubble friction is responsible for a dissipation of the relaxion energy, we identify the cosmological relaxion window which corresponds to the parameter region compatible with a given value of the acceptable number of inflationary e-foldings. We then discuss a variety of observational constraints on the relaxion window, including those from astrophysical and cosmological considerations. We find that majority of the parameter space with a relaxion mass m ϕ ≳ 100 eV or a relaxion decay constant f ≲107GeV is excluded by existing constraints. There is an interesting parameter region with m ϕ ˜ 0 .2 - 10 GeV and f ˜ few - 200 TeV, which is allowed by existing constraints, but can be probed soon by future beam dump experiments such as the SHiP experiment, or by improved EDM experiments.

  5. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  6. Taking 'control': Federal energy regulatory Commission policy on acquisitions of electric utility securities

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, David I.; O'Brien, Angela D.

    2009-05-15

    Section 203 of the Federal Power Act remains subject to considerable uncertainty. Therefore, it is important to keep several rules in mind. Each potential acquisition must be separately analyzed under Section 203(a)(1) and 203(a)(2) of the Act. A proposed acquisition that is exempt or preapproved under one provision may still require prior FERC approval under the other one. (author)

  7. Data-Driven Sampling Matrix Boolean Optimization for Energy-Efficient Biomedical Signal Acquisition by Compressive Sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhao; Li, Xin; Xu, Kai; Ren, Fengbo; Yu, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Compressive sensing is widely used in biomedical applications, and the sampling matrix plays a critical role on both quality and power consumption of signal acquisition. It projects a high-dimensional vector of data into a low-dimensional subspace by matrix-vector multiplication. An optimal sampling matrix can ensure accurate data reconstruction and/or high compression ratio. Most existing optimization methods can only produce real-valued embedding matrices that result in large energy consumption during data acquisition. In this paper, we propose an efficient method that finds an optimal Boolean sampling matrix in order to reduce the energy consumption. Compared to random Boolean embedding, our data-driven Boolean sampling matrix can improve the image recovery quality by 9 dB. Moreover, in terms of sampling hardware complexity, it reduces the energy consumption by 4.6× and the silicon area by 1.9× over the data-driven real-valued embedding.

  8. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  9. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  10. Low phonon energies and wideband optical windows of La2O3-Ga2O3 glasses prepared using an aerodynamic levitation technique

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Kohei; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ueda, Motoi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tastunori

    2017-01-01

    xLa2O3-(100 − x)Ga2O3 binary glasses were synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique. The glass-forming region was found to be 20 ≤ x ≤ 57. The refractive indices were greater than 1.92 and increased linearly with increasing x. The polarizabilities of oxide ions were estimated to be 2.16–2.41 Å3, indicating that the glasses were highly ionic. The glasses were transparent over a very wide range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region. The widest transparent window among the oxide glasses was from 270 nm to 10 μm at x = 55. From the Raman scattering spectra, a decrease in bridging oxide ions and an increase in non-bridging oxide ions were confirmed to occur with increasing La2O3 content. The maximum phonon energy was found to be approximately 650 cm−1, being one of the lowest among oxide glasses. These results show that La2O3-Ga2O3 binary glasses should be promising host materials for optical applications such as lenses, windows, and filters over a very wide wavelength range. PMID:28358112

  11. Optimization and comparison of simultaneous and separate acquisition protocols for dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-07-01

    Dual-isotope simultaneous-acquisition (DISA) rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) protocols offer a number of advantages over separate acquisition. However, crosstalk contamination due to scatter in the patient and interactions in the collimator degrade image quality. Compensation can reduce the effects of crosstalk, but does not entirely eliminate image degradations. Optimizing acquisition parameters could further reduce the impact of crosstalk. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the rest Tl-201 energy window width and relative injected activities using the ideal observer (IO), a realistic digital phantom population and Monte Carlo (MC) simulated Tc-99m and Tl-201 projections as a means to improve image quality. We compared performance on a perfusion defect detection task for Tl-201 acquisition energy window widths varying from 4 to 40 keV centered at 72 keV for a camera with a 9% energy resolution. We also investigated 7 different relative injected activities, defined as the ratio of Tc-99m and Tl-201 activities, while keeping the total effective dose constant at 13.5 mSv. For each energy window and relative injected activity, we computed the IO test statistics using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 1,620 triplets of fixed and reversible defect-present, and defect-absent noisy images modeling realistic background variations. The volume under the 3-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface (VUS) was estimated and served as the figure of merit. For simultaneous acquisition, the IO suggested that relative Tc-to-Tl injected activity ratios of 2.6-5 and acquisition energy window widths of 16-22% were optimal. For separate acquisition, we observed a broad range of optimal relative injected activities from 2.6 to 12.1 and acquisition energy window of widths 16-22%. A negative correlation between Tl-201 injected activity and the width of the Tl-201 energy window was observed in these ranges. The results

  12. Optimization and comparison of simultaneous and separate acquisition protocols for dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Dual-isotope simultaneous-acquisition (DISA) rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) protocols offer a number of advantages over separate acquisition. However, crosstalk contamination due to scatter in the patient and interactions in the collimator degrade image quality. Compensation can reduce the effects of crosstalk, but does not entirely eliminate image degradations. Optimizing acquisition parameters could further reduce the impact of crosstalk. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the rest Tl-201 energy window width and relative injected activities using the ideal observer (IO), a realistic digital phantom population and Monte Carlo (MC) simulated Tc-99m and Tl-201 projections as a means to improve image quality. We compared performance on a perfusion defect detection task for Tl-201 acquisition energy window widths varying from 4 to 40 keV centered at 72 keV for a camera with a 9% energy resolution. We also investigated 7 different relative injected activities, defined as the ratio of Tc-99m and Tl-201 activities, while keeping the total effective dose constant at 13.5 mSv. For each energy window and relative injected activity, we computed the IO test statistics using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 1,620 triplets of fixed and reversible defect-present, and defect-absent noisy images modeling realistic background variations. The volume under the 3-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface (VUS) was estimated and served as the figure of merit. For simultaneous acquisition, the IO suggested that relative Tc-to-Tl injected activity ratios of 2.6–5 and acquisition energy window widths of 16–22% were optimal. For separate acquisition, we observed a broad range of optimal relative injected activities from 2.6 to 12.1 and acquisition energy window of widths 16–22%. A negative correlation between Tl-201 injected activity and the width of the Tl-201 energy window was observed in these ranges. The results

  13. Evaluation of ALON for cannon window application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Richard A.; Kerwien, Henry

    1999-07-01

    In the application of laser ignition to large caliber cannons, a critical element is the window into the cannon chamber to admit the laser energy. This window must repeatedly withstand a particularly harsh environment of highly reactive high temperature combustion products from the gun propeller at pressures up to 440 MPa. Failure of the window can be caused by either thermal gradients in the window or mechanical force, or a combustion. Previous successes with single-crystal sapphire have sometimes been limited by window deterioration modes suggestive of crystalline behavior. Samples of ALON have been fabricated in the same design as the standard sapphire windows and were qualified for gun testing. This process involves a series of experiments in a closed chamber where gun propellant is burned to generate an environment similar to that inside the gun. Windows mounted in two methods have been tested. One of these windows has survived the full pre-gun test series with no visible damage.

  14. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, A S; Jacobson, V

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc.

  15. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  16. Optimal spectral windows for microwave diversity imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhat, Nabil H.; Bai, Baocheng

    1991-01-01

    Tomographic microwave diversity imaging is analyzed using linear system theory concepts, and optimal spectral windows for data acquisition are obtained either by considering window position in the spectral domain or by using simulated annealing to find an optimal phase weighting of the object frequency response samples collected over the specified spectral window. This study provides a means of microwave image formation that is applicable under general assumptions. Results of numerical simulations and representative images reconstructed from realistic experimental microwave scattering data are given, demonstrating that the proposed approach is superior to previous image reconstruction methods.

  17. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  18. Dual-energy imaging of the chest: Optimization of image acquisition techniques for the 'bone-only' image

    SciTech Connect

    Shkumat, N. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Richard, S.; Paul, N. S.; Yorkston, J.; Van Metter, R.

    2008-02-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine optimal acquisition techniques for bone image decompositions for a prototype dual-energy (DE) imaging system. Technique parameters included kVp pair (denoted [kVp{sup L}/kVp{sup H}]) and dose allocation (the proportion of dose in low- and high-energy projections), each optimized to provide maximum signal difference-to-noise ratio in DE images. Experiments involved a chest phantom representing an average patient size and containing simulated ribs and lung nodules. Low- and high-energy kVp were varied from 60-90 and 120-150 kVp, respectively. The optimal kVp pair was determined to be [60/130] kVp, with image quality showing a strong dependence on low-kVp selection. Optimal dose allocation was approximately 0.5--i.e., an equal dose imparted by the low- and high-energy projections. The results complement earlier studies of optimal DE soft-tissue image acquisition, with differences attributed to the specific imaging task. Together, the results help to guide the development and implementation of high-performance DE imaging systems, with applications including lung nodule detection and diagnosis, pneumothorax identification, and musculoskeletal imaging (e.g., discrimination of rib fractures from metastasis)

  19. Dual-energy imaging of the chest: optimization of image acquisition techniques for the 'bone-only' image.

    PubMed

    Shkumat, N A; Siewerdsen, J H; Richard, S; Paul, N S; Yorkston, J; Van Metter, R

    2008-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine optimal acquisition techniques for bone image decompositions for a prototype dual-energy (DE) imaging system. Technique parameters included kVp pair (denoted [kVp(L)/kVp(H)]) and dose allocation (the proportion of dose in low- and high-energy projections), each optimized to provide maximum signal difference-to-noise ratio in DE images. Experiments involved a chest phantom representing an average patient size and containing simulated ribs and lung nodules. Low- and high-energy kVp were varied from 60-90 and 120-150 kVp, respectively. The optimal kVp pair was determined to be [60/130] kVp, with image quality showing a strong dependence on low-kVp selection. Optimal dose allocation was approximately 0.5-i.e., an equal dose imparted by the low- and high-energy projections. The results complement earlier studies of optimal DE soft-tissue image acquisition, with differences attributed to the specific imaging task. Together, the results help to guide the development and implementation of high-performance DE imaging systems, with applications including lung nodule detection and diagnosis, pneumothorax identification, and musculoskeletal imaging (e.g., discrimination of rib fractures from metastasis).

  20. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  1. Comparison of some lead and non-lead based glass systems, standard shielding concretes and commercial window glasses in terms of shielding parameters in the energy region of 1 keV-100 GeV: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Özdemir, Yüksel; Şimşek, Önder; Durak, Rıdvan

    2010-12-01

    The effective atomic numbers, Z eff of some glass systems with and without Pb have been calculated in the energy region of 1 keV-100 GeV including the K absorption edges of high Z elements present in the glass. Also, these glass systems have been compared with some standard shielding concretes and commercial window glasses in terms of mean free paths and total mass attenuation coefficients in the continuous energy range. Comparisons with experiments were also provided wherever possible for glasses. It has been observed that the glass systems without Pb have higher values of Z eff than that of Pb based glasses at some high energy regions even if they have lower mean atomic numbers than Pb based glasses. When compared with some standard shielding concretes and commercial window glasses, generally it has been shown that the given glass systems have superior properties than concretes and window glasses with respect to the radiation-shielding properties, thus confirming the availability of using these glasses as substitutes for some shielding concretes and commercial window glasses to improve radiation-shielding properties in the continuous energy region.

  2. The Benefits of Aluminum Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses benefits of aluminum windows for college construction and renovation projects, including that aluminum is the most successfully recycled material, that it meets architectural glass deflection standards, that it has positive thermal energy performance, and that it is a preferred exterior surface. (EV)

  3. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Older types of window cleaners may contain: Ammonia Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol Methanol New types of window cleaners ... pain Vomiting Vomiting blood HEART AND BLOOD Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly LUNGS AND AIRWAYS ...

  4. Measurements of Ultra-Fast single photon counting chip with energy window and 75 μm pixel pitch with Si and CdTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Kasinski, K.; Koziol, A.; Krzyzanowska, A.; Kmon, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.

    2017-03-01

    Single photon counting pixel detectors become increasingly popular in various 2-D X-ray imaging techniques and scientific experiments mainly in solid state physics, material science and medicine. This paper presents architecture and measurement results of the UFXC32k chip designed in a CMOS 130 nm process. The chip consists of about 50 million transistors and has an area of 9.64 mm × 20.15 mm. The core of the IC is a matrix of 128 × 256 pixels of 75 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a CSA, a shaper with tunable gain, two discriminators with correction circuits and two 14-bit ripple counters operating in a normal mode (with energy window), a long counter mode (one 28-bit counter) and a zero-dead time mode. Gain and noise performance were verified with X-ray radiation and with the chip connected to Si (320 μm thick) and CdTe (750 μ m thick) sensors.

  5. Window Replacement Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Explores ways to replace facility windows more easily and efficiently by evaluating long-term needs and window options. Recommends obtaining references from window manufacturer and installer, scheduling the work during times the facility is unoccupied, and ensuring that historic and life-safety issues be considered. (GR)

  6. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  7. Improving Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Netto, A G; Caparica, A A; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Dickman, Ronald; Landau, D P

    2008-11-01

    Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) of large systems requires dividing the energy range into "windows" and joining the results of simulations in each window. The resulting density of states (and associated thermodynamic functions) is shown to suffer from boundary effects in simulations of lattice polymers and the five-state Potts model. Here, we implement WLS using adaptive windows. Instead of defining fixed energy windows (or windows in the energy-magnetization plane for the Potts model), the boundary positions depend on the set of energy values on which the histogram is flat at a given stage of the simulation. Shifting the windows each time the modification factor f is reduced, we eliminate border effects that arise in simulations using fixed windows. Adaptive windows extend significantly the range of system sizes that may be studied reliably using WLS.

  8. Orthogonal sets of data windows constructed from trigonometric polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Suboptimal, easily computable substitutes for the discrete prolate-spheroidal windows used by Thomson for spectral estimation are given. Trigonometric coefficients and energy leakages of the window polynomials are tabulated.

  9. Energy and complex industrial systems environmental emissions data reporting and acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1987-07-01

    The Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNEP and WHO Project on Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental risks from Energy and Other Complex Technologies intends to complile emissions data for mportant energy systems and other complex technologies from a wide variety of countries. To facilitate data generation and compilation, this report: outlines data reporting protocols; identifies potential information sources; demonstrates how to estimate coefficients; presents some compiled US emission coefficients or criteria air pollutants for some energy process; and, compares national air emission standards for electricity generating plants in OECD member countries. 27 refs., 2 fis., 1 tabs.

  10. Conformal ALON® windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Smith, Mark; Nag, Nagendra; Foti, Robyn; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2014-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet controls every aspect of the manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in its production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for complex geometries, larger sizes and higher quantities, is underway. The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. Surmet's ability to produce large curved ALON® blanks is an important step in the development of conformal windows for future aircraft applications.

  11. TU-D-BRB-01: Dual-Energy CT: Techniques in Acquisition and Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Pelc, N

    2016-06-01

    Dual-energy CT technology is becoming increasingly available to the medical imaging community. In addition, several models of CT simulators sold for use in radiation therapy departments now feature dual-energy technology. The images provided by dual-energy CT scanners add new information to the radiation treatment planning process; multiple spectral components can be used to separate and identify material composition as well as generate virtual monoenergetic images. In turn, this information could be used to investigate pathologic processes, separate the properties of contrast agents from soft tissues, assess tissue response to therapy, and other applications of therapeutic interest. Additionally, the decomposition of materials in images could directly integrate with and impact the accuracy of dose calculation algorithms. This symposium will explore methods of generating dual-energy CT images, spectral and image analysis algorithms, current and future applications of interest in oncologic imaging, and unique considerations when using dualenergy CT images in the radiation treatment planning process.

  12. Opening a window on the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutson, Kate

    2015-04-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array will revolutionize ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, explains Kate Dutson, extending our electromagnetic window on to the universe to include the highest-energy photons ever detected.

  13. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  14. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 04: An iterative triple energy window (TEW) approach to cross talk correction in quantitative small animal Tc99m and In111 SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, P; Timmins, R; Wells, R G

    2014-08-15

    Dual isotope SPECT allows simultaneous measurement of two different tracers in vivo. With In111 (emission energies of 171keV and 245keV) and Tc99m (140keV), quantification of Tc99m is degraded by cross talk from the In111 photons that scatter and are detected at an energy corresponding to Tc99m. TEW uses counts recorded in two narrow windows surrounding the Tc99m primary window to estimate scatter. Iterative TEW corrects for the bias introduced into the TEW estimate resulting from un-scattered counts detected in the scatter windows. The contamination in the scatter windows is iteratively estimated and subtracted as a fraction of the scatter-corrected primary window counts. The iterative TEW approach was validated with a small-animal SPECT/CT camera using a 2.5mL plastic container holding thoroughly mixed Tc99m/In111 activity fractions of 0.15, 0.28, 0.52, 0.99, 2.47 and 6.90. Dose calibrator measurements were the gold standard. Uncorrected for scatter, the Tc99m activity was over-estimated by as much as 80%. Unmodified TEW underestimated the Tc99m activity by 13%. With iterative TEW corrections applied in projection space, the Tc99m activity was estimated within 5% of truth across all activity fractions above 0.15. This is an improvement over the non-iterative TEW, which could not sufficiently correct for scatter in the 0.15 and 0.28 phantoms.

  15. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    PubMed

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  16. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  17. Evaluation of the solar conditions for the acquisitions of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The country's energy security risk, as well as a desire to protect the environment from the pollution and degradation which are the results of conventional fuels acquisition - these was a motivation for intensive researches on the use of renewable energy sources in eco - innovative installations. Solar radiation is one of the self - renewable energy sources which can be used both as a source of electricity and heat. The area of research is Sosnowiec city located in the south of Poland in the eastern part of Silesia voivodeship. The solar radiation data covering the years 2003 to 2013 was used. The intra - annual variability of daily averaged solar radiation hesitated in a wide range from 0.6 kWh/m2 (December) to 5.2 kWh/m2 (June). Day duration varies on average from 10 hours in January, November and December to 17 hours in May, June and July. Day occupies 56% of the 8767 hours in year. On average the largest amount of energy reached the analyzed area in July: 157 kWh/m2 (15% of the annual average), while the smallest in December: 18 kWh/m2 (less than 2% of the annual average). The 75% of the average annual total of energy falls on the period from 1st March to 31th August (spring - summer). The range of the annual solar radiation was determined by the minimum of 980 kWh/m2 and the maximum of 1094 kWh/m2. In Sosnowiec the average annual irradiation total on the horizontal surface amounts to 1052 kWh/m2 (2003 - 2013)

  18. Evaluation of the wind conditions for the acquisition of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    Inherent in the continuous development of civilization is a constant increase in demand for electricity. The result of this situation could be a threat to cover domestic demand for electricity generated from domestic sources. It is significant therefore, to increase the energy security of the country, as well as to generate a positive impact on the development and dynamics of social and economic processes which is carried by the development of renewable energy sources. A crucial argument for the need to implement new sustainable solutions is growing environmental degradation and pollution resulting from the acquisition and use of non-renewable energy resources. Renewable energy resource for interest of this analysis is the wind. A crucial feature of the wind is its high volatility. Wind speed is characterized by diurnal, seasonal and long-term variation. The study area is Sosnowiec city. The analysis covers the data from the period 2002 - 2011 obtained using a meteorological station located in the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Sosnowiec. Analyzed data are observations of wind speed measured at the height of 10m above the ground - average values of 10 minutes. The mean and maximum daily, monthly and annual values of wind speed have been calculated, and on their basis, a relevant analysis have been made. Average wind speed value for the analyzed area of the analyzed period (2002 - 2011) is 1,70m/s, while the maximum wind speed value is 3,78m/s. Sosnowiec is located in zone IV - unfavorable for the use of wind energy.

  19. Improving Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Netto, A. G.; Caparica, A. A.; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Dickman, Ronald; Landau, D. P.

    2008-11-01

    Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) of large systems requires dividing the energy range into “windows” and joining the results of simulations in each window. The resulting density of states (and associated thermodynamic functions) is shown to suffer from boundary effects in simulations of lattice polymers and the five-state Potts model. Here, we implement WLS using adaptive windows. Instead of defining fixed energy windows (or windows in the energy-magnetization plane for the Potts model), the boundary positions depend on the set of energy values on which the histogram is flat at a given stage of the simulation. Shifting the windows each time the modification factor f is reduced, we eliminate border effects that arise in simulations using fixed windows. Adaptive windows extend significantly the range of system sizes that may be studied reliably using WLS.

  20. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    SciTech Connect

    Roldán, É.; Martínez, I. A.; Rica, R. A.; Dinis, L.

    2014-06-09

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  1. VIS-IR transmitting windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, S. S.; Chin, G. D.; Villalobos, G.; Sanghera, J. S.; Aggarwal, I. D.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed two unique materials with excellent properties for various military and commercial applications in the UV-Vis-IR wavelength range. These materials are: an amorphous Barium Gallo-Germanate (BGG) glass and a polycrystalline Magnesium Aluminate Spinel. The BGG glass is made using traditional glass melting techniques, and was developed as a low cost alternative to the currently used window materials. Large prototype windows have been fabricated for a Navy reconnaissance program. BGG windows have been successfully tested for environmental ruggedness (MIL-F-48616) and rain erosion durability up to 300 mph. BGG glass is currently under development and evaluation for High Energy Laser (HEL) applications. A new process has been developed to sinter spinel to clear transparency with very high yields. This process has been used to make various sizes and shapes (flats and domes) and is readily scalable to industrial sizes to produce large windows & domes for various applications. NRL has also developed modified BGG glasses, which are compatible with Spinel and ALON substrates for bonding.

  2. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  3. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  4. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  6. Air transparent soundproof window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  7. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  8. Multi-functional windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  9. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  10. Integration Window Position Estimation in TR Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2005-03-15

    Transmitted-reference (TR) receivers avoid the stringent synchronization requirements that exist in conventional pulse detection schemes. However, the performance of such receivers is highly sensitive to precise timing acquisition and tracking as well as the length of their integration window. This window in TR receivers defines the limits of the finite integrator prior to the final decision making block. In this paper, we propose a novel technique that allows us to extract the timing information of the integration window very accurately in UWB-TR receivers in the presence of channel noise. The principles of the method are presented and the BER performance of a modified UWB-TR receiver is investigated by computer simulation. Our studies show that the proposed estimation technique adds value to the conventional TR receiver structure with modest increase in complexity.

  11. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  12. Evaluation of ‘OpenCL for FPGA’ for Data Acquisition and Acceleration in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the data acquisition and processing needs of High Energy Physics experiments has made it more essential to use FPGAs to meet those needs. However harnessing the capabilities of the FPGAs has been hard for anyone but expert FPGA developers. The arrival of OpenCL with the two major FPGA vendors supporting it, offers an easy software-based approach to taking advantage of FPGAs in applications such as High Energy Physics. OpenCL is a language for using heterogeneous architectures in order to accelerate applications. However, FPGAs are capable of far more than acceleration, hence it is interesting to explore if OpenCL can be used to take advantage of FPGAs for more generic applications. To answer these questions, especially in the context of High Energy Physics, two applications, a DAQ module and an acceleration workload, were tested for implementation with OpenCL on FPGAs2. The challenges on using OpenCL for a DAQ application and their solutions, together with the performance of the OpenCL based acceleration are discussed. Many of the design elements needed to realize a DAQ system in OpenCL already exists, mostly as FPGA vendor extensions, but a small number of elements were found to be missing. For acceleration of OpenCL applications, using FPGAs has become as easy as using GPUs. OpenCL has the potential for a massive gain in productivity and ease of use enabling non FPGA experts to design, debug and maintain the code. Also, FPGA power consumption is much lower than other implementations. This paper describes one of the first attempts to explore the use of OpenCL for applications outside the acceleration workloads.

  13. Transcriptomic Analyses of Xylan Degradation by Prevotella bryantii and Insights into Energy Acquisition by Xylanolytic Bacteroidetes*

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Dylan; Moon, Young-Hwan; Swaminathan, Kankshita; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic depolymerization of lignocellulose by microbes in the bovine rumen and the human colon is critical to gut health and function within the host. Prevotella bryantii B14 is a rumen bacterium that efficiently degrades soluble xylan. To identify the genes harnessed by this bacterium to degrade xylan, the transcriptomes of P. bryantii cultured on either wheat arabinoxylan or a mixture of its monosaccharide components were compared by DNA microarray and RNA sequencing approaches. The most highly induced genes formed a cluster that contained putative outer membrane proteins analogous to the starch utilization system identified in the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The arrangement of genes in the cluster was highly conserved in other xylanolytic Bacteroidetes, suggesting that the mechanism employed by xylan utilizers in this phylum is conserved. A number of genes encoding proteins with unassigned function were also induced on wheat arabinoxylan. Among these proteins, a hypothetical protein with low similarity to glycoside hydrolases was shown to possess endoxylanase activity and subsequently assigned to glycoside hydrolase family 5. The enzyme was designated PbXyn5A. Two of the most similar proteins to PbXyn5A were hypothetical proteins from human colonic Bacteroides spp., and when expressed each protein exhibited endoxylanase activity. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified two amino acid residues that likely serve as the catalytic acid/base and nucleophile as in other GH5 proteins. This study therefore provides insights into capture of energy by xylanolytic Bacteroidetes and the application of their enzymes as a resource in the biofuel industry. PMID:20622018

  14. Potential Mechanisms for Microbial Energy Acquisition in Oxic Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, John F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) possesses the lowest rates of sedimentation, surface chlorophyll concentration, and primary productivity in the global oceans. As a direct result, deep-sea sediments are thin and contain small amounts of labile organic carbon. It was recently shown that the entire SPG sediment column is oxygenated and may be representative of up to a third of the global marine environment. To understand the microbial processes that contribute to the removal of the labile organic matter at the water-sediment interface, a sediment sample was collected and subjected to metagenomic sequencing and analyses. Analysis of nine partially reconstructed environmental genomes, which represent approximately one-third of the microbial community, revealed that the members of the SPG surface sediment microbial community are phylogenetically distinct from surface/upper-ocean organisms. These genomes represent a wide distribution of novel organisms, including deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, two novel organisms within the Proteobacteria, and new members of the Nitrospirae, Nitrospinae, and candidate phylum NC10. These genomes contain evidence for microbially mediated metal (iron/manganese) oxidation and carbon fixation linked to nitrification. Additionally, despite hypothesized energy limitation, members of the SPG microbial community had motility and chemotaxis genes and possessed mechanisms for the degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter. This study contributes to our understanding of the metabolic potential of microorganisms in deep-sea oligotrophic sediments and their impact on local carbon geochemistry. IMPORTANCE This research provides insight into the microbial metabolic potential of organisms inhabiting oxygenated deep-sea marine sediments. Current estimates suggest that these environments account for up to a third of the global marine sediment habitat. Nine novel deep-sea microbial genomes were reconstructed from a metagenomic data set

  15. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  16. Improving the reliability of the background extrapolation in transmission electron microscopy elemental maps by using three pre-edge windows.

    PubMed

    Heil, Tobias; Gralla, Benedikt; Epping, Michael; Kohl, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Over the last decades, elemental maps have become a powerful tool for the analysis of the spatial distribution of the elements within specimen. In energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) one commonly uses two pre-edge and one post-edge image for the calculation of elemental maps. However, this so called three-window method can introduce serious errors into the extrapolated background for the post-edge window. Since this method uses only two pre-edge windows as data points to calculate a background model that depends on two fit parameters, the quality of the extrapolation can be estimated only statistically assuming that the background model is correct. In this paper, we will discuss a possibility to improve the accuracy and reliability of the background extrapolation by using a third pre-edge window. Since with three data points the extrapolation becomes over-determined, this change permits us to estimate not only the statistical uncertainly of the fit, but also the systematic error by using the experimental data. Furthermore we will discuss in this paper the acquisition parameters that should be used for the energy windows to reach an optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the elemental maps.

  17. Evolution of intrinsic growth and energy acquisition rates. I. Trade-offs with swimming performance in Menidia menidia.

    PubMed

    Billerbeck, J M; Lankford, T E; Conover, D O

    2001-09-01

    Latitudinal populations of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, show substantial genetic variation in rates of energy acquistion and allocation. Reared in common environments, silversides from northern latitudes consume more food, grow faster and more efficiently, store more energy, and produce greater quantities of eggs than their southern conspecifics. The persistence of seemingly inferior southern genotypes in the face of ostensibly superior northern genotypes suggest that there are hidden evolutionary trade-offs associated with these elevated acquisition and allocation rates. We tested the hypothesis that rapid growth and high levels of food consumption trade-off against locomotory performance in M. menidia. We compared both aerobic (prolonged and endurance) and anaerobic (burst) swimming capacities between intrinsically fast-growing fish from the north (Nova Scotia, NS) and intrinsically slow-growing fish from the south (South Carolina, SC) and between growth-manipulated phenotypes within each population. We also compared swimming speeds and endurance between fasted and recently fed fish within populations. Maximum prolonged and burst swimming speeds of NS fish were significantly lower than those of SC fish, and swimming speeds of fast-growing phenotypes were lower than those of slow-growing phenotypes within populations. Fed fish had lower burst speeds and less endurance than fasted fish from the same population. Thus, high rates of growth and the consumption of large meals clearly diminish swimming performance, which likely increases vulnerability to predation and decreases survival and relative fitness. The submaximal growth rate of southern M. menidia appears to be adaptive, resulting from balancing selection on rates of somatic growth.

  18. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  19. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  20. Cordilleran slab windows

    SciTech Connect

    Thorkelson, D.J.; Taylor, R.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The geometry and geologic implications of subducted spreading ridges are topics that have bedeviled earth scientists ever since the recognition of plate tectonics. As a consequence of subduction of the Kula-Farallon and East Pacific rises, slab windows formed and migrated beneath the North American Cordillera. The probable shape and extent of these windows, which represent the asthenosphere-filled gaps between two separating, subducting oceanic plates, are depicted from the Late Cretaceous to the present. Possible effects of the existence and migration of slab windows on the Cordillera at various times include cessation of arc volcanism and replacement by rift or plate-edge volcanism; lithospheric uplift, attenuation, and extension; and increased intensity of compressional tectonism. Eocene extensional tectonism and alkaline magmatism in southern British Columbia and the northwestern United States were facilitated by slab-window development.

  1. High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  2. High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  3. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  4. Special Report on The Department of Energy's Acquisition Workforce and its Impact on Implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    Signed by the President on February 17, 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) seeks to strengthen the U.S. economy through the creation of new jobs, aiding State and local governments with budget shortfalls, and investing in the long-term health of the Nation's economic prosperity. Under the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive approximately $40 billion for various energy, environmental, and science programs and initiatives. To have an immediate stimulative impact on the U.S. economy, the Department's stated goal is to ensure that these funds are spent as expeditiously as possible, without risking transparency and accountability. Given the Department's almost total reliance on the acquisition process (contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, etc.) to carry out its mission, enhanced focus on contract administration and, specifically, the work performed by Federal acquisition officials is of vital importance as the unprecedented flow of funds begins under the Recovery Act.

  5. Thermal and Optical Properties of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Widder, Sarah H.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-07-17

    Installing low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows and panels over existing windows has been identified as a cost-effective new approach for improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings where window replacement is impractical or too expensive. As such, it is desirable to characterize the key energy performance properties of low-E storm windows and panels when installed over different types of existing primary windows. this paper presents the representative U-factors, solar heat gain coefficients (SGHCs) and visible transmittance properties of the combined assemblies of various storm windows and panel types installed over different primary windows.

  6. Multi-Window Controllers for Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, B, J.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-window controllers select between elementary linear controllers using nonlinear windows based on the amplitude and frequency content of the feedback error. The controllers are relatively simple to implement and perform much better than linear controllers. The commanders for such controllers only order the destination point and are freed from generating the command time-profiles. The robotic missions rely heavily on the tasks of acquisition and tracking. For autonomous and optimal control of the spacecraft, the control bandwidth must be larger while the feedback can (and, therefore, must) be reduced.. Combining linear compensators via multi-window nonlinear summer guarantees minimum phase character of the combined transfer function. It is shown that the solution may require using several parallel branches and windows. Several examples of multi-window nonlinear controller applications are presented.

  7. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  8. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  9. VETA x ray data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Jones, Mark T.; Ljungberg, Malin; Nguyen, Dan T.; Roll, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the X-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of X-ray data were acquired, analyzed and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture is presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive is also described.

  10. Calcium fluoride window mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, D. Douglas

    1982-10-01

    A technique has been developed for joining a large calcium fluoride crystal to a stainless-steel flange by means of a silver transition ring. The process involves both vacuum brazing using a copper-silver alloy and air brazing using silver chloride. This paper describes the procedure used in fabricating a high-vacuum leak-tight calcium fluoride window assembly.

  11. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  12. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  13. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third…

  14. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  15. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book,…

  16. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  17. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  18. Opening the Literature Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  19. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  20. Windows into Art Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John…

  1. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED JUST BELOW THE CHOIR LOFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTAR. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, sill profile, and transom profile from second period of construction - Joseph Poffenberger Farm, House, 17834 Mansfield Avenue, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  5. In Synechococcus sp. competition for energy between assimilation and acquisition of C and those of N only occurs when growth is light limited.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zuoxi; Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2017-03-28

    The carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) of cyanobacteria counteract the low CO2 affinity and CO2:O2 selectivities of the Rubisco of these photolithotrophs and the relatively low oceanic CO2 availability. CCMs have a significant energy cost; if light is limiting, the use of N sources whose assimilation demands less energy could permit a greater investment of energy into CCMs and inorganic C (Ci) assimilation. To test this, we cultured Synechococcus sp. UTEX LB 2380 under either N or energy limitation, in the presence of NO3- or NH4+. When growth was energy-limited, NH4+-grown cells had a 1.2-fold higher growth rate, 1.3-fold higher dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)-saturated photosynthetic rate, 19% higher linear electron transfer, 80% higher photosynthetic 1/K1/2(DIC), 2.0-fold greater slope of the linear part of the photosynthesis versus DIC curve, 3.5-fold larger intracellular Ci pool, and 2.3-fold higher Zn quota than NO3--grown cells. When energy was not limiting growth, there were not differences between NH4+- and NO3--grown cells, except for higher linear electron transfer and larger intracellular Ci pool.We conclude that, when energy limits growth, cells that use the cheaper N source divert energy from N assimilation to C acquisition and assimilation; this does not happen when energy is not limiting.

  6. Dressed fluxon in a Josephson window junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Flytzanis, Nikos; Devoret, Michel

    1994-09-01

    The static fluxon solutions of a Josephson window junction have been studied numerically. We show that the effect of the idle region surrounding the junction is to ``dress'' the fluxon causing its energy to increase. This effect can be predicted accurately by a simple model.

  7. Target Window Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  8. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    photocontrols. The savings can range from 0.39 – 2.11 kWh/sf of the floor area based on the building location and window orientation. B. Photocontrols are...diffuser characteristics were carefully chosen to have no discernible impact on the optical characteristics of the system.1 F. The increase in... impact on glare. Since glare calculations and measurements are extremely difficult and fraught with errors, any glare assessment must be verified

  9. Lens window simplifies TDL housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Rowland, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Lens window seal in tunable-diode-laser housing replaces plan parallel window. Lens seals housing and acts as optical-output coupler, thus eliminating need for additional reimaging or collimating optics.

  10. Windows: The Benefits Are Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of specifying windows in a school renovation or building project in order to energize a campus. Explains how windows are psychologically uplifting, how glass accentuates excitement and its shapes signal stability, and how windows convey the institution's confidence in the present. (GR)

  11. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  12. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS J. Brendan Baum, Civilian, USAF AFIT...WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-1 WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION J. Brendan Baum, B.S

  13. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  14. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  15. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  16. Window performance in extreme cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, S. N.; Buska, J. S.; Barrett, S. A.

    1982-12-01

    Extreme cold causes heavy buildup of frost, ice and condensation on many windows. It also increases the incentive for improving the airtightness of windows against heat loss. Our study shows that tightening specifications for Alaskan windows to permit only 30% of the air leakage allowed by current American airtightness standards is economically attractive. We also recommend triple glazing in much of Alaska to avoid window icing in homes and barracks. We base our conclusions on a two year field study of Alaskan military bases that included recording humidity and temperature data, observing moisture accumulation on windows and measuring airtightness with a fan pressurized device.

  17. Laser induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Hurst, P.A.; Heggins, D.D.; Steele, W.A.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    Laser-induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large ({le}61 cm dia) fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in Nova and Beamlet lasers. If the elastic stored energy in the lens is high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces (implosion). Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: elastic stored energy (tensile stress), ratio of window thickness to flaw depth, and secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments were conducted on 15-cm dia fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. Results, combined with window failure data on Beamlet and Nova, were used to develop design criteria for a ``fail-safe`` lens (that may catastrophically fracture but not implode). Specifically, the window must be made thick enough so that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi (3.4 MPa) and the thickness/critical flaw size is less than 6. The air leak through the window fracture and into the vacuum must be rapid enough to reduce the load on the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments ``lock`` in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase, leading to further (i.e. secondary) crack growth.

  18. Image acquisition with immersion objective lenses using electrons emitted with several tenths of an electron volt energies: towards high spatial resolution ESCA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, M

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the spatial resolution achievable with photoelectrons in order to perform localised UPS or XPS analyses on various heterogeneous samples. This investigation is intentionally restricted to direct image acquisition by immersion objective lenses, involving electrons ejected with initial energies of several tenths of an electron-volt. In order to characterise the contribution of all optical elements, analytical investigations were associated to numerical simulations based on SIMION 7 software. The acquisition of high-quality images implies a simultaneous reduction in spherical and chromatic aberrations by a narrow aperture stop placed at the output pupil of the objective. With such limitations in useful emission angles, it is shown that monochromatic electron beams build images with a resolution of about 1 nm, especially for the acceleration bias mode where the focussing electrode is biased at a positive high voltage. Even energy dispersed electron beams, limited by a 4 eV band pass spectrometer, can produce images convenient for highly localised ESCA analyses (resolution 3 nm), where the objective lens is associated with an aperture stop of 30 microm in diameter without using acceleration voltages above 5000 V.

  19. Windows on the axion

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An energy transfer kinetic probe for OH-quenchers in the Nd(3+):YPO4 nanocrystals suitable for imaging in the biological tissue transparency window.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, Elena V; Popov, Alexandr V; Vanetsev, Alexander S; Keevend, Kerda; Orlovskaya, Elena O; Kiisk, Valter; Lange, Sven; Joost, Urmas; Kaldvee, Kaarel; Mäeorg, Uno; Glushkov, Nikolay A; Ryabova, Anastasiya V; Sildos, Ilmo; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Steiner, Rudolf; Loschenov, Victor B; Orlovskii, Yurii V

    2014-12-28

    Tetragonal xenotime-type yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4) Nd(3+) doped nanoparticles suitable for biomedical applications were prepared by microwave-hydrothermal treatment. We applied the energy transfer probing based on the analysis of kinetics of impurity quenching to determine the presence and spatial position of -OH fluorescence quenching acceptors in the impurity-containing nanoparticles. We show that the impurity quenching kinetics of the 0.1 at% Nd(3+) doped YPO4 nanoparticles is a two stage (ordered and disordered) static kinetics, determined by a direct energy transfer to the -OH acceptors. Analyzing the ordered stage, we assume that the origin of the -OH groups is the protonation of the phosphate groups, while analyzing the disordered stage, we assume the presence of water molecules in the mesopores. We determine the dimension of the space of the -OH acceptors as d = 3 and quantify their absolute concentration using the disordered Förster stage of kinetics. We use the late stage of kinetics of fluorescence hopping (CDD ≫ CDA) quenching (the fluctuation asymptotics) at 1 at% Nd(3+) concentration as an energy transfer probe to quantify the relative concentration of -OH molecular groups compared to an optically active rare-earth dopant in the volume of NPs, when energy migration over Nd(3+) donors to the -OH acceptors accelerates fluorescence quenching. In doing so we use just one parameter α = γ(A)/γ(D) = n(A)√[C(DA)]/n(D)√[C(DD)], defined by the relation of concentration of the -OH acceptors to the concentration of an optically active dopant. The higher is the α, the higher is the relative concentration of -OH acceptors in the volume of nanoparticles. We find α = 2.95 for the 1 at% Nd(3+):YPO4 NPs that, according to the equation for α, and the results obtained for the values of the microparameters CDD(Nd-Nd) = 24.6 nm(6) ms(-1) and CDA(Nd-OH) = 0.6 nm(6) ms(-1), suggests twenty times higher concentration for acceptors other than donors. As the

  1. Language Switching as a Window on Trilingual Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavans, Anat; Swisher, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    The present study discusses and describes codeswitches produced by two trilingual children acquiring English, Spanish and Hebrew simultaneously from birth. Data were collected regularly over a period of 20 months (from age 2;6 to 4;2 for M and from age 5;5 to 7;1 for E), in naturalistic tape-recorded sessions. Codeswitches drawn from…

  2. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  3. Window defect planar mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, F. R.; Minton, U. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of planar mapping defects in a window having an edge surface and a planar surface. The method is comprised of steps for mounting the window on a support surface. Then a light sensitive paper is placed adjacent to the window surface. A light source is positioned adjacent to the window edge. The window is then illuminated with the source of light for a predetermined interval of time. Defects on the surface of the glass, as well as in the interior of the glass are detected by analyzing the developed light sensitive paper. The light source must be in the form of optical fibers or a light tube whose light transmitting ends are placed near the edge surface of the window.

  4. Hole burning with pressure and electric field: A window on the electronic structure and energy transfer dynamics of bacterial antenna complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.M.

    1999-02-12

    Light-harvesting (LH) complexes of cyclic (C{sub n}) symmetry from photosynthetic bacteria are studied using absorption and high pressure- and Stark-hole burning spectroscopies. The B800 absorption band of LH2 is inhomogeneously broadened while the B850 band of LH2 and the B875 band of the LH1 complex exhibit significant homogeneous broadening due to ultra-fast inter-exciton level relaxation. The B800{r_arrow}B850 energy transfer rate of ({approximately}2 ps){sup {minus}1} as determined by hole burning and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopies, is weakly dependent on pressure and temperature, both of which significantly affect the B800-B850 energy gap. The resilience is theoretically explained in terms of a modified Foerster theory with the spectral overlap provided by the B800 fluorescence origin band and weak vibronic absorption bands of B850. Possible explanations for the additional sub-picosecond relaxation channel of B800 observed with excitation on the blue side of B800 are given. Data from pressure and temperature dependent studies show that the B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are weakly and strongly excitonically coupled, respectively, which is consistent with the X-ray structure of LH2. The B875 BChl a molecules are also strongly coupled. It is concluded that electron-exchange, in addition to electrostatic interactions, is important for understanding the strong coupling of the B850 and B875 rings. The large linear pressure shifts of {approximately}{minus}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1}/MPa associated with B850 and B875 can serve as important benchmarks for electronic structure calculations.

  5. The 'Formaldehyde Window'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, A. T.

    1981-09-01

    The characteristics obtained by using the absorption line of formaldehyde as a background for a transmitted signal are examined and compared with the Water Hole concept. It is shown that much greater distance may be accessed for a given transmitter power level and that the narrow band characteristics of the formaldehyde line are ideally suited to the transmission of low frequency coded 'calling' signals. It is further shown that two unique harmonic overtones lie above and below the 4830 MHz formaldehyde line, and by using these further aids, a clear and unambiguous interstellar communication system could be established without the background maser noise that would be expected from the use of the Water Hole. It is concluded that the Formaldehyde Window is a viable alternative to the Water Hole concept, with an advantage of being an easily distinguished artifact of intelligence.

  6. Redefining the Axion Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Mescia, Federico; Nardi, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of axion searches is to reach inside the parameter space region of realistic axion models. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We consider hadronic axion models and classify the representations RQ of the new heavy quarks Q . By requiring that (i) the Q 's are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long-lived strongly interacting relics, (ii) no Landau poles are induced below the Planck scale; 15 cases are selected which define a phenomenologically preferred axion window bounded by a maximum (minimum) value of the axion-photon coupling about 2 times (4 times) larger than is commonly assumed. Allowing for more than one RQ, larger couplings, as well as complete axion-photon decoupling, become possible.

  7. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-08-25

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques.

  8. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  9. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  10. Colored light application in retail display window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Milena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2002-06-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the usefulness of colored LEDs in retail display window applications. Human subjects viewed two side-by-side, identical mock-up display windows, and rated their preference. Subjects showed strong preference for the colored background, compared to the white background. In general, subjects disliked the modulated intensity background. Furthermore, the use of colored light (static red and blue) on the background allowed the accent light to be decreased without sacrificing visual appeal, ability to capture attention, and ability to see displayed objects clearly. It appears from this initial laboratory study that the amount of accent light can be reduced significantly, which could provide energy savings. We believe a field study would be greatly beneficial for further confirming these results and for quantifying the total energy savings in an actual store.

  11. INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST CABINET. (NOTE THE MIRRORED PANEL IN THE FORWARD SHUTTER’S LOWER SECTION. DURING THE HAMILTONIAN OCCUPANCY, MIRRORS LIKE THESE WERE USED LIBERALLY THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE’S PUBLIC ROOMS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. What Becomes a Window Most: Perceptual Tuning of Virtual Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Stone, Lee (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Viewing a scene through an optical window provides observers with numerous visual properties. In order to create a 'virtual window' that is perceptually compelling, it must be determined which properties are most critical to preserve. We have examined several properties, both static and dynamic, and will discuss which have the greatest impact on apparent realism (and user performance).

  13. Three-dimensional laser window formation for industrial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Kowalski, David

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional, compound-curvature laser windows to extreme accuracies. These windows represent an integral component of specialized nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems that are used in a variety of compressor and turbine research testing facilities. These windows are molded to the flow surface profile of turbine and compressor casings and are required to withstand extremely high pressures and temperatures. This method of glass formation could also be used to form compound-curvature mirrors that would require little polishing and for a variety of industrial applications, including research view ports for testing devices and view ports for factory machines with compound-curvature casings. Currently, sodium-alumino-silicate glass is recommended for three-dimensional laser windows because of its high strength due to chemical strengthening and its optical clarity. This paper discusses the main aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities that are associated with the formation of these windows.

  14. Representing the acquisition and use of energy by individuals in agent-based models of animal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibly, Richard M.; Grimm, Volker; Martin, Benjamin T.; Johnston, Alice S.A.; Kulakowska, Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher J.; Calow, Peter; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    1. Agent-based models (ABMs) are widely used to predict how populations respond to changing environments. As the availability of food varies in space and time, individuals should have their own energy budgets, but there is no consensus as to how these should be modelled. Here, we use knowledge of physiological ecology to identify major issues confronting the modeller and to make recommendations about how energy budgets for use in ABMs should be constructed. 2. Our proposal is that modelled animals forage as necessary to supply their energy needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction. If there is sufficient energy intake, an animal allocates the energy obtained in the order: maintenance, growth, reproduction, energy storage, until its energy stores reach an optimal level. If there is a shortfall, the priorities for maintenance and growth/reproduction remain the same until reserves fall to a critical threshold below which all are allocated to maintenance. Rates of ingestion and allocation depend on body mass and temperature. We make suggestions for how each of these processes should be modelled mathematically. 3. Mortality rates vary with body mass and temperature according to known relationships, and these can be used to obtain estimates of background mortality rate. 4. If parameter values cannot be obtained directly, then values may provisionally be obtained by parameter borrowing, pattern-oriented modelling, artificial evolution or from allometric equations. 5. The development of ABMs incorporating individual energy budgets is essential for realistic modelling of populations affected by food availability. Such ABMs are already being used to guide conservation planning of nature reserves and shell fisheries, to assess environmental impacts of building proposals including wind farms and highways and to assess the effects on nontarget organisms of chemicals for the control of agricultural pests.

  15. Optical performance of conical windows for concentrated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kribus, A. . Dept. of Environmental Science and Energy Research)

    1994-02-01

    Radiative energy transfer through a truncated cone window with a back-plane reflector is considered. This geometry is proposed for a high-pressure direct-radiation (volumetric) central solar receiver for use in combined-cycle electricity generation. The transmission and loss characteristics, computed by ray-tracing, are parameterized by the angle of incident radiation relative to the cone axis. The overall performance of the window is an integral of the angle-dependent transmission data, weighted by the actual distribution of input radiation, over all incidence angles. This parameterization provides insight and assists in tailoring of the window geometry to different solar collection methods. Results are presented for several window geometries. Overall window performance is presented for a dish-type distribution of input radiation.

  16. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  17. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  18. Scanning tunneling microscope data acquisition and control in visual basic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, T. L.

    1993-12-01

    A general purpose data acquisition and control system for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) using Visual Basic is presented. This Windows hosted Visual Basic environment is highly desirable for use in STM image manipulation, storage, and printing, but in its standard form is not suitable for most data acquisition and display applications. Many of the inherent limitations in the Visual Basic language have been overcome by the use of direct calls to the Windows Application Program Interface. In this paper, we describe a general Visual Basic STM user interface and control system, and the extensions to the language using the Windows API needed to implement this system.

  19. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  20. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-12-23

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  1. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  2. Tuning the chemosensory window

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shanshan; Mackay, Trudy FC

    2010-01-01

    Accurate perception of chemical signals from the environment is critical for the fitness of most animals. Drosophila melanogaster experiences its chemical environment through families of chemoreceptors that include olfactory receptors, gustatory receptors and odorant binding proteins. Its chemical environment, however, changes during its life cycle and the interpretation of chemical signals is dependent on dynamic social and physical surroundings. Phenotypic plasticity of gene expression of the chemoreceptor repertoire allows flies to adjust the chemosensory window through which they “view” their world and to modify the ensemble of expressed chemoreceptor proteins in line with their developmental and physiological state and according to their needs to locate food and oviposition sites under different social and physical environmental conditions. Furthermore, males and females differ in their expression profiles of chemoreceptor genes. Thus, each sex experiences its chemical environment via combinatorial activation of distinct chemoreceptor ensembles. The remarkable phenotypic plasticity of the chemoreceptor repertoire raises several fundamental questions. What are the mechanisms that translate environmental cues into regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression? How are gustatory and olfactory cues integrated perceptually? What is the relationship between ensembles of odorant binding proteins and odorant receptors? And, what is the significance of co-regulated chemoreceptor transcriptional networks? PMID:20305396

  3. Analysis of Implementing Lifetime Energy Cost, Including Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel and Energy Footprints of Contractors, as Mandatory Decision Factors in Navy Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    7 Table 2. ISO 14001 versus ISO 50001 (From: Integrated Renewable Energy, 2010...35 Table 2. ISO 14001 versus ISO 50001 (From: Integrated Renewable Energy, 2010) 36 ISO 50001 will focus a company’s attention on...32 1. International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) ......... 32 2. American National

  4. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  5. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  6. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  7. Energy Efficient Window Retrofits in Historic Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    joules. Greenhouse Gases: petroleum-based fuel emissions that contribute to the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of the earth caused by...radiation wants to flow from warm to cool. These sun- warmed objects then re-radiate long-wave rays of invisible infrared heat. Likewise, long-wave...radiant heat is provided within the home from other sources such as heating systems, fireplaces, lightbulbs, appliances and even our warm bodies. Low

  8. Review of antireflective surface structures on laser optics and windows.

    PubMed

    Busse, Lynda E; Frantz, Jesse A; Shaw, L Brandon; Aggarwal, Ishwar D; Sanghera, Jasbinder S

    2015-11-01

    We present recent advancements in structured, antireflective surfaces on optics, including crystals for high-energy lasers as well as windows for the infrared wavelength region. These structured surfaces have been characterized and show high transmission and laser damage thresholds, making them attractive for these applications. We also present successful tests of windows with antireflective surfaces that were exposed to simulated harsh environments for the application of these laser systems.

  9. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  10. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  11. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  12. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  13. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  14. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  15. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  16. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule....

  17. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  18. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. 490.305 Section 490.305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate....

  19. Mergers + acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  20. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  1. Hardware and Software Developments for the Accurate Time-Linked Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,DALE E.; RUMSEY,MARK A.; ZAYAS,JOSE R.

    1999-11-09

    Wind-energy researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed a new, light-weight, modular data acquisition system capable of acquiring long-term, continuous, multi-channel time-series data from operating wind-turbines. New hardware features have been added to this system to make it more flexible and permit programming via telemetry. User-friendly Windows-based software has been developed for programming the hardware and acquiring, storing, analyzing, and archiving the data. This paper briefly reviews the major components of the system, summarizes the recent hardware enhancements and operating experiences, and discusses the features and capabilities of the software programs that have been developed.

  2. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  3. Single Project Replaces District's Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The towns of Maplewood and South Orange (New Jersey) earmarked over $1 million, raised from a bond issue, to replace with thermal aluminum-framed units the 2400 worn out windows in eight 50-year-old schools. (Author)

  4. Expanding Window Compressed Sensing for Non-Uniform Compressible Signals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xuqi; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    Many practical compressible signals like image signals or the networked data in wireless sensor networks have non-uniform support distribution in their sparse representation domain. Utilizing this prior information, a novel compressed sensing (CS) scheme with unequal protection capability is proposed in this paper by introducing a windowing strategy called expanding window compressed sensing (EW-CS). According to the importance of different parts of the signal, the signal is divided into several nested subsets, i.e., the expanding windows. Each window generates its own measurements using a random sensing matrix. The more significant elements are contained by more windows, so they are captured by more measurements. This design makes the EW-CS scheme have more convenient implementation and better overall recovery quality for non-uniform compressible signals than ordinary CS schemes. These advantages are theoretically analyzed and experimentally confirmed. Moreover, the EW-CS scheme is applied to the compressed acquisition of image signals and networked data where it also has superior performance than ordinary CS and the existing unequal protection CS schemes. PMID:23201984

  5. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  6. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  7. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  8. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  9. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Lee A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  10. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOEpatents

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  11. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  12. A window into occupant-driven energy outcomes: Leveraging sub-metering infrastructure to examine psychosocial factors driving long-term outcomes of short-term competition-based energy interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Konis, Kyle; Orosz, Michael; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-01-07

    Competition-based “energy saving” interventions are increasingly promoted as an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption in buildings with large occupant controlled electrical loads. However, the factors that drive energy savings in such interventions are not well understood, nor are the impacts of short-term competitions on long-term energy performance. A total of 39 8-occupant suites in a freshman residence hall were instrumented with “smart” electric meters, which recorded circuit-level electricity consumption at 15-minute intervals. During a three-week Fall 2014 competition, suites competed to reduce their overall electricity demand and achieved a 6.4% reduction in whole-building demand overall and a 12% reduction during hours of peak demand (from 12:00 to 19:00), despite peak seasonal temperatures and all-time record electricity demand. Analysis incorporating weather-normalized HVAC demand after the competition showed a significant “rebound” for a large portion of the suites (19), however 12 suites made further reductions, and the remainder maintained demand at the competition level. As a result, we compared energy data with self-reported survey data and identified self-efficacy beliefs, pro-environmental behaviors, and sense of affiliation with other residents of the hall as key factors distinguishing the suites with the greatest and most persistent reductions in demand from suites that maintained or increased demand.

  13. A window into occupant-driven energy outcomes: Leveraging sub-metering infrastructure to examine psychosocial factors driving long-term outcomes of short-term competition-based energy interventions

    DOE PAGES

    Konis, Kyle; Orosz, Michael; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-01-07

    Competition-based “energy saving” interventions are increasingly promoted as an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption in buildings with large occupant controlled electrical loads. However, the factors that drive energy savings in such interventions are not well understood, nor are the impacts of short-term competitions on long-term energy performance. A total of 39 8-occupant suites in a freshman residence hall were instrumented with “smart” electric meters, which recorded circuit-level electricity consumption at 15-minute intervals. During a three-week Fall 2014 competition, suites competed to reduce their overall electricity demand and achieved a 6.4% reduction in whole-building demand overall and a 12% reductionmore » during hours of peak demand (from 12:00 to 19:00), despite peak seasonal temperatures and all-time record electricity demand. Analysis incorporating weather-normalized HVAC demand after the competition showed a significant “rebound” for a large portion of the suites (19), however 12 suites made further reductions, and the remainder maintained demand at the competition level. As a result, we compared energy data with self-reported survey data and identified self-efficacy beliefs, pro-environmental behaviors, and sense of affiliation with other residents of the hall as key factors distinguishing the suites with the greatest and most persistent reductions in demand from suites that maintained or increased demand.« less

  14. Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.

    2016-07-01

    Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.

  15. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-03

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  16. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2016-07-12

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  17. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-05

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  18. Tuning vibrational mode localization with frequency windowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Talbot, Justin J.; Steele, Ryan P.

    2016-09-01

    Local-mode coordinates have previously been shown to be an effective starting point for anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy calculations. This general approach borrows techniques from localized-orbital machinery in electronic structure theory and generates a new set of spatially localized vibrational modes. These modes exhibit a well-behaved spatial decay of anharmonic mode couplings, which, in turn, allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of couplings and increased computational efficiency. Fully localized modes, however, have been found to lead to unintuitive mixtures of characteristic motions, such as stretches and bends, and accordingly large bilinear couplings. In this work, a very simple, tunable localization frequency window is introduced, in order to realize the transition from normal modes to fully localized modes. Partial localization can be achieved by localizing only pairs of modes within this traveling frequency window, which allows for intuitive interpretation of modes. The optimal window size is suggested to be a few hundreds of wave numbers, based on small- to medium-sized test systems, including water clusters and polypeptides. The new sets of partially localized coordinates retain their spatial coupling decay behavior while providing a reduced number of potential energy evaluations for convergence of anharmonic spectra.

  19. Modeling windows in DOE-2.1E

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.S.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Arasteh, D.K.; Carroll, W.L.

    1992-12-01

    The most recent version of the DOE-2 building energy simulation program, DOE-2.1E, provides for more detailed modeling of the thermal and optical properties of windows. The window calculations account for the temperature effects on U-value, and update the incident angle correlations for the solar heat gain properties and visible transmittance. Initial studies show up to a 35% difference in calculating peak solar heat gain between the detailed approach and a constant shading-coefficient approach. The modeling approach is adapted from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s WINDOW 4 computer program, which is used in the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) U-value rating procedure 100-91. This gives DOE-2.1E the capability to assess the annual and peak energy performance of windows consistent with the NFRC procedure. The program has an extensive window library and algorithms for simulating switchable glazings. The program also accounts for the influence of framing elements on the heat transfer and solar heat gain through the window.

  20. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern

    2010-03-15

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  1. High power windows for WR650 waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Mircea Stirbet; Robert Rimmer; Thomas Elliott; Edward Daly; Katherine Wilson; Lynn Vogel; Haipeng Wang; Brian Carpenter; Karl Smith; Thomas Powers; Michael Drury; Robert Nichols; G. Davis

    2007-06-01

    Based on the robust, pre-stressed planar window concept successfully tested for PEP II and LEDA, a new design for planar ceramic windows to be used with WR650 waveguide fundamental power couplers at 1300 MHz or 1500 MHz has been developed. These windows should operate in pulsed or CW mode and sustain at least 100 kW average power levels. This paper describes an overview of the simulations performed to match the ceramics in WR650 waveguides, design details, as well as the RF measurements and performance assessed by RF power tests on several high power windows manufactured at JLAB. Funding Agency: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, and by The Office of Naval Research under contract to the Dept. of Energy.

  2. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  3. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  4. Time-resolved Neutron-gamma-ray Data Acquisition for in Situ Subsurface Planetary Geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnarik, Julie G.; Burger, Dan Michael; Burger, A.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr R. D.; Stassun, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface elemental composition of planetary bodies in situ. Previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on neutrons produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  5. Time-Resolved Data Acquisition for In Situ Subsurface Planetary Geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnarik, Julia Gates; Burger, Dan M.; Burger, Arnold; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Starr, Richard D.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2012-01-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface geochemistry of planetary bodies in situ. All previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on a constant neutron source produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  6. Data Acquisition from Volatile Memory: A Memory Acquisition Tool for Microsoft Windows Vista

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Timothy M. Vidas Second Reader: George W. Dinolt THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...Author: Choong Wee Vincent Cheong Approved by: Timothy M. Vidas Thesis Advisor George W. Dinolt Second Reader Peter J...10 a. CreateService API ....................................................... 10 b. Manually Editing the

  7. Extending the X Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1993-12-23

    The X Window System was originally developed in 1984 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It provides client-server computing functionality and also facilitates the establishment of a distributed computing environment. Since its inception the X Window System has undergone many enhancements. Despite these enhancements there will always be a functionality desired in the standard released version of X that is not supported or commercially or academically available. The developers of the X Window System have designed it in such a way that it is possible to add functionality that is not included in the standard release. This is called an extension. Extensions are one method used to develop a customized version of the X Window System to support a specialized application. This report presents the mechanics of adding an extension and examines a particular extension that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support data compression in X Windows which was one aspect of the Desktop Video and Collaborative Engineering Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD).

  8. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  9. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into...

  10. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  11. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-12-15

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking.

  12. Plasmonic Smart Windows: A New Invention from Berkeley's Molecular Foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Guillermo

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, roughly 20% of the annual energy consumption comes from lighting and thermal management within buildings. By adjusting to the surrounding environment, dynamic ``smart'' window coatings minimize the need for heating and artificial lighting through solar gain optimization. Current dynamic windows can only operate through a visible tint, which reduces natural light during thermal management. This talk will focus on discussing a near infrared plasmonic electrochromic coating developed at Berkeley's Molecular Foundry that dynamically modulate solar heat without affecting visible light. Use of this new class of dynamic coating can improve energy consumption by minimizing artificial lighting during solar gain optimization.

  13. Integrated windows-based control system for an electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Shengyang; Kapp, Oscar H.

    1994-12-01

    A Windows application has been developed for management and operation of beam instruments such as electron or ion microscopes. It provides a facility that allows an operator to manage a complicated instrument with minimal effort, primarily under mouse control. The hardware control components used on similar instruments (e.g., the scanning transmission electron microscopes in our lab), such as toggles, buttons, and potentiometers for adjustments on various scales, are all replaced by the controls of the Windows application and are addressable on a single screen. The new controls in this program (via adjustable software settings) offer speed of response and smooth operation providing tailored control of various instrument parameters. Along with the controls offering single parameter adjustment, a two-dimensional control was developed that allows two parameters to be coupled and addressed simultaneously. This capability provides convenience for such tasks as ``finding the beam'' and directing it to a location of interest on the specimen. Using an icon-based display, this Windows application provides better integrated and more robust information for monitoring instrument status than the indicators and meters of the traditional instrument controls. As a Windows application, this program is naturally able to share the resources of the Windows system and is thus able to link to many other applications such as our image acquisition and processing programs. Computer control provides automatic protection and instant diagnostics for the experimental instrument. This Windows application is fully functional and is in daily use to control a new type of electron microscope developed in our lab.

  14. Ecophysiological function of leaf 'windows' in Lithops species - 'Living Stones' that grow underground.

    PubMed

    Martin, C E; Brandmeyer, E A; Ross, R D

    2013-01-01

    Leaf temperatures were lower when light entry at the leaf tip window was prevented through covering the window with reflective tape, relative to leaf temperatures of plants with leaf tip windows covered with transparent tape. This was true when leaf temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer, but not with a fine-wire thermocouple. Leaf tip windows of Lithops growing in high-rainfall regions of southern Africa were larger than the windows of plants (numerous individuals of 17 species) growing in areas with less rainfall and, thus, more annual insolation. The results of this study indicate that leaf tip windows of desert plants with an underground growth habit can allow entry of supra-optimal levels of radiant energy, thus most likely inhibiting photosynthetic activity. Consequently, the size of the leaf tip windows correlates inversely with habitat solar irradiance, minimising the probability of photoinhibition, while maximising the absorption of irradiance in cloudy, high-rainfall regions.

  15. Nano-materials enabled thermoelectricity from window glasses.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Salman B; Rader, Kelly R; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2012-01-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m(2) window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology.

  16. Nano-materials Enabled Thermoelectricity from Window Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayat, Salman B.; Rader, Kelly R.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2012-11-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m2 window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology.

  17. Nano-materials Enabled Thermoelectricity from Window Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Salman B.; Rader, Kelly R.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2012-01-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m2 window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology. PMID:23150789

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  19. Low-E Storm Windows Gain Acceptance as a Home Weatherization Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2016-05-16

    This article for Home Energy Magazine describes work by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop low-emissivity storm windows as an energy efficiency-retrofit option for existing homes. The article describes the low-emissivity invisible silver metal coatings on the glass, which reflect heat back into the home in winter or back outside in summer and the benefits of low-e storm windows including insulation, air sealing, noise blocking, protection of antique windows, etc. The article also describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's efforts on behalf of DOE to overcome market barriers to adoption of the technology, including performance validation studies in the PNNL Lab Homes, cost effectiveness analysis, production of reports, brochures, how-to guides on low-e storm window installation for the Building America Solution Center, and a video posted on YouTube. PNNL's efforts were reviewed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Technical Forum (RTF), which serves as the advisory board to the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration. In late July 2015, the RTF approved the low-e storm window measure’s savings and specifications, a critical step in integrating low-e storm windows into energy-efficiency planning and utility weatherization and incentive programs. PNNL estimates that more than 90 million homes in the United States with single-pane or low-performing double-pane windows would benefit from the technology. Low-e storm windows are suitable not only for private residences but also for small commercial buildings, historic properties, and facilities that house residents, such as nursing homes, dormitories, and in-patient facilities. To further assist in the market transformation of low-e storm windows and other high-efficiency window attachments, DOE helped found the window Attachment Energy Rating Council (AERC) in 2015. AERC is an independent, public interest, non-profit organization whose mission is to rate, label

  20. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  1. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  2. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  3. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  4. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  5. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  6. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  7. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  8. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  9. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  10. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  11. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  12. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  13. Closing the Windows on Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Norman

    1995-01-01

    The rapid adoption of graphic user interface (GUI), as indicated by Microsoft's Windows95 and the Internet's increased use of graphics, is threatening information technology opportunities for people with disabilities. Recent legislation requires that schools provide access to computers and information technology, and producers of Mosaic are…

  14. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  15. Optical Window Materials For Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Robert H.

    1989-09-01

    Optical window materials were investigated for infrared sensor systems used in observing ground targets from a hypersonic-glide vehicle. The equilibrium temperature of the window in the glide region depends on the emissivity and varied between 1,370 and 2,250 K. The high temperatures showed that a protective cover over the window is required during the entire glide region of the trajectory. Ejection of the window cover at 70-kft altitude in the terminal region was assumed, resulting in maximum window temperatures of 565 K and 592 K for magnesium oxide and diamond windows, respectively, both 0.8-in thick. The window temperatures for germanium and sapphire were also calculated. Thermal shock, thermal expansion, the effects of the window radiation on the infrared detectors and methods to reduce the hot window problem were examined.

  16. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  17. Low heat transfer, high strength window materials

    DOEpatents

    Berlad, Abraham L.; Salzano, Francis J.; Batey, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-pane window with improved insulating qualities; comprising a plurality of transparent or translucent panes held in an essentially parallel, spaced-apart relationship by a frame. Between at least one pair of panes is a convection defeating means comprising an array of parallel slats or cells so designed as to prevent convection currents from developing in the space between the two panes. The convection defeating structures may have reflective surfaces so as to improve the collection and transmittance of the incident radiant energy. These same means may be used to control (increase or decrease) the transmittance of solar energy as well as to decouple the radiative transfer between the interior surfaces of the transparent panes.

  18. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  19. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  20. Window decompression in laser-heated MagLIF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Sefkow, Adam

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept requires pre-magnetized fuel to be pre-heated with a laser before undergoing compression by a thick solid liner. Recent experiments and simulations suggest that yield has been limited to date by poor laser preheat and laser-induced mix in the fuel region. In order to assess laser energy transmission through the pressure-holding window, as well as resultant mix, we modeled window disassembly under different conditions using 1D and 2D simulations in both Helios and HYDRA. We present results tracking energy absorption, time needed for decompression, risk of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) that may scatter laser light, and potential for mix from various window thicknesses, laser spot sizes and gas fill densities. These results indicate that using thinner windows (0.5-1 μm windows) and relatively large laser spot radii (600 μm and above) can avoid deleterious effects and improve coupling with the fuel. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  1. An Acquisition Guide for Executives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide covers the following subjects; What is Acquisition?, Purpose and Primary Functions of the Agency’s Acquisition System, Key Organizations in Acquisitions, Legal Framework, Key Players in Acquisitions, Acquisition Process, Acquisition Thresholds

  2. Windows in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Tacconi-Garman, Lowell Evan; Boulanger, Francois; Okumura, Koryo

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were twofold: (1) to study the IRAS emission levels in the vicinity of Baade's Window and in other optically transparent regions near the Galactic Center; and (2) to study the IRAS emission levels along sightlines in the Milky Way that exhibit very little CO emission. Tests were attempted to see whether the optically transparent 'windows' near the Galactic center can be identified (as FIR-weak regions) in the IRAS data base; and if so, whether the CO weak regions found elsewhere in the Milky Way represent similarly FIR weak and thus optically transparent sightlines through the Galaxy. The CO weak regions were also targeted in an effort to study the diffuse intercloud dust and its warming by the interstellar radiation field.

  3. Low-Absorption Laser Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Halides 20 AB^rWACT (Continue on reverse side II necessary mnd Identity by block number) This semiannual report summarizes work by NRL under ARPA...20375, under ARPA Order 3006. The program was coordinated by Dr, P. H. Klein of NRL, and monitored by Dr. C. M. Stickley and CAPT II. Winsor of ARPA...of lowloss laser- window materials. This work, under ARPA Order 3066, is a direct outgrowth of that begun under ARPA Order 2031. (The two

  4. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-05-04

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  5. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  6. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form... coverage agreed upon. If you prefer, you may give the buyer a copy of the original, so long as that...

  7. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form... coverage agreed upon. If you prefer, you may give the buyer a copy of the original, so long as that...

  8. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form... coverage agreed upon. If you prefer, you may give the buyer a copy of the original, so long as that...

  9. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form... coverage agreed upon. If you prefer, you may give the buyer a copy of the original, so long as that...

  10. Breakdown phenomena in rf windows

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.

    1995-07-05

    The multipactor and flashover phenomena of alumina rf windows used in high-power klystrons have been investigated. Multipactoring due to the high yield of secondary electron emission takes place during rf operation. A spectrum analysis of the luminescence due to multipactoring shows that multipactor electron bombardment causes an F-center of alumina, thus leading to surface melting. From the results of a high-power examination of rf windows with several kinds of alumina ceramics, it was found that an alumina material with a crystallized grain-boundary and without any voids between the boundaries, thus having a low loss-tangent value, is not liable to F-centers, even under multipactoring. Flashovers in a tree-like pattern of alumina luminescence occasionally take place on a TiN-coated surface. From the results of surface-charging measurements and high-power examinations of annealed alumina disks, the flashover phenomenon is considered to be an avalanche of electrons which have been trapped in mechanically introduced defects. The effectivenesses of multipactor-suppressing coatings and of a field-reduced window structure were also examined. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  11. Development of Zinc Sulfide Seeker Window Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 15 JAN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of...contrasting to the currently used THAAD sapphire window and validate the predictions for an alternate seeker window material, multispectral zinc...and validate the capability of multispectral zinc sulfide seeker window material. The use of zinc sulfide as a replacement window for the current

  12. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  13. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  14. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  15. WINDOW 4. 0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  16. Radiation damage in diagnostic window materials for the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1981-07-01

    The general problem of evaluating diagnostic window materials for the TFTR at the tank wall location is described. Specific evaluations are presented for several materials: vitreous silica, crystal quartz, sapphire, zinc selenide, and several fluorides: lithium fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and calcium fluoride; and seal glasses are discussed. The effects of the neutrons will be minimal. The major problems arise from the high flux of ionizing radiation, mainly the soft x rays which are absorbed near the surface of the materials. Additionally, this large energy deposition causes a significant thermal pulse with attendant thermal stresses. It is thus desirable to protect the windows with cover slips where this is feasible or to reduce the incident radiation by mounting the windows on long pipes. A more detailed summary is given at the end of this report.

  17. Design and comparison of laser windows for high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yanxiong; Liu, Wenwen; Liu, Haixia; Wang, Caili; Niu, Haisha; Man, Da

    2014-11-01

    High-power laser systems are getting more and more widely used in industry and military affairs. It is necessary to develop a high-power laser system which can operate over long periods of time without appreciable degradation in performance. When a high-energy laser beam transmits through a laser window, it is possible that the permanent damage is caused to the window because of the energy absorption by window materials. So, when we design a high-power laser system, a suitable laser window material must be selected and the laser damage threshold of the window must be known. In this paper, a thermal analysis model of high-power laser window is established, and the relationship between the laser intensity and the thermal-stress field distribution is studied by deducing the formulas through utilizing the integral-transform method. The influence of window radius, thickness and laser intensity on the temperature and stress field distributions is analyzed. Then, the performance of K9 glass and the fused silica glass is compared, and the laser-induced damage mechanism is analyzed. Finally, the damage thresholds of laser windows are calculated. The results show that compared with K9 glass, the fused silica glass has a higher damage threshold due to its good thermodynamic properties. The presented theoretical analysis and simulation results are helpful for the design and selection of high-power laser windows.

  18. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  19. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  20. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  1. Improving DoD Energy Efficiency: Combining MMOWGLI Social-Media Brainstorming with Lexical Link Analysis (LLA) to Strengthen the Defense Acquisition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    from MIT and co-founded Quantum Intelligence, Inc. She has been a principal investigator (PI) for six DoD Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR... consciously and consistently.  Following a series of deliberate experiments, long-term procedural improvements to the formal milestone acquisition process

  2. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  3. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  4. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  5. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  6. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  7. Optimisation of acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie; Cobbold, Mark; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Decreasing the acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT) will enable animals to be imaged within the window of stable emission of the bioluminescent source, a higher imaging throughput and minimisation of the time which an animal is anaesthetised. This work investigates, through simulation using a heterogeneous mouse model, two methods of decreasing acquisition time: 1. Imaging at fewer wavelengths (a reduction from five to three); and 2. Increasing the bandwidth of filters used for imaging. The results indicate that both methods are viable ways of decreasing the acquisition time without a loss in quantitative accuracy. Importantly, when choosing imaging wavelengths, the spectral attenuation of tissue and emission spectrum of the source must be considered, in order to choose wavelengths at which a high signal can be achieved. Additionally, when increasing the bandwidth of the filters used for imaging, the bandwidth must be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm.

  8. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  9. Sustainable Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    into the world’s atmo- sphere. This causes heat to be trapped in the atmosphere and is an escalating worldwide issue contributing to global warm - ing...of energy resources such as petroleum byproducts and electricity. DoD is concerned about global warming because it can adversely affect the weather...operations. Several greenhouse gases that humans release into the at- mosphere include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide , and meth- ane. Carbon dioxide is

  10. Energy dependence of scatter components in multispectral PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Bentourkia, M; Msaki, P; Cadorette, J; Lecomte, R

    1995-01-01

    High resolution images in PET based on small individual detectors are obtained at the cost of low sensitivity and increased detector scatter. These limitations can be partially overcome by enlarging discrimination windows to include more low-energy events and by developing more efficient energy-dependent methods to correct for scatter radiation from all sources. The feasibility of multispectral scatter correction was assessed by decomposing response functions acquired in multiple energy windows into four basic components: object, collimator and detector scatter, and trues. The shape and intensity of these components are different and energy-dependent. They are shown to contribute to image formation in three ways: useful (true), potentially useful (detector scatter), and undesirable (object and collimator scatter) information to the image over the entire energy range. With the Sherbrooke animal PET system, restoration of detector scatter in every energy window would allow nearly 90% of all detected events to participate in image formation. These observations suggest that multispectral acquisition is a promising solution for increasing sensitivity in high resolution PET. This can be achieved without loss of image quality if energy-dependent methods are made available to preserve useful events as potentially useful events are restored and undesirable events removed.

  11. High-speed data acquisition for three-dimensional x-ray and neutron computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony W.; Claytor, Thomas N.; Sheats, Matthew J.

    1999-09-01

    Computed tomography for nondestructive evaluation applications has been limited by system cost, resolution, and time requirements for three-dimensional data sets. FlashCT (Flat panel Amorphous Silicon High-Resolution Computed Tomography) is a system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to address these three problems. Developed around a flat panel amorphous silicon detector array, FlashCT is suitable for low to medium energy x-ray and neutron computed tomography at 127- micron resolution. Overall system size is small, allowing rapid transportation to a variety of radiographic sources. System control software was developed in LabVIEW for Windows NT to allow multithreading of data acquisition, data correction, and staging motor control. The system control software simplifies data collection and allows fully automated control of the data acquisition process, leading toward remote or unattended operation. The first generation of the FlashCT Data Acquisition System was completed in August 1998, and since that time the system has been tested using x-ray sources ranging in energy from 60 kV to 20MV. The system has also been used to collect data for thermal neutron computed tomography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). System improvements have been proposed to provide faster data collection and greater dynamic range during data collection.

  12. High Speed Data Acquisition System for Three-Dimensional X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.W.; Claytor, T.N.; Sheats, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Computed tomography for nondestructive evaluation applications has been limited by system cost, resolution, and time requirements for three-dimensional data sets. FlashCT (Flat panel Amorphous Silicon High-Resolution Computed Tomography) is a system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to address these three problems. Developed around a flat panel amorphous silicon detector array, FlashCT is suitable for low to medium energy x-ray and neutron computed tomography at 127-micron resolution. Overall system size is small, allowing rapid transportation to a variety of radiographic sources. System control software was developed in LabVIEW for Windows NT to allow multithreading of data acquisition, data correction, and staging motor control. The system control software simplifies data collection and allows fully automated control of the data acquisition process, leading toward remote or unattended operation. The first generation of the FlashCT Data Acquisition System was completed in Au gust 1998, and since that time the system has been tested using x-ray sources ranging in energy from 60 kV to 20MV. The system has also been used to collect data for thermal neutron computed tomography at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). System improvements have been proposed to provide faster data collection and greater dynamic range during data collection.

  13. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  14. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking...

  15. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... business August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and...

  16. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly

  17. Defense Acquisition Workforce Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Acquisition , Technology & Logistics, 2000). PBSA “involves acquisition strategies, methods, and techniques that describe and communicate measurable ... Acquisition Workforce Distribution of DoD Workforce and Attrition Rates Seperation Rates Distribution of Workforce by Years of Service 38 A final issue... measurement . 14 Provisions within the IMPROVE Act demand greater accountability from the acquisition workforce, improve financial management, expand

  18. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  19. Durable coatings for IR windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Jha, Santosh K.; Gunda, Nilesh; Cooke, Rick; Agarwal, Neeta; Sastri, Suri A.; Harker, Alan; Kirsch, Jim

    2005-05-01

    Durable coatings of silicon-carbon-oxy-nitride (a.k.a. SiCON) are being developed to protect high-speed missile windows from the environmental loads during flight. Originally developed at Rockwell Scientific Corporation (RSC) these coatings exhibited substantial promise, but were difficult to deposit. Under a DoD DARPA SBIR Phase I program, Surmet Corporation, working closely with RSC, is depositing these coatings using an innovative vacuum vapor deposition process. High rate of coating deposition and the ease of manipulating the process variables, make Surmet"s process suitable for the deposition of substantially thick films (up to 30 μm) with precisely controlled chemistry. Initial work has shown encouraging results, and the refinement of the coating and coating process is still underway. Coupons of SiN and SiCON coatings with varying thickness on a variety of substrates such as Si-wafer, ZnS and ALON were fabricated and used for the study. This paper will present and discuss the results of SiN and SiCON coatings deposition and characterization (physical, mechanical and optical properties) as a basis for evaluating their suitability for high speed missile windows application.

  20. Interferometer for Space Station Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Inspection of space station windows for micrometeorite damage would be a difficult task insitu using current inspection techniques. Commercially available optical profilometers and inspection systems are relatively large, about the size of a desktop computer tower, and require a stable platform to inspect the test object. Also, many devices currently available are designed for a laboratory or controlled environments requiring external computer control. This paper presents an approach using a highly developed optical interferometer to inspect the windows from inside the space station itself using a self- contained hand held device. The interferometer would be capable as a minimum of detecting damage as small as one ten thousands of an inch in diameter and depth while interrogating a relatively large area. The current developmental state of this device is still in the proof of concept stage. The background section of this paper will discuss the current state of the art of profilometers as well as the desired configuration of the self-contained, hand held device. Then, a discussion of the developments and findings that will allow the configuration change with suggested approaches appearing in the proof of concept section.

  1. Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A., Ed.; Churchill, Eton, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner…

  2. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    In a photon counting detector array, each pixel in the array produces an electrical pulse when an incident photon on that pixel is detected. Detection and demodulation of an optical communication signal that modulated the intensity of the optical signal requires counting the number of photon arrivals over a given interval. As the size of photon counting photodetector arrays increases, parallel processing of all the pixels exceeds the resources available in current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and gate array (GA) technology; the desire for a high fill factor in avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays also precludes this. Through the use of downsampling and windowing portions of the detector array, the processing is distributed between the ASIC and GA. This allows demodulation of the optical communication signal incident on a large photon counting detector array, as well as providing architecture amenable to algorithmic changes. The detector array readout ASIC functions as a parallel-to-serial converter, serializing the photodetector array output for subsequent processing. Additional downsampling functionality for each pixel is added to this ASIC. Due to the large number of pixels in the array, the readout time of the entire photodetector is greater than the time between photon arrivals; therefore, a downsampling pre-processing step is done in order to increase the time allowed for the readout to occur. Each pixel drives a small counter that is incremented at every detected photon arrival or, equivalently, the charge in a storage capacitor is incremented. At the end of a user-configurable counting period (calculated independently from the ASIC), the counters are sampled and cleared. This downsampled photon count information is then sent one counter word at a time to the GA. For a large array, processing even the downsampled pixel counts exceeds the capabilities of the GA. Windowing of the array, whereby several subsets of pixels are designated

  3. Challenger Center's Window on the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Smith, S.; Bobrowsky, M.; Radnofsky, M.; Perelmuter, J.-M.; Jaggar, L.

    2001-11-01

    Challenger Center for Space Science Education's Window on the Universe program aims to create a network of under-served communities across the nation dedicated to sustained science, math, and technology education. Window communities presently include Broken Arrow, OK; Muncie, IN; Moscow, ID; Nogales, AZ; Tuskegee, AL; Marquette, MI; Altamont, KS; Washington, D.C.; and other emerging sites. Window uses themes of human space flight and the space sciences as interdisciplinary means to inspire entire communities. Practicing scientists and engineers engaged in these disciplines are invited to volunteer to become a part of these communities for a week, each visitor reaching roughly 2000 K-12 students through individual classroom visits and Family Science Night events during an intense Window on the Universe Week. In the same Window Week, Challenger Center scientists and educators present a workshop for local educators to provide training in the use of a K-12 educational module built around a particular space science and exploration theme. Window communities follow a 3-year development: Year 1, join the network, experience Window Week presented by Challenger Center and visiting researchers; Year 2, same as Year 1 plus workshop on partnering with local organizations to develop sources of visiting researchers and to enhance connections with local resources; Year 3 and subsequent, the community stages its own Window Week, with Challenger Center providing new education modules and training workshops for "master educators" from the Window community, after which the master educators return home to conduct training workshops of their own. Challenger Center remains a resource and clearinghouse for Window communities to acquire experience, technical information, and opportunities for distance collaboration with other Window communities. Window on the Universe is dedicated to assessing degree of success vs. failure in each program component and as a whole, using pre- and post

  4. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  5. THE METABOLOMIC WINDOW INTO HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emergent discipline of metabolomics has attracted considerable research effort in hepatology. Here we review the metabolomic data for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B and C, cholecystitis, cholestasis, liver transplantation and acute hepatotoxicity in animal models. A metabolomic window has permitted a view into the changing biochemistry occurring in the transitional phases between a healthy liver and hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. Whether provoked by obesity and diabetes, alcohol use or oncogenic viruses, the liver develops a core metabolomic phenotype (CMP) that involves dysregulation of bile acid and phospholipid homeostasis. The CMP commences at the transition between the healthy liver (Phase 0) and NAFLD/NASH, ALD or viral hepatitis (Phase 1). This CMP is maintained in the presence or absence of cirrhosis (Phase 2) and whether or not either HCC or CCA (Phase 3) develop. Inflammatory signalling in the liver triggers the appearance of the CMP. Many other metabolomic markers distinguish between Phases 0, 1, 2 and 3. A metabolic remodelling in HCC has been described but metabolomic data from all four Phases demonstrate that the Warburg shift from mitochondrial respiration to cytosolic glycolysis foreshadows HCC and may occur as early as Phase 1. The metabolic remodelling also involves an upregulation of fatty acid β-oxidation, also beginning in Phase 1. The storage of triglycerides in fatty liver provides high energy-yielding substrates for Phases 2 and 3 of liver pathology. The metabolomic window into hepatobiliary disease sheds new light on the systems pathology of the liver. PMID:23714158

  6. In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging in the Second Near-Infrared Window Using Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guosong; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    In vivo fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II window, 1000-1700 nm) is a powerful imaging technique that emerged in recent years. This imaging tool allows for noninvasive, deep-tissue visualization and interrogation of anatomical features and functions with improved imaging resolution and contrast at greater tissue penetration depths than traditional fluorescence imaging. Here, we present the detailed protocol for conducting NIR-II fluorescence imaging in live animals, including the procedures for preparation of biocompatible and NIR-II fluorescent carbon nanotube solution, live animal administration and NIR-II fluorescence image acquisition.

  7. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  8. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  9. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  10. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    SciTech Connect

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed.

  11. Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by Boeing, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Space Station Manufacturing building, the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) will help Space Station crews take some of the best photographs ever snapped from an orbiting spacecraft by eliminating glare and allowing researchers to control their cameras and other equipment from the ground. The WORF is designed to make the best possible use of the high-quality research window in the Space Station's U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Engineers at the MSFC proposed a derivative of the EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Rack already used on the Space Station and were given the go-ahead. The EXPRESS rack can hold a wide variety of experiments and provide them with power, communications, data, cooling, fluids, and other utilities - all the things that Earth-observing experiment instruments would need. WORF will supply payloads with power, data, cooling, video downlink, and stable, standardized interfaces for mounting imaging instruments. Similar to specialized orbital observatories, the interior of the rack is sealed against light and coated with a special low-reflectant black paint, so payloads will be able to observe low-light-level subjects such as the faint glow of auroras. Cameras and remote sensing instruments in the WORF can be preprogrammed, controlled from the ground, or operated by a Station crewmember by using a flexible shroud designed to cinch tightly around the crewmember's waist. The WORF is scheduled to be launched aboard the STS-114 Space Shuttle mission in the year 2003.

  12. Estimates of the image quality and the radiation dose for head and abdomen phantom image acquisition by using dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hong; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Jeon, Pil-Hyun; Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Soo

    2012-04-01

    Using dual-energy computed tomography (CT) scans, we obtained images from a raw data set by using low- and high-energy scans (usually 80 and 140 kV, respectively). Generally, the head and the abdomen examinations were performed using single-energy (120 kV) scanning with a routine exposure protocol, and the images were used for diagnostic interpretation. The dual-energy CT scans can also be used for diagnosis by using the linearly-mixed method with low- and high-energy images. In the current study, we evaluated mixed images in dual-energy and single-energy scans for image quality and radiation dose. The CT scan protocol for single energy was adopted from IEC protocols, and the recommended dose from the EC. The dual-energy scan protocol was based on the Siemens dual-energy CT scan protocol. The CT scan protocols were extended further in the mA range for both scans to estimate the image quality corresponding to these dose alternations. The results demonstrate that the Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) value of a dual-energy mixed image is higher than that of a single-energy image in similar dose regions for both the head and the abdomen phantoms. We observed that the dual-energy images could reduce the dose compared to single-energy images. In the abdomen phantom study, the CNR of dual-energy images was even higher than that of single-energy images with half the radiation dose of the single-energy scan. Therefore, the dual-energy CT scan can accomplish a remarkable dose reduction while preserving image quality for head and abdomen imaging.

  13. Energy Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Carol T., Ed.; Wells, Kathy, Ed.

    This collection of reprints offers practical solutions, not readily available elsewhere, to everyday energy problems, such as high utility bills, insulating windows, getting more gas mileage, or buying a more efficient washer or refrigerator. The Arkansas Energy Office provides a weekly column of energy news and conservation tips to newspapers,…

  14. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-09-15

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  15. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  16. Performance tests of large thin vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hall Crannell

    2011-02-01

    Tests of thin composition vacuum windows of the type used for the Tagger in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are described. Three different tests have been performed. These include: (1) measurement of the deformation and durability of a window under long term (>8 years) almost continuous vacuum load, (2) measurement of the deformation as a function of flexing of the window as it is cycled between vacuum and atmosphere, and (3) measurement of the relative diffusion rate of gas through a variety of thin window membranes.

  17. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a DELTA V penalty. Usually, because of the DELTA V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (4) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO (5) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO.

  18. Counterion-induced reversibly switchable transparency in smart windows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Lim, Ho Sun; Kim, Jooyong; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2011-09-27

    Smart windows that can reversibly alternate between extreme optical characteristics via clicking counteranions of different hydration energies were developed on glass substrates through the facile spray-casting of poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate]. The optical transmittance was either 90.9% or 0% over the whole spectral range when alternately immersed in solutions containing thiocyanate (SCN(-)) or bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI(-)) ions, respectively. The extreme optical transitions were attributed to formation of microporous structures via the molecular aggregation of polyelectrolyte chains bearing TFSI(-) ions in methanol. Because the smart windows were either highly transparent toward or completely blocking of incident light upon direct counterion exchange, this kind of nanotechnology may provide a new platform for efficiently conserving on energy usage in the interior of buildings.

  19. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  20. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  1. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  2. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  3. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  4. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  5. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  6. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of real property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES...'s own name, with title eventually vesting in the Government. (2) Lease, and the Government...

  7. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable...

  8. Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Concrete sill and spandrel also illustrated. Building 43, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-06-08

    Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

  10. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  11. 48 CFR 907.105 - Contents of written acquisition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition plans. (b)(16) Environmental and energy conservation objectives. Incorporate sustainable building considerations including building location and regional planning considerations into planning for new...

  12. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  13. Window-Integrated Low Concentration Planar Light Guide Solar Concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Daniel James Lawler

    Several novel low concentration solar concentrator photovoltaic designs are presented, based on the planar light guide architecture pioneered by the University of Rochester. These systems are designed for integration into windows, requiring them to be stationary and to have a large acceptance angle since they cannot move to track the sun. The application goal is to use solar generated electricity to offset the energy lost through the window during cold times of the year. The systems are evaluated for their effective insulation properties given the calculated net energy lost. Without moving parts, they optimize to have acceptance angles of about 20° to 35° in the vertical direction and +/-90° in the horizontal direction, but have peak optical efficiencies of less than 50%. By including internally moving parts, the acceptance angle is increased to nearly a full pi steradians (the full sky from the point of view of the window) and the average optical efficiency increases to over 50%. Systems in certain locations are not viable due to low solar irradiance in the wintertime, e.g., Rochester, NY. Others, however, reduce net energy loss to zero for much of the year. A prototype of one of the systems is fabricated, measured, and modeled. The simulated and measured performance data are compared and are in close agreement, validating the model and the evaluation methods used during system optimization.

  14. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Petrie, Thomas; Kosny, Jan; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Hulvey, Kimberly D

    2007-11-01

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  15. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  16. Thermal measurements of microwave transmitter feedhorn window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal measurements of microwave transmitter feedhorn windows were performed using an imaging infrared radiometer. The measurement technique is described and results are presented for windows made of 0.001-in. Kapton (trademark of Dupont Chemical Co.) and 0.1-in. HTP-6 (Space Shuttle tile material). Measured and calculated temperatures agree well.

  17. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  18. Tactical/Combat Engines Cetane Window Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    custom diesel fuels typically used in Homogeneous Charge Coupled Ignition ( HCCI ) research engines . These fuels are characterized by a very heavy...UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 436 by Gregory A. Hansen, Douglas Yost...report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW

  19. Mouse Driven Window Graphics for Network Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, G. J.; And Others

    Computer enhanced teaching of computational mathematics on a network system driving graphics terminals is being redeveloped for a mouse-driven, high resolution, windowed environment of a UNIX work station. Preservation of the features of networked access by heterogeneous terminals is provided by the use of the X Window environment. A dmonstrator…

  20. Simulations of lensless imaging in water window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveda, L.; Pina, L.

    2016-11-01

    A number of soft x-ray / water window laboratory sources is being developed by many groups including the group at CTU. This paper presents simulations and critical parameter estimates for lensless imaging using the laboratory sources, especially the capillary discharge source being developed by our group.1 Water window lensless imaging is demonstrated to be generally feasible with high repetition laboratory sources.

  1. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    organizations. The purpose of this research is to determine if Windows XP, when used as a workstation operating system in domain- based networks, provides...... research is to determine if Windows XP, when used as a workstation operating system in domain based networks, provides adequate security policy

  2. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  3. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, K.L.

    THIS PAPER IS A STUDY OF A CHILD'S EARLIEST PRETRANSFORMATIONAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES. A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS (1) THAT SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION OCCURS THROUGH THE TESTING OF HYPOTHESES REFLECTING THE INITIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACQUISITION MECHANISM AND THE LANGUAGE DATA TO WHICH THE CHILD IS EXPOSED, AND (2) THAT…

  4. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.D. ); Freeman, J. ); Powell, F. )

    1992-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high-order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (i.e., nonremovable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin-film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75-in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21-mm diameter for the window material.

  5. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.D. ); Freeman, J. ); Powell, F. )

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  6. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  7. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-01-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  8. Holography of the conformal window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Raul; Evans, Nick; Kim, Keun-Young

    2012-07-01

    Inspired by the model of Jarvinen and Kiritsis, we present a simple holographic model for the onset of chiral symmetry breaking at the edge of the conformal window in QCD in the Veneziano limit. Our most naive model enforces the QCD two-loop running coupling on a D3/D7 holographic brane system. The mass of the holographic field, describing the chiral condensate in the model, is driven below the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound when the running is sufficiently strong, triggering chiral symmetry breaking for Nf/Nc<2.9. This model though contains too great a remnant of supersymmetry and does not correctly encode the perturbative anomalous dimensions of QCD. In a second model we impose the QCD anomalous dimension result and find chiral symmetry breaking sets in for Nf/Nc=4 at a Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type phase transition. In this case the transition is triggered when the anomalous dimension of the mass operator γm=1.

  9. [Analyse Output Specurum in Miniature Transmission X-Ray Tube of Aluminum Window and Silver Target by MC Simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ge, Liang-quan; Lu, Zhen-rui; Luo, Yao-yao; Zhao, Jian-kun; Chen, Shuang

    2015-10-01

    The miniature transmission X-ray tube is widely used in energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA). The miniature transmission X-ray tube with a small, low power consumption, X-ray emission efficiency that can be made the excitation source of handheld X-ray energy dispersive fluorescence analyzer. Beryllium (Be) is the most commonly used X-ray window material. But beryllium is expensive and toxic. At the same time set filtering window by aluminum (Al) to reducing low-energy scattering rays. This paper be adopted Al for exit window material of miniature transmission X-ray tube, achieve high-energy rays transmission and low-energy scattered radiation shielding, at the same time reduce production cost and difficulty. The present paper simulate the X-ray tube output spectrum of silver (Ag) target and aluminum window with different thickness by MCNP5. We consider the X-ray of low energy part is completely shielded when aluminum windows thickness is greater than 1.5 mm. We can conclude that 2 μm and 0.8 mm are the best combination of target thickness and aluminum windows through comparative analysis of existing research results. Then we can get flux of high energy part is big and low energy part is small when the target is 2 μm thick Ag and the window is 0.8 mm thick Al.

  10. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  11. Demonstration of the Performance of Highly Insulating (R-5) Windows in a Matched Pair of Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-12-05

    Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home’s windows has the potential to significantly improve the home’s overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high-quality installation will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the building envelope, decreasing infiltration and thus contributing to reduced heat transmission through building envelope. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. In addition to improvements in energy efficiency, highly insulating windows can have important impacts on occupant comfort by minimizing or eliminating the cold draft many homeowners experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably cooler than the room air temperature. Energy efficiency measures, such as highly insulating windows, also have the potential to decrease peak energy use in a home, which can lead to measurable peak load decreases for a utility service territory if implemented on a large scale. High-performance windows now feature triple-pane glass, double low-e coatings, and vinyl insulated frames to achieve U-factors as low as 0.2 , as compared to double-pane clear glass windows with a U-factor of 0.67, which are common in existing homes across the United States. The highly insulating windows (as they will be referred to in this document) are now available from several manufacturers and show promise to yield considerable energy savings and thermal comfort improvements in homes.

  12. Double window configuration as a low cost microwave waveguide window for plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.

    1997-12-01

    Waveguide windows are major components of a transmission line used in microwave plasma devices. The function of the waveguide window is to provide vacuum isolation of the source side from the plasma chamber while transmitting microwaves with minimum attenuation. Commonly a single thin dielectric plate is sandwiched between a choke type flange and a flat flange and is used as a waveguide window. To arrive at a better window configuration in terms of the low power reflection coefficient, the voltage standing wave ratio calculation is carried out for different window configurations (single window and double window) and for various window thicknesses. It is found that the power reflection is the minimum in the case of double window configuration. The minimum power reflection is as low as 0.8{percent} for a combination of alumina and a quartz plate each of 1 cm thickness in the double window configuration. Also, it is more advantageous to use radial microwave coupling than axial coupling in order to increase the life time of the microwave waveguide window. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Literature Review on Decision Support Methodologies for Acquisition of Military Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    using Monte Carlo simulation Finance ; Insurance; Oil/Gas/Energy; Pharmaceuticals; Manufacturing Windows @RISK 5.5 Palisade Corporation @RISK...performs risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation to show you many possible outcomes in Excel Finance /Banking, Energy & Utilities, Manufacturing...Manufacturing, Defense, IT, Pharmaceuticals, Marketing, Finance , Energy, Education 2GB MS Windows Vista or XP, Apple Mac OS, Linux Blues

  14. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  15. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  16. High-efficiency nanostructured window GaAs solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Kang, Yangsen; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Cui, Yi; Harris, James S

    2013-10-09

    Nanostructures have been widely used in solar cells due to their extraordinary optical properties. In most nanostructured cells, high short circuit current has been obtained due to enhanced light absorption. However, most of them suffer from lowered open circuit voltage and fill factor. One of the main challenges is formation of good junction and electrical contact. In particular, nanostructures in GaAs only have shown unsatisfactory performances (below 5% in energy conversion efficiency) which cannot match their ideal material properties and the record photovoltaic performances in industry. Here we demonstrate a completely new design for nanostructured solar cells that combines nanostructured window layer, metal mesa bar contact with small area, high quality planar junction. In this way, we not only keep the advanced optical properties of nanostructures such as broadband and wide angle antireflection, but also minimize its negative impact on electrical properties. High light absorption, efficient carrier collection, leakage elimination, and good lateral conductance can be simultaneously obtained. A nanostructured window cell using GaAs junction and AlGaAs nanocone window demonstrates 17% energy conversion efficiency and 0.982 V high open circuit voltage.

  17. Thermal runaway in semiconductor laser windows.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R L; O'Keefe, J D

    1972-12-01

    A small perturbation model is used to obtain analytical expressions for the critical or runaway power density for laser windows constructed of semiconductor materials. These equations are used to compute the critical power density for several realistic window installations taking account of the finite value of realizable convection cooling coefficients. Computations were prepared for silicon transmitting 4 .0-micro. radiation and for germanium at 10.6 micro. In this way it is shown that power densities are principally limited by the effectiveness of cooling from the face of the window, that is, the surface perpendicular to the laser beam. Since convection cooling coefficients are small the transmission of high power densities through semiconductor windows is therefore contingent upon finding more effective means to cool the window from the face. Finally, a simplified calculation was made in an attempt to account for nonuniformity of the incident laser beam. a given window, but not severely. The results show the onuniformity reduces the runaway power for a given window, but not severely.

  18. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  19. Robust Feature Extraction Using Variable Window Function in Autocorrelation Domain for Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Ha, Jeonghyun; Hong, Jaekeun

    This paper presents a new feature extraction method for robust speech recognition based on the autocorrelation mel frequency cepstral coefficients (AMFCCs) and a variable window. While the AMFCC feature extraction method uses the fixed double-dynamic-range (DDR) Hamming window for higher-lag autocorrelation coefficients, which are least affected by noise, the proposed method applies a variable window, depending on the frame energy and periodicity. The performance of the proposed method is verified using an Aurora-2 task, and the results confirm a significantly improved performance under noisy conditions.

  20. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to the earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a delta V penalty. Usually, because of the delta V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: 1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO); 4) Two impulsive maneuvers form LEO; and 5) Three impulsive maneuvers form LEO. The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric data

  1. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Paul R.; Shapira, Hanna B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  2. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1979-12-07

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  3. Apollo experience report: Spacecraft structural windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pigg, O. E.; Weiss, S. P.

    1973-01-01

    The window structural design and verification experience is presented for the Apollo command and lunar modules. This report presents window design philosophy, design criteria, hardware description, and qualification and acceptance test programs and discusses the problems encountered and solutions developed in these areas. The structural characteristics of glass are not generally well understood by designers. The optics and instrument glass covers were not considered to be structural components and thus were not normally subjected to the design, qualification, and acceptance standards necessary to preclude failures. These two factors contributed significantly to window problems on both Apollo spacecraft.

  4. Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-05-31

    This study examines the performance of exterior and interior low-e storm panels with a controlled whole home experimental design using PNNL's Lab Homes. Summing the estimated annual average heating and cooling savings, the installation of low-e storm panels resulted in approximately 10% annual energy savings. The results of the experiment will be used to determine and validate performance of low-e storm windows over double pane clear glass windows in a whole home setting.

  5. Energy-Conscious Design. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Practical energy-design elements adaptable for schools include building orientation and shape, inclusion of an energy-storage system, window placement, double or triple window glazing, air-curtain windows, and the use of earth berms and trees as wind breaks. (MLF)

  6. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures.

    PubMed

    Hangartner, Thomas N; Warner, Sarah; Braillon, Pierre; Jankowski, Larry; Shepherd, John

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for the International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference of 2013 in Tampa, Florida, Task Force 2 was created as 1 of 3 task forces in the area of body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The assignment was to review the literature, summarize the relevant findings, and formulate positions covering (1) accuracy and precision assessment, (2) acquisition of DXA body composition measures in patients, and (3) considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. There were 6 primary questions proposed to the task force by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry board and expert panel. Based on a series of systematic reviews, 14 new positions were developed, which are intended to augment and define good clinical practice in quantitative assessment of body composition by DXA.

  7. 4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING BROKEN PEDIMENTED GABLE, ARCHED WINDOW IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING BROKEN PEDIMENTED GABLE, ARCHED WINDOW IN GABLE, AND SEGMENTALLY ARCHED WINDOW HEADS ON SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS - Jacob R. Fisher House, High Street, Oldwick, Hunterdon County, NJ

  8. DETAIL VIEW, WEST VENETIAN WINDOW IN SOUTH WALL. (NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, WEST VENETIAN WINDOW IN SOUTH WALL. (NOTE THE IRON BARS ON THE CELLAR WINDOW BELOW. THIS WINDOW LETS ONTO WHAT WAS LIKELY THE ESTATE OFFICE DURING THE HAMILTONIAN RESIDENCY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  10. DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS. WINDOWS AND WINDOW FRAMES REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. WINDOW 4.0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  12. Motion-blurred star acquisition method of the star tracker under high dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2013-08-26

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices used in spacecraft due to its extremely high accuracy. However, high dynamic performance is still one of its constraints. Smearing appears, making it more difficult to distinguish the energy dispersive star point from the noise. An effective star acquisition approach for motion-blurred star image is proposed in this work. The correlation filter and mathematical morphology algorithm is combined to enhance the signal energy and evaluate slowly varying background noise. The star point can be separated from most types of noise in this manner, making extraction and recognition easier. Partial image differentiation is then utilized to obtain the motion parameters from only one image of the star tracker based on the above process. Considering the motion model, the reference window is adopted to perform centroid determination. Star acquisition results of real on-orbit star images and laboratory validation experiments demonstrate that the method described in this work is effective and the dynamic performance of the star tracker could be improved along with more identified stars and guaranteed position accuracy of the star point.

  13. Combining factual and heuristic knowledge in knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Hull, Richard; Karr, Clark; Hosken, Bruce; Verhagen, William

    1992-01-01

    A knowledge acquisition technique that combines heuristic and factual knowledge represented as two hierarchies is described. These ideas were applied to the construction of a knowledge acquisition interface to the Expert System Analyst (OPERA). The goal of OPERA is to improve the operations support of the computer network in the space shuttle launch processing system. The knowledge acquisition bottleneck lies in gathering knowledge from human experts and transferring it to OPERA. OPERA's knowledge acquisition problem is approached as a classification problem-solving task, combining this approach with the use of factual knowledge about the domain. The interface was implemented in a Symbolics workstation making heavy use of windows, pull-down menus, and other user-friendly devices.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system for aerodynamic flow field around the optical window.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chenglong; Chen, Shouqian; Zhang, Wang; Ren, Jinhan; Li, Chong; Pang, Hongjun; Wang, Honghao; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zou, Huiying; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-11-20

    We investigated the influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical window on the imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The density distribution of flow fields around three typical optical windows, including a spherical window, an ellipsoidal window, and a paraboloidal window, were calculated by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray-tracing program was used to simulate the optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the entrance pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the imaging quality of the airborne optical system was affected by the shape of the optical window and angle of attack of the aircraft.

  15. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  16. Upstate Windows and Exteriors Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Upstate Windows and Exteriors (the Company) is located in Greenville, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Greenville and Easley, South Carolina.

  17. The Window Men, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Window Men, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lynchburg, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Lynchburg and Amherst, Virginia.

  18. Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bismarck, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Bismarck, North Dakota.

  19. Development of Deicing Techniques for Dielectric Windows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    greater than 70%, and a sheet resistance of 160 ohms/square is described. Also included is a thermo-optical analysis of conductive films and patterns for zinc sulfide, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfo-selenide windows.

  20. Custom Windows: The Choice Is Crystal Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the 12 services schools should request of their custom window manufacturer. Services requested are designed to make a viable partnership between the school and manufacturer that satisfies building aesthetics, enhances performance needs, and controls risk. (GR)

  1. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.217-70... Energy will reimburse the incurred costs as a reimbursable contract cost. (3) Acquisition of...

  2. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.217-70... Energy will reimburse the incurred costs as a reimbursable contract cost. (3) Acquisition of...

  3. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.217-70... Energy will reimburse the incurred costs as a reimbursable contract cost. (3) Acquisition of...

  4. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms.

  5. Holographic window for solar power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-12-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  6. Laser Window Surface Finishing and Coating Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    IKlf il fie. r . *ttt\\ mil nlrol’ly h\\ lllm k Itumhvr ■ LasLr windows. Surface finishing, Thin films , Antireflection coatings , 10.6...Zuccaro) During the course of our program it is our objective to prepare antireflection (AR) film coatings for candidate infrared laser window...antireflection coatings under UHV conditions and to compare; these films with (.host- prepared under ordinary vacuum conditions. a. Experimental Results

  7. 48 CFR 927.402 - Acquisition and use of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition and use of technical data. 927.402 Section 927.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.402 Acquisition...

  8. 48 CFR 927.402 - Acquisition and use of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition and use of technical data. 927.402 Section 927.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.402 Acquisition...

  9. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    acquisition and development of software-reliant systems . Novak has more than 25 years of experience with real-time embedded software product development...Problem Poor acquisition program performance inhibits military performance by depriving the warfighter of critical systems to achieve mission...objectives • Delayed systems withhold needed capabilities • Wasted resources drain funding needed for new systems Acquisitions fail for both technical

  10. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  11. Dust adhesion on Viking lander camera window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of dust impingement on a duplicate Viking Lander camera window indicated the possibility of window obscuration after several days of exposure even at low dust concentration levels. As a result the following corrective measures were recommended: (1) The clearance between the housing surface and the camera post should be eliminated by using an appropriately designed plastic skirt: (2) The three horizontal ledges below the window inside the cavity act as bases for pile-up of dust that slides down the window surface; they should be replaced by a single inclined plane down which the dust will slide and fall out on the ground: (3) Adhered dust on the window surface can be removed by high pressure CO2 jets directed down against the window; the amount of CO2 gas needed for the entire mission can be carried in a 3 1/2-inch diameter sphere equipped with a remotely programable valve. These measures were incorporated in the design of the lander camera system. The continued high quality of photographs transmitted from the Viking spacecraft several months after landing attests to their effectiveness.

  12. Scale up of large ALON windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Kashalikar, Uday; Foti, Robyn; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet has established a robust manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, and ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in our production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for larger sizes and higher quantities, is currently underway. ALON® transparent armor represents the state of the art in protection against armor piercing threats, offering a factor of two in weight and thickness savings over conventional glass laminates. Tiled and monolithic windows have been successfully produced and tested against a range of threats. Large ALON® window are also of interest to a range of visible to Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) sensor applications. These applications often have stressing imaging requirements which in turn require that these large windows have optical characteristics including excellent homogeneity of index of refraction and very low stress birefringence. Surmet is currently scaling up its production facility to be able to make and deliver ALON® monolithic windows as large as ~19x36-in. Additionally, Surmet has plans to scale up to windows ~3ftx3ft in size in the coming years. Recent results with scale up and characterization of the resulting blanks will be presented.

  13. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  14. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  15. Improved model for window breakdown at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Chen, H. B.; Liu, G. Z.; Zhu, X. X.; Fang, J. Y.

    2009-03-15

    An improved global model is proposed to analyze high power microwave dielectric window breakdown at low pressure. The effect of ionization on the average momentum and energy of electrons is taken into account and a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function is adopted. The plasma energy flow and density loss to dielectric, and partially secondary electrons returning plasma to compensate the density loss, have been analytically considered. Space charge potential drop and the generalized Bohm criterion are deduced analytically. After considering the energy and density loss as well as the secondary electron compensation, the breakdown time by using numerical calculation under low pressure gets shorter compared with that under no wall loss condition. In other words, the dielectric surface breakdown time is lower than plasma volume breakdown time.

  16. Eco-efficiency evaluation of a smart window prototype.

    PubMed

    Syrrakou, E; Papaefthimiou, S; Yianoulis, P

    2006-04-15

    An eco-efficiency analysis was conducted using indicators suitably defined to evaluate the performance of an electrochromic window acting as an energy saving component in buildings. Combining the indicators for various parameters (control scenario, expected lifetime, climatic type, purchase cost) significant conclusions are drawn for the development and the potential applications of the device compared to other commercial fenestration products. The reduction of the purchase cost (to 200 euros/m2) and the increase of the lifetime (above 15 years) are the two main targets for achieving both cost and environmental efficiency. An electrochromic device, implemented in cooling dominated areas and operated with an optimum control strategy for the maximum expected lifetime (25 years), can reduce the building energy requirements by 52%. Furthermore, the total energy savings provided will be 33 times more than the energy required for its production while the emission of 615 kg CO2 equivalent per electrochromic glazing unit can be avoided.

  17. THERMAL SHOCK ANALYSIS OF WINDOWS INTERACTING WITH ENERGETIC, FOCUSED BEAM OF THE BNL MUON TARGET EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS, N.; KIRK, H.; PRIGL, R.; BROWN, K.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-06-18

    In this paper, issues associated with the interaction of a proton beam with windows designed for the muon targetry experiment E951 at BNL are explored. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam up to 16 TP per pulse and a pulse length of 100 ns is tightly focused (to 0.5 mm rms radius) on an experimental target. The need to maintain an enclosed environment around the target implies the use of beam windows that will survive the passage of the proton beam. The required beam parameters in such a setting will induce very high thermal, quasi-static and shock stresses in the window structure that exceed the strength of most common materials. In this effort, a detailed analysis of the thermal/shock response of beam windows is attempted through a transient thermal and stress wave propagation formulation that incorporates energy deposition rates calculated the by hadron interaction code MARS. The thermal response of the window structure and the subsequent stress wave generation and propagation are computed using the finite element analysis procedures of the ANSYS code. This analysis attempts to address issues pertaining to an optimal combination of material, window thickness and pulse structure that will allow for a window to safely survive the extreme demands of the experiment.

  18. Energy-based scatter correction for 3-D PET scanners using NaI(T1) detectors.

    PubMed

    Adam, L E; Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    2000-05-01

    Earlier investigations with BGO positron emission tomography (PET) scanners showed that the scatter correction technique based on multiple acquisitions with different energy windows are problematic to implement because of the poor energy resolution of BGO (22%), particularly for whole-body studies. We believe that these methods are likely to work better with NaI(TI) because of the better energy resolution achievable with NaI(TI) detectors (10%). Therefore, we investigate two different choices for the energy window, a low-energy window (LEW) on the Compton spectrum at 400-450 keV, and a high-energy window (HEW) within the photopeak (lower threshold above 511 keV). The results obtained for our three-dimensional (3-D) (septa-less) whole-body scanners [axial field of view (FOV) of 12.8 cm and 25.6 cm] as well as for our 3-D brain scanner (axial FOV of 25.6 cm) show an accurate prediction of the scatter distribution for the estimation of trues method (ETM) using a HEW, leading to a significant reduction of the scatter contamination. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique using a LEW is shown to be intrinsically wrong; in particular, it fails for line source and bar phantom measurements. However, the method is able to produce good results for homogeneous activity distributions. Both methods are easy to implement, are fast, have a low noise propagation, and will be applicable to other PET scanners with good energy resolution and stability, such as hybrid NaI(TI) PET/SPECT dual-head cameras and future PET cameras with GSO or LSO scintillators.

  19. Detection of windows in building textures from airborne and terrestrial infrared image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaszczuk, D.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2011-12-01

    Infrared (IR) images depict thermal radiation of physical objects. Imaging the building façades and the roofs with an IR camera, thermal inspections of the buildings can be carried out. In such inspections a spatial correspondence between IR-images and the existing 3D building models can be helpful. Texturing 3D building models with IR images this spatial correspondence can be created. Furthermore in textures heat leakages can be detected and the heat bridges can be stored together with 3D building data. However, before extracting leakages, the windows should be located. In IR images glass reflects the surrounding and shows false results for the temperature measurements. Consequently, the windows should be detected in IR images and excluded for the inspection. The most common algorithms for window detection were developed for the images in the visual band. In this paper, an algorithm for window detection in textures extracted from terrestrial IR images is proposed. In the first step, small objects have to be removed by scaling down the image (texture). Then in the scaled image, regions are detected using a local dynamic threshold. Morphological operations are used to remove false detections and unify substructures of the windows. For every extracted region, which is a candidate for a window, the center of gravity is calculated. It is assumed that windows on façades are ordered in regular rows and columns. First the points are grouped into rows using histogram of height created from extracted gravity centers. Then masked correlation is used to detect the position and size of the windows. Finally, the gaps in the grid of windows are completed. For the first experiments we use a dataset from densely build urban area captured in Munich, Germany. The IR image sequences were taken from a vehicle driving on the street around the test area. Camera was directed to the building in oblique view. According to the acquisition geometry, no façade could be completely seen in

  20. The influence of opening windows and doors on the natural ventilation rate of a residential building

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased building energy efficiency is important in reducing national energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. An analysis of air change rates due to door and window openings in a research test house located in a residential environment are presented. These data inform developme...

  1. Graphene oxide windows for in situ environmental cell photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolmakov, Andrei; Dikin, Dmitriy A; Cote, Laura J; Huang, Jiaxing; Abyaneh, Majid Kazemian; Amati, Matteo; Gregoratti, Luca; Günther, Sebastian; Kiskinova, Maya

    2011-08-28

    The performance of new materials and devices often depends on processes taking place at the interface between an active solid element and the environment (such as air, water or other fluids). Understanding and controlling such interfacial processes require surface-specific spectroscopic information acquired under real-world operating conditions, which can be challenging because standard approaches such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy generally require high-vacuum conditions. The state-of-the-art approach to this problem relies on unique and expensive apparatus including electron analysers coupled with sophisticated differentially pumped lenses. Here, we develop a simple environmental cell with graphene oxide windows that are transparent to low-energy electrons (down to 400 eV), and demonstrate the feasibility of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on model samples such as gold nanoparticles and aqueous salt solution placed on the back side of a window. These proof-of-principle results show the potential of using graphene oxide, graphene and other emerging ultrathin membrane windows for the fabrication of low-cost, single-use environmental cells compatible with commercial X-ray and Auger microprobes as well as scanning or transmission electron microscopes.

  2. Optimizing the performance of bandpass photon detectors for inverse photoemission: Transmission of alkaline earth fluoride window crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, Christian Schmidt, Anke B.; Donath, Markus

    2015-08-15

    Bandpass photon detectors are widely used in inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode at energies in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range. The energy bandpass of gas-filled counters is usually formed by the ionization threshold of the counting gas as high-pass filter and the transmission cutoff of an alkaline earth fluoride window as low-pass filter. The transmission characteristics of the window have, therefore, a crucial impact on the detector performance. We present transmission measurements in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range for alkaline earth fluoride window crystals in the vicinity of the transmission cutoff as a function of crystal purity, surface finish, surface contamination, temperature, and thickness. Our findings reveal that the transmission characteristics of the window crystal and, thus, the detector performance depend critically on these window parameters.

  3. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  4. Study of the thermoluminescence dosimetric properties of window glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engin, Birol; Aydaş, Canan; Demirtaş, Hayrünnisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics of commercial Turkish transparent window glass. The structure of the glow curves, including the number of peaks, was found to be dose-dependent. A low-temperature glow peak that at 160 °C shifts to higher temperatures was also observed with increasing storage time at room temperature. This result suggests that this TL glow peak is actually made up of two or more overlapping peaks. These we have attributed to the glow peaks at lower temperatures, which decay faster than the ones at higher temperatures with storage time. The thermal fading of the window glass sample at room temperature showed a relatively sharp decay of about 60% occurring over a period of 28 days, after which the decay rate is small for a measured period of 250 days. In order to the improve the post-irradiation stability of the glow curve, the glass samples were heated after irradiation. To remove the unstable TL peaks responsible for the initial rapid fading, post-irradiation heating at 160 °C for 10 min was found to be the most suitable procedure. The dosimetric characteristics of the post-irradiation heated window glass examined in this study include fading, gamma photon dose-response, reproducibility, batch sensitivity, humidity influence, a dose-rate effect and photon energy response. Dose-response was found to be appropriate for dosimetry in the range 5 Gy to 10 kGy. The post-irradiation heating procedure did not affect the main dosimetric characteristics of the window glass samples. The results in this work suggest that the materials could, by using the TL technique, be a suitable candidate for alternative dose measurements in radiation processing, provided that a judicious choice of the post-irradiation heat temperature is made to minimize fading.

  5. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  6. Measurement of the solar heat gain coefficient and U value of windows with insect screens

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, A.; Dubrous, F.M.; Harrison, S.

    1999-07-01

    Energy ratings are currently being used in a number of countries to assist in the selection of windows and doors based on energy performance. Developed for simple comparison purposes, these rating numbers do not take into account window removable attachments such as insect screens that are, nevertheless, widely used. Research was carried out to assess the effect of insect screens on the heat gains and losses of windows. The work reported in this paper deals with the effect of one screen type on the performance of a base-case, double-glazed window. Using an indoor solar simulator facility, measurements of the window solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and U value were made for different screen attachment configurations and climatic conditions. Results with the sample window tested indicate that insect screens placed on the outdoor side can reduce its SHGC by 46% with only a 7% reduction in its U value (0.19 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C), and that insect screens placed on the indoor side can reduce its SHGC by 15% while reducing its U value by 14% (0.38 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C).

  7. Examination of the technical potential of near-infrared switching thermochromic windows for commercial building applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Lee, Eleanor S.; Clavero, César

    2014-01-29

    Current thermochromic windows modulate solar transmission primarily within the visible range, resulting in reduced space-conditioning energy use but also reduced daylight, thereby increasing lighting energy use compared to conventional static, near-infrared selective, low-emittance windows. To better understand the energy savings potential of improved thermochromic devices, a hypothetical near-infrared switching thermochromic glazing was defined based on guidelines provided by the material science community. In this paper, EnergyPlus simulations were conducted on a prototypical large office building and a detailed analysis was performed showing the progression from switching characteristics to net window heat flow and perimeter zone loads and then to perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use for a mixed hot/cold climate and a hot, humid climate in the US. When a relatively high daylight transmission is maintained when switched (Tsol=0.10–0.50 and Tvis=0.30–0.60) and if coupled with a low-e inboard glazing layer (e=0.04), the hypothetical thermochromic window with a low critical switching temperature range (14–20 °C) achieved reductions in total site annual energy use of 14.0–21.1 kW h/m2-floor-yr or 12–14% for moderate- to large-area windows (WWR≥0.30) in Chicago and 9.8–18.6 kW h/m2-floor-yr or 10–17% for WWR≥0.45 in Houston compared to an unshaded spectrally-selective, low-e window (window E1) in south-, east-, and west-facing perimeter zones. Finally, if this hypothetical thermochromic window can be offered at costs that are competitive to conventional low-e windows and meet esthetic requirements defined by the building industry and end users, then the technology is likely to be a viable energy-efficiency option for internal load dominated commercial buildings.

  8. A Strategy Combining Higher Energy C-Trap Dissociation with Neutral Loss- and Product Ion-Based MS(n) Acquisition for Global Profiling and Structure Annotation of Fatty Acids Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Bi, Qi-Rui; Hou, Jin-Jun; Yang, Min; Shen, Yao; Qi, Peng; Feng, Rui-Hong; Dai, Zhuo; Yan, Bing-Peng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Shi, Xiao-Jian; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acids conjugates (FACs) are ubiquitous but found in trace amounts in the natural world. They are composed of multiple unknown substructures and side chains. Thus, FACs are difficult to be analyzed by traditional mass spectrometric methods. In this study, an integrated strategy was developed to global profiling and targeted structure annotation of FACs in complex matrix by LTQ Orbitrap. Dicarboxylic acid conjugated bufotoxins (DACBs) in Venenum bufonis (VB) were used as model compounds. The new strategy (abbreviated as HPNA) combined higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) with product ion- (PI), neutral loss- (NL) based MS(n) (n ≥ 3) acquisition in both positive-ion mode and negative-ion mode. Several advantages are presented. First, various side chains were found under HCD in negative-ion mode, which included both known and unknown side chains. Second, DACBs with multiple side chains were simultaneously detected in one run. Compared with traditional quadrupole-based mass method, it greatly increased analysis throughput. Third, the fragment ions of side chain and steroids substructure could be obtained by PI- and NL-based MS(n) acquisition, respectively, which greatly increased the accuracy of the structure annotation of DACBs. In all, 78 DACBs have been discovered, of which 68 were new compounds; 25 types of substructure formulas and seven dicarboxylic acid side chains were found, especially five new side chains, including two saturated dicarboxylic acids [(azelaic acid (C9) and sebacic acid (C10)] and three unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (u-C8, u-C9, and u-C10). All these results greatly enriched the structures of DACBs in VB. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. A Strategy Combining Higher Energy C-Trap Dissociation with Neutral Loss- and Product Ion-Based MSn Acquisition for Global Profiling and Structure Annotation of Fatty Acids Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Qi-rui; Hou, Jin-jun; Yang, Min; Shen, Yao; Qi, Peng; Feng, Rui-hong; Dai, Zhuo; Yan, Bing-peng; Wang, Jian-wei; Shi, Xiao-jian; Wu, Wan-ying; Guo, De-an

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acids conjugates (FACs) are ubiquitous but found in trace amounts in the natural world. They are composed of multiple unknown substructures and side chains. Thus, FACs are difficult to be analyzed by traditional mass spectrometric methods. In this study, an integrated strategy was developed to global profiling and targeted structure annotation of FACs in complex matrix by LTQ Orbitrap. Dicarboxylic acid conjugated bufotoxins (DACBs) in Venenum bufonis (VB) were used as model compounds. The new strategy (abbreviated as HPNA) combined higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) with product ion- (PI), neutral loss- (NL) based MSn (n ≥ 3) acquisition in both positive-ion mode and negative-ion mode. Several advantages are presented. First, various side chains were found under HCD in negative-ion mode, which included both known and unknown side chains. Second, DACBs with multiple side chains were simultaneously detected in one run. Compared with traditional quadrupole-based mass method, it greatly increased analysis throughput. Third, the fragment ions of side chain and steroids substructure could be obtained by PI- and NL-based MSn acquisition, respectively, which greatly increased the accuracy of the structure annotation of DACBs. In all, 78 DACBs have been discovered, of which 68 were new compounds; 25 types of substructure formulas and seven dicarboxylic acid side chains were found, especially five new side chains, including two saturated dicarboxylic acids [(azelaic acid (C9) and sebacic acid (C10)] and three unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (u-C8, u-C9, and u-C10). All these results greatly enriched the structures of DACBs in VB.

  10. A Strategy Combining Higher Energy C-Trap Dissociation with Neutral Loss- and Product Ion-Based MSn Acquisition for Global Profiling and Structure Annotation of Fatty Acids Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Qi-rui; Hou, Jin-jun; Yang, Min; Shen, Yao; Qi, Peng; Feng, Rui-hong; Dai, Zhuo; Yan, Bing-peng; Wang, Jian-wei; Shi, Xiao-jian; Wu, Wan-ying; Guo, De-an

    2016-12-01

    Fatty acids conjugates (FACs) are ubiquitous but found in trace amounts in the natural world. They are composed of multiple unknown substructures and side chains. Thus, FACs are difficult to be analyzed by traditional mass spectrometric methods. In this study, an integrated strategy was developed to global profiling and targeted structure annotation of FACs in complex matrix by LTQ Orbitrap. Dicarboxylic acid conjugated bufotoxins (DACBs) in Venenum bufonis (VB) were used as model compounds. The new strategy (abbreviated as HPNA) combined higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) with product ion- (PI), neutral loss- (NL) based MSn (n ≥ 3) acquisition in both positive-ion mode and negative-ion mode. Several advantages are presented. First, various side chains were found under HCD in negative-ion mode, which included both known and unknown side chains. Second, DACBs with multiple side chains were simultaneously detected in one run. Compared with traditional quadrupole-based mass method, it greatly increased analysis throughput. Third, the fragment ions of side chain and steroids substructure could be obtained by PI- and NL-based MSn acquisition, respectively, which greatly increased the accuracy of the structure annotation of DACBs. In all, 78 DACBs have been discovered, of which 68 were new compounds; 25 types of substructure formulas and seven dicarboxylic acid side chains were found, especially five new side chains, including two saturated dicarboxylic acids [(azelaic acid (C9) and sebacic acid (C10)] and three unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (u-C8, u-C9, and u-C10). All these results greatly enriched the structures of DACBs in VB.

  11. X-Windows Socket Widget Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Socket Widget Class ("Class" is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network connections for graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. UNIX Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) socket programming libraries require many method calls to configure, operate, and destroy sockets. Most X Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Socket Widget Class encapsulates UNIX TCP/IP socket-management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X Windows GUI programs can treat one or more network socket instances in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program sockets. Wrapping ISP socket programming libraries inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat a network interface as though it were a GUI.

  12. The rarefaction wave propagation in transparent windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glam, B.; Porat, E.; Horovitz, Y.; Yosef-Hai, A.

    2017-01-01

    The radial (lateral) rarefaction wave velocity of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Lithium Fluoride (LiF) windows were studied by plate impact experiments that were carried out at Soreq NRC up to a pressure of 146 kbar in the PMMA and 334 kbar in the LiF. The windows were glued to Lead targets that were impacted by a copper impactor. The VISAR measurement was done in the window interface with the target. This information was utilized to identify the radial rarefaction arrival time at the center of different diameter windows after the shock event, and served as a measurement to the radial wave velocity in the shocked material. It was found that for both windows, LiF or PMMA, the measured radial wave velocity increases with the pressure. Furthermore, this velocity is significantly higher compared to the expected longitudinal sound velocity at the same pressure, calculated by the Steinberg EOS in the PMMA and by ab initio calculation in the LiF. Here we present the experimental results and a comparison with analytical calculation of the sound velocity using the Steinberg EOS.

  13. Measurement and optimization of electrical process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tuck-Boon; Kagalwalla, Abde Ali; Gupta, Puneet

    2010-03-01

    Process window (PW) is a collection of values of process parameters that allow circuit to be printed and to operate under desired specifications. Conventional process window which is determined through geometrical fidelity, geometric process window (GPW), does not account for lithography effects on electrical metrics such as delay and power. In contrast to GPW, this paper introduces electrical process window (EPW) which accounts for electrical specifications. Process parameters are considered within EPW if the performance (delay and leakage power) of printed circuit is within desired specifications. Our experiment results show that the area of EPW is 1.5~6x larger than that of GPW. This implies that even if a layout falls outside geometric tolerance, the electrical performance of the circuit may satisfy desired specifications. In addition to process window evaluation, we show that EPW can be enlarged by 10% on average using gate length biasing and Vth push. We also propose approximate methods to evaluate EPW, which can be used in the absence of any design information. Our results show that the proposed approximation method can estimate more than 80% of the area of reference EPW.

  14. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  15. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  16. Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Raised panel door front entry also illustrated. Ground floor detail Building 19, facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel, casements. Concrete stoop, entry overhang and pipe rail detail also illustrated. Building 36, facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Broad overhanging eave also illustrated. Second story detail. Building 13, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Why No Windows (Was: A Thin Window for the SubHarmonic Drive Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.; Walz, D.; /SLAC

    2005-10-12

    We discuss the window requirements for isolating the vacuum chamber for the subharmonic drive experiment from the NLCTA vacuum. We consider mechanical and heat stress, as well as looking at multiple scattering due to the foil. We decide that a window would not be appropriate because of multiple scattering.

  20. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...