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Sample records for acquisition energy window

  1. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  2. Energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes energy efficient windows for the reduction of home heating and cooling energy consumption. It discusses controlling air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping and by replacing window frames. Reducing heat loss and condensation is discussed by describing the types of glazing materials, the number of glass and air spaces, frame and spacer materials, and the use of movable insulation (shutters, drapes, etc.). A resource list is provided for further information.

  3. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  4. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-10-09

    This paper shows that the energy requirements for today's typical efficient window products (i.e. ENERGY STAR{trademark} products) are significant when compared to the needs of Zero Energy Homes (ZEHs). Through the use of whole house energy modeling, typical efficient products are evaluated in five US climates and compared against the requirements for ZEHs. Products which meet these needs are defined as a function of climate. In heating dominated climates, windows with U-factors of 0.10 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K) will become energy neutral. In mixed heating/cooling climates a low U-factor is not as significant as the ability to modulate from high SHGCs (heating season) to low SHGCs (cooling season).

  5. Energy and Power Evaluation Program for Windows

    2000-06-27

    ENPEP for windows has its origins in the DOS version of the software, however, the Windows release is significantly modified and rather different in structure and capabilities from the older DOS version of ENPEP. ENPEP for Windows provides the user with a graphical interface for designing a comprehensive model of the energy system of a country or region. The BALANCE submodel processes a representative network of all energy production, conversion, transport, distribution, and utilization activitiesmore » in a country (or region) as well as the flows of energy and fuels among these activities. The objective of the model is to simulate energy market and determine energy supply and demand balance over a long-term period of up to 75 years. The environmental aspect is also taken into account by calculating the emissions of various pollutants. In addition to the energy costs, the environmental costs are also calculated by the model. These costs can be used to affect the solution found by the market equilibrium algorithm. The main purpose of the software is to provide analytical capability and tools for the various analyses of energy and environmental systems, as well as for development of long-term energy strategy of a country or region.« less

  6. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  7. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  8. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Su-Jin; Yu, A. Ram; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99 m (99mTc) and thallium-201 (201Tl), the most commonly used isotopes in SPECT imaging, using CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy. We experimentally investigated quantitative measurements with respect to primary count rate, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and scatter fraction (SF) within various energy window settings using Triumph X-SPECT. The two ways of energy window settings were considered: an on-peak window and an off-peak window. In the on-peak window setting, energy centers were set on the photopeaks. In the off-peak window setting, the ratios of energy differences between the photopeak from the lower- and higher-threshold varied from 4:6 to 3:7. In addition, the energy-window width for 99mTc varied from 5% to 20%, and that for 201Tl varied from 10% to 30%. The results of this study enabled us to determine the optimal energy windows for each isotope in terms of primary count rate, CNR, and SF. We selected the optimal energy window that increases the primary count rate and CNR while decreasing SF. For 99mTc SPECT imaging, the energy window of 138-145 keV with a 5% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was determined to be the optimal energy window. For 201Tl SPECT imaging, the energy window of 64-85 keV with a 30% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal energy window. Our results demonstrated that the proper energy window should be carefully chosen based on quantitative measurements in order to take advantage of desirable characteristics of CZT-based small-animal SPECT. These results provided valuable reference information for the establishment of new protocol for CZT

  9. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Haglund, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  10. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  11. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  12. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  13. The application of windows multithread in high-speed continual large-capacity data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tai-Yong; Zeng, Ju-Xiang; He, Hui-Long; Deng, Hui

    2005-12-01

    Three modes of Windows Multithread techniques in data acquisition system are explored in this paper. In the first mode, data acquisition is in one thread while the processing and display of data and the large-capacity data saving share another thread. In the second mode, data acquisition and the data processing and display are in one thread, and the large-capacity data saving in another thread. In the third mode, double level buffer queue technology is added based on the first mode technique. Experiments on the data acquisition system reveal that the third mode is the optimal alternative. It fully utilizes the capacity of data acquisition card and makes access to high-speed continual data acquisition and large-capacity data saving. The monitoring system which adopts the third mode has been developed and applied to some urban waterworks in Shanghai which has been in good mode during the past two years and saved a vast sum of costs on system maintenance and monitoring.

  14. Improved Performance of Energy Window Ratio Criteria Obtained Using Multiple Windows at Radiation Portal Monitoring Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Dennis R.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Ely, James H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2006-06-07

    Radiation portal monitors are being used to detect radioactive target materials in vehicles transporting cargo. As vehicles pass through the portal monitors, they generate count profiles over time that can be compared to the average panel background counts obtained just prior to the time the vehicle entered the area of the monitors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has accumulated considerable data regarding such background radiation and vehicle profiles from portal installations. Energy window criteria have been shown to increase sensitivity to certain types of target radioactive sources while also controlling to a manageable level the rate of false or nuisance alarms. First generation equipment had only two-window capability, and while energy windowing for such systems was shown to be useful for detecting certain types of sources, it was subsequently found that improved performance could be obtained with more windows. Second generation equipment instead has more windows and can thus support additional energy window criteria which can be shown to be sensitive to a wider set of target sources. Detection likelihoods are generated for various sources and energy window criteria, as well as for gross count decision criteria, based on computer simulated injections of sources into archived vehicle profiles. (PIET-43741-TM-534)

  15. TeraTools: Multiparameter data acquisition software for the Windows 95/NT OS

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1997-12-31

    TeraTools, a general purpose, multiparameter, data acquisition application for Windows 95NT is described. It is based on the Kmax architecture which has been used since 1986 on the Macintosh computer at numerous industrial, education, and research sites world-wide. TeraTools includes high-level support for industry-standard modular instrumentation; a built-in scripting language; drivers for commercially available interfaces; hooks for external code extensions; event file sorting and replay; and a full set of histogramming and display tools. The environment is scalable and may be applied to problems involving a few parameters or many parameters.

  16. Diagnostic Phase of Calcium Scoring Scan Applied as the Center of Acquisition Window of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Improves Image Quality in Minimal Acquisition Window Scan (Target CTA Mode) Using the Second Generation 320-Row CT

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Eriko; Kanno, Shigeaki; Ino, Kenji; Tomizawa, Nobuo; Akahane, Masaaki; Torigoe, Rumiko; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) acquired under two conditions: 75% fixed as the acquisition window center (Group 75%) and the diagnostic phase for calcium scoring scan as the center (CS; Group CS). Methods. 320-row cardiac CT with a minimal acquisition window (scanned using “Target CTA” mode) was performed on 81 patients. In Group 75% (n = 40), CS was obtained and reconstructed at 75% and the center of the CCTA acquisition window was set at 75%. In Group CS (n = 41), CS was obtained at 75% and the diagnostic phase showing minimal artifacts was applied as the center of the CCTA acquisition window. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (4-excellent) and the mean scores were compared between groups. Results. The CCTA scan diagnostic phase occurred significantly earlier in CS (75.7 ± 3.2% vs. 73.6 ± 4.5% for Groups 75% and CS, resp., p = 0.013). The mean Group CS image quality score (3.58 ± 0.63) was also higher than that for Group 75% (3.19 ± 0.66, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. The image quality of CCTA in Target CTA mode was significantly better when the center of acquisition window is adjusted using CS. PMID:26977449

  17. Modeling Windows in Energy Plus with Simple Performance Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian; Griffith, Brent

    2009-10-12

    The building energy simulation program, Energy Plus (E+), cannot use standard window performance indices (U, SHGC, VT) to model window energy impacts. Rather, E+ uses more accurate methods which require a physical description of the window. E+ needs to be able to accept U and SHGC indices as window descriptors because, often, these are all that is known about a window and because building codes, standards, and voluntary programs are developed using these terms. This paper outlines a procedure, developed for E+, which will allow it to use standard window performance indices to model window energy impacts. In this 'Block' model, a given U, SHGC, VT are mapped to the properties of a fictitious 'layer' in E+. For thermal conductance calculations, the 'Block' functions as a single solid layer. For solar optical calculations, the model begins by defining a solar transmittance (Ts) at normal incidence based on the SHGC. For properties at non-normal incidence angles, the 'Block' takes on the angular properties of multiple glazing layers; the number and type of layers defined by the U and SHGC. While this procedure is specific to E+, parts of it may have applicability to other window/building simulation programs.

  18. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  20. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  1. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  2. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  3. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  4. How to buy energy-efficient residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) encourages energy-efficient federal procurement. Executive Order 12902 and FAR section 23.704 direct agencies to purchase products in the upper 25% of energy efficiency. Agencies that use these guidelines to buy efficient products can realize substantial operating cost savings and help prevent pollution. As the world`s largest consumer, the federal government can help pull the entire US market towards greater energy efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The General Services Administration (GSA) will soon include residential windows in its Federal Supply Schedule 56-IV(A), ``Construction and Building Materials.`` When contracting for residential windows, specify NFRC-rated SHGC and U-factor values that meet this Efficiency Recommendation for your geographic region. When buying commercially, look for windows with the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} label, all of which meet this Recommendation.

  5. Progress Towards Highly Efficient Windows for Zero—Energy Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Energy efficient windows could save 4 quads/year, with an additional 1 quad/year gain from daylighting in commercial buildings. This corresponds to 13% of energy used by US buildings and 5% of all energy used by the US. The technical potential is thus very large and the economic potential is slowly becoming a reality. This paper describes the progress in energy efficient windows that employ low-emissivity glazing, electrochromic switchable coatings and other novel materials. Dynamic systems are being developed that use sensors and controls to modulate daylighting and shading contributions in response to occupancy, comfort and energy needs. Improving the energy performance of windows involves physics in a variety of application: optics, heat transfer, materials science and applied engineering. Technical solutions must also be compatible with national policy, codes and standards, economics, business practice and investment, real and perceived risks, comfort, health, safety, productivity, amenities, and occupant preference and values. The challenge is to optimize energy performance by understanding and reinforcing the synergetic coupling between these many issues.

  6. Army hypersonic compact kinetic-energy missile laser window design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Gerald W.; Cayson, Stephen C.; Jones, Michael M.; Carriger, Wendy; Mitchell, Robert R.; Strobel, Forrest A.; Rembert, Michael; Gibson, David A.

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, Aviation and Missile Research, Engineering, and Development Center (AMRDEC) is currently developing the Compact Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM) which achieves hypersonic velocities at sea level. The system incorporates guidance to the target and requires active guidance technology. CKEM's kinetic energy warhead requires an accurate guidance sub-system in order to achieve high probability of kills at long range. Due to the severity of the aerothermal environments, minimized reaction time for small time to target conditions, and the communication degrading effects of the missile's energetic boost motor, a state of the art guidance technique is being developed by the AMRDEC Missile Guidance Directorate called Side-Scatter Laser Beam Rider. This technology incorporates a 1.06 micron laser to receive an off-axis laser guidance link to communicate guidance information from the launch site to the missile. This concept requires the use of optical windows on board the missile for the missile-borne laser energy signal receivers. The current concept utilizes four rectangular windows at 90° increments around the missile. The peak velocity during flight can reach approximately 6300 ft/sec inducing severe aerothermal heating and highly transient thermal gradients. The Propulsion and Structures Directorate was tasked to design and experimentally validate the laser window. Additionally, flight tests were conducted to demonstrate the laser guidance technology. This paper will present the laser window design development process as well as aerothermal testing to induce flight like environments and assess worst case thermostructural conditions.

  7. The Use of Variable Q1 Isolation Windows Improves Selectivity in LC-SWATH-MS Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bilbao, Aivett; Bruderer, Tobias; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    As tryptic peptides and metabolites are not equally distributed along the mass range, the probability of cross fragment ion interference is higher in certain windows when fixed Q1 SWATH windows are applied. We evaluated the benefits of utilizing variable Q1 SWATH windows with regards to selectivity improvement. Variable windows based on equalizing the distribution of either the precursor ion population (PIP) or the total ion current (TIC) within each window were generated by an in-house software, swathTUNER. These two variable Q1 SWATH window strategies outperformed, with respect to quantification and identification, the basic approach using a fixed window width (FIX) for proteomic profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Thus, 13.8 and 8.4% additional peptide precursors, which resulted in 13.1 and 10.0% more proteins, were confidently identified by SWATH using the strategy PIP and TIC, respectively, in the MDDC proteomic sample. On the basis of the spectral library purity score, some improvement warranted by variable Q1 windows was also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the metabolomic profiling of human urine. We show that the novel concept of "scheduled SWATH" proposed here, which incorporates (i) variable isolation windows and (ii) precursor retention time segmentation further improves both peptide and metabolite identifications. PMID:26302369

  8. g-PRIME: A Free, Windows Based Data Acquisition and Event Analysis Software Package for Physiology in Classrooms and Research Labs.

    PubMed

    Lott, Gus K; Johnson, Bruce R; Bonow, Robert H; Land, Bruce R; Hoy, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    We present g-PRIME, a software based tool for physiology data acquisition, analysis, and stimulus generation in education and research. This software was developed in an undergraduate neurophysiology course and strongly influenced by instructor and student feedback. g-PRIME is a free, stand-alone, windows application coded and "compiled" in Matlab (does not require a Matlab license). g-PRIME supports many data acquisition interfaces from the PC sound card to expensive high throughput calibrated equipment. The program is designed as a software oscilloscope with standard trigger modes, multi-channel visualization controls, and data logging features. Extensive analysis options allow real time and offline filtering of signals, multi-parameter threshold-and-window based event detection, and two-dimensional display of a variety of parameters including event time, energy density, maximum FFT frequency component, max/min amplitudes, and inter-event rate and intervals. The software also correlates detected events with another simultaneously acquired source (event triggered average) in real time or offline. g-PRIME supports parameter histogram production and a variety of elegant publication quality graphics outputs. A major goal of this software is to merge powerful engineering acquisition and analysis tools with a biological approach to studies of nervous system function. PMID:23493932

  9. g-PRIME: A Free, Windows Based Data Acquisition and Event Analysis Software Package for Physiology in Classrooms and Research Labs

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Gus K.; Johnson, Bruce R.; Bonow, Robert H.; Land, Bruce R.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2009-01-01

    We present g-PRIME, a software based tool for physiology data acquisition, analysis, and stimulus generation in education and research. This software was developed in an undergraduate neurophysiology course and strongly influenced by instructor and student feedback. g-PRIME is a free, stand-alone, windows application coded and “compiled” in Matlab (does not require a Matlab license). g-PRIME supports many data acquisition interfaces from the PC sound card to expensive high throughput calibrated equipment. The program is designed as a software oscilloscope with standard trigger modes, multi-channel visualization controls, and data logging features. Extensive analysis options allow real time and offline filtering of signals, multi-parameter threshold-and-window based event detection, and two-dimensional display of a variety of parameters including event time, energy density, maximum FFT frequency component, max/min amplitudes, and inter-event rate and intervals. The software also correlates detected events with another simultaneously acquired source (event triggered average) in real time or offline. g-PRIME supports parameter histogram production and a variety of elegant publication quality graphics outputs. A major goal of this software is to merge powerful engineering acquisition and analysis tools with a biological approach to studies of nervous system function. PMID:23493932

  10. Window performance and building energy use: Some technical options for increasing energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    1985-11-01

    Window system design and operation has a major impact on energy use in buildings as well as on occupants' thermal and visual comfort. Window performance will be a function of optical and thermal properties, window management strategies, climate and orientation, and building type and occupancy. In residences, heat loss control is a primary concern, followed by sun control in more southerly climates. In commercial buildings, the daylight provided by windows may be the major energy benefits but solar gain must be controlled so that increased cooling loads do not exceed daylighting savings. Reductions in peak electrical demand and HVAC system size may also be possible in well-designed daylighted buildings.

  11. Determination of energy windows for the triple energy window scatter correction method in I-131 on a Siemens SYMBIA gamma camera: a GATE simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Kyeong Min; Moo Lim, Sang; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-01-01

    Image correction for scattered photons is important for the quantification of gamma-camera imaging using I-131. Many previous studies have addressed this issue but none have compared scattered photon fractions of I-131 with varying energy windows, to determine optimal main- and sub-energy windows for the implementation of TEW correction in I-131 imaging. We assessed the scattered photon fractions and determined the optimal main- and sub- energy windows for TEW in I-131 using a Siemens SYMBIA T2 SPECT/CT using a Monte Carlo method (GATE simulation). To validate the GATE simulation code, we compared the spatial resolutions obtained experimentally and from GATE simulation, for I-123 and Tc-99m. A high-energy general purpose (HE) collimator was used to assess the scattered photon fractions measured with the I-131 radioisotope placed at eight different field-of-view locations in a water phantom (diameter 16 cm, length 32 cm), and at the center in air. To implement the TEW (triple energy window) method, two different main-energy window widths (15 and 20%) and two different sub-energy window widths (3 and 5 keV) were used. The experimental measurement and simulation results exhibited a similar pattern with < 15% difference in spatial resolution with increasing distance. The I-131 scatter fraction with 15% of the main-energy window and 5 keV sub-energy windows was similar to the ``goldstandard'' scatter fraction. Main- and sub-energy window selection for the TEW correction in I-131 is important to avoid over- or under-correction in the scatter fraction. A 15% of main energy window with 5 keV sub-energy windows were found to be optimal for implementation of the TEW method in I-131. This result provides the optimal energy window for I-131 scintigraphy data and will aid the quantification of I-131 imaging.

  12. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  13. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-09-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being ``opaque'' to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a ``smart'' window behave? Is a ``smart'' window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  14. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    PubMed Central

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being “opaque” to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a “smart” window behave? Is a “smart” window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  15. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows.

    PubMed

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being "opaque" to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a "smart" window behave? Is a "smart" window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  16. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  17. Window Design Strategies to Conserve Energy. NBS Building Science Series 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. Robert; Crenshaw, Richard W.

    A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing, interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows: solar…

  18. Experimental evaluation of 350 MHz RF accelerator windows for the low energy demonstration accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, K.; Rees, D.; Roybal, W.

    1997-09-01

    Radio frequency (RF) windows are historically a point where failure occurs in input power couplers for accelerators. To obtain a reliable, high-power, 350 MHz RF window for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project of the Accelerator Production of Tritium program, RF windows prototypes from different vendors were tested. Experiments were performed to evaluate the RF windows by the vendors to select a window for the LEDA project. The Communications and Power, Inc. (CPI) windows were conditioned to 445 kW in roughly 15 hours. At 445 kW a window failed, and the cause of the failure will be presented. The English Electronic Valve, Inc. (EEV) windows were conditioned to 944 kW in 26 hours and then tested at 944 kW for 4 hours with no indication of problems.

  19. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential andCommercial Building Stock

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2006-06-16

    We present a simple spreadsheet-based tool for estimating window-related energy consumption in the United States. Using available data on the properties of the installed US window stock, we estimate that windows are responsible for 2.15 quadrillion Btu (Quads) of heating energy consumption and 1.48 Quads of cooling energy consumption annually. We develop estimates of average U-factor and SHGC for current window sales. We estimate that a complete replacement of the installed window stock with these products would result in energy savings of approximately 1.2 quads. We demonstrate that future window technologies offer energy savings potentials of up to 3.9 Quads.

  20. Thermal energy conservation with draperies and a plastic window liner

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The contributions of draperies, a plastic window liner, and fabric properties to heat loss reduction were studied. Research questions were developed relative to the contribution of the following to heat loss reduction: properties of drapery fabrics, and the effectiveness of 1) a temporary plastic indoor window liner, and 2) combining draperies with a plastic window liner. Four fabrics (Malimo, Maliwatt, glass and coated) for the window treatments were selected from 12 fabrics on the basis of thermal resistance, in combination with air permeability and thickness. Density, weight, yarn count, fabric construction, and yarn construction were also determined. The draperies were tested sealed (Velcro tape and a three-sided cornice) and unsealed, and with and without a plastic window liner. The effectiveness of each treatment was determined by comparing the percentage of heat loss reduction to the heat loss at the bare window. Yarn count, thickness, density and air permeability accounted for 76% of the variability of the thermal resistance of the fabrics; mean values ranged from 0.95 ft/sup 2/ hr /sup 0/F/Btu (Maliwatt) to 0.66 ft/sup 2/ hr /sup 0/F/Btu (coated). The plastic window liner was the most effective in reducing heat loss (75%).

  1. The Stevens-Levolor Environmental Simulator and the study of interior shading for energy efficient windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandyck, R. L.; Konen, T. P.

    A window systems and experiments in a unique environmental simulator with an artificial sun were tested. It is shown that interior venetian blind shading is an effective window energy management technique. Predictive methods of generating shading coefficients applicable to modern venetian blinds is confirmed. The findings indicating light colored, as well as highly reflective blinds yielded as significant energy savings.

  2. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows. PMID:27115028

  3. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    PubMed Central

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows. PMID:27115028

  4. Integrated smart electrochromic windows for energy saving and storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong; Jin, Xiujuan; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-18

    A self-powered electrochromic smart window with tunable transmittance driven by dye-sensitized solar cells has been designed, which also acts as a photocharged electrochromic supercapacitor with high areal capacitance and reversible color changes. PMID:24281715

  5. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  6. Integration of Microsoft Windows Applications with MDSplus Data Acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dana M. Mastrovito

    2002-03-14

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers (PC's) and specially developed ''turn-key'' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and COM (Component Object Model) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as CCD camer as and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from IDL for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics.

  7. Improving quantitative dosimetry in 177Lu-DOTATATE SPECT by energy window-based scatter corrections

    PubMed Central

    Lagerburg, Vera; Klausen, Thomas L.; Holm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patient-specific dosimetry of lutetium-177 (177Lu)-DOTATATE treatment in neuroendocrine tumours is important, because uptake differs across patients. Single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT)-based dosimetry requires a conversion factor between the obtained counts and the activity, which depends on the collimator type, the utilized energy windows and the applied scatter correction techniques. In this study, energy window subtraction-based scatter correction methods are compared experimentally and quantitatively. Materials and methods 177Lu SPECT images of a phantom with known activity concentration ratio between the uniform background and filled hollow spheres were acquired for three different collimators: low-energy high resolution (LEHR), low-energy general purpose (LEGP) and medium-energy general purpose (MEGP). Counts were collected in several energy windows, and scatter correction was performed by applying different methods such as effective scatter source estimation (ESSE), triple-energy and dual-energy window, double-photopeak window and downscatter correction. The intensity ratio between the spheres and the background was measured and corrected for the partial volume effect and used to compare the performance of the methods. Results Low-energy collimators combined with 208 keV energy windows give rise to artefacts. For the 113 keV energy window, large differences were observed in the ratios for the spheres. For MEGP collimators with the ESSE correction technique, the measured ratio was close to the real ratio, and the differences between spheres were small. Conclusion For quantitative 177Lu imaging MEGP collimators are advised. Both energy peaks can be utilized when the ESSE correction technique is applied. The difference between the calculated and the real ratio is less than 10% for both energy windows. PMID:24525900

  8. Optimization of energy window and evaluation of scatter compensation methods in MPS using the ideal observer with model mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used the ideal observer (IO) and IO with model mismatch (IO-MM) applied in the projection domain and an anthropomorphic Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) applied to reconstructed images to optimize the acquisition energy window width and evaluate various scatter compensation methods in the context of a myocardial perfusion SPECT defect detection task. The IO has perfect knowledge of the image formation process and thus reflects performance with perfect compensation for image-degrading factors. Thus, using the IO to optimize imaging systems could lead to suboptimal parameters compared to those optimized for humans interpreting SPECT images reconstructed with imperfect or no compensation. The IO-MM allows incorporating imperfect system models into the IO optimization process. We found that with near-perfect scatter compensation, the optimal energy window for the IO and CHO were similar; in its absence the IO-MM gave a better prediction of the optimal energy window for the CHO using different scatter compensation methods. These data suggest that the IO-MM may be useful for projection-domain optimization when model mismatch is significant, and that the IO is useful when followed by reconstruction with good models of the image formation process.

  9. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  10. Optimization of the Energy Window for PETbox4, a Preclinical PET Tomograph With a Small Inner Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Bao, Q.; Taschereau, R.; Wang, H.; Bai, B.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are often designed by employing close geometry configurations. Due to the different characteristics caused by geometrical factors, these tomographs require data acquisition protocols that differ from those optimized for conventional large diameter ring systems. In this work we optimized the energy window for data acquisitions with PETbox4, a 50 mm detector separation (box-like geometry) pre-clinical PET scanner, using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). The fractions of different types of events were estimated using a voxelized phantom including a mouse as well as its supporting chamber, mimicking a realistic mouse imaging environment. Separate code was developed to extract additional information about the gamma interactions for more accurate event type classification. Three types of detector backscatter events were identified in addition to the trues, phantom scatters and randoms. The energy window was optimized based on the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and scatter fraction (SF) with lower-level discriminators (LLD) corresponding to energies from 150 keV to 450 keV. The results were validated based on the calculated image uniformity, spillover ratio (SOR) and recovery coefficient (RC) from physical measurements using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 image quality phantom. These results indicate that when PETbox4 is operated with a more narrow energy window (350-650 keV), detector backscatter rejection is unnecessary. For the NEMA NU-4 image quality phantom, the SOR for the water chamber decreases by about 45% from 15.1% to 8.3%, and the SOR for the air chamber decreases by 31% from 12.0% to 8.3% at the LLDs of 150 and 350 keV, without obvious change in uniformity, further supporting the simulation based optimization. The optimization described in this work is not limited to PETbox4, but also applicable or helpful to other small inner diameter geometry

  11. Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    A summary presentation to inform discussion of the recently announced acquisition of XTO Energy Inc. by Exxon Mobil Corporation, a transaction which is reportedly $41 billion in value. "Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc" presents non-proprietary company-level oil and gas production and reserve data and the relevant U.S. aggregate data published by the Energy Information Administration.

  12. Integrated window systems: An advanced energy-efficient residential fenestration product

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.; Griffith, B.; LaBerge, P.

    1994-03-01

    The last several years have produced a wide variety of new window products aimed at reducing the energy impacts associated with residential windows. Improvements have focused on reducing the rate at which heat flows through the total window product by conduction/convection and thermal radiation (quantified by the U-factor) as well as in controlling solar heat gain (measured by the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or Shading Coefficient (SC)). Significant improvements in window performance have been made with low-E coated glazings, gas fills in multiple pane windows and with changes in spacer and frame materials and designs. These improvements have been changes to existing design concepts. They have pushed the limits of the individual features and revealed weaknesses. The next generation of windows will have to incorporate new materials and ideas, like recessed night insulation, seasonal sun shades and structural window frames, into the design, manufacturing and construction process, to produce an integrated window system that will be an energy and comfort asset.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of the Energy-Saving Potential of Electrochromic Windows in Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    Electrochromic windows provide variable tinting that can help control glare and solar heat gain. We used BEopt software to evaluate their performance in prototypical energy models of a single-family home.

  14. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  15. Savings from energy efficient windows: Current and future savings from new fenestration technologies in the residential market

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.; Arasteh, D.; Eto, J.

    1993-04-01

    Heating and cooling energy lost through windows in the residential sector (estimated at two-thirds of the energy lost through windows in all sectors) currently accounts for 3 percent (or 2.8 quads) of total US energy use, costing over $26 billion annually in energy bills. Installation of energy-efficient windows is acting to reduce the amount of energy lost per unit window area. Installation of more energy efficient windows since 1970 has resulted in an annual savings of approximately 0.6 quads. If all windows utilized existing cost effective energy conserving technologies, then residential window energy losses would amount to less than 0.8 quads, directly saving $18 billion per year in avoided energy costs. The nationwide installation of windows that are now being developed could actually turn this energy loss into a net energy gain. Considering only natural replacement of windows and new construction, appropriate fenestration policies could help realize this potential by reducing annual residential window energy losses to 2.2 quids by the year 2012, despite a growing housing stock.

  16. Energy and material use in the production of insulating glass windows

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masaya; Shukuya, Masanori

    1996-10-01

    Waste heat, waste material, and waste water are estimated for the production of glass sheets and aluminum frames for architectural window systems. The purpose is to compare the wasted energy and matter in the production process and the heat loss through the window systems. Raw materials, fossil fuels, and fresh water are inputs, while waste heat, waste material, and waste water in addition to the products are outputs. Waste heat of 16.9 MJ versus 502.5 MJ, waste materials of 0.7 kg versus 5.4 kg, and waste water of 0.05m{sup 3} versus 0.37m{sup 3} are given off in the production of a glass sheet of 1 kg versus an aluminum frame of 1 kg. A comparison of a single glazed window and a double glazed window was made in terms of the waste heat at the production stage and the heat loss through the windows. It was found that the sum of the waste heat and the heat loss in the case of a double glazed window becomes smaller than in the case of a single glazed window within the first winter season in Tokyo. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Energy Education in Elementary Social Studies. Windows On Our World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    This document provides elementary teachers with an annotated index according to (Houghton-Mifflin, 1976), followed by suggestions for activities related to the topics. Indexed topics, which comprise a major portion of the document, include basic energy information, society's dependence on energy, problems and advantages of energy alternatives, and…

  18. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  19. Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

    2007-03-15

    China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

  20. Applying 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) for systematic toxicological analysis with liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arnhard, Kathrin; Gottschall, Anna; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has become an indispensable analytical technique in clinical and forensic toxicology for detection and identification of potentially toxic or harmful compounds. Particularly, non-target LC-MS/MS assays enable extensive and universal screening requested in systematic toxicological analysis. An integral part of the identification process is the generation of information-rich product ion spectra which can be searched against libraries of reference mass spectra. Usually, 'data-dependent acquisition' (DDA) strategies are applied for automated data acquisition. In this study, the 'data-independent acquisition' (DIA) method 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) was combined with LC-MS/MS on a quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument for acquiring informative high-resolution tandem mass spectra. SWATH performs data-independent fragmentation of all precursor ions entering the mass spectrometer in 21m/z isolation windows. The whole m/z range of interest is covered by continuous stepping of the isolation window. This allows numerous repeat analyses of each window during the elution of a single chromatographic peak and results in a complete fragment ion map of the sample. Compounds and samples typically encountered in forensic casework were used to assess performance characteristics of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. Our experiments clearly revealed that SWATH is a sensitive and specific identification technique. SWATH is capable of identifying more compounds at lower concentration levels than DDA does. The dynamic range of SWATH was estimated to be three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the >600,000 SWATH spectra matched led to only 408 incorrect calls (false positive rate = 0.06 %). Deconvolution of generated ion maps was found to be essential for unravelling the full identification power of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. With the available software, however, only semi

  1. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  2. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  3. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  4. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  5. The Effects of Practicing with a Virtual Ultrasound Trainer on FAST Window Identification, Acquisition, and Diagnosis. CRESST Report 787

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Gyllenhammer, Ruth G.; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of simulator-based virtual ultrasound scanning practice to classroom-based hands-on ultrasound scanning practice on participants' knowledge of FAST window quadrants and interpretation, and on participants' performance on live patient FAST exams. Twenty-five novice participants were randomly assigned to the…

  6. Smart thermochromic glazing for energy saving window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutjunjan, Ruben; Markova, Tatiana; Halopenen, Ilya; Maksimov, Ivan; Tutunnikov, Anatolii; Yanush, Oleg

    2005-08-01

    Thermochromic laminated glazing (TLG) aids in reducing the energy needs of a building and providing indoor comfort. The polymeric interlayer of TLG is doped with transition metal (Fe, Cr, W, etc.) complexes, which change their coordination and the transmission or color of TLG under the influence of light and heat fluxes. At present we have conversions fiom light gray or brown to dark gray or brown and fiom rosy or yellow to blue or green at our disposal. TLG is able to sense changes in the light and adjust accordingly. It can block out the sunlight during the brightest parts of the day or capitalize on the available light during overcast days. As evaluated on the basis of tests, TLG has a good UV stability. It offers practical benefits of a low cost and easy fabrication. No electrical or any other driving power is needed to operate TLG. The energy modeling of the heat transfer in ventilated facades showed that TLG can provide a 15-30% decrease of the building energy consumption during the winter heating time in the climatic conditions of some regions in Russia. During the summer season the reduction of the solar energy gain reaches 30-40%; this is enough to give up air- cooling systems altogether.

  7. Rashba-Zeeman-effect-induced spin filtering energy windows in a quantum wire

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Xianbo Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Guanghui; Li, Fei

    2014-06-14

    We perform a numerical study on the spin-resolved transport in a quantum wire (QW) under the modulation of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a perpendicular magnetic field by using the developed Usuki transfer-matrix method in combination with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Wide spin filtering energy windows can be achieved in this system for unpolarized spin injection. In addition, both the width of energy window and the magnitude of spin conductance within these energy windows can be tuned by varying Rashba SOC strength, which can be apprehended by analyzing the energy dispersions and spin-polarized density distributions inside the QW, respectively. Further study also demonstrates that these Rashba-SOC-controlled spin filtering energy windows show a strong robustness against disorders. These findings may not only benefit to further understand the spin-dependent transport properties of a QW in the presence of external fields but also provide a theoretical instruction to design a spin filter device.

  8. Design and characterization of a durable and highly efficient energy-harvesting electrochromic window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amasawa, Eri

    With the growing global energy demands, electrochromic window (ECW) technology has attracted great attention for its ability to reversibly change the transmittance of incoming light through applied moderate potential. While ECW has a great potential to conserve energy from lighting and air conditioning in buildings, ECW still consumes energy; ECW should be self-powered for further energy conservation. In this study, a new design of energy-harvesting electrochromic window (EH-ECW) based on fusion of two technologies, organic electrochromic window and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is presented. Unlike other self-powered smart windows such as photoelectrochromic device that only contains two states (i.e. closed circuit colored state and open circuit bleaching state), EH-ECW allows active tuning of transmittance through varying applied potential and function as a photovoltaic cell based on DSSC. The resulting device demonstrates fast switching rate of 1 second in both bleaching and coloring process through the use of electrochromic polymer as a counter electrode layer. In order to increase the transmittance of the device, cobalt redox couple and light colored yet efficient organic dye are employed. The organic dye utilized contains polymeric structure, which contributes to high cyclic stability. The device exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.5 % under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2), change in transmittance (Delta T = Tmax - Tmin) of 34 % upon applied potential, and shows only 3 % degradation in PCE after 5000 cycles.

  9. Identifying and Resolving Issues in EnergyPlus and DOE-2 Window Heat Transfer Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.

    2012-08-01

    Issues in building energy software accuracy are often identified by comparative, analytical, and empirical testing as delineated in the BESTEST methodology. As described in this report, window-related discrepancies in heating energy predictions were identified through comparative testing of EnergyPlus and DOE-2. Multiple causes for discrepancies were identified, and software fixes are recommended to better align the models with the intended algorithms and underlying test data.

  10. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  11. Time-of-flight ERD with a 200 mm2 Si3N4 window gas ionization chamber energy detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julin, Jaakko; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Low energy heavy ion elastic recoil detection work has been carried out in Jyväskylä since 2009 using home made timing detectors, a silicon energy detector and a timestamping data acquisition setup forming a time-of-flight-energy telescope. In order to improve the mass resolution of the setup a new energy detector was designed to replace the silicon solid state detector, which suffered from radiation damage and had poor resolution for heavy recoils. In this paper the construction and operation of an isobutane filled gas ionization chamber with a 14 × 14 mm2 100 nm thick silicon nitride window are described. In addition to greatly improved energy resolution for heavy ions, the detector is also able to detect hydrogen recoils simultaneously in the energy range of 100-1000 keV. Additionally the detector has position sensitivity by means of timing measurement, which can be performed without compromising the performance of the detector in any other way. The achieved position sensitivity improves the depth resolution near the surface.

  12. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows.

    PubMed

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m(2) mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems. PMID:25321890

  13. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. PMID:25212514

  14. Energy Choices and Climate Change: A New Interactive Feature on Windows to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Russell, R. M.; Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.; Henderson, S.; Foster, S. Q.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a new, self-paced online module to foster understanding of how choices made about energy production and energy use affect greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The module, entitled “Energy Choices and Climate Change” is available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), an extensive educational Web site used by over 20 million people each year. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change, emphasizing the climate implications of the choices we make. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” allows users to explore two different scenarios through which they make decisions about energy production or use. In the “Ruler of the World” scenario, the user is given the authority to make decisions about the mix of energy sources that will be used worldwide with the aim of reducing emissions while meeting global energy demand and monitoring costs and societal implications. In “The Joules Family” scenario, the user makes decisions about how to change the way a hypothetical family of four uses energy at home and for transportation with the aim of reducing the family’s carbon emissions and fossil fuel use while keeping costs less than long-term savings. While this module is intended for a general public audience, an associated teacher’s guide provides support for secondary educators using the module with students. Windows to the Universe is a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach. Funding for the Energy Choices and Climate Change online module was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  15. Optimization of energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Xing; Ghaly, Michael; Frey, Eric C.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: In yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. Methods: An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a

  16. Performance criteria for dynamic window systems using nanostructured behaviors for energy harvesting and environmental comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andow, Brandon C.; Krietemeyer, Bess; Stark, Peter R. H.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary commercial building types continue to incorporate predominantly glazed envelope systems, despite the associated challenges with thermal regulation, visual comfort, and increased energy consumption. The advantage of window systems that could adaptively respond to changes in the environment while meeting variable demands for building energy use and occupant comfort has led to considerable investment towards the advancement of dynamic window technologies. Although these technologies demonstrate cost warranting improvements in building energy performance, they face challenges with visible clarity, color variability and response time. Furthermore, they remain challenged with respect to their ability to adequately control important qualitative criteria for daylighting such as glare and balanced light redistribution within occupied spaces. The material dependent limitations of advanced glazing technologies have initiated a search for new thin film solutions, with new device possibilities emerging across many fields. Idealized window performance has traditionally been defined as the dynamic control of solar transmittance, glare, solar gain and daylighting at any time to manage energy, comfort and view. However, in the context of wider goals towards building energy self-sufficiency through the achievement of on-site net zero energy, emerging material systems point towards other physical phenomena for achieving transparency modulation and energy harvesting, demanding a broader range of criteria for advanced glazing controls that allow the glazed building envelope to exist as a transfer function that can address and potentially accommodate the following five principal criteria: 1. Thermal management; 2. Daylighting harvesting and modulation; 3. Maintenance of views; 4. Active power capture, transfer, storage and redistribution; 5. Information Display. Building upon the existing set of performance requirements for high-performance glazing, this paper prescribes

  17. A vertically integrated solar-powered electrochromic window for energy efficient buildings.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Aubrey L; Bulloch, Rayford H; Zhou, Yinhua; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R; Zhang, Fengling

    2014-07-23

    A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity. PMID:24863393

  18. An advanced data-acquisition system for wind energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A. ); Cousineau, K.L. )

    1992-10-01

    NREL has subcontracted with Zond Systems, Inc. to develop an advanced data-acquisition system (ADAS) for wind energy projects. The ADAS can be used to simplify the process of making accurate measurements and analyzing. The system utilizes state-of-the-art electronics and telemetry to provide distributed multi-source, multi-channel data acquisition. Local stand-alone microprocessor-based data acquisition modules (DAMs) can be located near sources of measurement. These allow analog data values to be digitized close to the measurement source, thus eliminating the need for long data runs and slip rings. Signals from digital sensors and transducers can also be directly input to the local DAMS. A PC-based ground station is used to coordinate data transmission to and from all remote DAMS, display real-time values, archive data sets, and process and analyze results. The system is capable of acquiring synchronized time-series data from sensors and transducers under a variety of test configurations in an operational wind-park environment. Data acquisition needs of the wind industry differ significantly from those of most other technologies. Most conventional system designs do not handle data coming from multiple distributed sources, nor do they provide telemetry or the ability to mesh multiple incoming digital data streams. This paper describes the capabilities of the ADAS, and how its design and cost objectives are geared to meet anticipated US wind industry needs.

  19. Analytical stress modeling of high-energy laser windows: Application to fusion-cast calcium fluoride windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Claude A.

    2005-08-01

    The performance of a laser-window material must be assessed not only in terms of its ability to transmit high-power beams without generating undue optical distortion but also in terms of the constraints imposed by stress-related failure modes. In operational use, the stress field images the superposition of stresses originating from the mechanical load created by the pressure differential and the thermal load created by the laser beam. Here, we provide the tools to carry out an analysis of both pressure- and beam-induced stresses, and illustrate the procedure in the context of assessing the performance of a "model" window made of fusion-cast CaF2. The analysis assumes (a) operation on a time scale such that lateral heat diffusion can be ignored, and (b) cylindrically symmetric Gaussian beam shapes, which permit straightforward calculations of stress distributions that should be representative of worst case situations. Pressure-induced stresses strongly depend on the window's aspect ratio, which suggests increasing the thickness to minimize the stress, but considerations relating to the optical performance require minimum allowable thicknesses based on a Weibull statistical analysis of the fracture probability. Beam-induced stresses are best evaluated in terms of (a) thickness-averaged radial and azimuthal stresses, which increase linearly with exposure time and depend on radial distances through the truncation parameter, and (b) across-the-thickness stress deviations relative to the average stress, which are caused by surface absorption and reach steady-state configurations on a time scale much shorter than the characteristic time for lateral heat transport. The average stress is always compressive and equibiaxial in the central region of the window, but its azimuthal component turns tensile in the rim region, thus threatening the structural integrity through brittle fracture. In addition, the coating-induced stress results in on-axis surface compressions that may

  20. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  1. The Dark Energy Camera Data Acquisition and Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Annis, J.; Bonati, M.; Eiting, J.; Elliot, A.; Haney, M.; Hanlon, W.; Honscheid, K.; Karliner, I.; Kuehn, K. W.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Marshall, S.; Roodman, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumacher, G.; Thaler, J.; Wester, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) data acquisition and control system is called the Survey Image System Process Integration (SISPI). Implemented as a distributed multi-processor system, SISPI consists of a set of processes that will coordinate and perform image acquisition and deliver images to the data management system for processing. Separate processes for instrument control, image building and analysis, image acquisition and observatory control are built on top of an infrastructure layer that provides message passing and communications. Additional system components include a flexible configuration system and the facility database. The command protocol is implemented in Python using a client-server design pattern derived from the SML and SCLN communications software developed at CTIO. A publish-subscribe model has been added to support the distribution of telemetry data and alarm messages. The design of the graphical user interfaces follows the Model-View-Controller approach to distinguish between the actual information and the graphical representation of the data. We will present the software architecture of the SISPI system and report on the current status of the project.

  2. A Monte Carlo simulation study of the effect of energy windows in computed tomography images based on an energy-resolved photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-08-01

    The energy-resolved photon counting detector provides the spectral information that can be used to generate images. The novel imaging methods, including the K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging, are based on the energy-resolved photon counting detector and can be realized by using various energy windows or energy bins. The location and width of the energy windows or energy bins are important because these techniques generate an image using the spectral information defined by the energy windows or energy bins. In this study, the reconstructed images acquired with K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of energy windows or energy bins was investigated with respect to the contrast, coefficient-of-variation (COV) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The three images were compared with respect to the CNR. We modeled the x-ray computed tomography system based on the CdTe energy-resolved photon counting detector and polymethylmethacrylate phantom, which have iodine, gadolinium and blood. To acquire K-edge images, the lower energy thresholds were fixed at K-edge absorption energy of iodine and gadolinium and the energy window widths were increased from 1 to 25 bins. The energy weighting factors optimized for iodine, gadolinium and blood were calculated from 5, 10, 15, 19 and 33 energy bins. We assigned the calculated energy weighting factors to the images acquired at each energy bin. In K-edge images, the contrast and COV decreased, when the energy window width was increased. The CNR increased as a function of the energy window width and decreased above the specific energy window width. When the number of energy bins was increased from 5 to 15, the contrast increased in the projection-based energy weighting images. There is a little difference in the contrast, when the number of energy bin is

  3. Energy metabolism in the acquisition and maintenance of stemness.

    PubMed

    Folmes, Clifford D L; Terzic, Andre

    2016-04-01

    Energy metabolism is traditionally considered a reactive homeostatic system addressing stage-specific cellular energy needs. There is however growing appreciation of metabolic pathways in the active control of vital cell functions. Case in point, the stem cell lifecycle--from maintenance and acquisition of stemness to lineage commitment and specification--is increasingly recognized as a metabolism-dependent process. Indeed, metabolic reprogramming is an early contributor to the orchestrated departure from or reacquisition of stemness. Recent advances in metabolomics have helped decipher the identity and dynamics of metabolic fluxes implicated in fueling cell fate choices by regulating the epigenetic and transcriptional identity of a cell. Metabolic cues, internal and/or external to the stem cell niche, facilitate progenitor pool restitution, long-term tissue renewal or ensure adoption of cytoprotective behavior. Convergence of energy metabolism with stem cell fate regulation opens a new avenue in understanding primordial developmental biology principles with future applications in regenerative medicine practice. PMID:26868758

  4. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of

  5. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  6. Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Papamichael, K.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electricity use and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated location of Blythe, California. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. Their results show that when a daylighting strategy is used to reduce electrical lighting requirements, control algorithms based on daylight illuminance results in the best overall annual energy performance. If daylighting is not a design option, controls based on space cooling load yield the best performance through solar heat gain reduction. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategies varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); for small to moderate window sizes which result in small to moderate solar gains, a large setpoint-range was best since it provides increased illuminance for daylighting without much cooling penalty; for larger window sizes, which provide adequate daylight, a small setpoint-range was best to reduce unwanted solar heat gains and the consequential increased cooling requirement. Of particular importance is the fact that reduction in peak electric demand was found to be independent of the type of control strategy used for electrochromic switching. This is because the electrochromics are generally in their most colored state under peak conditions, and the mechanism used for achieving such a state is not important.

  7. A triple energy window scatter subtraction approach for quantitative anger camera imaging of iodine-131

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, E.J.; Macey, D.J.; Bayouth, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    Dose estimates for organs and tumor volumes in radioimmunotherapy with I-131 frequently depend on in-vivo quantitation methods using planar Anger camera images. Compton scatter and collimator septal penetration result in overestimation of activity and dose. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a triple energy window subtraction method for quantitative imaging of I-131. The energy spectrum of I-131 was modeled as a superposition of the spectra of Cr-51 (320 keV) and Cs-137 (662 keV). Images were acquired with three adjacent 15% energy windows--photopeak(PP), upper scatter(US), and lower scatter(LS)--for small sources of these radionuclides. The PP window was centered at 364 keV for I-131 and Cs-137 and 320 keV for Cr-51. Three scatter multipliers were derived from analysis of count profiles of the Cs-137 and Cr-51 images, and used to sequentially remove septal penetration and scatter events included in the 364 keV photopeak of I-131. This method was tested by acquiring images of an abdominal phantom containing a liver, spleen and spherical {open_quotes}tumor{close_quotes} filled with different concentrations of I-131, both with and without background activity in the surrounding phantom. A body thickness attenuation compensation factor was applied to the geometric mean of the conjugate view counts using a narrow beam linear attenuation coefficient of 0.11 cm{sup -1}. With scatter subtraction, the accuracy and reproducibility of activity quantitation was improved because the background count density was more uniformly scored. Also, the influence of different activity concentrations in source organs relative to background on the accuracy of quantitation was removed, and the perimeters of organs were more clearly defined. This method has been used to provide improved dose estimates for I-131 labeled antibody therapy in breast cancer patients.

  8. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  9. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Nouidui, Thierry; Pang, Xiufeng; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.

  10. Angular selective window systems: Assessment of technical potential for energy savings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fernandes, Luis L.; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Nouidui, Thierry; Pang, Xiufeng; Hoffmann, Sabine

    2014-10-16

    Static angular selective shading systems block direct sunlight and admit daylight within a specific range of incident solar angles. The objective of this study is to quantify their potential to reduce energy use and peak demand in commercial buildings using state-of-the art whole-building computer simulation software that allows accurate modeling of the behavior of optically-complex fenestration systems such as angular selective systems. Three commercial systems were evaluated: a micro-perforated screen, a tubular shading structure, and an expanded metal mesh. This evaluation was performed through computer simulation for multiple climates (Chicago, Illinois and Houston, Texas), window-to-wall ratios (0.15-0.60), building codes (ASHRAEmore » 90.1-2004 and 2010) and lighting control configurations (with and without). The modeling of the optical complexity of the systems took advantage of the development of state-of-the-art versions of the EnergyPlus, Radiance and Window simulation tools. Results show significant reductions in perimeter zone energy use; the best system reached 28% and 47% savings, respectively without and with daylighting controls (ASHRAE 90.1-2004, south facade, Chicago,WWR=0.45). As a result, angular selectivity and thermal conductance of the angle-selective layer, as well as spectral selectivity of low-emissivity coatings, were identified as factors with significant impact on performance.« less

  11. Quantum dot imaging in the second near-infrared optical window: studies on reflectance fluorescence imaging depths by effective fluence rate and multiple image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yebin; Jeong, Sanghwa; Nayoun, Won; Ahn, Boeun; Kwag, Jungheon; Geol Kim, Sang; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dot (QD) imaging capability was investigated by the imaging depth at a near-infrared second optical window (SOW; 1000 to 1400 nm) using time-modulated pulsed laser excitations to control the effective fluence rate. Various media, such as liquid phantoms, tissues, and in vivo small animals, were used and the imaging depths were compared with our predicted values. The QD imaging depth under excitation of continuous 20 mW/cm2 laser was determined to be 10.3 mm for 2 wt% hemoglobin phantom medium and 5.85 mm for 1 wt% intralipid phantom, which were extended by more than two times on increasing the effective fluence rate to 2000 mW/cm2. Bovine liver and porcine skin tissues also showed similar enhancement in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values. A QD sample was inserted into the abdomen of a mouse. With a higher effective fluence rate, the CNR increased more than twofold and the QD sample became clearly visualized, which was completely undetectable under continuous excitation. Multiple acquisitions of QD images and averaging process pixel by pixel were performed to overcome the thermal noise issue of the detector in SOW, which yielded significant enhancement in the imaging capability, showing up to a 1.5 times increase in the CNR.

  12. Liquid chromatography, in combination with a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (LC QTOF), with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) acquisition: systematic studies on its use for screenings in clinical and forensic toxicology and comparison with information-dependent acquisition (IDA).

    PubMed

    Roemmelt, Andreas T; Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Forensic and clinical toxicological screening procedures are employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques with information-dependent acquisition (IDA) approaches more and more often. It is known that the complexity of a sample and the IDA settings might prevent important compounds from being triggered. Therefore, data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods should be more suitable for systematic toxicological analysis (STA). The DIA method sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH), which uses Q1 windows of 20-35 Da for data-independent fragmentation, was systematically investigated for its suitability for STA. Quality of SWATH-generated mass spectra were evaluated with regard to mass error, relative abundance of the fragments, and library hits. With the Q1 window set to 20-25 Da, several precursors pass Q1 at the same time and are fragmented, thus impairing the library search algorithms to a different extent: forward fit was less affected than reverse fit and purity fit. Mass error was not affected. The relative abundance of the fragments was concentration dependent for some analytes and was influenced by cofragmentation, especially of deuterated analogues. Also, the detection rate of IDA compared to SWATH was investigated in a forced coelution experiment (up to 20 analytes coeluting). Even using several different IDA settings, it was observed that IDA failed to trigger relevant compounds. Screening results of 382 authentic forensic cases revealed that SWATH's detection rate was superior to IDA, which failed to trigger ∼10% of the analytes. PMID:25329363

  13. The energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual heating, cooling and lighting energy use and performance as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Madison, Wisconsin. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. The results show that overall energy performance is best if the electrochromic is left in its clear or bleached state during the heating season, but controlled during the cooling season using daylight illuminance as a control strategy. Even in such heating dominated locations as madison, there is still a well-defined cooling season when electrochromic switching will be beneficial. However, having the electrochromic remain in its bleached state during the winter season may result in glare and visual comfort problems for occupants much in the same way as conventional glazings.

  14. Comparison of Imaging Characteristics of 124I PET for Determination of Optimal Energy Window on the Siemens Inveon PET

    PubMed Central

    Yu, A Ram; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Jin Su

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. 124I has a half-life of 4.2 days, which makes it suitable for imaging over several days over its uptake and washout phases. However, it has a low positron branching ratio (23%), because of prompt gamma coincidence due to high-energy γ-photons (602 to 1,691 keV), which are emitted in cascade with positrons. Methods. In this study, we investigated the optimal PET energy window for 124I PET based on image characteristics of reconstructed PET. Image characteristics such as nonuniformities, recovery coefficients (RCs), and the spillover ratios (SORs) of 124I were measured as described in NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results. The maximum and minimum prompt gamma coincidence fraction (PGF) were 33% and 2% in 350~800 and 400~590 keV, respectively. The difference between best and worst uniformity in the various energy windows was less than 1%. The lowest SORs of 124I were obtained at 350~750 keV in nonradioactive water compartment. Conclusion. Optimal energy window should be determined based on image characteristics. Our developed correction method would be useful for the correction of high-energy prompt gamma photon in 124I PET. In terms of the image quality of 124I PET, our findings indicate that an energy window of 350~750 keV would be optimal. PMID:27127782

  15. 76 FR 11985 - Acquisition Regulation: Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation, Government Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Property. On May 15, 2007 (72 FR 27364), in the Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-17, FAR Part 45 was... definition of sensitive property. For clarity, since the FAR definition of sensitive property was changed... section ``945.102-72 Reporting of contractor sensitive property inventory'' to reflect the...

  16. Collimator and energy window optimization for ⁹⁰Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging: A SIMIND Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Hoda Rezaei; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharepapagh, Esmaeil; Azarm, Ahmadreza; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh

    2016-02-01

    Treatment efficacy of radioembolization using Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microspheres is assessed by the (90)Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging following radioembolization. The radioisotopic image has the potential of providing reliable activity map of (90)Y microspheres distribution. One of the main reasons of the poor image quality in (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging is the continuous and broad energy spectrum of the related bremsstrahlung photons. Furthermore, collimator geometry plays an impressive role in the spatial resolution, sensitivity and image contrast. Due to the relatively poor quality of the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT images, we intend to optimize the medium-energy (ME) parallel-hole collimator and energy window. The Siemens e.cam gamma camera equipped with a ME collimator and a voxelized phantom was simulated by the SImulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors (SIMIND) program. We used the SIMIND Monte Carlo program to generate the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT projection of the digital Jaszczak phantom. The phantom consist of the six hot spheres ranging from 9.5 to 31.8mm in diameter, which are used to evaluate the image contrast. In order to assess the effect of the energy window on the image contrast, three energy windows ranging from 60 to 160 KeV, 160 to 400 KeV, and 60 to 400 KeV were set on a (90)Y bremsstrahlung spectrum. As well, the effect of the hole diameter of a ME collimator on the image contrast and bremsstrahlung spectrum were investigated. For the fixed collimator and septa thickness values (3.28 cm and 1.14 mm, respectively), a hole diameter range (2.35-3.3mm) was chosen based on the appropriate balance between the spatial resolution and sensitivity. The optimal energy window for (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging was extended energy window from 60 to 400 KeV. Besides, The optimal value of the hole diameter of ME collimator was obtained 3.3mm. Geometry of the ME parallel-hole collimator and energy

  17. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2015-10-01

    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  18. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  19. Aortopulmonary window

    MedlinePlus

    Aortopulmonary window is a rare heart defect in which there is a hole connecting the major artery taking blood ... rest of the body. Babies with an aortopulmonary window have a hole in between the aorta and ...

  20. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  1. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  2. The energy radiated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from 10-minute P-wave windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rupture process of the Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake lasted for approximately 500 sec, nearly twice as long as the teleseismic time windows between the P and PP arrival times generally used to compute radiated energy. In order to measure the P waves radiated by the entire earthquake, we analyze records that extend from the P-wave to the S-wave arrival times from stations at distances ?? >60??. These 8- to 10-min windows contain the PP, PPP, and ScP arrivals, along with other multiply reflected phases. To gauge the effect of including these additional phases, we form the spectral ratio of the source spectrum estimated from extended windows (between TP and TS) to the source spectrum estimated from normal windows (between TP and TPP). The extended windows are analyzed as though they contained only the P-pP-sP wave group. We analyze four smaller earthquakes that occurred in the vicinity of the Mw 9.1 mainshock, with similar depths and focal mechanisms. These smaller events range in magnitude from an Mw 6.0 aftershock of 9 January 2005 to the Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake that occurred to the south of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 28 March 2005. We average the spectral ratios for these four events to obtain a frequency-dependent operator for the extended windows. We then correct the source spectrum estimated from the extended records of the 26 December 2004 mainshock to obtain a complete or corrected source spectrum for the entire rupture process (???600 sec) of the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Our estimate of the total seismic energy radiated by this earthquake is 1.4 ?? 1017 J. When we compare the corrected source spectrum for the entire earthquake to the source spectrum from the first ???250 sec of the rupture process (obtained from normal teleseismic windows), we find that the mainshock radiated much more seismic energy in the first half of the rupture process than in the second half, especially over the period range from 3 sec to 40 sec.

  3. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  4. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  5. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  6. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C G M; Hensen, Jan L M; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  7. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  8. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  9. Bilingualism as a Window into the Language Faculty: The Acquisition of Objects in French-Speaking Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Pirvulescu, Mihaela; Roberge, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Where do the two languages of the bilingual child interact? The literature has debated whether bilingual children have delays in the acquisition of direct objects. The variety of methods and languages involved have prevented clear conclusions. In a transitivity-based approach, null objects are a default structural possibility, present in all…

  10. Beam Window for Pressure Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, J. W.; Austin, J. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Window resists products of combustion experiments. Sodium chloride window seals over chamber pressures from 0.1 to 13.8 MPa while absorbing minimal energy from CO2 laser beam that passes through it into chamber. Window inexpensive and easily replacable.

  11. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Hun, Diana E; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  12. Acquisition of building geometry in the simulation of energy performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2001-06-28

    Building geometry is essential to any simulation of building performance. This paper examines the importing of building geometry into simulation of energy performance from the users' point of view. It lists performance requirements for graphic user interfaces that input building geometry, and discusses the basic options in moving from two- to three-dimensional definition of geometry and the ways to import that geometry into energy simulation. The obvious answer lies in software interoperability. With the BLIS group of interoperable software one can interactively import building geometry from CAD into EnergyPlus and dramatically reduce the effort otherwise needed for manual input.The resulting savings may greatly increase the value obtained from simulation, the number of projects in which energy performance simulation is used, and expedite decision making in the design process.

  13. Windows and daylighting: A brighter outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This is an overview of energy efficient window glazing and framing technology. The topics of the report include: windows and energy use, a point of view; a challenging federal opportunity; DOE window research; advanced optical technologies such as spectrally selective glazing, switchable glazing, super windows with low-emissivity coatings and noble gas fills; and performance evaluation and design tools.

  14. A digital data acquisition framework for the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulauskas, S. V.; Madurga, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Miller, D.; Padgett, S.; Tan, H.

    2014-02-01

    Neutron energy measurements can be achieved using time-of-flight (ToF) techniques. A digital data acquisition system was developed for reliable ToF measurements with subnanosecond timing resolution based on digitizers with 10 ns and 4 ns sampling periods using pulse shape analysis algorithms. A validation procedure was developed to confirm the reliability. The response of the algorithm to photomultiplier signals was studied using a specially designed experimental system based on fast plastic scintillators. The presented developments enabled digital data acquisition systems to instrument the recently developed Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low-Energy (VANDLE).

  15. Impact of image acquisition timing on image quality for dual energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Mainprize, James G.; Puong, Sylvie; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Iordache, Razvan; Muller, Serge; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (DE CE-DBT) image quality is affected by a large parameter space including the tomosynthesis acquisition geometry, imaging technique factors, the choice of reconstruction algorithm, and the subject breast characteristics. The influence of most of these factors on reconstructed image quality is well understood for DBT. However, due to the contrast agent uptake kinetics in CE imaging, the subject breast characteristics change over time, presenting a challenge for optimization . In this work we experimentally evaluate the sensitivity of the reconstructed image quality to timing of the low-energy and high-energy images and changes in iodine concentration during image acquisition. For four contrast uptake patterns, a variety of acquisition protocols were tested with different timing and geometry. The influence of the choice of reconstruction algorithm (SART or FBP) was also assessed. Image quality was evaluated in terms of the lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (LSDNR) in the central slice of DE CE-DBT reconstructions. Results suggest that for maximum image quality, the low- and high-energy image acquisitions should be made within one x-ray tube sweep, as separate low- and high-energy tube sweeps can degrade LSDNR. In terms of LSDNR per square-root dose, the image quality is nearly equal between SART reconstructions with 9 and 15 angular views, but using fewer angular views can result in a significant improvement in the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructions due to the shorter imaging time interval.

  16. Data acquisition and analysis for the energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamzin, Murat Kamilevich

    In response to the shortcomings of the Anger camera currently being used in conventional SPECT, particularly the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution, a novel energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera, or the ESCSC, has been proposed. A successful clinical implementation of the ESCSC could revolutionize the field of SPECT. Features of this camera include utilization of silicon and CdZnTe detectors in primary and secondary detector systems, list-mode time stamping data acquisition, modular architecture, and post-acquisition data analysis. Previous ESCSC studies were based on Monte Carlo modeling. The objective of this work is to test the theoretical framework developed in previous studies by developing the data acquisition and analysis techniques necessary to implement the ESCSC. The camera model working in list-mode with time stamping was successfully built and tested thus confirming potential of the ESCSC that was predicted in previous simulation studies. The obtained data were processed during the post-acquisition data analysis based on preferred event selection criteria. Along with the construction of a camera model and proving the approach, the post-acquisition data analysis was further extended to include preferred event weighting based on the likelihood of a preferred event to be a true preferred event. While formulated to show ESCSC capabilities, the results of this study are important for any Compton scatter camera implementation as well as for coincidence data acquisition systems in general.

  17. Energy efficient acquisition and reconstruction of EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Singh, W; Shukla, A; Deb, S; Majumdar, A

    2014-01-01

    In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) the energy consumption is dominated by sensing and communication. Previous Compressed Sensing (CS) based solutions to EEG tele-monitoring over WBAN's could only reduce the communication cost. In this work, we propose a matrix completion based formulation that can also reduce the energy consumption for sensing. We test our method with state-of-the-art CS based techniques and find that the reconstruction accuracy from our method is significantly better and that too at considerably less energy consumption. Our method is also tested for post-reconstruction signal classification where it outperforms previous CS based techniques. At the heart of the system is an Analog to Information Converter (AIC) implemented in 65nm CMOS technology. The pseudorandom clock generator enables random under-sampling and subsequent conversion by the 12-bit Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converter (SAR ADC). AIC achieves a sample rate of 0.5 KS/s, an ENOB 9.54 bits, and consumes 108 nW from 1 V power supply. PMID:25570198

  18. Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lunt, Richard R; Bulovic, Vladimir

    2011-03-14

    We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous average visible transmission of >65% . Subsequent incorporation of near-infrared distributed-Bragg-reflector mirrors leads to an increase in the efficiency to 1.7±0.1% , approaching the 2.4±0.2% efficiency of the opaque cell, while maintaining high visible-transparency of >55% . Finally, we demonstrate that a series-integrated array of these transparent cells is capable of powering electronic devices under near-ambient lighting. This architecture suggests strategies for high-efficiency power-generating windows and highlights an application uniquely benefiting from excitonic electronics.

  19. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub - thorn woodland - thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. Body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with doubly labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient were compared. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =100 lizards/ha) than at the thorn scrub site near the ocean (approx. =50 lizards/ha). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/,> and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/O influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. Causal factors for the difference in daily activity period are suggested, and implications of length of daily foraging period for adult body, size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards are discussed.

  20. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub-thorn woodland-thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. The authors compared body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with double labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =50 lizards/ha.). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 site J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/ influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. We suggest causal factors for the difference in daily activity period, and discuss implications of length of daily forging period for adult body size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards.

  1. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  2. [Aortopulmonary window].

    PubMed

    González-Marín, María Arántzazu; Jiménez-Díaz, Javier; Centeno-Jiménez, Miriam; García-Cabezas, M Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The aortopulmonary window is a rare cause of heart failure in the neonate. It must be ruled out if there are signs of pulmonary edema without the most frequent left-right shunts. We report the echocardiographic images of a newborn who was admitted with symptoms of heart failure at our institution. PMID:25698530

  3. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  4. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  5. Highly Insulating Windows for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reliability in Fenestration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, David

    2010-11-30

    EverSealed Windows, Inc. (ESW) agreed in early 2006, prior to the contract award, to add three additional deliverables to the Project (new Milestones 30, 31 and 32), and have the results of these three deliverables form the basis of the go/no-go decision for proceeding from BP1 to BP2. ESW completed all three milestones and the DOE agreed in November 2006 to continue the Project. ESW subsequently initiated work on BP2 and its two milestones. These were to (1) Assemble and test glass-to-metal bonded coupons to test the strength of ESW's glass-to-metal bonds (ESW's Test Vehicle 1 or TV1), and (2) to assemble and test the hermeticity of glass and metal packages (ESW's Test Vehicle 2 or TV2). ESW completed both milestones of BP2 in late 2010, demonstrating that its bonds were both strong enough and hermetic enough that vacuum insulating glass units could be assembled and survive a 40+ year service life in any climate in North America. Based on the accomplishments in BP-1, the DOE held a go/no-go meeting in Washington, DC in mid-November 2006 and moved the Project into Budget Period 2 (BP-2). During this go/no-go meeting, the DOE expressed a concern that ESW did not have a back-up plan or process should ESW be unable to make its diffusion bonding process more than adequate for the necessary bond strength and hermeticity of the seal. ESW suggested and volunteered to investigate using a glass frit (i.e., solder glass) as a back-up to its diffusion bonding of glass to oxidized metal.

  6. Window comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A window comparator is described, comprising two operational amplifiers, one with two feedback circuits, each feedback circuit having a diode connected to the amplifier output and poled for forward current conduction of opposite polarity, to provide an algebraic difference between an input signal and a selected set-point voltage. Differential input terminals of the second operational amplifier were connected to the separate feedback circuits of the first operational amplifier, one input terminal to the output of one diode, and the other to the output of the other diode. A selected window-width voltage was connected through a coupling resistor to one of the input terminals of the second operational amplifier to determine when the algebraic difference of the input signal and the setpoint voltage has exceeded a predetermined tolerance after that difference has changed signs.

  7. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Thoracic dual energy CT: acquisition protocols, current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Ohana, M; Jeung, M Y; Labani, A; El Ghannudi, S; Roy, C

    2014-11-01

    Thanks to a simultaneous acquisition at high and low kilovoltage, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can achieve material-based decomposition (iodine, water, calcium, etc.) and reconstruct images at different energy levels (40 to 140keV). Post-processing uses this potential to maximise iodine detection, which elicits demonstrated added value for chest imaging in acute and chronic embolic diseases (increases the quality of the examination and identifies perfusion defects), follow-up of aortic endografts and detection of contrast uptake in oncology. In CT angiography, these unique features are taken advantage of to reduce the iodine load by more than half. This review article aims to set out the physical basis for the technology, the acquisition and post-processing protocols used, its proven advantages in chest pathologies, and to present future developments. PMID:24780370

  9. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  10. Window Insulation: How to Sort Through the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara

    This two-part report explores the efforts of businesses and individuals to improve the thermal performance of windows. Part I discusses the basics of what makes a window product insulate or save energy. Topic areas addressed include saving energy lost through windows, key components of window insulation, three basic types of window insulation,…

  11. Experimental determination of the weighting factor for the energy window subtraction–based downscatter correction for I-123 in brain SPECT studies

    PubMed Central

    de Nijs, Robin; Holm, Søren; Thomsen, Gerda; Ziebell, Morten; Svarer, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Correction for downscatter in I-123 SPECT can be performed by the subtraction of a secondary energy window from the main window, as in the triple-energy window method. This is potentially noise sensitive. For studies with limited amount of counts (e.g. dynamic studies), a broad subtraction window with identical width is preferred. This secondary window needs to be weighted with a factor higher than one, due to a broad backscatter peak from high-energy photons appearing at 172 keV. Spatial dependency and the numerical value of this weighting factor and the image contrast improvement of this correction were investigated in this study. Energy windows with a width of 32 keV were centered at 159 keV and 200 keV. The weighting factor was measured both with an I-123 point source and in a dopamine transporter brain SPECT study in 10 human subjects (5 healthy subjects and 5 patients) by minimizing the background outside the head. Weighting factors ranged from 1.11 to 1.13 for the point source and from 1.16 to 1.18 for human subjects. Point source measurements revealed no position dependence. After correction, the measured specific binding ratio (image contrast) increased significantly for healthy subjects, typically by more than 20%, while the background counts outside of all subjects were effectively removed. A weighting factor of 1.1–1.2 can be applied in clinical practice. This correction effectively removes downscatter and significantly improves image contrast inside the brain. PMID:21170186

  12. Comparison of existing and proposed HEP (High Energy Physics) data acquisition systems and their suitability for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Sunier, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this note, a summary of data acquisition systems is presented for the High Energy Physics collider facilities. Particular emphasis is made on the data acquisition stages and trigger rates. The suitability of these systems for a relativistic heavy ion collider calorimeter detector with ports is then discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  13. Development of a CdTe pixel detector with a window comparator ASIC for high energy X-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Furukawa, Y.; Honma, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kawase, M.; Koganezawa, T.; Ohata, T.; Sato, M.; Sato, G.; Takagaki, M.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a photon-counting-type CdTe pixel detector (SP8-01). SP8-01 was designed as a prototype of a high-energy X-ray imaging detector for experiments using synchrotron radiation. SP8-01 has a CdTe sensor of 500 μm thickness, which has an absorption efficiency of almost 100% up to 50 keV and 45% even at 100 keV. A full-custom application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was designed as a readout circuit of SP8-01, which is equipped with a window-type discriminator. The upper discriminator realizes a low-background measurement, because X-ray beams from the monochromator contain higher-order components beside the fundamental X-rays in general. ASIC chips were fabricated with a TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS process, and CdTe sensors were bump-bonded to the ASIC chips by a gold-stud bonding technique. Beam tests were performed at SPring-8. SP8-01 detected X-rays up to 120 keV. The capability of SP8-01 as an imaging detector for high-energy X-ray synchrotron radiation was evaluated with its performance characteristics.

  14. A tool for estimating the mix of energy conservation measures given competing acquisition scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is conducting analyses that are to serve the Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement (RP/EIS). Parts of the RP/EIS are to address the impacts of commercial sector electricity conservation acquisitions under various conservation acquisition alternatives. These impacts include the energy conservation measure (ECM) mix adopted by the commercial sector and the equipment/technology that would be replaced by implementing new ECMs. The goal of this project was to develop a tool that has the capability to detail region-wide numerical estimates of the commercial sector ECM and replaced technology mix. The tool (hereafter called ECMMIX) was to be sufficiently flexible and user friendly that analysts could easily perform sensitivity tests of alternative forecasts of energy conservation acquisitions. It needed to have the capability to assess impacts across different building types, utility regions, vintage and end-use categories, as well as to aggregate similar ECMs across all categories. The aggregation capability was to exist for the replaced technology as well. Chapter 2 presents specific details about the methodology and assumptions adopted in developing ECMMIX. Included is a discussion of data disaggregation, adjustment to forecasted savings estimates, and incorporation of ADM and Ecotope ECMs. Chapter 3 contains a users guide to ECMMIX and concluding comments. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. A New Data Acquisition System for TDPAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Yi; Yuan, Daqing; Zheng, Yongnan; Wang, Zhiqian; Fan, Ping; Zhou, Dongmei; Wu, Yongle; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Shengyun

    2010-03-01

    A new data acquisition system for TDPAC measurements with a 6 BaF2-detectors spectrometer has been developed using multi-channel TDC and ADC. The major advantage of this system is that most of functions is implemented by the software instead of the hardware, so that the electronics of the system is rather simple and easily adjusted. Also, there is no limit on the numbers of energy windows, and it is easy to add more detectors.

  16. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records frommore » IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of

  17. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen; Mitchell, Robin D.; Kohler, Christian; Vidanovic, Simon V.; Huizenga, Charlie

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  18. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  19. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  20. Digital data acquisition for the Low Energy Neutron Detector Array (LENDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipschutz, S.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Hill, J.; Liddick, S. N.; Noji, S.; Prokop, C. J.; Scott, M.; Solt, M.; Sullivan, C.; Tompkins, J.

    2016-04-01

    A digital data acquisition system (DDAS) has been implemented for the Low Energy Neutron Detector Array (LENDA). LENDA is an array of 24 BC-408 plastic-scintillator bars designed to measure low-energy neutrons with kinetic energies in the range of 100 keV-10 MeV from (p,n)-type charge-exchange reactions. Compared to the previous data acquisition (DAQ) system for LENDA, DDAS offers the possibility to lower the neutron detection threshold, increase the overall neutron-detection efficiency, decrease the dead time of the system, and allow for easy expansion of the array. The system utilized in this work was XIA's Digital Gamma Finder Pixie-16 250 MHz digitizers. A detector-limited timing resolution of 400 ps was achieved for a single LENDA bar. Using DDAS, the neutron detection threshold of the system was reduced compared to the previous analog system, now reaching below 100 keV. The new DAQ system was successfully used in a recent charge-exchange experiment using the 16C(p,n) reaction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL).

  1. Complete data acquisition and analysis system for low-energy electron-molecule collision studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-09-01

    A complete data acquisition system has been developed that can work with any personal computer irrespective of the operating system installed on it. The software can be used in low and intermediate electron-energy collision studies with ground-state molecules in gas phase using a combination of RS-232, GPIB, and USB-interfaced devices. Various tabletop instruments and nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) -based electronics have been interfaced and have communicated with the software, which is based on LabVIEW. This is tested with dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and polar dissociation studies to oxygen molecule and successfully used in a DEA study of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

  2. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  3. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  4. The influence of triple energy window scatter correction on activity quantification for 1 7 7Lu molecular radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew P.; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M.; Hamilton, David

    2016-07-01

    Accurate activity quantification is the foundation for all methods of radiation dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy (MRT). The requirements for patient-specific dosimetry using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are challenging, particularly with respect to scatter correction. In this paper data from phantom studies, combined with results from a fully validated Monte Carlo (MC) SPECT camera simulation, are used to investigate the influence of the triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction on SPECT activity quantification for {{}1 7 7} Lu MRT. Results from phantom data show that; (1) activity quantification for the total counts in the SPECT field-of-view demonstrates a significant overestimation in total activity recovery when TEW scatter correction is applied at low activities (≤slant 200 MBq). (2) Applying the TEW scatter correction to activity quantification within a volume-of-interest with no background activity provides minimal benefit. (3) In the case of activity distributions with background activity, an overestimation of recovered activity of up to 30% is observed when using the TEW scatter correction. Data from MC simulation were used to perform a full analysis of the composition of events in a clinically reconstructed volume of interest. This allowed, for the first time, the separation of the relative contributions of partial volume effects (PVE) and inaccuracies in TEW scatter compensation to the observed overestimation of activity recovery. It is shown, that even with perfect partial volume compensation, TEW scatter correction can overestimate activity recovery by up to 11%. MC data is used to demonstrate that even a localized and optimized isotope-specific TEW correction cannot reflect a patient specific activity distribution without prior knowledge of the complete activity distribution. This highlights the important role of MC simulation in SPECT activity quantification.

  5. The influence of triple energy window scatter correction on activity quantification for (1 7 7)Lu molecular radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew P; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M; Hamilton, David

    2016-07-21

    Accurate activity quantification is the foundation for all methods of radiation dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy (MRT). The requirements for patient-specific dosimetry using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are challenging, particularly with respect to scatter correction. In this paper data from phantom studies, combined with results from a fully validated Monte Carlo (MC) SPECT camera simulation, are used to investigate the influence of the triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction on SPECT activity quantification for [Formula: see text]Lu MRT. Results from phantom data show that; (1) activity quantification for the total counts in the SPECT field-of-view demonstrates a significant overestimation in total activity recovery when TEW scatter correction is applied at low activities ([Formula: see text]200 MBq). (2) Applying the TEW scatter correction to activity quantification within a volume-of-interest with no background activity provides minimal benefit. (3) In the case of activity distributions with background activity, an overestimation of recovered activity of up to 30% is observed when using the TEW scatter correction. Data from MC simulation were used to perform a full analysis of the composition of events in a clinically reconstructed volume of interest. This allowed, for the first time, the separation of the relative contributions of partial volume effects (PVE) and inaccuracies in TEW scatter compensation to the observed overestimation of activity recovery. It is shown, that even with perfect partial volume compensation, TEW scatter correction can overestimate activity recovery by up to 11%. MC data is used to demonstrate that even a localized and optimized isotope-specific TEW correction cannot reflect a patient specific activity distribution without prior knowledge of the complete activity distribution. This highlights the important role of MC simulation in SPECT activity quantification. PMID:27351914

  6. Interior and Exterior Low-E Storm Window Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, Sarah

    2014-09-03

    Until recently, energy-efficient window retrofit options have largely been limited to repair or replacement; leaving the homeowner to decide between affordability and deeper energy savings. A new and improved low-e storm window boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement. A recent whole-home experiment performed by PNNL suggests that attaching low-e storm windows can result in as much energy savings replacing the windows.

  7. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  8. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  9. Optimization and comparison of simultaneous and separate acquisition protocols for dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-07-01

    Dual-isotope simultaneous-acquisition (DISA) rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) protocols offer a number of advantages over separate acquisition. However, crosstalk contamination due to scatter in the patient and interactions in the collimator degrade image quality. Compensation can reduce the effects of crosstalk, but does not entirely eliminate image degradations. Optimizing acquisition parameters could further reduce the impact of crosstalk. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the rest Tl-201 energy window width and relative injected activities using the ideal observer (IO), a realistic digital phantom population and Monte Carlo (MC) simulated Tc-99m and Tl-201 projections as a means to improve image quality. We compared performance on a perfusion defect detection task for Tl-201 acquisition energy window widths varying from 4 to 40 keV centered at 72 keV for a camera with a 9% energy resolution. We also investigated 7 different relative injected activities, defined as the ratio of Tc-99m and Tl-201 activities, while keeping the total effective dose constant at 13.5 mSv. For each energy window and relative injected activity, we computed the IO test statistics using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 1,620 triplets of fixed and reversible defect-present, and defect-absent noisy images modeling realistic background variations. The volume under the 3-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface (VUS) was estimated and served as the figure of merit. For simultaneous acquisition, the IO suggested that relative Tc-to-Tl injected activity ratios of 2.6-5 and acquisition energy window widths of 16-22% were optimal. For separate acquisition, we observed a broad range of optimal relative injected activities from 2.6 to 12.1 and acquisition energy window of widths 16-22%. A negative correlation between Tl-201 injected activity and the width of the Tl-201 energy window was observed in these ranges. The results

  10. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings. PMID:26953596

  11. Optimal spectral windows for microwave diversity imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhat, Nabil H.; Bai, Baocheng

    1991-01-01

    Tomographic microwave diversity imaging is analyzed using linear system theory concepts, and optimal spectral windows for data acquisition are obtained either by considering window position in the spectral domain or by using simulated annealing to find an optimal phase weighting of the object frequency response samples collected over the specified spectral window. This study provides a means of microwave image formation that is applicable under general assumptions. Results of numerical simulations and representative images reconstructed from realistic experimental microwave scattering data are given, demonstrating that the proposed approach is superior to previous image reconstruction methods.

  12. Towards Quantification of Functional Breast Images Using Dedicated SPECT With Non-Traditional Acquisition Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Kristy L.; Cutler, Spencer J.; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast lesions can provide valuable information to physicians in deciding patient care or determining treatment efficacy. Physical processes (e.g., scatter, attenuation), detector/collimator characteristics, sampling and acquisition trajectories, and reconstruction artifacts contribute to an incorrect measurement of absolute tracer activity and distribution. For these experiments, a cylinder with three syringes of varying radioactivity concentration, and a fillable 800 mL breast with two lesion phantoms containing aqueous 99mTc pertechnetate were imaged using the SPECT sub-system of the dual-modality SPECT-CT dedicated breast scanner. SPECT images were collected using a compact CZT camera with various 3D acquisitions including vertical axis of rotation, 30° tilted, and complex sinusoidal trajectories. Different energy windows around the photopeak were quantitatively compared, along with appropriate scatter energy windows, to determine the best quantification accuracy after attenuation and dual-window scatter correction. Measured activity concentrations in the reconstructed images for syringes with greater than 10 µCi /mL corresponded to within 10% of the actual dose calibrator measured activity concentration for ±4% and ±8% photopeak energy windows. The same energy windows yielded lesion quantification results within 10% in the breast phantom as well. Results for the more complete complex sinsusoidal trajectory are similar to the simple vertical axis acquisition, and additionally allows both anterior chest wall sampling, no image distortion, and reasonably accurate quantification. PMID:22262925

  13. Towards Quantification of Functional Breast Images Using Dedicated SPECT With Non-Traditional Acquisition Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Perez, Kristy L; Cutler, Spencer J; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P

    2011-10-01

    Quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast lesions can provide valuable information to physicians in deciding patient care or determining treatment efficacy. Physical processes (e.g., scatter, attenuation), detector/collimator characteristics, sampling and acquisition trajectories, and reconstruction artifacts contribute to an incorrect measurement of absolute tracer activity and distribution. For these experiments, a cylinder with three syringes of varying radioactivity concentration, and a fillable 800 mL breast with two lesion phantoms containing aqueous (99m)Tc pertechnetate were imaged using the SPECT sub-system of the dual-modality SPECT-CT dedicated breast scanner. SPECT images were collected using a compact CZT camera with various 3D acquisitions including vertical axis of rotation, 30° tilted, and complex sinusoidal trajectories. Different energy windows around the photopeak were quantitatively compared, along with appropriate scatter energy windows, to determine the best quantification accuracy after attenuation and dual-window scatter correction. Measured activity concentrations in the reconstructed images for syringes with greater than 10 µCi /mL corresponded to within 10% of the actual dose calibrator measured activity concentration for ±4% and ±8% photopeak energy windows. The same energy windows yielded lesion quantification results within 10% in the breast phantom as well. Results for the more complete complex sinsusoidal trajectory are similar to the simple vertical axis acquisition, and additionally allows both anterior chest wall sampling, no image distortion, and reasonably accurate quantification. PMID:22262925

  14. Initial evaluation of a modified dual-energy window scatter correction method for CZT-based gamma cameras for breast SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) gamma cameras for SPECT imaging offer significantly improved energy resolution compared to traditional scintillation detectors. However, the photopeak resolution is often asymmetric due to incomplete charge collection within the detector, resulting in many photopeak events incorrectly sorted into lower energy bins ("tailing"). These misplaced events contaminate the true scatter signal, which may negatively impact scatter correction methods that rely on estimates of scatter from the spectra. Additionally, because CZT detectors are organized into arrays, each individual detector element may exhibit different degrees of tailing. Here, we present a modified dualenergy window scatter correction method for emission detection and imaging that attempts to account for positiondependent effects of incomplete charge collection in the CZT gamma camera of our dedicated breast SPECT-CT system. Point source measurements and geometric phantoms were used to estimate the impact of tailing on the scatter signal and extract a better estimate of the ratio of scatter within two energy windows. To evaluate the method, cylindrical phantoms with and without a separate fillable chamber were scanned to determine the impact on quantification in hot, cold, and uniform background regions. Projections were reconstructed using OSEM, and the results for the traditional and modified scatter correction methods were compared. Results show that while modest reduced quantification accuracy was observed in hot and cold regions of the multi-chamber phantoms, the modified scatter correction method yields up to 8% improved quantification accuracy with 4% less added noise than the traditional DEW method within uniform background regions.

  15. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting. PMID:27023660

  16. Taking 'control': Federal energy regulatory Commission policy on acquisitions of electric utility securities

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, David I.; O'Brien, Angela D.

    2009-05-15

    Section 203 of the Federal Power Act remains subject to considerable uncertainty. Therefore, it is important to keep several rules in mind. Each potential acquisition must be separately analyzed under Section 203(a)(1) and 203(a)(2) of the Act. A proposed acquisition that is exempt or preapproved under one provision may still require prior FERC approval under the other one. (author)

  17. Direct measurement of several resonance strengths and energies in 34S(α , γ) 38 Ar within the T = 2 . 2 GK Gamow window with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L. E.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, Ulrike; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiative α capture on 34S can impact nucleosynthesis in several astrophysical environments, including oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning (Type II supernovae), and Type Ia supernovae. However, there exist discrepancies in the literature for the resonance strengths of two strong resonances within the Gamow window for oxygen burning temperatures (E0 +/- Δ / 2 = 3183 +/- 897 keV at T = 2 . 2 GK). Previous measurements suffered from systematic uncertainties inherent in the experimental technique. Furthermore, there are several states in 38Ar in the energy range of interest for which no 34S + α resonance strength/energy measurements have been performed. This measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF in BC, Canada. DRAGON's experimental technique allows direct measurement of quantities such as stopping power and resonance energy, alleviating the need for external inputs and reducing uncertainty. This talk will discuss DRAGON's experimental technique, analysis methods and results.

  18. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  19. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion XI: Chromogenics for smart windows; Proceedings of the Meeting, Toulouse, France, May 19, 21, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot-Le Goff, Anne; Granqvist, Claes-Goran; Lampert, Carl M.

    1992-11-01

    The present conference discusses electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films, electrochromic smart window devices, and thermochromic and variable light-scattering materials. Attention is given to the structural and physical properties of WO3 films prepared by CVD, the degradation of electrochromic amorphous WO3 films after coloration, the electrochromic mechanism of RF diode-sputtered nickel oxide films, and the optical and electrochemical properties of CeO2 and CeO2-TiO2 coatings. Also discussed are new solid electrolytes for electrochromic smart windows, electrochromic glazing, a smart window using a proton-conducting polymer as an electrolyte, and the electrochromism of colloidal WO3 and IrO2. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  20. The Benefits of Aluminum Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses benefits of aluminum windows for college construction and renovation projects, including that aluminum is the most successfully recycled material, that it meets architectural glass deflection standards, that it has positive thermal energy performance, and that it is a preferred exterior surface. (EV)

  1. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  2. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  3. Orthogonal sets of data windows constructed from trigonometric polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Suboptimal, easily computable substitutes for the discrete prolate-spheroidal windows used by Thomson for spectral estimation are given. Trigonometric coefficients and energy leakages of the window polynomials are tabulated.

  4. Transforming the market for residential windows: design considerations for DOE's Efficient Window Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1998-08-01

    Market adoption of recent, commercially available technological advances that improve the energy performance of windows will lead to immediate economic and energy savings benefits to the nation. This paper is a scoping study intended to inform the design of a major DOE initiative to accelerate market adoption of these windows in the residential sector. We describe the structure of the US residential window market and the interests of the various market players. We then briefly review five recent market transformation initiatives. Finally, we summarize our findings in a list of considerations we believe will be important for the DOE's initiative to transform the US residential window market.

  5. FPGA-based time to digital converter and data acquisition system for high energy tagger of KLOE-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, L.; Balla, A.; Beretta, M.; Ciambrone, P.; Gatta, M.; Gonnella, F.; Mascolo, M.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Riondino, D.

    2013-08-01

    In order to reconstruct γγ physics events tagged with High Energy Tagger (HET) in the KLOE-2 (K LOng Experiment 2), we need to measure the Time Of Flight (TOF) of the electrons and positrons from the KLOE-2 Interaction Point (IP) to our tagging stations (11 m apart). The required resolution must be better than the bunch spacing (2.7 ns). We have developed and implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) with 625 ps resolution (LSB) along with an embedded data acquisition system and the interface to the online FARM of KLOE-2. We will describe briefly the architecture of the TDC and of the Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system. Some more details will be provided about the zero-suppression algorithm used to reduce the data throughput.

  6. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  7. Opening a window on the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutson, Kate

    2015-04-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array will revolutionize ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, explains Kate Dutson, extending our electromagnetic window on to the universe to include the highest-energy photons ever detected.

  8. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  9. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  10. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  11. Multi-functional windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  12. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  13. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  14. Integration Window Position Estimation in TR Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2005-03-15

    Transmitted-reference (TR) receivers avoid the stringent synchronization requirements that exist in conventional pulse detection schemes. However, the performance of such receivers is highly sensitive to precise timing acquisition and tracking as well as the length of their integration window. This window in TR receivers defines the limits of the finite integrator prior to the final decision making block. In this paper, we propose a novel technique that allows us to extract the timing information of the integration window very accurately in UWB-TR receivers in the presence of channel noise. The principles of the method are presented and the BER performance of a modified UWB-TR receiver is investigated by computer simulation. Our studies show that the proposed estimation technique adds value to the conventional TR receiver structure with modest increase in complexity.

  15. Improving Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Netto, A. G.; Caparica, A. A.; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Dickman, Ronald; Landau, D. P.

    2008-11-01

    Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) of large systems requires dividing the energy range into “windows” and joining the results of simulations in each window. The resulting density of states (and associated thermodynamic functions) is shown to suffer from boundary effects in simulations of lattice polymers and the five-state Potts model. Here, we implement WLS using adaptive windows. Instead of defining fixed energy windows (or windows in the energy-magnetization plane for the Potts model), the boundary positions depend on the set of energy values on which the histogram is flat at a given stage of the simulation. Shifting the windows each time the modification factor f is reduced, we eliminate border effects that arise in simulations using fixed windows. Adaptive windows extend significantly the range of system sizes that may be studied reliably using WLS.

  16. Comparison of some lead and non-lead based glass systems, standard shielding concretes and commercial window glasses in terms of shielding parameters in the energy region of 1 keV-100 GeV: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Özdemir, Yüksel; Şimşek, Önder; Durak, Rıdvan

    2010-12-01

    The effective atomic numbers, Z eff of some glass systems with and without Pb have been calculated in the energy region of 1 keV-100 GeV including the K absorption edges of high Z elements present in the glass. Also, these glass systems have been compared with some standard shielding concretes and commercial window glasses in terms of mean free paths and total mass attenuation coefficients in the continuous energy range. Comparisons with experiments were also provided wherever possible for glasses. It has been observed that the glass systems without Pb have higher values of Z eff than that of Pb based glasses at some high energy regions even if they have lower mean atomic numbers than Pb based glasses. When compared with some standard shielding concretes and commercial window glasses, generally it has been shown that the given glass systems have superior properties than concretes and window glasses with respect to the radiation-shielding properties, thus confirming the availability of using these glasses as substitutes for some shielding concretes and commercial window glasses to improve radiation-shielding properties in the continuous energy region.

  17. GA microwave window development

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE{sub 11} mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec.

  18. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  20. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  1. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  2. Site handbook: data acquisition system information, passive solar retrofit Automobile Maintenance Facility, City of Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Data were collected at the City of Philadelphia's Auto Maintenance Facility using an Aeoloan Kinetics PDL-24 data acquisition system. Instantaneous data readings were recorded each 15 seconds by the microprocessor. These channel readings were then averaged to produce hourly values which were then stored on an audio cassette. The energy saving strategies include: styrofoam and concrete roof coverings; weatherstripping; replacement of north windows with combination insulation and view glazing; PVC strips between heated and unheated areas; gas fired radiant heaters at individual work stations; reduction of the number of light fixtures; and the installation of retrofit window units for radiant solar heating, daylighting, ventilation, glare control and vandalism protection.

  3. Cordilleran slab windows

    SciTech Connect

    Thorkelson, D.J.; Taylor, R.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The geometry and geologic implications of subducted spreading ridges are topics that have bedeviled earth scientists ever since the recognition of plate tectonics. As a consequence of subduction of the Kula-Farallon and East Pacific rises, slab windows formed and migrated beneath the North American Cordillera. The probable shape and extent of these windows, which represent the asthenosphere-filled gaps between two separating, subducting oceanic plates, are depicted from the Late Cretaceous to the present. Possible effects of the existence and migration of slab windows on the Cordillera at various times include cessation of arc volcanism and replacement by rift or plate-edge volcanism; lithospheric uplift, attenuation, and extension; and increased intensity of compressional tectonism. Eocene extensional tectonism and alkaline magmatism in southern British Columbia and the northwestern United States were facilitated by slab-window development.

  4. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  5. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  6. The deep oval window.

    PubMed

    Kapur, T R

    1991-09-01

    This article presents the results of an analysis of the variable and surgically important relationship between the oval window, the fossular walls and the related posterior tympanic recesses in 50 temporal bones. The visual impressions of superficial and deep oval windows seem to correspond fairly closely to the depth of the inferior wall of the fossula fenestra vestibuli (FFV). The depth of the superior and anterior walls of the FFV by themselves, did not appear to have such a dominating relationship in determining the deep oval window. There does not appear to be a well defined posterior wall in the vast majority of the specimens (86 per cent). In the event of scar tissue forming between the superior, inferior and anterior walls, the gap between the postero-superior part of the promontory and the posterior tympanic wall (posterior communication) could allow aeration of the region of the deep oval window in such an instance. Closure of this gap by a solid shelf of ponticulus or scar tissue could cause a localized malaeration of the fossula in most cases of deep oval windows. This is an entirely new concept of the likely problems of malaeration of a deep oval window which could arise due to anatomical variations and of the possible safety valve mechanism which could prevent such malaeration and its consequences. PMID:1919338

  7. Energy and complex industrial systems environmental emissions data reporting and acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1987-07-01

    The Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNEP and WHO Project on Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental risks from Energy and Other Complex Technologies intends to complile emissions data for mportant energy systems and other complex technologies from a wide variety of countries. To facilitate data generation and compilation, this report: outlines data reporting protocols; identifies potential information sources; demonstrates how to estimate coefficients; presents some compiled US emission coefficients or criteria air pollutants for some energy process; and, compares national air emission standards for electricity generating plants in OECD member countries. 27 refs., 2 fis., 1 tabs.

  8. High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  9. High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  10. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  11. Multi-Window Controllers for Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, B, J.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-window controllers select between elementary linear controllers using nonlinear windows based on the amplitude and frequency content of the feedback error. The controllers are relatively simple to implement and perform much better than linear controllers. The commanders for such controllers only order the destination point and are freed from generating the command time-profiles. The robotic missions rely heavily on the tasks of acquisition and tracking. For autonomous and optimal control of the spacecraft, the control bandwidth must be larger while the feedback can (and, therefore, must) be reduced.. Combining linear compensators via multi-window nonlinear summer guarantees minimum phase character of the combined transfer function. It is shown that the solution may require using several parallel branches and windows. Several examples of multi-window nonlinear controller applications are presented.

  12. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 04: An iterative triple energy window (TEW) approach to cross talk correction in quantitative small animal Tc99m and In111 SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, P; Timmins, R; Wells, R G

    2014-08-15

    Dual isotope SPECT allows simultaneous measurement of two different tracers in vivo. With In111 (emission energies of 171keV and 245keV) and Tc99m (140keV), quantification of Tc99m is degraded by cross talk from the In111 photons that scatter and are detected at an energy corresponding to Tc99m. TEW uses counts recorded in two narrow windows surrounding the Tc99m primary window to estimate scatter. Iterative TEW corrects for the bias introduced into the TEW estimate resulting from un-scattered counts detected in the scatter windows. The contamination in the scatter windows is iteratively estimated and subtracted as a fraction of the scatter-corrected primary window counts. The iterative TEW approach was validated with a small-animal SPECT/CT camera using a 2.5mL plastic container holding thoroughly mixed Tc99m/In111 activity fractions of 0.15, 0.28, 0.52, 0.99, 2.47 and 6.90. Dose calibrator measurements were the gold standard. Uncorrected for scatter, the Tc99m activity was over-estimated by as much as 80%. Unmodified TEW underestimated the Tc99m activity by 13%. With iterative TEW corrections applied in projection space, the Tc99m activity was estimated within 5% of truth across all activity fractions above 0.15. This is an improvement over the non-iterative TEW, which could not sufficiently correct for scatter in the 0.15 and 0.28 phantoms.

  13. VETA x ray data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, R. J. V.; Jones, M. T.; Ljungberg, M.; Nguyen, D. T.; Roll, J. B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the x-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of x-ray data were acquired, analyzed, and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping, and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture will be presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity, and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive are also described.

  14. VETA X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Jones, Mark T.; Ljungberg, Malin; Nguyen, Dan T.; Roll, John B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the X-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of X-ray data were acquired, analyzed and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture is presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive is also described.

  15. VETA x ray data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Jones, Mark T.; Ljungberg, Malin; Nguyen, Dan T.; Roll, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the X-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of X-ray data were acquired, analyzed and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture is presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive is also described.

  16. Evaluation of the solar conditions for the acquisitions of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The country's energy security risk, as well as a desire to protect the environment from the pollution and degradation which are the results of conventional fuels acquisition - these was a motivation for intensive researches on the use of renewable energy sources in eco - innovative installations. Solar radiation is one of the self - renewable energy sources which can be used both as a source of electricity and heat. The area of research is Sosnowiec city located in the south of Poland in the eastern part of Silesia voivodeship. The solar radiation data covering the years 2003 to 2013 was used. The intra - annual variability of daily averaged solar radiation hesitated in a wide range from 0.6 kWh/m2 (December) to 5.2 kWh/m2 (June). Day duration varies on average from 10 hours in January, November and December to 17 hours in May, June and July. Day occupies 56% of the 8767 hours in year. On average the largest amount of energy reached the analyzed area in July: 157 kWh/m2 (15% of the annual average), while the smallest in December: 18 kWh/m2 (less than 2% of the annual average). The 75% of the average annual total of energy falls on the period from 1st March to 31th August (spring - summer). The range of the annual solar radiation was determined by the minimum of 980 kWh/m2 and the maximum of 1094 kWh/m2. In Sosnowiec the average annual irradiation total on the horizontal surface amounts to 1052 kWh/m2 (2003 - 2013)

  17. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  18. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    PubMed

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  19. Thermal and Optical Properties of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Widder, Sarah H.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-07-17

    Installing low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows and panels over existing windows has been identified as a cost-effective new approach for improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings where window replacement is impractical or too expensive. As such, it is desirable to characterize the key energy performance properties of low-E storm windows and panels when installed over different types of existing primary windows. this paper presents the representative U-factors, solar heat gain coefficients (SGHCs) and visible transmittance properties of the combined assemblies of various storm windows and panel types installed over different primary windows.

  20. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  1. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  2. Opening the Literature Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  3. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  4. Apollo window meteoroid experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cour-Palais, B. G.; Flaherty, R. E.; Brown, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Apollo window meteoroid experiment for obtaining data from crater counts and analysis of meteoroid residue combined with fused glass in described. A preliminary estimate of the flux resulting from seven Apollo spacecraft is found to be in agreement with the Surveyor 3 data, but is lower than the model environment.

  5. Software: Looking Through WINDOW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the educational value, design quality, and ease of use of "WINDOW," an educational "magazine" on a disk for the Apple II/IIe microcomputer. Indicates that the articles, software reviews, and other informative material are greatly enhanced by sound, graphics, and the chance to try out reviewed programs. (JN)

  6. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book, "The Christmas…

  7. Migration to Windows NT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doles, Daniel T.

    In the constantly changing world of technology, migration is not only inevitable but many times necessary for survival, especially when the end result is simplicity for both users and IT support staff. This paper describes the migration at Franklin College (Indiana). It discusses the reasons for selecting Windows NT, the steps taken to complete…

  8. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  9. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  10. Windows into Art Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John Matthews; Paul…

  11. Sliding window construction

    SciTech Connect

    Klompenburg, M.V.

    1987-07-28

    A window assembly is described in a window frame. The frame includes a head, a sill, and opposite jambs, the assembly comprising: first and second sashes each having interior and exterior surfaces, a top, a bottom, and opposite first and second sides extending between the top and the bottom: the first sash being laterally movably within the window frame between a closed position and an open position wherein the first sash is substantially in a non-planar position relative to the second sash; track means extending along one of the sill or head of the window frame; first track follower means connected to one of the top or the bottom of the first sash adjacent the first side and cooperating with the track means for supporting and guiding the first sash during lateral movement between the open and closed positions; and the track means having an opening for releasing the track follower means for cooperation only when the first sash is in the open position such that the first sash is pivotal about a vertical axis adjacent the second side between the open position and a maintenance position.

  12. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  13. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  14. Principles and prospects of direct high resolution electron image acquisition with CMOS detectors at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruqi, A. R.

    2009-08-01

    Two types of direct electron detectors, potentially useful in low energy electron microscopy and photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) experiments, are reviewed in this paper. Hybrid pixel detectors, using a silicon sensor and based on Medipix2 offer a high detective quantum efficiency, due to an essentially noiseless readout, but are technically challenging. Backthinned monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) are not noise-free but have other advantages as discussed in this review.

  15. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    SciTech Connect

    Roldán, É.; Martínez, I. A.; Rica, R. A.; Dinis, L.

    2014-06-09

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  16. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, É.; Martínez, I. A.; Dinis, L.; Rica, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  17. Solar optical materials for innovative window design

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1982-08-01

    New and innovative optical materials and coatings can greatly improve the efficiency of window energy systems. These potential materials and coatings increase energy efficiency by reducing radiative losses in the infrared, or reducing visible reflection losses or controlling overheating due to solar gain. Current progress in heat mirror coatings for glass and polymeric substrates is presented. Highly doped semiconducting oxides and metal/dielectric interference coatings are reviewed. Physical and optical properties are outlined for antireflection films and transparent aerogel insulation media. The potential for optical switching films as window elements includes discussions of electrochromic, photochromic and other physical switching processes.

  18. Window size impact in human activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Galvez, Juan-Manuel; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1-2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities. PMID:24721766

  19. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Galvez, Juan-Manuel; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities. PMID:24721766

  20. Double window viewing chamber assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Inventor); Owen, R. B. (Inventor); Elkins, B. R. (Inventor); White, W. T. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A viewing chamber which permits observation of a sample retained therein includes a pair of double window assemblies mounted in opposed openings in the walls thereof so that a light beam can directly enter and exit from the chamber. A flexible mounting arrangement for the outer windows of the window assemblies enables the windows to be brought into proper alignment. An electrical heating arrangement prevents fogging of the outer windows whereas desiccated air in the volume between the outer and inner windows prevents fogging of the latter.

  1. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  2. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  3. VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTAR. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED JUST BELOW THE CHOIR LOFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, sill profile, and transom profile from second period of construction - Joseph Poffenberger Farm, House, 17834 Mansfield Avenue, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  7. Two-dimensional lattice polymers: Adaptive windows simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Netto, A. G.; Dickman, Ronald; Caparica, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    We report a numerical study of self-avoiding polymers on the square lattice, including an attractive potential between nonconsecutive monomers occupying neighboring lattice sites. Using Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) with adaptive windows, we obtain the density of states for chains of up to N=300 monomers and associated thermodynamic quantities. Finite size scaling analysis yields a transition temperature of Θ=1.505(18). WLS with adaptive windows enables one to simulate accurately the low-temperature regime, which is virtually inaccessible using traditional methods. Instead of defining fixed energy windows, as in usual WLS, this method uses windows with boundaries that depend on the set of energy values on which the histogram is flat at a given stage of the simulation. Shifting the windows each time the modification factor f is reduced, we eliminate border effects that arise in simulations using fixed windows.

  8. Evaluation of ‘OpenCL for FPGA’ for Data Acquisition and Acceleration in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the data acquisition and processing needs of High Energy Physics experiments has made it more essential to use FPGAs to meet those needs. However harnessing the capabilities of the FPGAs has been hard for anyone but expert FPGA developers. The arrival of OpenCL with the two major FPGA vendors supporting it, offers an easy software-based approach to taking advantage of FPGAs in applications such as High Energy Physics. OpenCL is a language for using heterogeneous architectures in order to accelerate applications. However, FPGAs are capable of far more than acceleration, hence it is interesting to explore if OpenCL can be used to take advantage of FPGAs for more generic applications. To answer these questions, especially in the context of High Energy Physics, two applications, a DAQ module and an acceleration workload, were tested for implementation with OpenCL on FPGAs2. The challenges on using OpenCL for a DAQ application and their solutions, together with the performance of the OpenCL based acceleration are discussed. Many of the design elements needed to realize a DAQ system in OpenCL already exists, mostly as FPGA vendor extensions, but a small number of elements were found to be missing. For acceleration of OpenCL applications, using FPGAs has become as easy as using GPUs. OpenCL has the potential for a massive gain in productivity and ease of use enabling non FPGA experts to design, debug and maintain the code. Also, FPGA power consumption is much lower than other implementations. This paper describes one of the first attempts to explore the use of OpenCL for applications outside the acceleration workloads.

  9. Lens window simplifies TDL housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Rowland, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Lens window seal in tunable-diode-laser housing replaces plan parallel window. Lens seals housing and acts as optical-output coupler, thus eliminating need for additional reimaging or collimating optics.

  10. Transcriptomic Analyses of Xylan Degradation by Prevotella bryantii and Insights into Energy Acquisition by Xylanolytic Bacteroidetes*

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Dylan; Moon, Young-Hwan; Swaminathan, Kankshita; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic depolymerization of lignocellulose by microbes in the bovine rumen and the human colon is critical to gut health and function within the host. Prevotella bryantii B14 is a rumen bacterium that efficiently degrades soluble xylan. To identify the genes harnessed by this bacterium to degrade xylan, the transcriptomes of P. bryantii cultured on either wheat arabinoxylan or a mixture of its monosaccharide components were compared by DNA microarray and RNA sequencing approaches. The most highly induced genes formed a cluster that contained putative outer membrane proteins analogous to the starch utilization system identified in the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The arrangement of genes in the cluster was highly conserved in other xylanolytic Bacteroidetes, suggesting that the mechanism employed by xylan utilizers in this phylum is conserved. A number of genes encoding proteins with unassigned function were also induced on wheat arabinoxylan. Among these proteins, a hypothetical protein with low similarity to glycoside hydrolases was shown to possess endoxylanase activity and subsequently assigned to glycoside hydrolase family 5. The enzyme was designated PbXyn5A. Two of the most similar proteins to PbXyn5A were hypothetical proteins from human colonic Bacteroides spp., and when expressed each protein exhibited endoxylanase activity. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified two amino acid residues that likely serve as the catalytic acid/base and nucleophile as in other GH5 proteins. This study therefore provides insights into capture of energy by xylanolytic Bacteroidetes and the application of their enzymes as a resource in the biofuel industry. PMID:20622018

  11. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  12. Windows: The Benefits Are Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of specifying windows in a school renovation or building project in order to energize a campus. Explains how windows are psychologically uplifting, how glass accentuates excitement and its shapes signal stability, and how windows convey the institution's confidence in the present. (GR)

  13. 48 CFR 908.7101-3 - Direct acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct acquisition. 908.7101-3 Section 908.7101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101-3 Direct acquisition. Vehicles may be acquired by...

  14. Potential Mechanisms for Microbial Energy Acquisition in Oxic Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, John F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) possesses the lowest rates of sedimentation, surface chlorophyll concentration, and primary productivity in the global oceans. As a direct result, deep-sea sediments are thin and contain small amounts of labile organic carbon. It was recently shown that the entire SPG sediment column is oxygenated and may be representative of up to a third of the global marine environment. To understand the microbial processes that contribute to the removal of the labile organic matter at the water-sediment interface, a sediment sample was collected and subjected to metagenomic sequencing and analyses. Analysis of nine partially reconstructed environmental genomes, which represent approximately one-third of the microbial community, revealed that the members of the SPG surface sediment microbial community are phylogenetically distinct from surface/upper-ocean organisms. These genomes represent a wide distribution of novel organisms, including deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, two novel organisms within the Proteobacteria, and new members of the Nitrospirae, Nitrospinae, and candidate phylum NC10. These genomes contain evidence for microbially mediated metal (iron/manganese) oxidation and carbon fixation linked to nitrification. Additionally, despite hypothesized energy limitation, members of the SPG microbial community had motility and chemotaxis genes and possessed mechanisms for the degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter. This study contributes to our understanding of the metabolic potential of microorganisms in deep-sea oligotrophic sediments and their impact on local carbon geochemistry. IMPORTANCE This research provides insight into the microbial metabolic potential of organisms inhabiting oxygenated deep-sea marine sediments. Current estimates suggest that these environments account for up to a third of the global marine sediment habitat. Nine novel deep-sea microbial genomes were reconstructed from a metagenomic data set

  15. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  16. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  17. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  18. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  19. Adjusting the detection window to improve the soliton communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Sien; Kao, Chuan-Yuan; Dung, Jeng-Cherng; Wen, Senfar

    2000-12-01

    The improvements of the Q factors of 10-Gb/s soliton systems detected by adjusting detection window are studied. We have found that the optimal width of the detection window depends on the noise-induced timing jitter, noise-induced soliton energy fluctuation, amplifier noise, dispersive wave, and soliton pulse width.

  20. Windows on the axion

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Special Report on The Department of Energy's Acquisition Workforce and its Impact on Implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    Signed by the President on February 17, 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) seeks to strengthen the U.S. economy through the creation of new jobs, aiding State and local governments with budget shortfalls, and investing in the long-term health of the Nation's economic prosperity. Under the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive approximately $40 billion for various energy, environmental, and science programs and initiatives. To have an immediate stimulative impact on the U.S. economy, the Department's stated goal is to ensure that these funds are spent as expeditiously as possible, without risking transparency and accountability. Given the Department's almost total reliance on the acquisition process (contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, etc.) to carry out its mission, enhanced focus on contract administration and, specifically, the work performed by Federal acquisition officials is of vital importance as the unprecedented flow of funds begins under the Recovery Act.

  2. Automatic window size selection in Windowed Fourier Transform for 3D reconstruction using adapted mother wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sergio; Gdeisat, Munther A.; Salvi, Joaquim; Burton, David

    2011-06-01

    Fringe pattern analysis in coded structured light constitutes an active field of research. Techniques based on first projecting a sinusoidal pattern and then recovering the phase deviation permit the computation of the phase map and its corresponding depth map, leading to a dense acquisition of the measuring object. Among these techniques, the ones based on time-frequency analysis permit to extract the depth map from a single image, thus having potential applications measuring moving objects. The main techniques are Fourier Transform (FT), Windowed Fourier Transform (WFT) and Wavelet Transform (WT). This paper first analyzes the pros and cons of these three techniques, then a new algorithm for the automatic selection of the window size in WFT is proposed. This algorithm is compared to the traditional WT using adapted mother wavelet signals both with simulated and real objects, showing the performance results for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the new method.

  3. Next generation PET data acquisition architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.F.; Reed, J.H.; Everman, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    New architectures for higher performance data acquisition in PET are proposed. Improvements are demanded primarily by three areas of advancing PET state of the art. First, larger detector arrays such as the Hammersmith ECAT{reg_sign} EXACT HR{sup ++} exceed the addressing capacity of 32 bit coincidence event words. Second, better scintillators (LSO) make depth-of-interaction (DOI) and time-of-flight (TOF) operation more practical. Third, fully optimized single photon attenuation correction requires higher rates of data collection. New technologies which enable the proposed third generation Real Time Sorter (RTS III) include: (1) 80 M byte/sec Fibre Channel RAID disk systems, (2) PowerPC on both VMEbus and PCI Local bus, and (3) quadruple interleaved DRAM controller designs. Data acquisition flexibility is enhanced through a wider 64 bit coincidence event word. PET methodology support includes DOI (6 bits), TOF (6 bits), multiple energy windows (6 bits), 512 x 512 sinogram indexes (18 bits), and 256 crystal rings (16 bits). Throughput of 10 M events/sec is expected for list-mode data collection as well as both on-line and replay histogramming. Fully efficient list-mode storage for each PET application is provided by real-time bit packing of only the active event word bits. Real-time circuits provide DOI rebinning.

  4. Window defect planar mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, F. R.; Minton, U. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of planar mapping defects in a window having an edge surface and a planar surface. The method is comprised of steps for mounting the window on a support surface. Then a light sensitive paper is placed adjacent to the window surface. A light source is positioned adjacent to the window edge. The window is then illuminated with the source of light for a predetermined interval of time. Defects on the surface of the glass, as well as in the interior of the glass are detected by analyzing the developed light sensitive paper. The light source must be in the form of optical fibers or a light tube whose light transmitting ends are placed near the edge surface of the window.

  5. Thermoluminescence dosimetric properties and effective atomic numbers of window glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bootjomchai, Cherdsak; Laopaiboon, Raewat

    2014-03-01

    This work presents the main thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics of commercial Thai transparent window glass. The amorphous structure of window glass was investigated by XRD. The glow curve revealed a peak (Tm) at 235 °C. The thermoluminescence response of window glass was studied after irradiation with photons in the absorb dose range of 0-14.05 mGy, which is of interest for the personal protection level of dosimetry. A linear response was obtained after both the first irradiation and the second irradiation. The minimum detectable dose of window glass was 0.15 mGy. The effective atomic number of window glass as a function of photon energy was calculated. The obtained results for the effective atomic number showed that it is very close to that of human biological tissues (Zeff = 6.7-8.4 at studied energy).

  6. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR ® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  7. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  8. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  9. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  10. INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST CABINET. (NOTE THE MIRRORED PANEL IN THE FORWARD SHUTTER’S LOWER SECTION. DURING THE HAMILTONIAN OCCUPANCY, MIRRORS LIKE THESE WERE USED LIBERALLY THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE’S PUBLIC ROOMS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Three-dimensional laser window formation for industrial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Kowalski, David

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional, compound-curvature laser windows to extreme accuracies. These windows represent an integral component of specialized nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems that are used in a variety of compressor and turbine research testing facilities. These windows are molded to the flow surface profile of turbine and compressor casings and are required to withstand extremely high pressures and temperatures. This method of glass formation could also be used to form compound-curvature mirrors that would require little polishing and for a variety of industrial applications, including research view ports for testing devices and view ports for factory machines with compound-curvature casings. Currently, sodium-alumino-silicate glass is recommended for three-dimensional laser windows because of its high strength due to chemical strengthening and its optical clarity. This paper discusses the main aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities that are associated with the formation of these windows.

  12. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  13. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  15. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  16. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  17. Design options for low-conductivity window frames

    SciTech Connect

    Byars, N.; Arasteh, D.

    1990-10-01

    The window industry's commercialization of low-emissivity coatings and low-conductivity gas-filling over the past few years has helped to drastically reduce heat transfer rates through the glazed areas of windows. However, few changes have taken place in the design and construction of window frames and edges, leaving these elements to account for most of the heat transfer through today's state-of-the-art windows. This paper presents design and material requirements for the manufacture of low-conductivity window frames obtained through the use of finite element computer modeling. Such frames will compliment and not degrade today's most energy-efficient insulated glass units. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  19. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. The... light duty vehicle (regardless of the model year of manufacture), capable of operating on...

  20. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. The... light duty vehicle (regardless of the model year of manufacture), capable of operating on...

  1. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. The... light duty vehicle (regardless of the model year of manufacture), capable of operating on...

  2. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. The... light duty vehicle (regardless of the model year of manufacture), capable of operating on...

  3. 10 CFR 490.305 - Acquisitions satisfying the mandate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....305 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.305 Acquisitions satisfying the mandate. The... light duty vehicle (regardless of the model year of manufacture), capable of operating on...

  4. Holography through optically active windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By using two orthogonally polarized reference beams, holograms can be recorded through stressed windows and the reconstructed virtual image will show no stress pattern. As shown analytically, the stress-pattern-free hologram is recordable for any polarization state of the object illumination. Hence, the more efficient nondepolarizing diffuser can be used in performing holography through stressed windows if two reference beams are used. Results are presented for a pair of machined polysulfone windows intended for use in a holographic flow-visualization setup in a single-stage-compressor test rig.

  5. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-12-23

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  6. 76 FR 7685 - (General Provisions) Contract Appeals and the Acquisition Regulation: General, Acquisition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) regulations on Acquisition Planning, and Contracting Methods and Contract Types to make changes to conform to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), remove out-of-date coverage, and update references. Today's rule does not alter substantive rights or obligations under current...

  7. 48 CFR 907.105 - Contents of written acquisition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of written acquisition plans. 907.105 Section 907.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... acquisition plans. (b)(16) Environmental and energy conservation objectives. Incorporate sustainable...

  8. Window Design for Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoure, Richard; Kitchingman, Ian; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-07-01

    The Window Design for Manned Spacecraft (WDM) project being undertaken by Magna Parva Ltd, under contract with the European Space Agency, aims to develop and improve the current structural integrity verification program for manned spacecraft pressurised windows. A critical review of the existing requirements and current state-of-the-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice is conducted. Possible areas for improvement are identified. An experimental test programme is designed to perform and assess mechanical characterisation methods at material level. Tests are intended to increase familiarity with material testing methods and investigate the effects of sample size, surface finish and load type on material characterisation. Novel methods and their applicability are investigated. Results of characterisation testing will be employed in the design and verification of a breadboard window.

  9. Windows for accepting or rejecting solar-heat gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, J. F.; Thompson, T. L.; Kessler, H. J.

    1982-09-01

    Ordinary fenestration may be modified at low cost using various combinations of windows, duotone venetian blinds, and drapes to control the solar heat gain. In the winter, solar radiation may be absorbed by dark blinds and transferred to the air, minimizing fading of furnishings while collecting useful energy. In the summer, more than 90% of the total potential window heat gain may be rejected by exhausting evaporatively cooled air over the blinds. The performance of several window configurations was analyzed, modeled on a computer, and verified experimentally.

  10. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  11. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  12. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  13. Hardware and Software Developments for the Accurate Time-Linked Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,DALE E.; RUMSEY,MARK A.; ZAYAS,JOSE R.

    1999-11-09

    Wind-energy researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed a new, light-weight, modular data acquisition system capable of acquiring long-term, continuous, multi-channel time-series data from operating wind-turbines. New hardware features have been added to this system to make it more flexible and permit programming via telemetry. User-friendly Windows-based software has been developed for programming the hardware and acquiring, storing, analyzing, and archiving the data. This paper briefly reviews the major components of the system, summarizes the recent hardware enhancements and operating experiences, and discusses the features and capabilities of the software programs that have been developed.

  14. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  15. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in amore » linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.« less

  16. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  17. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  18. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  19. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  20. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  1. Improving the thermal performance of the US residential window stock

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Eto, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Windows have typically been the least efficient thermal component in the residential envelope, but technology advances over the past decade have helped to dramatically improve the energy efficiency of window products. While the thermal performance of these advanced technology windows can be easily characterized for a particular building application, few precise estimates exist of their aggregate impact on national or regional energy use. Policy-makers, utilities, researchers and the fenestration industry must better understand these products` ultimate conservation potential in order to determine the value of developing new products and initiating programs to accelerate their market acceptance. This paper presents a method to estimate the conservation potential of advanced window technologies, combining elements of two well-known modeling paradigms: supply curves of conserved energy and residential end-use forecasting. The unique features include: detailed descriptions of the housing stock by region and vintage, state-of-the-art thermal descriptions of window technologies, and incorporation of market effects to calculate achievable conservation potential and timing. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing, for all new houses built between 1990 and 2010, the conservation potential of very efficient, high R-value ``superwindows`` in the North Central federal region and spectrally-selective low-emissivity (moderate Revalue and solar transmittance) windows in California.

  2. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  3. Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.

    2016-07-01

    Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.

  4. Extending the X Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1993-12-23

    The X Window System was originally developed in 1984 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It provides client-server computing functionality and also facilitates the establishment of a distributed computing environment. Since its inception the X Window System has undergone many enhancements. Despite these enhancements there will always be a functionality desired in the standard released version of X that is not supported or commercially or academically available. The developers of the X Window System have designed it in such a way that it is possible to add functionality that is not included in the standard release. This is called an extension. Extensions are one method used to develop a customized version of the X Window System to support a specialized application. This report presents the mechanics of adding an extension and examines a particular extension that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support data compression in X Windows which was one aspect of the Desktop Video and Collaborative Engineering Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD).

  5. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOEpatents

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  6. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Lee A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  7. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into...

  8. A robust industrial accelerator window design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Marlin N.; Vroom, David A.

    1998-06-01

    An improved design for the thin metal foil window associated with high power industrial accelarators has been developed and tested. This design, which employs specifically shaped flanges, greatly reduce the stresses normally present on accelerators windows and has lead to longer window lifetime and a better means of window cooling.

  9. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  10. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  11. Time-Resolved Data Acquisition for In Situ Subsurface Planetary Geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnarik, Julia Gates; Burger, Dan M.; Burger, Arnold; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Starr, Richard D.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2012-01-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface geochemistry of planetary bodies in situ. All previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on a constant neutron source produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  12. Time-resolved Neutron-gamma-ray Data Acquisition for in Situ Subsurface Planetary Geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnarik, Julie G.; Burger, Dan Michael; Burger, A.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr R. D.; Stassun, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface elemental composition of planetary bodies in situ. Previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on neutrons produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  13. Time-resolved neutron/gamma-ray data acquisition for in situ subsurface planetary geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnarik, J. G.; Burger, D. M.; Burger, A.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr, R. D.; Stassun, K. G.

    2013-04-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface elemental composition of planetary bodies in situ. Previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on neutrons produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  14. High power windows for WR650 waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Mircea Stirbet; Robert Rimmer; Thomas Elliott; Edward Daly; Katherine Wilson; Lynn Vogel; Haipeng Wang; Brian Carpenter; Karl Smith; Thomas Powers; Michael Drury; Robert Nichols; G. Davis

    2007-06-01

    Based on the robust, pre-stressed planar window concept successfully tested for PEP II and LEDA, a new design for planar ceramic windows to be used with WR650 waveguide fundamental power couplers at 1300 MHz or 1500 MHz has been developed. These windows should operate in pulsed or CW mode and sustain at least 100 kW average power levels. This paper describes an overview of the simulations performed to match the ceramics in WR650 waveguides, design details, as well as the RF measurements and performance assessed by RF power tests on several high power windows manufactured at JLAB. Funding Agency: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, and by The Office of Naval Research under contract to the Dept. of Energy.

  15. Modeling windows in DOE-2.1E

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.S.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Arasteh, D.K.; Carroll, W.L.

    1992-12-01

    The most recent version of the DOE-2 building energy simulation program, DOE-2.1E, provides for more detailed modeling of the thermal and optical properties of windows. The window calculations account for the temperature effects on U-value, and update the incident angle correlations for the solar heat gain properties and visible transmittance. Initial studies show up to a 35% difference in calculating peak solar heat gain between the detailed approach and a constant shading-coefficient approach. The modeling approach is adapted from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s WINDOW 4 computer program, which is used in the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) U-value rating procedure 100-91. This gives DOE-2.1E the capability to assess the annual and peak energy performance of windows consistent with the NFRC procedure. The program has an extensive window library and algorithms for simulating switchable glazings. The program also accounts for the influence of framing elements on the heat transfer and solar heat gain through the window.

  16. An energy transfer kinetic probe for OH-quenchers in the Nd(3+):YPO4 nanocrystals suitable for imaging in the biological tissue transparency window.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, Elena V; Popov, Alexandr V; Vanetsev, Alexander S; Keevend, Kerda; Orlovskaya, Elena O; Kiisk, Valter; Lange, Sven; Joost, Urmas; Kaldvee, Kaarel; Mäeorg, Uno; Glushkov, Nikolay A; Ryabova, Anastasiya V; Sildos, Ilmo; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Steiner, Rudolf; Loschenov, Victor B; Orlovskii, Yurii V

    2014-12-28

    Tetragonal xenotime-type yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4) Nd(3+) doped nanoparticles suitable for biomedical applications were prepared by microwave-hydrothermal treatment. We applied the energy transfer probing based on the analysis of kinetics of impurity quenching to determine the presence and spatial position of -OH fluorescence quenching acceptors in the impurity-containing nanoparticles. We show that the impurity quenching kinetics of the 0.1 at% Nd(3+) doped YPO4 nanoparticles is a two stage (ordered and disordered) static kinetics, determined by a direct energy transfer to the -OH acceptors. Analyzing the ordered stage, we assume that the origin of the -OH groups is the protonation of the phosphate groups, while analyzing the disordered stage, we assume the presence of water molecules in the mesopores. We determine the dimension of the space of the -OH acceptors as d = 3 and quantify their absolute concentration using the disordered Förster stage of kinetics. We use the late stage of kinetics of fluorescence hopping (CDD ≫ CDA) quenching (the fluctuation asymptotics) at 1 at% Nd(3+) concentration as an energy transfer probe to quantify the relative concentration of -OH molecular groups compared to an optically active rare-earth dopant in the volume of NPs, when energy migration over Nd(3+) donors to the -OH acceptors accelerates fluorescence quenching. In doing so we use just one parameter α = γ(A)/γ(D) = n(A)√[C(DA)]/n(D)√[C(DD)], defined by the relation of concentration of the -OH acceptors to the concentration of an optically active dopant. The higher is the α, the higher is the relative concentration of -OH acceptors in the volume of nanoparticles. We find α = 2.95 for the 1 at% Nd(3+):YPO4 NPs that, according to the equation for α, and the results obtained for the values of the microparameters CDD(Nd-Nd) = 24.6 nm(6) ms(-1) and CDA(Nd-OH) = 0.6 nm(6) ms(-1), suggests twenty times higher concentration for acceptors other than donors. As the

  17. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  18. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-03

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  19. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  20. Hole burning with pressure and electric field: A window on the electronic structure and energy transfer dynamics of bacterial antenna complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.M.

    1999-02-12

    Light-harvesting (LH) complexes of cyclic (C{sub n}) symmetry from photosynthetic bacteria are studied using absorption and high pressure- and Stark-hole burning spectroscopies. The B800 absorption band of LH2 is inhomogeneously broadened while the B850 band of LH2 and the B875 band of the LH1 complex exhibit significant homogeneous broadening due to ultra-fast inter-exciton level relaxation. The B800{r_arrow}B850 energy transfer rate of ({approximately}2 ps){sup {minus}1} as determined by hole burning and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopies, is weakly dependent on pressure and temperature, both of which significantly affect the B800-B850 energy gap. The resilience is theoretically explained in terms of a modified Foerster theory with the spectral overlap provided by the B800 fluorescence origin band and weak vibronic absorption bands of B850. Possible explanations for the additional sub-picosecond relaxation channel of B800 observed with excitation on the blue side of B800 are given. Data from pressure and temperature dependent studies show that the B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are weakly and strongly excitonically coupled, respectively, which is consistent with the X-ray structure of LH2. The B875 BChl a molecules are also strongly coupled. It is concluded that electron-exchange, in addition to electrostatic interactions, is important for understanding the strong coupling of the B850 and B875 rings. The large linear pressure shifts of {approximately}{minus}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1}/MPa associated with B850 and B875 can serve as important benchmarks for electronic structure calculations.

  1. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. (a..., when the mandated acquisition percentage of alternative fuel vehicles is applied to the number of...

  2. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. (a..., when the mandated acquisition percentage of alternative fuel vehicles is applied to the number of...

  3. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. (a..., when the mandated acquisition percentage of alternative fuel vehicles is applied to the number of...

  4. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. (a..., when the mandated acquisition percentage of alternative fuel vehicles is applied to the number of...

  5. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. (a..., when the mandated acquisition percentage of alternative fuel vehicles is applied to the number of...

  6. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... of Energy (DOE) published a proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (78 FR 35195) to amend the..., Office of Acquisition and Project Management, MA-611, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585..., Office of Acquisition and Project Management, Department of Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P...

  7. 75 FR 69009 - Acquisition Regulation: Socioeconomic Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Socioeconomic Programs to make changes to conform to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), remove out-of-date coverage, and update references. Today's rule does not alter substantive rights or obligations under current...

  8. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contractor acquisition of information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002...

  9. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  10. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  11. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  12. Creating a Window Cleaner Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides a description of a project used in the Cool Science and Technology Camps in which campers are presented with the challenge of developing and marketing their own brand of window cleaner. Topics such as chemistry, marketing, and cost analysis are intertwined as students prepare and plan their approach to product development. (DDR)

  13. Notes on UHV beryllium windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques are described for making large ultrahigh vacuum beryllium windows for use in synchrotron radiation installations. Procedures are given for affecting both hard brazed seals and demountable seals involving either lead or copper gaskets. Brazed seals can be made to either stainless steel or copper. Possible alternative methods are suggested.

  14. Closing the Windows on Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Norman

    1995-01-01

    The rapid adoption of graphic user interface (GUI), as indicated by Microsoft's Windows95 and the Internet's increased use of graphics, is threatening information technology opportunities for people with disabilities. Recent legislation requires that schools provide access to computers and information technology, and producers of Mosaic are…

  15. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  16. Representing the acquisition and use of energy by individuals in agent-based models of animal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibly, Richard M.; Grimm, Volker; Martin, Benjamin T.; Johnston, Alice S.A.; Kulakowska, Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher J.; Calow, Peter; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    1. Agent-based models (ABMs) are widely used to predict how populations respond to changing environments. As the availability of food varies in space and time, individuals should have their own energy budgets, but there is no consensus as to how these should be modelled. Here, we use knowledge of physiological ecology to identify major issues confronting the modeller and to make recommendations about how energy budgets for use in ABMs should be constructed. 2. Our proposal is that modelled animals forage as necessary to supply their energy needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction. If there is sufficient energy intake, an animal allocates the energy obtained in the order: maintenance, growth, reproduction, energy storage, until its energy stores reach an optimal level. If there is a shortfall, the priorities for maintenance and growth/reproduction remain the same until reserves fall to a critical threshold below which all are allocated to maintenance. Rates of ingestion and allocation depend on body mass and temperature. We make suggestions for how each of these processes should be modelled mathematically. 3. Mortality rates vary with body mass and temperature according to known relationships, and these can be used to obtain estimates of background mortality rate. 4. If parameter values cannot be obtained directly, then values may provisionally be obtained by parameter borrowing, pattern-oriented modelling, artificial evolution or from allometric equations. 5. The development of ABMs incorporating individual energy budgets is essential for realistic modelling of populations affected by food availability. Such ABMs are already being used to guide conservation planning of nature reserves and shell fisheries, to assess environmental impacts of building proposals including wind farms and highways and to assess the effects on nontarget organisms of chemicals for the control of agricultural pests.

  17. Vacuum tight window through which a high power laser beam and a high energy particle beam can be transmitted within close proximity to each other

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, W.D.

    1984-05-22

    An apparatus and method by which a high-power laser beam and a high-energy particle beam may enter or exit a region, typically filled with gas, to or from another region, typically under vacuum. The two beams are spaced about 3-4 mm apart center-to-center at the entry/exit point and no gas is permitted to leak into the vacuum region. A disc of material capable of resisting high radiation fluxes without forming color centers is sealed into a metallic holding block. Prior to sealing of the disc, a hole approximately 0.16 cm is drilled into the disc while the disc is tilted at or above Brewster's angle forming an eliptical hole. A thin film, approximately 6000 A, indium metallization is sputtered in a circular pattern about the hole and around the edges of a beryllium disc. An indium disc is then sandwiched between the disc with the hole and the beryllium disc touching the indium metallization on each piece.

  18. Ecophysiological function of leaf 'windows' in Lithops species - 'Living Stones' that grow underground.

    PubMed

    Martin, C E; Brandmeyer, E A; Ross, R D

    2013-01-01

    Leaf temperatures were lower when light entry at the leaf tip window was prevented through covering the window with reflective tape, relative to leaf temperatures of plants with leaf tip windows covered with transparent tape. This was true when leaf temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer, but not with a fine-wire thermocouple. Leaf tip windows of Lithops growing in high-rainfall regions of southern Africa were larger than the windows of plants (numerous individuals of 17 species) growing in areas with less rainfall and, thus, more annual insolation. The results of this study indicate that leaf tip windows of desert plants with an underground growth habit can allow entry of supra-optimal levels of radiant energy, thus most likely inhibiting photosynthetic activity. Consequently, the size of the leaf tip windows correlates inversely with habitat solar irradiance, minimising the probability of photoinhibition, while maximising the absorption of irradiance in cloudy, high-rainfall regions. PMID:23043320

  19. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  20. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  1. A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

    2004-10-26

    We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.

  2. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  3. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  4. Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with high spectral and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Graf, Robert N.; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    The generation of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) signals suffers from an inherent trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we present a dual window (DW) method that uses two Gaussian windows to simultaneously obtain high spectral and spatial resolution. We show that the DW method probes the Winger time-frequency distribution (TFD) with two orthogonal windows set by the standard deviation of the Gaussian windows used for processing. We also show that in the limit of an infinitesimally narrow window, combined with a large window, this method is equivalent to the Kirkwood & Richaczek TFD and, if the real part is taken, it is equivalent to the Margenau & Hill (MH) TFD. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by simulating a signal with four components separated in depth or center frequency. Six TFD are compared: the ideal, the Wigner, the MH, narrow window short time Fourier transform (STFT), wide window STFT, and the DW. The results show that the DW method contains features of the Wigner TFD, and that it contains the highest spatial and spectral resolution that is free of artifacts. This method can enable powerful applications, including accurate acquisition of the spectral information for cancer diagnosis.

  5. Methodology for assessing alternative water-acquisition-and-use strategies for energy facilities in the American West

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.J.; Adams, E.E.; Harleman, D.R.F.; Marks, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    A method for assessing alternative strategies for acquiring and using water at western energy plants was developed. The method was tested in a case study of cooling-water use for a hypothetical steam-electric power plant on the Crazy Woman Creek, an unregulated stream in Wyoming. The results from the case study suggest a careful analysis of reservoir design and water-right purchase strategies can reduce the cost of acquiring and using water at an energy facility. The method uses simulation models to assess the capital and operating costs and expected monthly water-consumption rates for different cooling-system designs. The method also uses reservoir operating algorithms to select, for a fixed cooling-system design, the optimal tradeoff between building a make-up water reservoir and purchasing water rights. These tradeoffs can be used to derive the firm's true demand curve for different sources of water. The analysis also reveals the implicit cost of selecting strategies that minimize conflicts with other water users. Results indicate that: (1) cooling ponds are as good as or preferred to wet towers because their costs already include provisions for storing water for use during the normally dry summer months and during occasional drought years; (2) the energy firm's demand for overall water consumption in the cooling system was found to be inversely proportional to both the cost of installing make-up water reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility; and (3) the firm's willingness to pay for existing rights is proportional to both the cost of installing reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility.

  6. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  7. X-ray transmission through a plasma window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkoski, B. T.; Zacharia, I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, E. D.; Siddons, D. P.

    2001-03-01

    Traditional solid window materials used for x-ray synchrotron beamlines may introduce undesirably high attenuation, or are subject to failure under high heat loads. A plasma window can in principle obviate these problems over a wide range of energies. Experiments were performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory National Synchrotron Light Source on beamline X6A to study the transmission characteristics of a plasma window using argon as the arc gas. Measurements were made around the Ar K edge and far from resonance. The "white-line" absorption at the K edge was actually suppressed during arc operation as compared to room temperature gas at the same pressure. This is attributed to the high degree of ionization in the plasma. The relative strength of the white line to the edge jump does not seem to be a strong function of arc current at the argon K edge. Away from resonance (˜3 times the edge energy) x-ray attenuation was negligible.

  8. Nano-materials enabled thermoelectricity from window glasses.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Salman B; Rader, Kelly R; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2012-01-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m(2) window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology. PMID:23150789

  9. Nano-materials Enabled Thermoelectricity from Window Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayat, Salman B.; Rader, Kelly R.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2012-11-01

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m2 window at a 20°C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology.

  10. Windows in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Tacconi-Garman, Lowell Evan; Boulanger, Francois; Okumura, Koryo

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were twofold: (1) to study the IRAS emission levels in the vicinity of Baade's Window and in other optically transparent regions near the Galactic Center; and (2) to study the IRAS emission levels along sightlines in the Milky Way that exhibit very little CO emission. Tests were attempted to see whether the optically transparent 'windows' near the Galactic center can be identified (as FIR-weak regions) in the IRAS data base; and if so, whether the CO weak regions found elsewhere in the Milky Way represent similarly FIR weak and thus optically transparent sightlines through the Galaxy. The CO weak regions were also targeted in an effort to study the diffuse intercloud dust and its warming by the interstellar radiation field.

  11. Low heat transfer, high strength window materials

    DOEpatents

    Berlad, Abraham L.; Salzano, Francis J.; Batey, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-pane window with improved insulating qualities; comprising a plurality of transparent or translucent panes held in an essentially parallel, spaced-apart relationship by a frame. Between at least one pair of panes is a convection defeating means comprising an array of parallel slats or cells so designed as to prevent convection currents from developing in the space between the two panes. The convection defeating structures may have reflective surfaces so as to improve the collection and transmittance of the incident radiant energy. These same means may be used to control (increase or decrease) the transmittance of solar energy as well as to decouple the radiative transfer between the interior surfaces of the transparent panes.

  12. Optimisation of acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie; Cobbold, Mark; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Decreasing the acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT) will enable animals to be imaged within the window of stable emission of the bioluminescent source, a higher imaging throughput and minimisation of the time which an animal is anaesthetised. This work investigates, through simulation using a heterogeneous mouse model, two methods of decreasing acquisition time: 1. Imaging at fewer wavelengths (a reduction from five to three); and 2. Increasing the bandwidth of filters used for imaging. The results indicate that both methods are viable ways of decreasing the acquisition time without a loss in quantitative accuracy. Importantly, when choosing imaging wavelengths, the spectral attenuation of tissue and emission spectrum of the source must be considered, in order to choose wavelengths at which a high signal can be achieved. Additionally, when increasing the bandwidth of the filters used for imaging, the bandwidth must be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm.

  13. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  14. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-05-04

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  15. Windows software for cardiac electrophysiology studies and ablation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vänttinen, H; Nousiainen, J; Mäkynen, P; Malmivuo, J

    2000-03-01

    A system for cardiac electrophysiology (EP) studies consisting of a Windows software package, a standard 120 MHz Pentium PC with a high-performance video card and a data acquisition card has been developed during this study. The system is capable of real time data acquisition and storage of 24 channels with simultaneous display of 1-16 arbitrarily chosen channels at a sampling rate of 500 Hz. It can be used clinically in electrophysiology studies and during catheter radio-frequency ablation treatment for monitoring the ablation and its effects. The built-in ablation monitoring capability enables combined EP study and ablation treatment, thus helping to reduce exposure times and the total time needed per patient. For clinical use the software includes versatile tools for data analysis and reduction. Our system has been developed in association with Department of Cardiology of Tampere University Hospital and has been in regular clinical use there. PMID:10710184

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  17. Window decompression in laser-heated MagLIF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Sefkow, Adam

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept requires pre-magnetized fuel to be pre-heated with a laser before undergoing compression by a thick solid liner. Recent experiments and simulations suggest that yield has been limited to date by poor laser preheat and laser-induced mix in the fuel region. In order to assess laser energy transmission through the pressure-holding window, as well as resultant mix, we modeled window disassembly under different conditions using 1D and 2D simulations in both Helios and HYDRA. We present results tracking energy absorption, time needed for decompression, risk of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) that may scatter laser light, and potential for mix from various window thicknesses, laser spot sizes and gas fill densities. These results indicate that using thinner windows (0.5-1 μm windows) and relatively large laser spot radii (600 μm and above) can avoid deleterious effects and improve coupling with the fuel. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  18. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  19. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  20. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  1. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  2. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  3. Thermal performance of windows having high solar transmittance

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1981-07-01

    Antireflected polyester films and low-iron glass sheets have values of solar transmittance that are substantially higher than those of their untreated counterparts. The plastic films utilize coatings to reduce loses due to surface reflectance and the glass is made with low levels of impurities to reduce adsorption within the material itself. The optical and thermal properties of these materials are discussed and the solar and thermal characteristics of windows incorporating high-transmittance glazing layers are derived. Comparisons among these and other types of windows are made on the basis of net energy use for residential buildings in winter.

  4. Assessing daily actual evapotranspiration through energy balance: an experiment to evaluate the selfpreservation hypothesis with acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, A.; Capodici, F.; Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G.; Rallo, G.

    2013-10-01

    An operational use of the actual evapotranspiration estimates requires the integration from instantaneous to daily values. This can commonly be achieved under the hypothesis of daytime self-preservation of the evaporative fraction. In this study, it has been evaluated the effect of this assumption on the assessment of daily evapotranspiration from proximity sensing images acquired at hourly intervals over a homogeneous olive groove. Results have been validated by comparison with observations made by a micrometeorological (EC-flux tower) and an eco-physiological (sap flux) sensor. SEBAL model has been applied to thermal and multispectral images acquired during a clear day on August 2009 trough a FLIR A320G thermal camera and a Tetracam MCA II multispectral camera, installed on a tethered helium balloon. Thermal and multispectral images were characterized by very high spatial resolution. This experiment aims to analyze two effects: 1) the consistency of the self-preservation hypothesis for daily estimates of the actual evapotranspiration from hourly assessments at different times of the day; 2) the effects of the spatial resolution on the performances of the energy balance model. To evaluate the effects of the spatial resolution, semi-hourly observations made by a flux tower and sap-flow measures were compared to the evapotranspiration estimates performed using downscaled images at resolutions close to canopy sizes (2, 5 and 10 m). Results show that the best estimates are obtained with a spatial resolution comparable to the average size of the canopy with images taken approximately at 10 UTC.

  5. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  6. WINDOW 4. 0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  7. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  8. Thermal conductance measurement of windows: An innovative radiative method

    SciTech Connect

    Arpino, F.; Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.

    2008-09-15

    Heat transfer through window surfaces is one of the most important contributions to energy losses in buildings. Therefore, great efforts are made to design new window frames and glass assemblies with low thermal conductance. At the same time, it is also necessary to develop accurate measurement techniques in thermal characterisation of the above-mentioned building components. In this paper the authors show an innovative measurement method mainly based on radiative heat transfer (instead of the traditional convective one) which allows window thermal conductance measurements with corresponding uncertainty budget evaluation. The authors used the 3D finite volume software FLUENT {sup registered} to design the experimental apparatus. The numerical results have been employed for the system optimisation and metrological characterisation. (author)

  9. Radiation damage in diagnostic window materials for the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1981-07-01

    The general problem of evaluating diagnostic window materials for the TFTR at the tank wall location is described. Specific evaluations are presented for several materials: vitreous silica, crystal quartz, sapphire, zinc selenide, and several fluorides: lithium fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and calcium fluoride; and seal glasses are discussed. The effects of the neutrons will be minimal. The major problems arise from the high flux of ionizing radiation, mainly the soft x rays which are absorbed near the surface of the materials. Additionally, this large energy deposition causes a significant thermal pulse with attendant thermal stresses. It is thus desirable to protect the windows with cover slips where this is feasible or to reduce the incident radiation by mounting the windows on long pipes. A more detailed summary is given at the end of this report.

  10. Cold lesions: enhanced contrast using asymmetric photopeak windows

    SciTech Connect

    La Fontaine, R.; Stein, M.A.; Graham, L.S.; Winter, J.

    1986-07-01

    Cold-lesion contrast resolution was measured as a function of photopeak window position, photon energy, and scatter configuration using a clinical scintillation camera capable of asymmetric photopeak imaging. Two radionuclide solutions, technetium-99m and thallium-201, were studied at five photopeak window positions: the symmetric setting and window settings that were 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% asymmetrically high (asymmetry was defined here by the intrinsic percentage of count loss relative to the symmetric window setting). Low contrast was examined with small cold-sphere phantoms and large cold-cube phantoms to produce high- and low-scatter conditions, respectively. High contrast was examined with a Hine cylindrical step phantom. Lesion contrast improved markedly with small degrees of window asymmetry but showed less dramatic improvement when positions at the higher degrees of asymmetry were studied. For the high-scatter and low-contrast situations, the maximum improvement in lesion contrast tended to be inversely proportional to lesion size. The maximum improvement in contrast resolution ranged from 10% to 45%, depending on lesion size, scatter configuration, and the radionuclide solution used.

  11. In situ window cleaning by laser blowoff through optical fibera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfier, A.; Barison, S.; Danieli, T.; Giudicotti, L.; Pagura, C.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2008-10-01

    The feasibility of a window cleaning system based on the laser blowoff technique is investigated to remove the impurity deposition on vacuum windows of the modified reversed field experiment fusion device. The laser pulse is sent to the window through a fused silica fiber optic (φ=1mm), then focused on its internal surface, single shot ablating up to ˜5mm2 of the impurity layer; the focused pulse is scanned across the window to clean its entire surface. The composition of the deposited layer is studied through the secondary ion mass spectrometry and profilometry techniques. Effectiveness of cleaning is analyzed in terms of quality of the cleaned spot, its dimension, repetition rate of the laser, and its wavelength. The energy damage threshold of the fiber optic is also investigated. Three different lasers (microjoule Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and ruby) are first tested directly on the window; then only the ruby laser beam is propagated through an optical fiber and tested.

  12. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  13. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  14. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  15. High Speed Data Acquisition System for Three-Dimensional X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.W.; Claytor, T.N.; Sheats, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Computed tomography for nondestructive evaluation applications has been limited by system cost, resolution, and time requirements for three-dimensional data sets. FlashCT (Flat panel Amorphous Silicon High-Resolution Computed Tomography) is a system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to address these three problems. Developed around a flat panel amorphous silicon detector array, FlashCT is suitable for low to medium energy x-ray and neutron computed tomography at 127-micron resolution. Overall system size is small, allowing rapid transportation to a variety of radiographic sources. System control software was developed in LabVIEW for Windows NT to allow multithreading of data acquisition, data correction, and staging motor control. The system control software simplifies data collection and allows fully automated control of the data acquisition process, leading toward remote or unattended operation. The first generation of the FlashCT Data Acquisition System was completed in Au gust 1998, and since that time the system has been tested using x-ray sources ranging in energy from 60 kV to 20MV. The system has also been used to collect data for thermal neutron computed tomography at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). System improvements have been proposed to provide faster data collection and greater dynamic range during data collection.

  16. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  17. Durable coatings for IR windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Jha, Santosh K.; Gunda, Nilesh; Cooke, Rick; Agarwal, Neeta; Sastri, Suri A.; Harker, Alan; Kirsch, Jim

    2005-05-01

    Durable coatings of silicon-carbon-oxy-nitride (a.k.a. SiCON) are being developed to protect high-speed missile windows from the environmental loads during flight. Originally developed at Rockwell Scientific Corporation (RSC) these coatings exhibited substantial promise, but were difficult to deposit. Under a DoD DARPA SBIR Phase I program, Surmet Corporation, working closely with RSC, is depositing these coatings using an innovative vacuum vapor deposition process. High rate of coating deposition and the ease of manipulating the process variables, make Surmet"s process suitable for the deposition of substantially thick films (up to 30 μm) with precisely controlled chemistry. Initial work has shown encouraging results, and the refinement of the coating and coating process is still underway. Coupons of SiN and SiCON coatings with varying thickness on a variety of substrates such as Si-wafer, ZnS and ALON were fabricated and used for the study. This paper will present and discuss the results of SiN and SiCON coatings deposition and characterization (physical, mechanical and optical properties) as a basis for evaluating their suitability for high speed missile windows application.

  18. Interferometer for Space Station Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Inspection of space station windows for micrometeorite damage would be a difficult task insitu using current inspection techniques. Commercially available optical profilometers and inspection systems are relatively large, about the size of a desktop computer tower, and require a stable platform to inspect the test object. Also, many devices currently available are designed for a laboratory or controlled environments requiring external computer control. This paper presents an approach using a highly developed optical interferometer to inspect the windows from inside the space station itself using a self- contained hand held device. The interferometer would be capable as a minimum of detecting damage as small as one ten thousands of an inch in diameter and depth while interrogating a relatively large area. The current developmental state of this device is still in the proof of concept stage. The background section of this paper will discuss the current state of the art of profilometers as well as the desired configuration of the self-contained, hand held device. Then, a discussion of the developments and findings that will allow the configuration change with suggested approaches appearing in the proof of concept section.

  19. Window replacement and residential lead paint hazard control 12 years later.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Sherry L; Jacobs, David E; Wilson, Jonathan W; Akoto, Judith Y; Nevin, Rick; Scott Clark, C

    2012-02-01

    -replacement) is $1700-$2000 per housing unit. Homes in which all windows were replaced had significantly lower lead dust. New windows are also likely to reduce energy use and improve home value. Lead-safe window replacement is an important element of lead hazard control, weatherization, renovation and housing investment strategies and should be implemented broadly to protect children. PMID:22325333

  20. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    In a photon counting detector array, each pixel in the array produces an electrical pulse when an incident photon on that pixel is detected. Detection and demodulation of an optical communication signal that modulated the intensity of the optical signal requires counting the number of photon arrivals over a given interval. As the size of photon counting photodetector arrays increases, parallel processing of all the pixels exceeds the resources available in current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and gate array (GA) technology; the desire for a high fill factor in avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays also precludes this. Through the use of downsampling and windowing portions of the detector array, the processing is distributed between the ASIC and GA. This allows demodulation of the optical communication signal incident on a large photon counting detector array, as well as providing architecture amenable to algorithmic changes. The detector array readout ASIC functions as a parallel-to-serial converter, serializing the photodetector array output for subsequent processing. Additional downsampling functionality for each pixel is added to this ASIC. Due to the large number of pixels in the array, the readout time of the entire photodetector is greater than the time between photon arrivals; therefore, a downsampling pre-processing step is done in order to increase the time allowed for the readout to occur. Each pixel drives a small counter that is incremented at every detected photon arrival or, equivalently, the charge in a storage capacitor is incremented. At the end of a user-configurable counting period (calculated independently from the ASIC), the counters are sampled and cleared. This downsampled photon count information is then sent one counter word at a time to the GA. For a large array, processing even the downsampled pixel counts exceeds the capabilities of the GA. Windowing of the array, whereby several subsets of pixels are designated

  1. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, K.L.

    THIS PAPER IS A STUDY OF A CHILD'S EARLIEST PRETRANSFORMATIONAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES. A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS (1) THAT SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION OCCURS THROUGH THE TESTING OF HYPOTHESES REFLECTING THE INITIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACQUISITION MECHANISM AND THE LANGUAGE DATA TO WHICH THE CHILD IS EXPOSED, AND (2) THAT…

  2. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  3. 48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration. 908.7101-2 Section 908.7101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special...

  4. 48 CFR 908.7101-2 - Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consolidated acquisition of new vehicles by General Services Administration. 908.7101-2 Section 908.7101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special...

  5. Challenger Center's Window on the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Smith, S.; Bobrowsky, M.; Radnofsky, M.; Perelmuter, J.-M.; Jaggar, L.

    2001-11-01

    Challenger Center for Space Science Education's Window on the Universe program aims to create a network of under-served communities across the nation dedicated to sustained science, math, and technology education. Window communities presently include Broken Arrow, OK; Muncie, IN; Moscow, ID; Nogales, AZ; Tuskegee, AL; Marquette, MI; Altamont, KS; Washington, D.C.; and other emerging sites. Window uses themes of human space flight and the space sciences as interdisciplinary means to inspire entire communities. Practicing scientists and engineers engaged in these disciplines are invited to volunteer to become a part of these communities for a week, each visitor reaching roughly 2000 K-12 students through individual classroom visits and Family Science Night events during an intense Window on the Universe Week. In the same Window Week, Challenger Center scientists and educators present a workshop for local educators to provide training in the use of a K-12 educational module built around a particular space science and exploration theme. Window communities follow a 3-year development: Year 1, join the network, experience Window Week presented by Challenger Center and visiting researchers; Year 2, same as Year 1 plus workshop on partnering with local organizations to develop sources of visiting researchers and to enhance connections with local resources; Year 3 and subsequent, the community stages its own Window Week, with Challenger Center providing new education modules and training workshops for "master educators" from the Window community, after which the master educators return home to conduct training workshops of their own. Challenger Center remains a resource and clearinghouse for Window communities to acquire experience, technical information, and opportunities for distance collaboration with other Window communities. Window on the Universe is dedicated to assessing degree of success vs. failure in each program component and as a whole, using pre- and post

  6. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-02-01

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  7. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-10-04

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  8. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  9. Lithography process window analysis with calibrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhan; Yu, Jin; Lo, James; Liu, Johnson

    2004-05-01

    As critical-dimension shrink below 0.13 μm, the SPC (Statistical Process Control) based on CD (Critical Dimension) control in lithography process becomes more difficult. Increasing requirements of a shrinking process window have called on the need for more accurate decision of process window center. However in practical fabrication, we found that systematic error introduced by metrology and/or resist process can significantly impact the process window analysis result. Especially, when the simple polynomial functions are used to fit the lithographic data from focus exposure matrix (FEM), the model will fit these systematic errors rather than filter them out. This will definitely impact the process window analysis and determination of the best process condition. In this paper, we proposed to use a calibrated first principle model to do process window analysis. With this method, the systematic metrology error can be filtered out efficiently and give a more reasonable window analysis result.

  10. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  11. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  12. High-performance solar-control windows. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    The use of ion-beam sputtered, metal-dielectric layers was investigated for fabricating high-performance solar-control windows for office buildings and residences. Two basic types of windows were studied. The first was optimized for rejecting incident solar energy during the cooling season while maintaining high daylight transmittance. The second was optimized for transmission of solar energy and reduction of thermal losses in the heating season by maximizing reflectivity in the long-wave infrared (i.e., transparent heat mirror). Various compromise configurations for performing both functions were also considered. The program covered original equipment (glass) and retrofit (plastic) substrate materials. Various metal-dielectric combinations, including Cu-SiO/sub 2/, Bs-SiO/sub 2/ (Bs = brass), Bs-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AG-SiO/sub 2/, and Ag-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used to obtain the necessary optical characteristics. Extensive weathering tests were conducted to demonstrate that the final systems developed are capable of extended life in a practical environment. Roll-to-roll (1' wide) coating was demonstrated for retrofit office and residential windows on various forms of polyester. Comparable window performance was achieved on polypropylene and teflon FEP substrates. A brief economic analysis is presented which indicates that KCl's processing is completely consistent with the price structure in the solar-control film industry.

  13. In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging in the Second Near-Infrared Window Using Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guosong; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    In vivo fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II window, 1000-1700 nm) is a powerful imaging technique that emerged in recent years. This imaging tool allows for noninvasive, deep-tissue visualization and interrogation of anatomical features and functions with improved imaging resolution and contrast at greater tissue penetration depths than traditional fluorescence imaging. Here, we present the detailed protocol for conducting NIR-II fluorescence imaging in live animals, including the procedures for preparation of biocompatible and NIR-II fluorescent carbon nanotube solution, live animal administration and NIR-II fluorescence image acquisition. PMID:27283426

  14. Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by Boeing, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Space Station Manufacturing building, the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) will help Space Station crews take some of the best photographs ever snapped from an orbiting spacecraft by eliminating glare and allowing researchers to control their cameras and other equipment from the ground. The WORF is designed to make the best possible use of the high-quality research window in the Space Station's U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Engineers at the MSFC proposed a derivative of the EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Rack already used on the Space Station and were given the go-ahead. The EXPRESS rack can hold a wide variety of experiments and provide them with power, communications, data, cooling, fluids, and other utilities - all the things that Earth-observing experiment instruments would need. WORF will supply payloads with power, data, cooling, video downlink, and stable, standardized interfaces for mounting imaging instruments. Similar to specialized orbital observatories, the interior of the rack is sealed against light and coated with a special low-reflectant black paint, so payloads will be able to observe low-light-level subjects such as the faint glow of auroras. Cameras and remote sensing instruments in the WORF can be preprogrammed, controlled from the ground, or operated by a Station crewmember by using a flexible shroud designed to cinch tightly around the crewmember's waist. The WORF is scheduled to be launched aboard the STS-114 Space Shuttle mission in the year 2003.

  15. Object-oriented programming approach to CCD data acquisition and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, B. Nagaraja; Srinivasan, R.; Shankar, S. Murali

    1997-10-01

    In the recent past both the CCD camera controller hardware and software have witnessed a dynamic change to keep pace with the astronomer's imaging requirements. Conventional data acquisition software is based on menu driven programs developed using structured high level languages in non-window environment. An application under windows offers several advantages to the users, over the non-window approach, like multitasking, accessing large memory and inter-application communication. Windows also provides many programming facilities to the developers such as device-independent graphics, support to wide range of input/output devices, menus, icons, bitmaps. However, programming for windows environment under structured programming demands an in-depth knowledge of events, formats, handles and inner workings. Object-oriented approach simplifies the task of programming for windows by using object windows which manage the message- processing behavior and insulate the developer from the details of inner workings of windows. As a result, a window application can be developed in much less time and effort compared to conventional approaches. We have designed and developed an easy-to-use CCD data acquisition and processing software under Microsoft Windows 3.1 operating environment using object-Pascal for windows. The acquisition software exploits the advantages of the objects to provide custom specific tool boxes to implement different functions of CCD data accusation and image processing. In this paper the hierarchy of the software structure and various application functions are presented. The flexibility of the software to handle different CCDs and also mosaic arrangement is illustrated.

  16. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly

  17. THE METABOLOMIC WINDOW INTO HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emergent discipline of metabolomics has attracted considerable research effort in hepatology. Here we review the metabolomic data for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B and C, cholecystitis, cholestasis, liver transplantation and acute hepatotoxicity in animal models. A metabolomic window has permitted a view into the changing biochemistry occurring in the transitional phases between a healthy liver and hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. Whether provoked by obesity and diabetes, alcohol use or oncogenic viruses, the liver develops a core metabolomic phenotype (CMP) that involves dysregulation of bile acid and phospholipid homeostasis. The CMP commences at the transition between the healthy liver (Phase 0) and NAFLD/NASH, ALD or viral hepatitis (Phase 1). This CMP is maintained in the presence or absence of cirrhosis (Phase 2) and whether or not either HCC or CCA (Phase 3) develop. Inflammatory signalling in the liver triggers the appearance of the CMP. Many other metabolomic markers distinguish between Phases 0, 1, 2 and 3. A metabolic remodelling in HCC has been described but metabolomic data from all four Phases demonstrate that the Warburg shift from mitochondrial respiration to cytosolic glycolysis foreshadows HCC and may occur as early as Phase 1. The metabolic remodelling also involves an upregulation of fatty acid β-oxidation, also beginning in Phase 1. The storage of triglycerides in fatty liver provides high energy-yielding substrates for Phases 2 and 3 of liver pathology. The metabolomic window into hepatobiliary disease sheds new light on the systems pathology of the liver. PMID:23714158

  18. Biaxial flexural strength of optical window materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Claude A.

    2009-10-01

    The design of high-energy laser windows critically depends on the availability of appropriate numbers for the allowable tensile stress. Relying on a "modulus of rupture" in conjunction with a "safety factor" usually results in overestimating the required thickness, which degrades the optical performance. The primary purpose of this paper is to clarify issues relating to Weibull's theory of brittle fracture and make use of the theory to assess the results of equibiaxial flexure testing that was carried out on laser-window material candidates. Specifically, we describe the failure-probability distribution in terms of the characteristic strength σC--i.e., the effective strength of a uniformly stressed 1-cm2 area---and the shape parameter m, which reflects the dispersion of surface-flaw sizes. A statistical analysis of flexural strength data thus amounts to obtaining the parameters σC and m, which is best done by directly fitting estimated cumulative failure probabilities to the appropriate expression derived from Weibull's theory. In this light, we demonstrate that (a) at the 1% failure-probability level, fusion-cast CaF2 and OxyFluoride Glass perform poorly compared to CVD-ZnSe; (b) available data for fused SiO2 and sapphire confirm the area-scaling principle, thus validating Weibull's theory; and (c) compressive coatings enhance the characteristic strength but degrade the shape parameter, which mitigates their benefit. In Appendix, it is shown that four-point bending data for fusion-cast CaF2 do not obey a simple two-parameter model but are indicative of a bimodal surface-flaw population.

  19. Contoured insulation window for evacuated solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Coppola, F. T.; Lentz, W. P.; Vandewoestine, R. V.

    1980-02-05

    An insulating contoured window is provided for use with an enclosed chamber such as an evacuated flat plate solar heat collector with the contoured solar window being of minimum thickness and supported solely about its peripheral edge portions. The window is contoured in both its longitudinal and transverse directions, such that in its longitudinal direction the window is composed of a plurality of sinusoidal corrugations whereas in its transverse direction the peaks of such corrugations are contoured in the form of paraboloids so that the structure may withstand the forces generated thereon by the atmosphere.

  20. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-09-15

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  1. In-Situ Measurements of U-Values and Thermal Performance of Windows.

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.; Keller, H.

    1987-04-01

    Five commercial windows were studied using the MoWiTT (Mobile Window Thermal Test) facility, an accurate new field test apparatus. Both overall diurnal performance and U-values were measured. The latter were compared to test laboratory hot box measurements for the same five windows, and to calculations made with the program WINDOW-2.0. Calculations, MoWiTT and hot box measurements agreed for three of the windows; for one of the others, the calculations agreed with the MoWiTT measurement but not with the hot box. For the fifth, a low-E window, the calculations may be made to agree with either measurement but not both, depending on assumptions about the frame. The authors suggest a possible explanation for the conflict, and advance an interpretation of the data which would allow a consistent understanding of calculated, field and laboratory U-values. In the studies of overall performance, uncertainties arising from wintertime solar gain were found to overshadow the differences in U-value for all window orientations, including north-facing. In some of the windows tested, improved U-values were offset by decreased solar gain acceptance. Further research is suggested to achieve a method of evaluating overall window energy performance which would reliably reflect U-value improvements. 5 refs., 36 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. 48 CFR 970.3706 - Performance-based acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance-based acquisition. 970.3706 Section 970.3706 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting 970.3706 Performance-based...

  3. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  4. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  5. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  6. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating...

  7. 77 FR 23631 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial....html . Additional guidance on the fuel card programs is available at http://www.energy.dla.mil ....

  8. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  9. Thermally insulated window sash construction for a casement window

    SciTech Connect

    Biro, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    A window sash member is described comprising: first and second generally parallel sidewalls; first and second spaced, generally parallel transverse walls connecting the first and second sidewalls, extending between and oriented generally perpendicular to the first and second sidewalls to define a first hollow chamber; a third transverse wall, located without the first hollow chamber adjacent to and generally parallel to the first transverse wall, extending from the first sidewall and terminating short of the second sidewall; a first interior wall extending from the third transverse wall to the first transverse wall and oriented generally parallel to the first sidewall to define a second hollow chamber; a fourth transverse wall, located without the first hollow chamber adjacent to and generally to the second transverse wall, extending from the first sidewall and terminating short of the second sidewall; and a second interior wall extending from the fourth transverse wall to the second transverse wall and oriented generally parallel to the second sidewall to define a third hollow chamber.

  10. Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Concrete sill and spandrel also illustrated. Building 43, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  12. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable...

  13. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  14. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a DELTA V penalty. Usually, because of the DELTA V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (4) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO (5) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO.

  15. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  16. Excessive Acquisition in Hoarding

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Tolin, David F.; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E.; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  17. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  18. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  19. Microfibrillar collagen in the oval window.

    PubMed

    Liston, S L

    1982-01-01

    Compressed microfibrillar collagen was used to seal openings in cat oval windows. Histologic examination showed the material was well tolerated and produced a good oval window seal. Because of its hemostatic properties, this material should prove to be useful when bleeding is encountered during a stapedectomy. PMID:10994440

  20. Thermal measurements of microwave transmitter feedhorn window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal measurements of microwave transmitter feedhorn windows were performed using an imaging infrared radiometer. The measurement technique is described and results are presented for windows made of 0.001-in. Kapton (trademark of Dupont Chemical Co.) and 0.1-in. HTP-6 (Space Shuttle tile material). Measured and calculated temperatures agree well.

  1. Window Cleaner—New and Improved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2007-11-01

    A recent coupon advertisement for window cleaner in the Sunday newspaper was reminiscent of a past JCE Classroom Activity . The new product says it offers a cheaper way to clean your windows and is a way to cut down on the number of plastic spray containers you throw away.

  2. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  3. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  4. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  5. A redox-flow electrochromic window.

    PubMed

    Jennings, James R; Lim, Wei Yang; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost electrochromic (EC) window based on a redox-flow system that does not require expensive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates is introduced and demonstrated for the first time. An aqueous I3–/I– redox electrolyte is used in place of a TCO to oxidize/reduce a molecular layer of an EC triphenylamine derivative that is anchored to a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold on the inner faces of a double-paned window. The redox electrolyte is electrochemically oxidized/reduced in an external two-compartment cell and circulated through the window cavity using an inexpensive peristaltic pump, resulting in coloration or decoloration of the window due to reaction of the redox solution with the triphenylamine derivative. The absorption characteristics, coloration/decoloration times, and cycling stability of the prototype EC window are evaluated, and prospects for further development are discussed. PMID:25584903

  6. Internally cooled window for endoatmospheric homing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Leary, D. F.; Bouska, D. H.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to infrared (IR) sensor window cooling which will result in improved performance as well as miniaturization of the IR sensor window and coolant hardware. The successful development of this concept can lead to IR windows that can be mass produced at very low overall cost, with short production lead times. The concept involves internal cooling of an advanced diamond film/silicon window, a technique whose goal is to enhance the aero-optics performance by avoiding the turbulence and optical distortion induced by external film cooling injection. Preliminary analysis indicates that the proposed IR window concept can meet advanced interceptor mission requirements while providing significant design improvements in terms of reduced coolant subsystem mass and low manufacturing cost.

  7. Internally cooled window for endoatmospheric homing - Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Ravi, K. V.; Jones, G.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to infrared (IR) sensor window cooling which will result in improved performance as well as miniaturization of the IR sensor window and coolant hardware. The successful development of this concept can lead to IR windows that can be mass produced at very low overall cost, with short production lead times. The concept involves internal cooling of an advanced diamond film/silicon window, a technique whose goal is to enhance the aero-optics performance by avoiding the turbulence and optical distortion induced by external film cooling injection. Preliminary analysis indicates that the proposed IR window concept can meet advanced interceptor mission requirements while providing significant design improvements in terms of reduced coolant subsystem mass and low manufacturing cost.

  8. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  9. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  10. Aerodynamic window for high precision laser drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Steffen; Dausinger, Friedrich; Berger, Peter; Hügel, Helmuth

    2007-05-01

    High precision laser drilling is getting more and more interesting for industry. Main applications for such holes are vaporising and injection nozzles. To enhance quality, the energy deposition has to be accurately defined by reducing the pulse duration and thereby reducing the amount of disturbing melting layer. In addition, an appropriate processing technology, for example the helical drilling, yields holes in steel at 1 mm thickness and diameters about 100 μm with correct roundness and thin recast layers. However, the processing times are still not short enough for industrial use. Experiments have shown that the reduction of the atmospheric pressure down to 100 hPa enhances the achievable quality and efficiency, but the use of vacuum chambers in industrial processes is normally quite slow and thus expensive. The possibility of a very fast evacuation is given by the use of an aerodynamic window, which produces the pressure reduction by virtue of its fluid dynamic features. This element, based on a potential vortex, was developed and patented as out-coupling window for high power CO II lasers by IFSW 1, 2, 3. It has excellent tightness and transmission properties, and a beam deflection is not detectable. The working medium is compressed air, only. For the use as vacuum element for laser drilling, several geometrical modifications had to be realized. The prototype is small enough to be integrated in a micromachining station and has a low gas flow. During the laser pulse, which is focussed through the potential flow, a very high fluence is reached, but the measurements have not shown any beam deflection or focal shifting. The evacuation time is below 300 ms so that material treatment with changing ambient pressure is possible, too. Experimental results have proven the positive effect of the reduced ambient pressure on the drilling process for the regime of nano- and picosecond laser pulses. Plasma effects are reduced and, because of the less absorption, the

  11. Window-Integrated Low Concentration Planar Light Guide Solar Concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Daniel James Lawler

    Several novel low concentration solar concentrator photovoltaic designs are presented, based on the planar light guide architecture pioneered by the University of Rochester. These systems are designed for integration into windows, requiring them to be stationary and to have a large acceptance angle since they cannot move to track the sun. The application goal is to use solar generated electricity to offset the energy lost through the window during cold times of the year. The systems are evaluated for their effective insulation properties given the calculated net energy lost. Without moving parts, they optimize to have acceptance angles of about 20° to 35° in the vertical direction and +/-90° in the horizontal direction, but have peak optical efficiencies of less than 50%. By including internally moving parts, the acceptance angle is increased to nearly a full pi steradians (the full sky from the point of view of the window) and the average optical efficiency increases to over 50%. Systems in certain locations are not viable due to low solar irradiance in the wintertime, e.g., Rochester, NY. Others, however, reduce net energy loss to zero for much of the year. A prototype of one of the systems is fabricated, measured, and modeled. The simulated and measured performance data are compared and are in close agreement, validating the model and the evaluation methods used during system optimization.

  12. Tools for the IDL widget set within the X-windows environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgeon, B.; Aston, A.

    1992-01-01

    New tools using the IDL widget set are presented. In particular, a utility allowing the easy creation and update of slide presentations, XSlideManager, is explained in detail and examples of its application are shown. In addition to XSlideManager, other mini-utilities are discussed. These various pieces of software follow the philosophy of the X-Windows distribution system and are made available to anyone within the Internet network. Acquisition procedures through anonymous ftp are clearly explained.

  13. Double window configuration as a low cost microwave waveguide window for plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.

    1997-12-01

    Waveguide windows are major components of a transmission line used in microwave plasma devices. The function of the waveguide window is to provide vacuum isolation of the source side from the plasma chamber while transmitting microwaves with minimum attenuation. Commonly a single thin dielectric plate is sandwiched between a choke type flange and a flat flange and is used as a waveguide window. To arrive at a better window configuration in terms of the low power reflection coefficient, the voltage standing wave ratio calculation is carried out for different window configurations (single window and double window) and for various window thicknesses. It is found that the power reflection is the minimum in the case of double window configuration. The minimum power reflection is as low as 0.8{percent} for a combination of alumina and a quartz plate each of 1 cm thickness in the double window configuration. Also, it is more advantageous to use radial microwave coupling than axial coupling in order to increase the life time of the microwave waveguide window. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-06-08

    Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

  15. Combining factual and heuristic knowledge in knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Hull, Richard; Karr, Clark; Hosken, Bruce; Verhagen, William

    1992-01-01

    A knowledge acquisition technique that combines heuristic and factual knowledge represented as two hierarchies is described. These ideas were applied to the construction of a knowledge acquisition interface to the Expert System Analyst (OPERA). The goal of OPERA is to improve the operations support of the computer network in the space shuttle launch processing system. The knowledge acquisition bottleneck lies in gathering knowledge from human experts and transferring it to OPERA. OPERA's knowledge acquisition problem is approached as a classification problem-solving task, combining this approach with the use of factual knowledge about the domain. The interface was implemented in a Symbolics workstation making heavy use of windows, pull-down menus, and other user-friendly devices.

  16. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Petrie, Thomas; Kosny, Jan; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Hulvey, Kimberly D

    2007-11-01

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  17. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  18. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  19. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  20. SMART WINDOWS FOR SMART BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roughly one third of all energy consumed in the U.S. is used in the residential or commercial sector. Of that, over half of the energy is used to provide lighting and to control the temperature of those buildings. “Smart buildings” is a concept to apply principles ...

  1. Nested data independent MS/MS acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Data independent acquisition (DIA) attempts to provide comprehensive MS/MS data while providing a cycle time that is capable of following the elution profile of chromatographic peaks. Currently available MS technology is not yet fully capable of fulfilling these expectations. This paper suggests a new multiplex-based approach to more closely achieve this objective. Customized scans have been programmed for a Q Orbitrap instrument. Multiple nonadjacent mass range segments are sequentially collected (cut out) by the quadrupole. These combined mass ranges undergo fragmentation, and the resulting product ions are analyzed as a whole by the Orbitrap analyzer. The systematical variation of the mass range segments (nested design) permits the mathematical assignment of the observed product ions within a narrow precursor mass range. The proposed approach allows the use of mass windows that are narrower than those in conventional DIA (SWATH). A unique aspect of the proposed approach is the fact that halving the mass window width requires the addition of only a single multiplexed scan. This is different from conventional DIA, which requires the number of mass windows to be doubled in order to achieve the same objective. This paper shows that for a given cycle time, the proposed nested DIA technique produces significantly less chimeric product ion spectra than conventional DIA. However, further improvements from the programming, and most likely the hardware side, are still required in order to achieve the aim of comprehensive MS/MS. Graphical Abstract Schematic of nested design. PMID:27188447

  2. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  3. Air leakage of newly instaled residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    Weidt, J.; Weidt, J.

    1980-06-01

    The air-leakage characteristics of five major window designs were measured in a field survey conducted in Twin Cities, Minnesota. A total of 192 windows (16 manufacturers) were tested at 58 sites representing a cross-section of single-family homes, townhouses, low- and high-rise apartments, and condominiums. Air-leakage measurements of the installed windows were compared with the current standard used by industry and government of 0.50 ft/sup 3//min/linear ft of crack. Other parameters studied were: effect of sash and frame material, effect of leakage between window frame and wall, differences among the product lines of a single manufacturer and between manufacturers, effect of installation practices, effect of cold weather on performance, change in performance over time for older windows, and performance of fixed glazing. Based on industry and government standards, 40% of all windows tested showed air-leakage characteristics higher than the 0.50 cfm/lfc standard, and 60% exceeded manufacturers' specifications for performance which in some cases were lower than the general industry standard. Analysis of the impact of various parameters on air-leakage performance showed that the operational design of the window was the most critical determinant although the ranking changes if performance is expressed in cfm/unit area or cfm/opening area. Air leakage was measured using a portable pressurization chamber. Smoke pencils, thermographic techniques and extensive photographic documentation provided additional data as to the location and cause of air leakage problems.

  4. Challenger Center's Window on the Universe Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Goldstein, J.; Livengood, T.; Offringa, K.; Richards, S.; Riddle, B.

    2001-05-01

    Each year, Challenger Center's Window on the Universe launches thousands of everyday people---teachers and students, parents---on a fantastic journey through our universe. Recently, for example, we visited Nogales, Arizona, where we trained 350 teachers, talked to 6000 students in classrooms, and 1500 more students and their families as part of ``Family Science Night'' presentations. Window aims to increase community involvement in science education within underserved communities throughout the United States. Challenger Center's national team works with a local team in the participating community to provide training for teachers, classroom talks, and Family Science Night presentations for the community. The national team includes at least one astronomer and one educator from Challenger Center, as well as at least two Visiting Researchers (VRs) from other institutions. (However, in Washington, D.C., there were 40 VRs from 12 different institutions who, along with the national team, visited every 6th grade classroom in the city! Window materials have become an essential part of the 6th grade curriculum in Washington, D.C.) VRs are scientists or engineers in the fields of astronomy, space science, or human space flight who are gifted at communicating their passion about research to audiences of all ages. Their research is related to the topics covered in the Window educational modules, which provide the core content for Window on the Universe programming. VRs travel to Window communities during one of the Window weeks, where they visit classrooms and sometimes conduct Family Science Night presentations. Researchers from any institution are invited to participate as VRs in Window programs and showcase their research and their institution. If you or someone from your institution is interested in participating, please visit http://challenger.org/wotu/ and click on ``Find Out More.'' Window on the Universe is funded by grants from NASA's Human Exploration and Development

  5. X-ray windows for spaceborne detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viitanen, Veli-Pekka; Nenonen, Seppo; Partanen, Panu; Sipila, Heikki; Mutikainen, Risto

    1992-10-01

    Several types of ultrathin entrance windows have been developed for applications in spaceborne X-ray instruments. Active area diameters up to 140 mm have been achieved. The latest windows developed have a transmission of more than 20 percent at B K-alpha and more than 40 percent at N K-alpha. A new gas block layer type utilizing aluminum nitride has been developed, as well as semitransparent support structures for the membranes. The effects of pressure-induced strain, radiation and atomic oxygen corrosion on the gas leak properties of the windows has been studied.

  6. Implementing Boot Control for Windows Vista

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashino, Yuki; Fujita, Keisuke; Furusawa, Maiko; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Sasaki, Ryoichi

    A digital forensic logging system must prevent the booting of unauthorized programs and the modification of evidence. Our previous research developed Dig-Force2, a boot control system for Windows XP platforms that employs API hooking and a trusted platform module. However, Dig-Force2 cannot be used for Windows Vista systems because the hooked API cannot monitor booting programs in user accounts. This paper describes an enhanced version of Dig-Force2, which uses a TPM and a white list to provide boot control functionality for Windows Vista systems. In addition, the paper presents the results of security and performance evaluations of the boot control system.

  7. Apollo experience report: Spacecraft structural windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pigg, O. E.; Weiss, S. P.

    1973-01-01

    The window structural design and verification experience is presented for the Apollo command and lunar modules. This report presents window design philosophy, design criteria, hardware description, and qualification and acceptance test programs and discusses the problems encountered and solutions developed in these areas. The structural characteristics of glass are not generally well understood by designers. The optics and instrument glass covers were not considered to be structural components and thus were not normally subjected to the design, qualification, and acceptance standards necessary to preclude failures. These two factors contributed significantly to window problems on both Apollo spacecraft.

  8. DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS. WINDOWS AND WINDOW FRAMES REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. DETAIL VIEW, WEST VENETIAN WINDOW IN SOUTH WALL. (NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, WEST VENETIAN WINDOW IN SOUTH WALL. (NOTE THE IRON BARS ON THE CELLAR WINDOW BELOW. THIS WINDOW LETS ONTO WHAT WAS LIKELY THE ESTATE OFFICE DURING THE HAMILTONIAN RESIDENCY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  11. Demonstration of the Performance of Highly Insulating (R-5) Windows in a Matched Pair of Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-12-05

    Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home’s windows has the potential to significantly improve the home’s overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high-quality installation will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the building envelope, decreasing infiltration and thus contributing to reduced heat transmission through building envelope. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. In addition to improvements in energy efficiency, highly insulating windows can have important impacts on occupant comfort by minimizing or eliminating the cold draft many homeowners experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably cooler than the room air temperature. Energy efficiency measures, such as highly insulating windows, also have the potential to decrease peak energy use in a home, which can lead to measurable peak load decreases for a utility service territory if implemented on a large scale. High-performance windows now feature triple-pane glass, double low-e coatings, and vinyl insulated frames to achieve U-factors as low as 0.2 , as compared to double-pane clear glass windows with a U-factor of 0.67, which are common in existing homes across the United States. The highly insulating windows (as they will be referred to in this document) are now available from several manufacturers and show promise to yield considerable energy savings and thermal comfort improvements in homes.

  12. High-efficiency nanostructured window GaAs solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Kang, Yangsen; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Cui, Yi; Harris, James S

    2013-10-01

    Nanostructures have been widely used in solar cells due to their extraordinary optical properties. In most nanostructured cells, high short circuit current has been obtained due to enhanced light absorption. However, most of them suffer from lowered open circuit voltage and fill factor. One of the main challenges is formation of good junction and electrical contact. In particular, nanostructures in GaAs only have shown unsatisfactory performances (below 5% in energy conversion efficiency) which cannot match their ideal material properties and the record photovoltaic performances in industry. Here we demonstrate a completely new design for nanostructured solar cells that combines nanostructured window layer, metal mesa bar contact with small area, high quality planar junction. In this way, we not only keep the advanced optical properties of nanostructures such as broadband and wide angle antireflection, but also minimize its negative impact on electrical properties. High light absorption, efficient carrier collection, leakage elimination, and good lateral conductance can be simultaneously obtained. A nanostructured window cell using GaAs junction and AlGaAs nanocone window demonstrates 17% energy conversion efficiency and 0.982 V high open circuit voltage. PMID:24021024

  13. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to the earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a delta V penalty. Usually, because of the delta V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: 1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO); 4) Two impulsive maneuvers form LEO; and 5) Three impulsive maneuvers form LEO. The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric data

  14. Human Exploration Missions Study Launch Window from Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    2001-01-01

    The determination of orbital launch window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a Delta(V) penalty. Usually, because of the Delta(V) penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (3) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (4) One impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), (5) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric

  15. MANAGING LARGE DATABASES WITH CUSTOMIZED SAS WINDOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the principles of database management through customized windows using SAS/AF, particularly PROC BUILD, to invoke interactive and batch processing of data entry, editing, updating, automatic report generation, and custom report generation functions, including...

  16. Large temporal window contrast measurement using optical parametric amplification and low-sensitivity detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Rahul C; Johnson, Randall P; Shimada, Tsutomu; Hegelich, Bjorn M

    2008-01-01

    To address few-shot pulse contrast measurement, we present a correlator coupling the high gain of an optical parametric amplification scheme with large pulse tilt. This combination enables a low sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) to observe features in the pulse intensity within a 50 ps single-shot window with inter-window dynamic range > 10{sup 7} and < 0.5 mJ input energy. Partitioning of the single window with optical densities to boost the CCD dynamic range is considered.

  17. [Analyse Output Specurum in Miniature Transmission X-Ray Tube of Aluminum Window and Silver Target by MC Simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ge, Liang-quan; Lu, Zhen-rui; Luo, Yao-yao; Zhao, Jian-kun; Chen, Shuang

    2015-10-01

    The miniature transmission X-ray tube is widely used in energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA). The miniature transmission X-ray tube with a small, low power consumption, X-ray emission efficiency that can be made the excitation source of handheld X-ray energy dispersive fluorescence analyzer. Beryllium (Be) is the most commonly used X-ray window material. But beryllium is expensive and toxic. At the same time set filtering window by aluminum (Al) to reducing low-energy scattering rays. This paper be adopted Al for exit window material of miniature transmission X-ray tube, achieve high-energy rays transmission and low-energy scattered radiation shielding, at the same time reduce production cost and difficulty. The present paper simulate the X-ray tube output spectrum of silver (Ag) target and aluminum window with different thickness by MCNP5. We consider the X-ray of low energy part is completely shielded when aluminum windows thickness is greater than 1.5 mm. We can conclude that 2 μm and 0.8 mm are the best combination of target thickness and aluminum windows through comparative analysis of existing research results. Then we can get flux of high energy part is big and low energy part is small when the target is 2 μm thick Ag and the window is 0.8 mm thick Al. PMID:26904839

  18. Effects of Cell Windows on TwinSol Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, Kimmy

    2016-04-01

    In order to study reactions with unstable nuclei, radioactive-ion beams must be used. One method for producing radioactive beams is the TwinSol experimental setup at the University of Notre Dame. At TwinSol, stable and unstable isotope beams bombard a gas target, where one atmosphere of gas must be confined from the surrounding vacuum. Thin foil windows are used to contain the gas in the cell. In order to optimize the quality of secondary beams from TwinSol, it is necessary to understand and minimize the effects of energy loss and straggling in the windows. This work is the beginning of a process to improve the TwinSol design so that secondary beams produced with heavier ions such as Oxygen, Fluorine, and Neon can be pursued.

  19. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1979-12-07

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  20. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Paul R.; Shapira, Hanna B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  1. Polarization gating of high harmonic generation in the water window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Yin, Yanchun; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2016-06-01

    We implement the polarization gating (PG) technique with a two-cycle, 1.7 μm driving field to generate an attosecond supercontinuum extending to the water window spectral region. The ellipticity dependence of the high harmonic yield over a photon energy range much broader than previous work is measured and compared with a semi-classical model. When PG is applied, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) is swept to study its influence on the continuum generation. PG with one-cycle (5.7 fs) and two-cycle (11.3 fs) delay are tested, and both give continuous spectra spanning from 50 to 450 eV under certain CEP values, strongly indicating the generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the water window region.

  2. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  3. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  4. Motion-blurred star acquisition method of the star tracker under high dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2013-08-26

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices used in spacecraft due to its extremely high accuracy. However, high dynamic performance is still one of its constraints. Smearing appears, making it more difficult to distinguish the energy dispersive star point from the noise. An effective star acquisition approach for motion-blurred star image is proposed in this work. The correlation filter and mathematical morphology algorithm is combined to enhance the signal energy and evaluate slowly varying background noise. The star point can be separated from most types of noise in this manner, making extraction and recognition easier. Partial image differentiation is then utilized to obtain the motion parameters from only one image of the star tracker based on the above process. Considering the motion model, the reference window is adopted to perform centroid determination. Star acquisition results of real on-orbit star images and laboratory validation experiments demonstrate that the method described in this work is effective and the dynamic performance of the star tracker could be improved along with more identified stars and guaranteed position accuracy of the star point. PMID:24105556

  5. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  6. Noise Transmission Characteristics of Damped Plexiglas Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    2002-01-01

    Most general aviation aircraft utilize single layer plexiglas material for the windshield and side windows. Adding noise control treatments to transparent panels is a challenging problem. In this paper, damped plexiglas windows are evaluated for replacement of conventional windows in general aviation aircraft to reduce the structure-borne and airborne noise transmitted into the interior. In contrast to conventional solid windows, the damped plexiglas window panels are fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Results from acoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility are used to compare different designs of the damped plexiglas panels with solid windows of the same nominal thickness. Comparisons of the solid and damped plexiglas panels show reductions in the radiated sound power of up to 8 dB at low frequency resonances and as large as 4.5 dB over a 4000 Hz bandwidth. The weight of the viscoelastic treatment was approximately 1% of the panel mass. Preliminary FEM/BEM modeling shows good agreement with experimental results for radiated sound power.

  7. Highly transparent light-harvesting window film.

    PubMed

    Cocilovo, Byron; Hashimura, Aki; Tweet, Douglas J; Voutsas, Tolis; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-10-20

    We have simulated unique textured window films that capture solar radiation without compromising the window's transparency by scattering infrared light toward photovoltaic strips located at the edges of the window. These films are ideal for powering electrochromic glass, which is difficult to install as each window requires its own power source. Our most promising design consists of an embedded array of 35° cones coated with a five-layer SiO2-Ag stack that was simulated to direct 1.4% of the incident light toward the edges and generate 1 W of power under a collimated 1000  W/m2 AM1.5G source at 60° and an average of 0.5 W over a full year when applied to a 1  m×1  m window. The internal visible transmittance of the window with the applied film is 95% at normal incidence, and remains above 85% for viewing angles up to 60°. The haze is 0.6% at normal incidence and 3.9% at 60°. PMID:26560389

  8. Dust adhesion on Viking lander camera window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of dust impingement on a duplicate Viking Lander camera window indicated the possibility of window obscuration after several days of exposure even at low dust concentration levels. As a result the following corrective measures were recommended: (1) The clearance between the housing surface and the camera post should be eliminated by using an appropriately designed plastic skirt: (2) The three horizontal ledges below the window inside the cavity act as bases for pile-up of dust that slides down the window surface; they should be replaced by a single inclined plane down which the dust will slide and fall out on the ground: (3) Adhered dust on the window surface can be removed by high pressure CO2 jets directed down against the window; the amount of CO2 gas needed for the entire mission can be carried in a 3 1/2-inch diameter sphere equipped with a remotely programable valve. These measures were incorporated in the design of the lander camera system. The continued high quality of photographs transmitted from the Viking spacecraft several months after landing attests to their effectiveness.

  9. WINDOW 4.0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  10. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  11. 48 CFR 952.227-13 - Patent rights-acquisition by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent rights-acquisition by the Government. 952.227-13 Section 952.227-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.227-13 Patent rights—acquisition by...

  12. 48 CFR 952.227-13 - Patent rights-acquisition by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent rights-acquisition by the Government. 952.227-13 Section 952.227-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.227-13 Patent rights—acquisition by...

  13. 48 CFR 927.402 - Acquisition and use of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition and use of technical data. 927.402 Section 927.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.402 Acquisition...

  14. 48 CFR 927.402 - Acquisition and use of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition and use of technical data. 927.402 Section 927.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.402 Acquisition...

  15. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  16. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  17. Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-05-31

    This study examines the performance of exterior and interior low-e storm panels with a controlled whole home experimental design using PNNL's Lab Homes. Summing the estimated annual average heating and cooling savings, the installation of low-e storm panels resulted in approximately 10% annual energy savings. The results of the experiment will be used to determine and validate performance of low-e storm windows over double pane clear glass windows in a whole home setting.

  18. Acquisition signal transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An encoded information transmitter which transmits a radio frequency carrier that is amplitude modulated by a constant frequency waveform and thereafter amplitude modulated by a predetermined encoded waveform, the constant frequency waveform modulated carrier constituting an acquisition signal and the encoded waveform modulated carrier constituting an information bearing signal, the acquisition signal providing enhanced signal acquisition and interference rejection favoring the information bearing signal. One specific application for this transmitter is as a distress transmitter where a conventional, legislated audio tone modulated signal is transmitted followed first by the acquisition signal and then the information bearing signal, the information bearing signal being encoded with, among other things, vehicle identification data. The acquistion signal enables a receiver to acquire the information bearing signal where the received signal is low and/or where the received signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio in an environment where there are multiple signals in the same frequency band as the information bearing signal.

  19. High Speed data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Peter S.

    1998-02-01

    A general introduction to high Speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E781) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab.

  20. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  1. Rx for Acquisitions Hangups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huleatt, Richard S.

    1973-01-01

    A system of ordering library materials efficiently, quickly and at low cost is presented. The procedure bypasses purchasing departments and helps reduce acquisitions time by authorizing direct ordering by the library. Forms and procedures used are discussed. (1 reference) (DH)

  2. FOS Target Acquisition Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha

    1994-01-01

    FOS onboard target acquisition software capabilities will be verified by this test -- point source binary, point source firmware, point source peak-up, wfpc2 assisted realtime, point source peak-down, taled assisted binary, taled assisted firmware, and nth star binary modes. The primary modes are tested 3 times to determine repeatability. This test is the only test that will verify mode-to-mode acquisition offsets. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system for aerodynamic flow field around the optical window.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chenglong; Chen, Shouqian; Zhang, Wang; Ren, Jinhan; Li, Chong; Pang, Hongjun; Wang, Honghao; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zou, Huiying; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-11-20

    We investigated the influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical window on the imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The density distribution of flow fields around three typical optical windows, including a spherical window, an ellipsoidal window, and a paraboloidal window, were calculated by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray-tracing program was used to simulate the optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the entrance pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the imaging quality of the airborne optical system was affected by the shape of the optical window and angle of attack of the aircraft. PMID:24513738

  4. Snap-shot multispectral imaging of vascular dynamics in a mouse window-chamber model.

    PubMed

    Hendargo, Hansford C; Zhao, Yulin; Allenby, Taylor; Palmer, Gregory M

    2015-07-15

    Understanding tumor vascular dynamics through parameters such as blood flow and oxygenation can yield insight into tumor biology and therapeutic response. Hyperspectral microscopy enables optical detection of hemoglobin saturation or blood velocity by either acquiring multiple images that are spectrally distinct or by rapid acquisition at a single wavelength over time. However, the serial acquisition of spectral images over time prevents the ability to monitor rapid changes in vascular dynamics and cannot monitor concurrent changes in oxygenation and flow rate. Here, we introduce snap shot-multispectral imaging (SS-MSI) for use in imaging the microvasculature in mouse dorsal-window chambers. By spatially multiplexing spectral information into a single-image capture, simultaneous acquisition of dynamic hemoglobin saturation and blood flow over time is achieved down to the capillary level and provides an improved optical tool for monitoring rapid in vivo vascular dynamics. PMID:26176452

  5. Snap-shot multispectral imaging of vascular dynamics in a mouse window chamber model

    PubMed Central

    Hendargo, Hansford C.; Zhao, Yulin; Allenby, Taylor; Palmer, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding tumor vascular dynamics through parameters such as blood flow and oxygenation can yield insight into tumor biology and therapeutic response. Hyperspectral microscopy enables optical detection of hemoglobin saturation or blood velocity by either acquiring multiple images that are spectrally distinct or by rapid acquisition at a single wavelength over time. However, the serial acquisition of spectral images over time prevents the ability to monitor rapid changes in vascular dynamics and cannot monitor concurrent changes in oxygenation and flow rate. Here, we introduce snap shot-multispectral imaging (SS-MSI) for use in imaging the microvasculature in mouse dorsal window chambers. By spatially multiplexing spectral information into a single image capture, simultaneous acquisition of dynamic hemoglobin saturation and blood flow over time is achieved down to the capillary level and provides an improved optical tool for monitoring rapid in vivo vascular dynamics. PMID:26176452

  6. Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system: ORCAS.

    PubMed

    Naivar, Mark A; Parson, Jimmie D; Wilder, Mark E; Habbersett, Robert C; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry; Nolan, John P; Graves, Steven W; Martin, John C; Jett, James H; Freyer, James P

    2007-11-01

    A digital signal processing (DSP)-based digital data acquisition system has been developed to support novel flow cytometry efforts. The system flexibility includes how it detects, captures, and processes event data. Custom data capture boards utilizing analog to digital converters (ADCs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) detect events and capture correlated event data. A commercial DSP board processes the captured data and sends the results over the IEEE 1394 bus to the host computer that provides a user interface for acquisition, display, analysis, and storage. The system collects list mode data, correlated pulse shapes, or streaming data from a variety of detector types using Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows host computers. It extracts pulse features not found on commercial systems with excellent sensitivity and linearity over a wide dynamic range. List mode data are saved in FCS 3.0 formatted files while streaming or correlated waveform data are saved in custom format files for postprocessing. Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system is compact, scaleable, flexible, and modular. Programmable feature extraction algorithms have exciting possibilities for both new and existing applications. The recent availability of a commercial data capture board will enable general availability of similar systems. PMID:17680705

  7. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  8. Effect of the control of global planarity of intermetal dielectric layers on the lithographic process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keysar, Shani; Markowitz, Leah; Ben-Gigi, Corin; Tweg, Rama; Margalit-Ilovich, Ayelet; Kepten, Avishai; Wachs, Amir; Shaviv, Roey

    1999-06-01

    The sensitivity of lithographic process window to global planarity of the inter metal dielectric layers is established in this work. The inter metal dielectric layers, between the metal layers, were prepared by utilizing the H2O2/SiH4 chemistry known as the 'Advanced Planarity Layer (APL)'. Four degrees of global planarity were tested within the APL process window, utilizing different H2O2 stabilization pressures. SEM cross sections were used to determine the degree of planarity in the CMOS product and at lithographic test structures. The lithographic process window and the effect of the stepper leveling system were defined for typical high and low topographies. The results how a strong link between the lithographic process window to degree of global planarity of the APL. Good global planarity enlarged depth of focus and energy latitude, allowing a wider lithographic process window. Also, in cases of improved APL planarity, the stepper leveling system had only a limited contribution to a lithographic process window. This control over the global planarity of the inter metal dielectric layers and the wide lithographic process window that results eliminate the need for CMP at 0.5 (mu) technology.

  9. Let`s talk: Acquisitions and communications

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This pamphlet describes the Department of Energy`s policies and practices to strengthen effective communications within the Department and continue the Department`s outreach efforts to its current and prospective contractors. Also, the pamphlet summarizes the Department`s approaches to providing general information, prospective acquisition information, communications during the acquisition process, and communications strategies. In creating this pamphlet, not only have the Department`s policies been delineated, but, good business practices have been liberally borrowed from other sources outside the Department. A bibliography is included at the end of this pamphlet which identifies all sources.

  10. Laser-induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John H.; Hurst, Patricia A.; Heggins, Dwight D.; Steele, William A.; Bumpas, Stanley E.

    1997-05-01

    Laser induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large, fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in high-fluence positions on the Nova and Beamlet lasers. In nearly all cases damage occurs on the vacuum side of the lens. The damage can lead to catastrophic crack growth if the flaw size exceeds the critical flaw size for SiO2. If the elastic stored energy in the lens in high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces resulting in an implosion. The consequences of such an implosion can be severe, particularly for large vacuum systems. Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: (1) the elastic stored energy, (2) the ratio of the window thickness to flaw depth and (3) secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments have ben carried our on 15-cm diameter fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. The results of these experiments, combined with data from window failures on Beamlet and Nova have been sued to develop design criteria for a 'fail-safe' lens. Specifically the window must be made thick enough such that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi and the corresponding ratio of the thickness to critical flaw size is less than 6. Under these conditions a properly mounted window, upon failure, will break into only tow pieces and will not implode. One caveat to these design criteria is that the air leak through the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments 'lock' in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase leading to further crack growth.

  11. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  12. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Chad L. Pope; Wade W. Scates; J. Todd Taylor

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  13. "Broken windows" and the risk of gonorrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D; Spear, S; Scribner, R; Kissinger, P; Mason, K; Wildgen, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationships between neighborhood conditions and gonorrhea. METHODS: We assessed 55 block groups by rating housing and street conditions. We mapped all cases of gonorrhea between 1994 and 1996 and calculated aggregated case rates by block group. We obtained public school inspection reports and assigned findings to the block groups served by the neighborhood schools. A "broken windows" index measured housing quality, abandoned cars, graffiti, trash, and public school deterioration. Using data from the 1990 census and 1995 updates, we determined the association between "broken windows," demographic characteristics, and gonorrhea rates. RESULTS: The broken windows index explained more of the variance in gonorrhea rates than did a poverty index measuring income, unemployment, and low education. In high-poverty neighborhoods, block groups with high broken windows scores had significantly higher gonorrhea rates than block groups with low broken windows scores (46.6 per 1000 vs 25.8 per 1000; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The robust association of deteriorated physical conditions of local neighborhoods with gonorrhea rates, independent of poverty, merits an intervention trial to test whether the environment has a causal role in influencing high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:10667184

  14. X-Windows Socket Widget Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Socket Widget Class ("Class" is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network connections for graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. UNIX Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) socket programming libraries require many method calls to configure, operate, and destroy sockets. Most X Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Socket Widget Class encapsulates UNIX TCP/IP socket-management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X Windows GUI programs can treat one or more network socket instances in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program sockets. Wrapping ISP socket programming libraries inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat a network interface as though it were a GUI.

  15. Damped Windows for Aircraft Interior Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2004-01-01

    Windows are a significant path for structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission into aircraft. To improve the acoustical performance, damped windows were fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. In this paper, numerical and experimental results are used to evaluate the acoustic benefits of damped windows. Tests were performed in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to measure the transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation and radiated sound power for point force excitation. Comparisons between uniform and damped plexiglas windows showed increased transmission loss of 6 dB at the first natural frequency, 6 dB at coincidence, and 4.5 dB over a 50 to 4k Hz range. Radiated sound power was reduced up to 7 dB at the lower natural frequencies and 3.7 dB over a 1000 Hz bandwidth. Numerical models are presented for the prediction of radiated sound power for point force excitation and transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation. Radiated sound power and transmission loss predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. A parametric study is presented that evaluates the optimum configuration of the damped plexiglas windows for reducing the radiated sound power.

  16. Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel, casements. Concrete stoop, entry overhang and pipe rail detail also illustrated. Building 36, facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Raised panel door front entry also illustrated. Ground floor detail Building 19, facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Broad overhanging eave also illustrated. Second story detail. Building 13, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  20. Comparison of residential window distributions and effects of mass and insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hannifan, M.; Christensen, C.; Perkins, R.

    1981-07-01

    The energy requirements and comfort implications of various window distributions and window areas (representing conventional, sun-tempered, and passive solar designs) are investigated for single-family residences in Albuquerque, NM, Denver, CO, and Madison, WI. Three distinct mass levels ranging from lightweight to heavyweight interiors and three distinct insulation levels, including energy-conserving, night-insulated, and superinsulated cases, are analyzed. Energy requirements are reported for residences with electric resistance heating and mechanical air conditioning. Comfort conditions reported are based on interior average air temperatures and mean-squared errors.

  1. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  2. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  3. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  4. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  5. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  6. Design of an Aluminum Proton Beam Window for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, Jim G; McClintock, David A

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum proton beam window design is being considered at the Spallation Neutron Source primarily to increase the lifetime of the window, with secondary advantages of higher beam transport efficiency and lower activation. The window separates the core vessel, the location of the mercury target, from the vacuum of the accelerator, while withstanding the pass through of a proton beam of up to 2 MW with 1.0 GeV proton energy. The current aluminum alloy being investigated for the window material is 6061-T651 due to its combination of high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good resistance to aqueous corrosion, as well as demonstrated dependability in previous high-radiation environments. The window design will feature a thin plate with closely spaced cross drilled cooling holes. An analytical approach was used to optimize the dimensions of the window before finite element analysis was used to simulate temperature profiles and stress fields resulting from thermal and static pressure loading. The resulting maximum temperature of 60 C and Von Mises stress of 71 MPa are very low compared to allowables for Al 6061-T651. A significant challenge in designing an aluminum proton beam window for SNS is integrating the window with the current 316L SS shield blocks. Explosion bonding was chosen as a joining technique because of the large bonding area required. A test program has commenced to prove explosion bonding can produce a robust vacuum joint. Pending successful explosion bond testing, the aluminum proton beam window design will be proven acceptable for service in the Spallation Neutron Source.

  7. Combined Pressure and Thermal Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svartstrom, Kirk Nils (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a vehicle comprising a pressure and thermal window pane, a seal system, and a retainer system. The pressure and thermal window pane may be configured to provide desired pressure protection and desired thermal protection when exposed to an environment around the vehicle during operation of the vehicle. The pressure and thermal window pane may have a desired ductility. The seal system may be configured to contact the pressure and thermal window pane to seal the pressure and thermal window pane. The retainer system may be configured to hold the seal system and the pressure and thermal window pane.

  8. A simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, M.; White, M. R.

    1980-03-01

    Window dirtiness is an obvious result of air pollution. The hazemeter described is a cheap and proven device for assessing two optical factors related to this. The value of measuring direct transmission loss is immediately apparent. The value of the haze or scattered light factor is not so obvious. It affects the total light passed through the window and was shown to have correlations with some of the psychological tests of which a brief mention has been made. The potential of this instrument can be extended to the design of more sophisticated analyses of the effect of pollution on windows; for example, the correlation of optical factors with deposit gauge and rain gauge readings, spectral distributions (say at twilight) and the effect on drivers of dirty windscreens.

  9. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  10. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  11. Radcalc for Windows. Volume 2: Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-09-27

    Radcalc for Windows is a user-friendly menu-driven Windows-compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive waste using NRC-accepted methodology. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as radioactive, Type A or Type B, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled, and fissile excepted using DOT definitions and methodologies, as outlined in 49 CFR Subchapter C. The code has undergone extensive testing and validation. Volume I is a User`s Guide, and Volume II is the Technical Manual for Radcalc for Windows

  12. High-Temperature Optical Window Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeloffs, Norman; Taranto, Nick

    1995-01-01

    A high-temperature optical window is essential to the optical diagnostics of high-temperature combustion rigs. Laser Doppler velocimetry, schlieren photography, light sheet visualization, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy are a few of the tests that require optically clear access to the combustor flow stream. A design was developed for a high-temperature window that could withstand the severe environment of the NASA Lewis 3200 F Lean Premixed Prevaporized (LPP) Flame Tube Test Rig. The development of this design was both time consuming and costly. This report documents the design process and the lessons learned, in an effort to reduce the cost of developing future designs for high-temperature optical windows.

  13. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  14. Integral window hermetic fiber optic components

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  15. Single-agent parallel window search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powley, Curt; Korf, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel window search is applied to single-agent problems by having different processes simultaneously perform iterations of Iterative-Deepening-A(asterisk) (IDA-asterisk) on the same problem but with different cost thresholds. This approach is limited by the time to perform the goal iteration. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors consider node ordering. They discuss how global node ordering by minimum h among nodes with equal f = g + h values can reduce the time complexity of serial IDA-asterisk by reducing the time to perform the iterations prior to the goal iteration. Finally, the two ideas of parallel window search and node ordering are combined to eliminate the weaknesses of each approach while retaining the strengths. The resulting approach, called simply parallel window search, can be used to find a near-optimal solution quickly, improve the solution until it is optimal, and then finally guarantee optimality, depending on the amount of time available.

  16. Near Real-Time Gyrotron Data Streaming and Data Acquisition with ns Resolution on the DIII-D ECH System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrezan, A. C.; Ponce, D.; Gorelov, Y. A.; Cengher, M.; Lohr, J.

    2014-10-01

    As part of the expansion and upgrade of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) systen on DIII-D, a new data acquisition setup has been implemented to acquire and display waveform data from all gyrotrons in near real time with high time resolution. The data acquisition for each gyrotron system is based on a fast digitizer with 8 channels running at 2 MS/s/channel and a resolution of 14 bits. This enables the operator to monitor all gyrotron-relevant variables as well as fast diagnostic signals such as window arcs. The data are transferred to a local computer through a 132 MB/s PCI bus, and then are streamed to the ECH operator and to a local network attached storage using 1 GB Ethernet links. The data are displayed to the ECH operator by means of a graphical user interface developed in LabVIEW, replacing physical scopes. Acquired gyrotron data are accessible at DIII-D through a local database (PTDATA) connected to the ECH data acquisition system by an Ethernet line, a configuration that eliminates the need for legacy CAMAC hardware in the data link. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  17. Optimizing the performance of bandpass photon detectors for inverse photoemission: Transmission of alkaline earth fluoride window crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, Christian Schmidt, Anke B.; Donath, Markus

    2015-08-15

    Bandpass photon detectors are widely used in inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode at energies in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range. The energy bandpass of gas-filled counters is usually formed by the ionization threshold of the counting gas as high-pass filter and the transmission cutoff of an alkaline earth fluoride window as low-pass filter. The transmission characteristics of the window have, therefore, a crucial impact on the detector performance. We present transmission measurements in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range for alkaline earth fluoride window crystals in the vicinity of the transmission cutoff as a function of crystal purity, surface finish, surface contamination, temperature, and thickness. Our findings reveal that the transmission characteristics of the window crystal and, thus, the detector performance depend critically on these window parameters.

  18. Eco-innovation Strategies in the Construction Sector: Impacts on Nanotech Innovation in the Window Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. M.; Molin, M.

    In this paper we examine the strategic response of the construction companies to the climate agenda and the emerging nanotechnologies. A case is brought on the Danish window industry. The construction industry has for a long time been considered little innovative and this also goes for the window section. It seems that a combination of an intensified focus on climate issues and the potential of nanotechnology is invoking a new innovation potential and pressure in the window industry. Specifically we identify a strategic shift among the major players towards more systemic innovations that places the window as a part of the wider energy system of the house, a trend that isn’t driven by but could be reinforced by the new nanotech opportunities that so far only play a limited strategic role.

  19. Measurement of the solar heat gain coefficient and U value of windows with insect screens

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, A.; Dubrous, F.M.; Harrison, S.

    1999-07-01

    Energy ratings are currently being used in a number of countries to assist in the selection of windows and doors based on energy performance. Developed for simple comparison purposes, these rating numbers do not take into account window removable attachments such as insect screens that are, nevertheless, widely used. Research was carried out to assess the effect of insect screens on the heat gains and losses of windows. The work reported in this paper deals with the effect of one screen type on the performance of a base-case, double-glazed window. Using an indoor solar simulator facility, measurements of the window solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and U value were made for different screen attachment configurations and climatic conditions. Results with the sample window tested indicate that insect screens placed on the outdoor side can reduce its SHGC by 46% with only a 7% reduction in its U value (0.19 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C), and that insect screens placed on the indoor side can reduce its SHGC by 15% while reducing its U value by 14% (0.38 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C).

  20. X-Band Acquisition Aid Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Strain, Martha M.; Wert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The X-band Acquisition Aid (AAP) software is a low-cost acquisition aid for the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas, and is used while acquiring a spacecraft shortly after it has launched. When enabled, the acquisition aid provides corrections to the antenna-predicted trajectory of the spacecraft to compensate for the variations that occur during the actual launch. The AAP software also provides the corrections to the antenna-predicted trajectory to the navigation team that uses the corrections to refine their model of the spacecraft in order to produce improved antenna-predicted trajectories for each spacecraft that passes over each complex. The software provides an automated Acquisition Aid receiver calibration, and provides graphical displays to the operator and remote viewers via an Ethernet connection. It has a Web server, and the remote workstations use the Firefox browser to view the displays. At any given time, only one operator can control any particular display in order to avoid conflicting commands from more than one control point. The configuration and control is accomplished solely via the graphical displays. The operator does not have to remember any commands. Only a few configuration parameters need to be changed, and can be saved to the appropriate spacecraft-dependent configuration file on the AAP s hard disk. AAP automates the calibration sequence by first commanding the antenna to the correct position, starting the receiver calibration sequence, and then providing the operator with the option of accepting or rejecting the new calibration parameters. If accepted, the new parameters are stored in the appropriate spacecraft-dependent configuration file. The calibration can be performed on the Sun, greatly expanding the window of opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft traditionally used for calibration is in view typically twice per day, and only for about ten minutes each pass.