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Sample records for acquisition mode steam

  1. Ultrashort-TE stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) improves the quantification of lipids and fatty acid chain unsaturation in the human liver at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Gajdošík, Martin; Chadzynski, Grzegorz L; Hangel, Gilbert; Mlynárik, Vladimír; Chmelík, Marek; Valkovič, Ladislav; Bogner, Wolfgang; Pohmann, Rolf; Scheffler, Klaus; Trattnig, Siegfried; Krššák, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Ultrahigh-field, whole-body MR systems increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and improve the spectral resolution. Sequences with a short TE allow fast signal acquisition with low signal loss as a result of spin-spin relaxation. This is of particular importance in the liver for the precise quantification of the hepatocellular content of lipids (HCL). In this study, we introduce a spoiler Gradient-switching Ultrashort STimulated Echo AcqUisition (GUSTEAU) sequence, which is a modified version of a stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence, with a minimum TE of 6 ms. With the high spectral resolution at 7 T, the efficient elimination of water sidebands and the post-processing suppression of the water signal, we estimated the composition of fatty acids (FAs) via the detection of the olefinic lipid resonance and calculated the unsaturation index (UI) of hepatic FAs. The performance of the GUSTEAU sequence for the assessment of UI was validated against oil samples and provided excellent results in agreement with the data reported in the literature. When measuring HCL with GUSTEAU in 10 healthy volunteers, there was a high correlation between the results obtained at 7 and 3 T (R(2) = 0.961). The test-retest measurements yielded low coefficients of variation for HCL (4 ± 3%) and UI (11 ± 8%) when measured with the GUSTEAU sequence at 7 T. A negative correlation was found between UI and HCL (n = 10; p < 0.033). The ultrashort TE MRS sequence (GUSTEAU; TE = 6 ms) provided high repeatability for the assessment of HCL. The improved spectral resolution at 7 T with the elimination of water sidebands and the offline water subtraction also enabled an assessment of the unsaturation of FAs. This all highlights the potential use of this MRS acquisition scheme for studies of hepatic lipid composition in vivo. PMID:26313737

  2. An experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Results obtained from an experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode are presented. The obtained empirical dependence for calculating the power of heat exchangers operating in the steam condensation mode is presented.

  3. [The Problems of Vertical Mode Steam Sterilizers Found in National Supervision Sampling].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    This article statistically analyzes and discusses the problems in national supervision sampling of vertical mode steam sterilizers in 2014. For improving product quality, strengthening the supervision and management, it provides a reference. PMID:27066692

  4. Analysis and decision document in support of acquisition of steam supply for the Hanford 200 Area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Reilly, R.W.; Shankle, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Weakley, S.A.; Williams, T.A. ); Grant, T.F. )

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now evaluating its facility requirements in support of its cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the early findings is that the 200-Area steam plants, constructed in 1943, will not meet future space heating and process needs. Because the 200 Area will serve as the primary area for waste treatment and long-term storage, a reliable steam supply is a critical element of Hanford operations. This Analysis and Decision Document (ADD) is a preliminary review of the steam supply options available to the DOE. The ADD contains a comprehensive evaluation of the two major acquisition options: line-term versus privatization. It addresses the life-cycle costs associated with each alternative, as well as factors such as contracting requirements and the impact of market, safety, security, and regulatory issues. Specifically, this ADD documents current and future steam requirements for the 200 Area, describes alternatives available to DOE for meeting these requirements, and compares the alternatives across a number of decision criteria, including life-cycle cost. DOE has currently limited the ADD evaluation alternatives to replacing central steam plants rather than expanding the study to include alternative heat sources, such as a distributed network of boilers or heat pumps. Thirteen project alternatives were analyzed in the ADD. One of the alternatives was the rehabilitation of the existing 200-East coal-fired facility. The other twelve alternatives are combinations of (1) coal- or gas-fueled plants, (2) steam-only or cogeneration facilities, (3) primary or secondary cogeneration of electricity, and (4) public or private ownership.

  5. Modes of knowledge acquisition and retrieval in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Poznanski, Yael; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conceptualize artificial grammar learning (AGL) in terms of two orthogonal dimensions--the mode of knowledge acquisition and the mode of knowledge retrieval--as was done by Perlman and Tzelgov (2006) for sequence learning. Experiment 1 was carried out to validate our experimental task; Experiments 2-4 tested, respectively, performance in the intentional, incidental, and automatic retrieval modes, for each of the three modes of acquisition. Furthermore, signal detection theory (SDT) was used as an analytic tool, consistent with our assumption that the processing of legality-relevant information involves decisions along a continuous dimension of fluency. The results presented support the analysis of AGL in terms of the proposed dimensions. They also indicate that knowledge acquired during training may include many aspects of the presented stimuli (whole strings, relations among elements, etc.). The contribution of the various components to performance depends on both the specific instruction in the acquisition phase and the requirements of the retrieval task. PMID:20063258

  6. Steam Generator Group Project. Progress report on data acquisition/statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, P.G.; Buchanan, J.A.; McIntyre, J.M.; Hof, P.J.; Ercanbrack, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A major task of the Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) is to establish the reliability of the eddy current inservice inspections of PWR steam generator tubing, by comparing the eddy current data to the actual physical condition of the tubes via destructive analyses. This report describes the plans for the computer systems needed to acquire, store and analyze the diverse data to be collected during the project. The real-time acquisition of the baseline eddy current inspection data will be handled using a specially designed data acquisition computer system based on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/44. The data will be archived in digital form for use after the project is completed. Data base management and statistical analyses will be done on a DEC VAX-11/780. Color graphics will be heavily used to summarize the data and the results of the analyses. The report describes the data that will be taken during the project and the statistical methods that will be used to analyze the data. 7 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Performance Assessment of Single Electrode-Supported Solid Oxide Cells Operating in the Steam Electrolysis Mode

    SciTech Connect

    X. Zhang; J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien; N. Petigny

    2011-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm{sup 2} per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes ({approx}10 {mu}m thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes ({approx}1400 {mu}m thick), and modified LSM or LSCF air-side electrodes ({approx}90 {mu}m thick). The purpose of the present study is to document and compare the performance and degradation rates of these cells in the fuel cell mode and in the electrolysis mode under various operating conditions. Initial performance was documented through a series of voltage-current (VI) sweeps and AC impedance spectroscopy measurements. Degradation was determined through long-term testing, first in the fuel cell mode, then in the electrolysis mode. Results generally indicate accelerated degradation rates in the electrolysis mode compared to the fuel cell mode, possibly due to electrode delamination. The paper also includes details of an improved single-cell test apparatus developed specifically for these experiments.

  8. Experimental study of the critical mode of steam-water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulyupin, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of static pressure in the critical mode of steam-water flow from long pipes of diameter 50.2 and 100.1 mm at various distances from their outlet section. The measurements were performed at flow rates and enthalpies of the mixture characteristic of geothermal coolants. It is found that the mixture flow rates obtained experimentally significantly exceed the estimation results obtained using well-known models.

  9. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  10. Development and application of a high speed digital data acquisition technique to study steam bubble collapse using particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidl, W.D.

    1992-08-01

    The use of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method, which uses digital cameras for data acquisition, for studying high speed fluid flows is usually limited by the digital camera`s frame acquisition rate. The velocity of the fluid under study has to be limited to insure that the tracer seeds suspended in the fluid remain in the camera`s focal plane for at least two consecutive images. However, the use of digital cameras for data acquisition is desirable to simplify and expedite the data analysis process. A technique was developed which will measure fluid velocities with PIV techniques using two successive digital images and two different framing rates simultaneously. The first part of the method will measure changes which occur to the flow field at the relatively slow framing rate of 53.8 ms. The second part will measure changes to the same flow field at the relatively fast framing rate of 100 to 320 {mu}s. The effectiveness of this technique was tested by studying the collapse of steam bubbles in a subcooled tank of water, a relatively high speed phenomena. The tracer particles were recorded and velocity vectors for the fluid were obtained far from the steam bubble collapse.

  11. Development and application of a high speed digital data acquisition technique to study steam bubble collapse using particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidl, W.D.

    1992-08-01

    The use of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method, which uses digital cameras for data acquisition, for studying high speed fluid flows is usually limited by the digital camera's frame acquisition rate. The velocity of the fluid under study has to be limited to insure that the tracer seeds suspended in the fluid remain in the camera's focal plane for at least two consecutive images. However, the use of digital cameras for data acquisition is desirable to simplify and expedite the data analysis process. A technique was developed which will measure fluid velocities with PIV techniques using two successive digital images and two different framing rates simultaneously. The first part of the method will measure changes which occur to the flow field at the relatively slow framing rate of 53.8 ms. The second part will measure changes to the same flow field at the relatively fast framing rate of 100 to 320 [mu]s. The effectiveness of this technique was tested by studying the collapse of steam bubbles in a subcooled tank of water, a relatively high speed phenomena. The tracer particles were recorded and velocity vectors for the fluid were obtained far from the steam bubble collapse.

  12. A method for synchronizing an external respiratory signal with a list-mode PET acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Bruyant, P. P.; Cheze Le Rest, C.; Turzo, A.; Jarritt, P.; Carson, K.; Visvikis, D.

    2007-11-15

    A method is proposed to synchronize positron emission tomography (PET) list-mode data with an externally recorded respiratory signal in the absence of a master clock. When the respiratory signal reaches a user-defined threshold, a trigger mark is stored in the list-mode file. After the acquisition, synchronization is achieved when the stored trigger marks are superimposed on the respiratory curve to form a horizontal line over time at the user-defined threshold. Synchronization was possible and unequivocal for ten out of ten clinical studies. The list-mode acquisition actually started approximately 40 and 4 s after acquisition initiation at the user interface of the Philips Gemini and the GE DLS PET-CT systems, respectively.

  13. A Realization of Motion Acquisition System Based on Interaction Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Recently, skill preservation of an expert has been a serious problem of the medical or production fields. This paper proposes a motion acquisition and reproduction of human motion by bilateral motion control. The proposed skill preservation system is composed of two modes; acquisition mode and reproduction mode. In the acquisition mode, the control system is based on bilateral control. Since a touching motion is subject to the “law of action and reaction”, it is possible to decompose the force information into action force and reaction force by using the bilateral control. Furthermore, human motion is acquired in decoupled modal space by using the quarry matrix. The decoupled modes correspond to “moving”, “yawing”, “grasping” tasks, and so on. Thus the skilled motion by a human is easily obtained and analyzed in the modal space. In the reproduction mode, the acquired human motion is reproduced in the modal space by the interaction mode control. The proposed skill preservation system is applied for grasping motion by three fingers. As a result, both grasping force and moving position are well reproduced automatically. The experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

  14. Experimental validation of A-mode ultrasound acquisition system for computer assisted orthopaedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; De Momi, Elena; Beretta, Elisa; Cerveri, Pietro; Perona, Franco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2009-02-01

    Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) systems improve the results and the standardization of surgical interventions. Anatomical landmarks and bone surface detection is straightforward to either register the surgical space with the pre-operative imaging space and to compute biomechanical parameters for prosthesis alignment. Surface points acquisition increases the intervention invasiveness and can be influenced by the soft tissue layer interposition (7-15mm localization errors). This study is aimed at evaluating the accuracy of a custom-made A-mode ultrasound (US) system for non invasive detection of anatomical landmarks and surfaces. A-mode solutions eliminate the necessity of US images segmentation, offers real-time signal processing and requires less invasive equipment. The system consists in a single transducer US probe optically tracked, a pulser/receiver and an FPGA-based board, which is responsible for logic control command generation and for real-time signal processing and three custom-made board (signal acquisition, blanking and synchronization). We propose a new calibration method of the US system. The experimental validation was then performed measuring the length of known-shape polymethylmethacrylate boxes filled with pure water and acquiring bone surface points on a bovine bone phantom covered with soft-tissue mimicking materials. Measurement errors were computed through MR and CT images acquisitions of the phantom. Points acquisition on bone surface with the US system demonstrated lower errors (1.2mm) than standard pointer acquisition (4.2mm).

  15. APNEA list mode data acquisition and real-time event processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, R.A.; Miller, P.; Bramblett, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    The LMSC Active Passive Neutron Examinations and Assay (APNEA) Data Logger is a VME-based data acquisition system using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware with the application-specific software. It receives TTL inputs from eighty-eight {sup 3}He detector tubes and eight timing signals. Two data sets are generated concurrently for each acquisition session: (1) List Mode recording of all detector and timing signals, timestamped to 3 microsecond resolution; (2) Event Accumulations generated in real-time by counting events into short (tens of microseconds) and long (seconds) time bins following repetitive triggers. List Mode data sets can be post-processed to: (1) determine the optimum time bins for TRU assay of waste drums, (2) analyze a given data set in several ways to match different assay requirements and conditions and (3) confirm assay results by examining details of the raw data. Data Logger events are processed and timestamped by an array of 15 TMS320C40 DSPs and delivered to an embedded controller (PowerPC604) for interim disk storage. Three acquisition modes, corresponding to different trigger sources are provided. A standard network interface to a remote host system (Windows NT or SunOS) provides for system control, status, and transfer of previously acquired data. 6 figs.

  16. High-pitch spiral acquisition: a new scan mode for coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Stephan; Marwan, Mohamed; Schepis, Tiziano; Pflederer, Tobias; Bruder, Herbert; Allmendinger, Thomas; Petersilka, Martin; Anders, Katharina; Lell, Michael; Kuettner, Axel; Ropers, Dieter; Daniel, Werner G; Flohr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Coronary CT angiography allows high-quality imaging of the coronary arteries when state-of-the-art CT systems are used. However, radiation exposure has been a concern. We describe a new scan mode that uses a very high-pitch spiral acquisition, "Flash Spiral," which has been developed specifically for low-dose imaging with dual-source CT. The scan mode uses a pitch of 3.2 to acquire a spiral CT data set, while covering the entire volume of the heart in one cardiac cycle. Data acquisition is prospectively triggered by the electrocardiogram and starts in late systole to be completed within one cardiac cycle. Images are reconstructed with a temporal resolution that corresponds to one-quarter of the gantry rotation time. Throughout the data set, subsequent images are reconstructed at later time instants in the cardiac cycle. In a patient with a heart rate of 49 beats/min, the Flash Spiral scan mode was used with a first-generation dual-source CT system and allowed artifact-free visualization of the coronary arteries with a radiation exposure of 1.7 mSv for a 12-cm scan range at 120 kVp tube voltage. PMID:19332343

  17. Microstructure and fracture mode of a martensitic stainless steel steam turbine blade characterized via scanning auger microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, D.; Zaid, B.; Souami, N.; Negache, M.; Ahmed, A. Si

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure, the fracture and the resistance to pitting corrosion, in a10-2M (NaCl + Na2SO4) solution, of steam turbine blades, made of martensitic stainless steel (12% Cr), were analysed prior and after their utilization (during about 100 000 hours). The unused blades display an inter-granular fracture mode whereas a trans-granular one emerges in used blades. The SAM analysis of the fractured surfaces reveals that this change is concomitant with carbon and chromium redistribution from the grain boundaries to the grain interior. The potentiodynamic polarization curves and the SEM-EDS analysis of the pitting sites show that the used blades are less susceptible to pitting corrosion than the unused ones. These results are interpreted as a further qualitative evidence of an evolution of the microstructure leading to the formation of new precipitates.

  18. Influence of variable operating modes of a steam turbine on the growth of creep cracks in the metal of shell parts made of austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladshtein, V. I.

    2011-09-01

    Results obtained from assessing the crack resistance of type EI-612 VDP steel by testing notched cylindrical samples under the temperature and stress conditions simulating the loading of metal in shell parts in variable operating modes of a steam turbine are presented. Recommendations for conducting variable operating modes and for the time of carrying out operational checks are given taking into account the influence of cyclic loading on the growth of cracks.

  19. Online image acquisition system for wheel set measurement based on asynchronous reset mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaihua; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yixin

    2011-11-01

    The wearing degree of the wheel set is one of the main factors that influence the safety and stability of running train. Measurement of wheel set wear has significant importance to railway safety. An automatic measurement method for geometrical parameters of wheel set based on optoelectronic technique was proposed. In the method, linear structured laser light was projected on the wheel tread surface. The geometrical parameters can be deduced from the profile image. An online image acquisition system was designed based on asynchronous reset of CCD. The entire time sequence of asynchronous reset was designed. The image was acquired only when wheel moved into the designed position. Image acquisition was fulfilled by hardware interrupt mode. Quantitative relation between position accuracy and speed, timedelay error, CCD resolution and imaging region was deuced. Relation between moving blur and speed, exposure time was also decided. The measuring system was installed along the straight railway section. When the wheel set was running in a limited speed, the devices placed alone railway line can measure the geometrical parameters automatically. Position accuracy achieved 1.1mm when moving speed reached 2km/h and moving blur was limited in less than one pixel size while exposure time set to be 1/5550s. The image definition can meet the demand of real and online measurement.

  20. Performance evaluation and optimization for a newly developed digital list-mode data acquisition Compton suppression spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Keeshan, Benjamin; Mekarski, Pawel; Yi, Jing; Ungar, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    A comparative study was carried out between an analog timing and a digital list-mode data acquisition system for a Compton suppression spectrometer. The performance of both Compton suppression systems has been evaluated using the conventional, coincidence and anticoincidence spectra measured by (60)Co and (137)Cs point sources. The present study focuses on improving and optimizing the energy peak resolution and peak-to-Compton background ratios of the digital list-mode system. PMID:23497957

  1. The Assessment of Selectivity in Different Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Acquisition Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendsen, Bjorn J. A.; Wegh, Robin S.; Meijer, Thijs; Nielen, Michel W. F.

    2015-02-01

    Selectivity of the confirmation of identity in liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry using Q-Orbitrap instrumentation was assessed using different acquisition modes based on a representative experimental data set constructed from 108 samples, including six different matrix extracts and containing over 100 analytes each. Single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, and product ion scanning were applied. By generating reconstructed ion chromatograms using unit mass window in targeted MS2, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), regularly applied using triple-quadrupole instruments, was mimicked. This facilitated the comparison of single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, (mimicked) SRM, and product ion scanning applying a mass window down to 1 ppm. Single factor Analysis of Variance was carried out on the variance (s2) of the mass error to determine which factors and interactions are significant parameters with respect to selectivity. We conclude that selectivity is related to the target compound (mainly the mass defect), the matrix, sample clean-up, concentration, and mass resolution. Selectivity of the different instrumental configurations was quantified by counting the number of interfering peaks observed in the chromatograms. We conclude that precursor ion selection significantly contributes to selectivity: monitoring of a single product ion at high mass accuracy with a 1 Da precursor ion window proved to be equally selective or better to monitoring two transition products in mimicked SRM. In contrast, monitoring a single fragment in all ion fragmentation mode results in significantly lower selectivity versus mimicked SRM. After a thorough inter-laboratory evaluation study, the results of this study can be used for a critical reassessment of the current identification points system and contribute to the next generation of evidence-based and robust performance criteria in residue analysis and sports doping.

  2. A Driving Right Leg Circuit (DgRL) for Improved Common Mode Rejection in Bio-Potential Acquisition Systems.

    PubMed

    Guermandi, Marco; Scarselli, Eleonora Franchi; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a novel Driving Right Leg (DgRL) circuit designed to mitigate the effect of common mode signals deriving, say, from power line interferences. The DgRL drives the isolated ground of the instrumentation towards a voltage which is fixed with respect to the common mode potential on the subject, therefore minimizing common mode voltage at the input of the front-end. The paper provides an analytical derivation of the common mode rejection performances of DgRL as compared to the usual grounding circuit or Driven Right Leg (DRL) loop. DgRL is integrated in a bio-potential acquisition system to show how it can reduce the common mode signal of more than 70 dB with respect to standard patient grounding. This value is at least 30 dB higher than the reduction achievable with DRL, making DgRL suitable for single-ended front-ends, like those based on active electrodes. EEG signal acquisition is performed to show how the system can successfully cancel power line interference without any need for differential acquisition, signal post-processing or filtering. PMID:26285217

  3. Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard

    PubMed Central

    While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

  4. Regulatory mode shift of Tbc1d1 is required for acquisition of insulin-responsive GLUT4-trafficking activity

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Tbc1d1 is key to skeletal muscle GLUT4 regulation. By using GLUT4 nanometry combined with a cell-based reconstitution model, we uncover a shift in the regulatory mode of Tbc1d1 by showing that Tbc1d1 temporally acquires insulin responsiveness, which triggers GLUT4 trafficking only after an exercise-mimetic stimulus such as aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) pretreatment. The functional acquisition of insulin responsiveness requires Ser-237 phosphorylation and an intact phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) 1 domain. Mutations in PTB1, including R125W (a natural mutant), thus result in complete loss of insulin-responsiveness acquisition, whereas AICAR-responsive GLUT4-liberation activity remains intact. Thus our data provide novel insights into temporal acquisition/memorization of Tbc1d1 insulin responsiveness, relying on the PTB1 domain, possibly a key factor in the beneficial effects of exercise on muscle insulin potency. PMID:23325788

  5. XAFS data acquisition with 2D-detectors: Transmission mode XAFS and grazing incidence EXAFS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Gasse, J.-C.; Bögel, R.; Wagner, R.; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    XAFS-experiments in transmission and reflection modes have been performed using a Pilatus 100K pixel detector. Transmission mode XAFS spectra from a Co metal foil and Co3O4 were recorded to evaluate the data quality offered by this 2D-detector. Furthermore, the pixel detector was also used to measure reflection mode grazing incidence EXAFS data. Using different regions of interest in the collected scattering patterns, we will show that the diffuse scattering can be separated for the different contributing surfaces and interfaces, allowing simultaneous investigations of surfaces and buried interfaces within multi-layered samples.

  6. Dispersing artifacts in FT-STS: a comparison of set point effects across acquisition modes.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, A J; Tremblay-Johnston, Y-S; Grothe, S; Chi, S; Dosanjh, P; Johnston, S; Burke, S A

    2016-10-14

    Fourier-transform scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (FT-STS), or quasiparticle interference, has become an influential tool for the study of a wide range of important materials in condensed matter physics. However, FT-STS in complex materials is often challenging to interpret, requiring significant theoretical input in many cases, making it crucial to understand potential artifacts of the measurement. Here, we compare the most common modes of acquiring FT-STS data and show through both experiment and simulations that artifact features can arise that depend on how the tip height is stabilized throughout the course of the measurement. The most dramatic effect occurs when a series of dI/dV maps at different energies are acquired with simultaneous constant current feedback; here a feature that disperses in energy appears that is not observed in other measurement modes. Such artifact features are similar to those arising from real physical processes in the sample and are susceptible to misinterpretation. PMID:27607539

  7. Teleost leukocyte immune-type receptors activate distinct phagocytic modes for target acquisition and engulfment.

    PubMed

    Lillico, Dustin M E; Zwozdesky, Myron A; Pemberton, Joshua G; Deutscher, Julianna M; Jones, Lena O; Chang, John P; Stafford, James L

    2015-08-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) IpLITRs belong to the Ig superfamily and regulate innate immune cell effector responses. This study tested the hypothesis that ITAM-dependent and ITAM-independent phagocytic pathways are engaged by different subtypes of the IpLITR family. When stably expressed in RBL-2H3 cells, the ITAM-containing fusion-construct IpLITR 2.6b/IpFcRγ-L stimulated phagocytic responses that were abrogated at suboptimal incubation temperatures and by pharmacological inhibitors of the classic signaling components of the mammalian FcR-dependent phagocytic pathway. Interestingly, the ITIM-containing receptor IpLITR 1.1b also induced phagocytosis through an actin-dependent mechanism, but this process was insensitive to the pharmacological inhibitors tested and remained functional at temperatures as low as 22°C. The IpLITR 1.1b also displayed a unique target-acquisition phenotype that consisted of complex, membranous protrusions, which captured targets in phagocytic cup-like structures but often failed to completely engulf targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that teleost immunoregulatory receptors that associate with ITAM-containing adaptors can engage conserved components of the phagocytic machinery to engulf extracellular targets akin to the classic FcR-mediated response in mammals. Alternatively, IpLITR 1.1b displays a stalled phagocytic phenotype that is likely dependent on the selective recruitment of the minimal molecular machinery required for target capture but results in incomplete target engulfment. Overall, this study demonstrates that IpLITRs can selectively engage distinct components of the phagocytic process and provides important new information regarding the target acquisition as well as internalization mechanisms involved in controlling phagocytic responses across vertebrates. PMID:25977286

  8. Design of multi-mode compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    Combining with the current development trend in video surveillance-digitization and high-definition, a multimode-compatible image acquisition system for HD area array CCD is designed. The hardware and software designs of the color video capture system of HD area array CCD KAI-02150 presented by Truesense Imaging company are analyzed, and the structure parameters of the HD area array CCD and the color video gathering principle of the acquisition system are introduced. Then, the CCD control sequence and the timing logic of the whole capture system are realized. The noises of the video signal (KTC noise and 1/f noise) are filtered by using the Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) technique to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the system. The compatible designs in both software and hardware for the two other image sensors of the same series: KAI-04050 and KAI-08050 are put forward; the effective pixels of these two HD image sensors are respectively as many as four million and eight million. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is adopted as the key controller of the system to perform the modularization design from top to bottom, which realizes the hardware design by software and improves development efficiency. At last, the required time sequence driving is simulated accurately by the use of development platform of Quartus II 12.1 combining with VHDL. The result of the simulation indicates that the driving circuit is characterized by simple framework, low power consumption, and strong anti-interference ability, which meet the demand of miniaturization and high-definition for the current tendency.

  9. Pricing decisions from experience: the roles of information-acquisition and response modes.

    PubMed

    Golan, Hagai; Ert, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    While pricing decisions that are based on experience are quite common, e.g., setting a selling price for a used car, this type of decision has been surprisingly overlooked in psychology and decision research. Previous studies have focused on either choice decisions from experience, or pricing decisions from description. Those studies revealed that pricing involves cognitive mechanisms other than choice, while experience-based decisions involve mechanisms that differ from description-based ones. Thus, the mutual effect of pricing and experience on decision-making remains unclear. To test this effect, we experimentally compared real-money pricing decisions from experience with those from description, and with choices from experience. The results show that the mode of acquiring information affects pricing: the tendency to underprice high-probability prospects and overprice low-probability ones is diminished when pricing is based on experience rather than description. The findings further reveal attenuation of the tendency to underweight rare events, which underlies choices from experience, in pricing decisions from experience. The difference occurs because the response mode affects the search effort and decision strategy in decisions from experience. PMID:25490124

  10. Rolling the dice on the ice; New modes for underway data acquisition in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, B.; Dove, D.

    2012-12-01

    Exploration of the Arctic Ocean has always depended on the sea ice. It has been a platform supporting drifting ice stations and an obstacle to be over come by force (icebreakers) or finesse (US Navy fast attack submarines). Reduced seasonal sea ice cover has made it possible to work more freely in the peripheral Arctic Ocean, opening relatively unknown regions to scientific exploration and study. In September 2011, the RV Marcus G. Langseth set sail from Dutch Harbor, Alaska bound through Bering Strait for the Arctic Ocean. This was the first Arctic Ocean trip for MGG data acquisition by a US academic research vessel since 1994, when the RV Maurice Ewing collected a 2-D MCS profile across the Bering Shelf, through the Strait and along the Beaufort Shelf, stopping near Barrow, Alaska. RV Langseth arrived on the mid-Chukchi shelf and streamed gear just south of the "Crackerjack" well, drilled by Shell Exploration in the late eighties. The ship sailed north, crossing the "Popcorn" well and then set a course to the NW, setting the baseline for the survey parallel to the Beaufort Shelf edge. Sailing through almost entirely ice-free waters, approximately 5300 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data were acquired on a NW-SE oriented grid, which straddled the transition from Chukchi Shelf to the Chukchi Borderland. It would not have been possible for Langseth, which is not ice reinforced, to acquire these data prior to 2007. The dramatic expansion of late Summer open water in the western Arctic Ocean made it possible to use this ship effectively across a broad swath of the shelf and the periphery of the deep central basin. While the survey region was almost entirely ice free during this cruise, which straddled the ice minimum for 2011, it was not possible to predict this a priori, despite expectations set by the previous five years of ice edge retreat. For this reason, the Canadian Ice Service was engaged to provide interpreted ice imagery, multiple times per day

  11. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  12. Diagnostic Phase of Calcium Scoring Scan Applied as the Center of Acquisition Window of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Improves Image Quality in Minimal Acquisition Window Scan (Target CTA Mode) Using the Second Generation 320-Row CT

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Eriko; Kanno, Shigeaki; Ino, Kenji; Tomizawa, Nobuo; Akahane, Masaaki; Torigoe, Rumiko; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) acquired under two conditions: 75% fixed as the acquisition window center (Group 75%) and the diagnostic phase for calcium scoring scan as the center (CS; Group CS). Methods. 320-row cardiac CT with a minimal acquisition window (scanned using “Target CTA” mode) was performed on 81 patients. In Group 75% (n = 40), CS was obtained and reconstructed at 75% and the center of the CCTA acquisition window was set at 75%. In Group CS (n = 41), CS was obtained at 75% and the diagnostic phase showing minimal artifacts was applied as the center of the CCTA acquisition window. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (4-excellent) and the mean scores were compared between groups. Results. The CCTA scan diagnostic phase occurred significantly earlier in CS (75.7 ± 3.2% vs. 73.6 ± 4.5% for Groups 75% and CS, resp., p = 0.013). The mean Group CS image quality score (3.58 ± 0.63) was also higher than that for Group 75% (3.19 ± 0.66, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. The image quality of CCTA in Target CTA mode was significantly better when the center of acquisition window is adjusted using CS. PMID:26977449

  13. Harnessing steam

    SciTech Connect

    Petroski, H.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the history of steam power, starting with the elements of the steam engine known to the Greeks. The story continues in the 17th century, goes through the late 18th century when steam engine use changed from use as pumps by Watt`s invention of a double acting cylinder which drove a piston, and followed both the way it shaped industry and society and the major questions posed by the hazards of steam energy. The article concludes with an explaination of the development and a summary of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code now in effect. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Steaming Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoverson, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Schools can provide a cleaner, more healthful school environment by simply combining heat and water. Steam vapor systems use only tap water with no chemicals added. Low-pressure (12 psi to 65 psi) steam vapor sanitizes and deodorizes. This process can then be used safely in many situations, but is especially suited for restrooms and food-service…

  15. Imaging performance evaluation of full and binning acquisition modes in a prototype CBCT system equipped with the TFT X-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Chang-Woo; Cha, Bo Kyung; Yang, Keedong; Jeon, Seongchae; Huh, Young; Park, Justin C.; Song, Bongyong; Song, William Y.; Lee, Byeonghun

    2014-11-01

    The projection number, acquisition time, radiation dose, and full and 2×2 binning modes of the thin film transistor (TFT) X-ray imaging detector were evaluated for image quality in a prototype cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) built for medical applications. The detector is an amorphous silicon (a-Si) based TFT X-ray detector (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian, Inc.). The a-Si based TFT X-ray detector has a 397×298 mm2 active area with 194 μm pixel pitch and 2048×1536 pixel, of which, 388 μm pixel pitch and 1024×768 pixel were used for the 2×2 binning mode. The Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress (FDK) reconstruction algorithm was used to generate 3D images, and the comparisons were made between different modes of acquisition. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) computed tomography (CT) performance phantom (model 610, CIRS) and the chest phantom (model 76-683, Nuclear Associates) were used to evaluate the image quality.

  16. Steam Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  17. A method to synchronize signals from multiple patient monitoring devices through a single input channel for inclusion in list-mode acquisitions

    SciTech Connect

    O’Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Johnson, Karen; King, Michael A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This technical note documents a method that the authors developed for combining a signal to synchronize a patient-monitoring device with a second physiological signal for inclusion into list-mode acquisition. Our specific application requires synchronizing an external patient motion-tracking system with a medical imaging system by multiplexing the tracking input with the ECG input. The authors believe that their methodology can be adapted for use in a variety of medical imaging modalities including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: The authors insert a unique pulse sequence into a single physiological input channel. This sequence is then recorded in the list-mode acquisition along with the R-wave pulse used for ECG gating. The specific form of our pulse sequence allows for recognition of the time point being synchronized even when portions of the pulse sequence are lost due to collisions with R-wave pulses. This was achieved by altering our software used in binning the list-mode data to recognize even a portion of our pulse sequence. Limitations on heart rates at which our pulse sequence could be reliably detected were investigated by simulating the mixing of the two signals as a function of heart rate and time point during the cardiac cycle at which our pulse sequence is mixed with the cardiac signal. Results: The authors have successfully achieved accurate temporal synchronization of our motion-tracking system with acquisition of SPECT projections used in 17 recent clinical research cases. In our simulation analysis the authors determined that synchronization to enable compensation for body and respiratory motion could be achieved for heart rates up to 125 beats-per-minute (bpm). Conclusions: Synchronization of list-mode acquisition with external patient monitoring devices such as those employed in motion-tracking can reliably be achieved using a simple method that can be implemented using

  18. Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

  19. Development and Control of Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Mobile Robot for Acquisition of Road Environmental Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Naoya; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Acquisition of information about the environment around a mobile robot is important for purposes such as controlling the robot from a remote location and in situations such as that when the robot is running autonomously. In many researches, audiovisual information is used. However, acquisition of information about force sensation, which is included in environmental information, has not been well researched. The mobile-hapto, which is a remote control system with force information, has been proposed, but the robot used for the system can acquire only the horizontal component of forces. For this reason, in this research, a three-wheeled mobile robot that consists of seven actuators was developed and its control system was constructed. It can get information on horizontal and vertical forces without using force sensors. By using this robot, detailed information on the forces in the environment can be acquired and the operability of the robot and its capability to adjust to the environment are expected to improve.

  20. FOS Target Acquisition Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha

    1994-01-01

    FOS onboard target acquisition software capabilities will be verified by this test -- point source binary, point source firmware, point source peak-up, wfpc2 assisted realtime, point source peak-down, taled assisted binary, taled assisted firmware, and nth star binary modes. The primary modes are tested 3 times to determine repeatability. This test is the only test that will verify mode-to-mode acquisition offsets. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors.

  1. M-6 steam drive project review report

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrada, R.; Puig, F.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the status and experiences gained in the M-6 steam drive project after 3 yr of steam injection is presented. The M-6 project is being conducted in a fully depleted heavy oil reservoir of Venezuela Bolivar Coast field, and comprises 151 wells of which 19 are injectors. The review is based on the overall project performance and describes operational problems, steam plant performance, production forecast and special data acquisition. After a total of ca 7.8 x 106 metric tons of steam injected, steam breakthrough has been observed in some hexagons. Remedial shut off in oil production wells have performed successfully. The M-6 project continues to provide useful experience and information which will be used in planning future steam drive projects in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Bolivar Coast.

  2. Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Bello, Maria G; Costello, Elizabeth K; Contreras, Monica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

    2010-06-29

    Upon delivery, the neonate is exposed for the first time to a wide array of microbes from a variety of sources, including maternal bacteria. Although prior studies have suggested that delivery mode shapes the microbiota's establishment and, subsequently, its role in child health, most researchers have focused on specific bacterial taxa or on a single body habitat, the gut. Thus, the initiation stage of human microbiome development remains obscure. The goal of the present study was to obtain a community-wide perspective on the influence of delivery mode and body habitat on the neonate's first microbiota. We used multiplexed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities from mothers and their newborn babies, four born vaginally and six born via Cesarean section. Mothers' skin, oral mucosa, and vagina were sampled 1 h before delivery, and neonates' skin, oral mucosa, and nasopharyngeal aspirate were sampled <5 min, and meconium <24 h, after delivery. We found that in direct contrast to the highly differentiated communities of their mothers, neonates harbored bacterial communities that were undifferentiated across multiple body habitats, regardless of delivery mode. Our results also show that vaginally delivered infants acquired bacterial communities resembling their own mother's vaginal microbiota, dominated by Lactobacillus, Prevotella, or Sneathia spp., and C-section infants harbored bacterial communities similar to those found on the skin surface, dominated by Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Propionibacterium spp. These findings establish an important baseline for studies tracking the human microbiome's successional development in different body habitats following different delivery modes, and their associated effects on infant health. PMID:20566857

  3. Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.; Costello, Elizabeth K.; Contreras, Monica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Upon delivery, the neonate is exposed for the first time to a wide array of microbes from a variety of sources, including maternal bacteria. Although prior studies have suggested that delivery mode shapes the microbiota's establishment and, subsequently, its role in child health, most researchers have focused on specific bacterial taxa or on a single body habitat, the gut. Thus, the initiation stage of human microbiome development remains obscure. The goal of the present study was to obtain a community-wide perspective on the influence of delivery mode and body habitat on the neonate's first microbiota. We used multiplexed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities from mothers and their newborn babies, four born vaginally and six born via Cesarean section. Mothers’ skin, oral mucosa, and vagina were sampled 1 h before delivery, and neonates’ skin, oral mucosa, and nasopharyngeal aspirate were sampled <5 min, and meconium <24 h, after delivery. We found that in direct contrast to the highly differentiated communities of their mothers, neonates harbored bacterial communities that were undifferentiated across multiple body habitats, regardless of delivery mode. Our results also show that vaginally delivered infants acquired bacterial communities resembling their own mother's vaginal microbiota, dominated by Lactobacillus, Prevotella, or Sneathia spp., and C-section infants harbored bacterial communities similar to those found on the skin surface, dominated by Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Propionibacterium spp. These findings establish an important baseline for studies tracking the human microbiome's successional development in different body habitats following different delivery modes, and their associated effects on infant health. PMID:20566857

  4. A 200-Channel Area-Power-Efficient Chemical and Electrical Dual-Mode Acquisition IC for the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Ng, Waichiu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Suwen; Chan, Mansun

    2016-06-01

    Microelectrode array (MEA) can be used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases by monitoring the chemical neurotransmitter release and the electrical potential simultaneously at the cellular level. Currently, the MEA technology is migrating to more electrodes and higher electrode density, which raises power and area constraints on the design of acquisition IC. In this paper, we report the design of a 200-channel dual-mode acquisition IC with highly efficient usage of power and area. Under the constraints of target noise and fast settling, the current channel design saves power by including a novel current buffer biased in discrete time (DT) before the TIA (transimpedance amplifier). The 200 channels are sampled at 20 kS/s and quantized by column-wise SAR ADCs. The prototype IC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Silicon measurements show the current channel has 21.6 pArms noise with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 0.48 pArms noise with constant amperometry (CA) while consuming 12.1 μW . The voltage channel has 4.07 μVrms noise in the bandwidth of 100 kHz and 0.2% nonlinearity while consuming 9.1 μW. Each channel occupies 0.03 mm(2) area, which is among the smallest. PMID:26529782

  5. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, James D.

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  6. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  7. RF excitation using time interleaved acquisition of modes (TIAMO) to address B1 inhomogeneity in high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Orzada, Stephan; Maderwald, Stefan; Poser, Benedikt Andreas; Bitz, Andreas K; Quick, Harald H; Ladd, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    As the field strength and, therefore, the operational frequency in MRI is increased, the wavelength approaches the size of the human head/body, resulting in wave effects, which cause signal decreases and dropouts. Several multichannel approaches have been proposed to try to tackle these problems, including RF shimming, where each element in an array is driven by its own amplifier and modulated with a certain (constant) amplitude and phase relative to the other elements, and Transmit SENSE, where spatially tailored RF pulses are used. In this article, a relatively inexpensive and easy to use imaging scheme for 7 Tesla imaging is proposed to mitigate signal voids due to B(1)(+) field inhomogeneity. Two time-interleaved images are acquired using a different excitation mode for each. By forming virtual receive elements, both images are reconstructed together using GRAPPA to achieve a more homogeneous image, with only small SNR and SAR penalty in head and body imaging at 7 Tesla. PMID:20574991

  8. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  9. Liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry for identification of organic contaminants in fish fillet: screening and quantification assessment using two scan modes for data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; May, Marília M; Saibt, Nathália; Zanella, Renato

    2016-07-22

    This study proposed a strategy to identify and quantify 182 organic contaminants from different chemical classes, as for instance pesticides, veterinary drug and personal care products, in fish fillet using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS). For this purpose, two different scan methods (full scan and all ions MS/MS) were evaluated to assess the best option for screening analysis in spiked fish fillet samples. In general, full scan acquisition was found to be more reliable (84%) in the automatic identification and quantification when compared to all ions MS/MS with 72% of the compounds detected. Additionally, a qualitative automatic search showed a mass accuracy error below 5ppm for 77% of the compounds in full scan mode compared to only 52% in all ions MS/MS scan. However, all ions MS/MS provides fragmentation information of the target compounds. Undoubtedly, structural information of a wide number of compounds can be obtained using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), but it is necessary thoroughly assess it, in order to choose the best scan mode. PMID:27324622

  10. Complex Interferometric Coherence Loci for the RVoG and OVoG Models with a Dominant Double-Bounce Scattering in a Single-Transmit Acquisition Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester-Berman, J. D.; Lopez-Sanzchez, J. M.; Marquez, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Mathematical expressions for the interferometric coherence of homogeneous-volume-over-ground models (RVoG and OVoG) for the case of dominant specular scattering and considering a single-tx interferometer are derived. The analysis of the positions of the coherences on the complex plane, as a function of the polarization channel, yields important differences for the single-tx and the alternate-tx acquisition modes when the ground return is dominated by the double-bounce contributions. An additional volume decorrelation term appears when the interferometer is operated in a single-tx mode. This feature makes more difficult the parameter inversion from PolInSAR observables, since the topographic phase is not represented anymore by the crossing between the line formed by the coherences and the unit circumference. The effect of this bistatic volume decorrelation is even more noticeable for the cross-polar channel in the oriented volume case, since the phase of the coherence with an infinite ground-to-volume ratio does not correspond to the topographic phase, as observed for the copolar channels. Additionally, a preliminary study of the influence of the bistatic volume decorrelation as a function of the bistatic angle has been carried out.

  11. Progress on Pre-Stage Magnetic Coil to Enhance Helicon Mode Excitation and Data Acquisition Software on the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Justin; Azzari, Phillip; Crilly, P. B.; Duke-Tinson, Omar; James, Royce W.; Karama, Jackson; Page, E. J.; Schlank, Carter; Zuniga, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    CGAPL is conducting small investigations in plasma physics and magneto-hydrodynamics buoy positioning. For data management, we are developing capability to analyze/digitize data with a National Instruments Data Acquisition board, 2 MS/s sampling rate (long time scale), and an Express Octopus card, 125 MS/s sampling rate (short scale). Sampling at 12 bits precision, we use LabVIEW as a programing language; GUIs will control variables in 1 or more concurrent runs and monitor of diagnostics. HPX utilizes high density (1013 cm3 up), low pressure (.01 T) Ar gas (fill pressure: on 104 mTorr order). Helicon/W Mode plasmas become a diagnostics test-bed for other investigations and a tool for future spacecraft propulsion devices. Plasmas created by directing energy into gas-filled Pyrex tube; power supply and matching box, up to 250 W power in 20-100 MHz frequencies, provide energy to ignite. Uniform magnetic field needed to reach the W-Mode. We employ an electromagnet to B-field while an acceleration coil positions plasma in vacuum chamber, facilitating analysis. Initial field requirements and accuracy calibration have been completed. Progress on development and implementation of probes and DAQ/GUI system will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY13.

  12. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  13. Sensitivity of Diffusion-Weighted STEAM MRI and EPI-DWI to Infratentorial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hohenhaus, Marc; Kunze, Claudia; Schmidt, Wolf; Brunecker, Peter; Villringer, Kersten; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Frahm, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the sensitivity of stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion weighted imaging (STEAM-DWI) to ischemic stroke in comparison to echo-planar imaging diffusion weighted imaging (EPI-DWI) in the infratentorial compartment. Methods Fifty-seven patients presenting with clinical features of infratentorial stroke underwent STEAM-DWI, high-resolution EPI-DWI (HR-DWI, 2.5 mm slice thickness) and low-resolution EPI-DWI (LR-DWI, 5 mm slice thickness). Four readers assessed the presence of ischemic lesions and artifacts. Agreement between sequences and interobserver agreement on the presence of ischemia were calculated. The sensitivities of the DWI sequences were calculated in 45 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of infratentorial stroke. Results Median time from symptom onset to imaging was 24 hours. STEAM-DWI agreed with LR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.72, p<0.0001) and with HR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.68, p<0.0001). STEAM-DWI showed fewer intraparenchymal artifacts (1/57) than HR-DWI (44/57) and LR-DWI (41/57). Ischemia was visible in 87% of cases for LR-DWI, 93% of cases for HR-DWI, and 89% of cases for STEAM-DWI. Interobserver agreement was good for STEAM-DWI (kappa = 0.62, p<0.0001). Conclusions Compared to the best currently available MR sequence for detecting ischemia (HR-DWI), STEAM-DWI shows fewer artifacts and a similar sensitivity to infratentorial stroke. PMID:27529697

  14. Differences in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and clearance by mode of acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Eric C; Witt, Mallory D; Jacobson, Lisa P; Detels, Roger; Rinaldo, Charles R; Young, Steve; Phair, John P; Thio, Chloe L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) prevalence and HCV clearance between injection drug using (IDU) and non-IDU men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Stored serum and plasma samples were tested for anti-HCV and HCV RNA to determine the HCV status of 6925 MSM at enrollment into the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Prevalence and clearance ratios (PR and CR) were calculated to determine the characteristics associated with HCV prevalence and clearance. Multivariable analyses were performed using Poisson regression methods with robust variance estimation. Results Anti-HCV prevalence was significantly higher among IDU than non-IDU MSM (42.9% vs. 4.0%) while clearance was significantly lower among IDU MSM (11.5% vs. 34.5% among non-IDU MSM). HIV infection, Black race, and older age were independently associated with higher prevalence in both groups while smoking, transfusion history, and syphilis were significantly associated with prevalence only among non-IDU MSM. The rs12979860-C/C genotype was the only characteristic independently associated with HCV clearance in both groups, but the effects of both rs12979860-C/C genotype (CR=4.16 IDUs vs. 1.71 non-IDUs; p=0.03) and HBsAg positivity (CR=5.06 IDUs vs. 1.62 non-IDUs; p=0.03) were significantly larger among IDU MSM. HIV infection was independently associated with lower HCV clearance only among non-IDU MSM (CR=0.59, 95% CI=0.40–0.87). Conclusions IDU MSM have higher anti-HCV prevalence and lower HCV clearance than non-IDU MSM. Differences in the factors associated with HCV clearance suggest that the mechanisms driving the response to HCV may differ according to the mode of acquisition. PMID:25280229

  15. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  16. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  17. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-12-31

    DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

  18. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  20. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  1. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  2. Project DEEP STEAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. W.

    Development of technology for thermally efficient downhole delivery of surface generated steam and for downhole steam generators are the major elements of Project DEEP STEAM. Specific activities include development of advanced concept thermal packers, evaluation of the thermal performance of insulated tubing designs in a test tower and in a field environment, and development of downhole steam generator concepts. Field tests were performed in both technology areas and the results and status are presented.

  3. Project DEEP STEAM

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Development of technology for thermally efficient downhole delivery of surface-generated steam and for downhole steam generators are the major elements of Project DEEP STEAM. Specific activities include development of advanced concept thermal packers, evaluation of the thermal performance of insulated tubing designs in a test tower and in a field environment, and development of downhole steam generator concepts. Field tests have been performed in both technology areas and the results and status are presented.

  4. The Invisibility of Steam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  5. Strategies for steam

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-03-01

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects.

  6. Steam generator tube integrity program: Annual report, August 1995--September 1996. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kasza, K.E.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of the program in August 1995 through September 1996. The program is divided into five tasks: (1) assessment of inspection reliability, (2) research on ISI (inservice-inspection) technology, (3) research on degradation modes and integrity, (4) tube removals from steam generators, and (5) program management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of facilities and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate failure pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Results are reported in Task 2 on closed-form solutions and finite-element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe responses for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. In Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe-accident conditions. Crack behavior and stability are also being modeled to provide guidance for test facility design, develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the acquisition of tubes and tube sections from retired steam generators for use in the other research tasks. Progress on the acquisition of tubes from the Salem and McGuire 1 nuclear plants is reported.

  7. Pouring on the steam

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-02-01

    Engineers at Solar Turbines Inc. in San Diego have achieved a breakthrough in steam power by using modern gas-turbine technology, high-temperature-resistant superalloys, advanced manufacturing technologies, and a new class of steam generators to build a high-performance steam system (HPSS). The system is a full-scale, 4-megawatt industrial prototype steam power plant that produces steam heated to 1,500 F and pressurized to 1,500 psig. In a cogeneration steam cycle, these temperatures and pressures can double the power generated using the same amount of steam, according to the US Department of Energy (DOE), which sponsored the project as part of the Advanced Turbine System Program.

  8. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  9. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  10. Thermobaric calculation of a steam-thermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishaev, M. G.; Azizov, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    A procedure is proposed for carrying out an approximate analytical calculation of pressure and temperature along a vertical borehole for thermal water with a temperature of 150-320°C taking into account its phase transition into steam. It is shown that both a single-phase flow mode for water and a two-phase flow mode for a mixture of water and steam can appear in the borehole under certain conditions.

  11. Steam generator performance degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lovett, J.T.; Dow, B.L. )

    1991-09-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the range and severity of steam generator performance degradation effects experienced by PWRs in the United States. The survey results were tabulated and correlated with steam generator age and design. Operating experience at several PWRs was examined in detail. The operating experience at US PWRs was compared to that of PWRs in Japan and Germany. Possible causes for the performance degradation were postulated and evaluated. The sensitivity of steam generator output pressure to changes in various parameters (such as fouling factor, average reactor coolant temperature, and percentage of steam generator tubes plugged) was calculated. These calculations were used in the evaluation of possible causes of steam generator performance degradation. Several deposit exfoliation scenarios were evaluated in terms of the calculated effect on fouling factor trends and associated steam generator output pressure trends. 15 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  13. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  14. A Study of Varying Modes of Topical Presentation in Elementary College Biology to Determine the Effect of Advance Organizers in Knowledge Acquisition and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David John

    Determined was the effect of advanced organizers, as defined by Ausubel (1963), on the acquisition and retention of meaningful verbal material by elementary education majors at Purdue University. Two approaches were utilized. In one, the experimental group was exposed to an 800-word organizer on two occasions prior to the study of the learning…

  15. Experimental research of heterogeneous nuclei in superheated steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoš, Ondřej; Kolovratník, Michal; Šmíd, Bohuslav; Hrubý, Jan

    2016-03-01

    A mobile steam expansion chamber has been developed to investigate experimentally homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes in steam, both in the laboratory and at power plants using the steam withdrawn from the steam turbine. The purpose of the device is to provide new insight into the physics of nonequilibrium wet steam formation, which is one of the factors limiting the efficiency and reliability of steam turbines. The expanded steam or a mixture of steam with a non-condensable gas rapidly expands in the expansion chamber. Due to adiabatic cooling, the temperature drops below the dew point of the steam at a given pressure. When reaching a sufficiently high supersaturation, droplets are nucleated. By tuning the supersaturation in the so-called nucleation pulse, particles of various size ranges can be activated. This fact is used in the present study to measure the aerosol particles present in the air. Homogeneous nucleation was negligible in this case. The experiment demonstrates the functionality of the device, data acquisition system and data evaluation methods.

  16. The Invisibility of Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-11-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature falls below 100 °C (under standard conditions).

  17. Downhole steam injector

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  18. Rapid Radiofrequency Field Mapping In Vivo Using Single-Shot STEAM MRI

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Gunther; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Dechent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Higher field strengths entail less homogeneous RF fields. This may influence quantitative MRI and MRS. A method for rapidly mapping the RF field in the human head with minimal distortion was developed on the basis of a single-shot stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence. The flip angle of the second RF pulse in the STEAM preparation was set to 60° and 100° instead of 90°, inducing a flip angle-dependent signal change. A quadratic approximation of this trigonometric signal dependence together with a calibration accounting for slice excitation-related bias allowed for directly determining the RF field from the two measurements only. RF maps down to the level of the medulla could be obtained in less than 1 min and registered to anatomical volumes by means of the T2-weighted STEAM images. Flip angles between 75% and 125% of the nominal value were measured in line with other methods. Magn Reson Med 60:739–743, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:18727090

  19. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. August 4, 1947 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Solar installation for process steam generation for a refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, L. D.; Hudson, S.; Pytlinski, J. T.; Lumsdaine, E.; Bridgers, F.

    A solar thermal system for steam generation in a refinery is presented. The system is installed in the Southern Union Refinery in Hobbs, New Mexico, U.S.A. The refinery processes 36,000 BPSD of crude oil (42 U.S. gallon barrels of product fuels per steam day). The solar system is a two loop system. A heat transfer oil (Therminol T-55) circulates through an array of parabolic collectors of 936 sq m area while saturated steam at 190 C/12 kg/sq m is generated in the steam generator loop. The steam flow is 658 kg/hr. A data acquisition system (ODAS) was designed and assembled to evaluate the solar system's thermal performance. It is expected that on an annual basis the solar system will provide a thermal process heat equivalent to 93,400 cu m of natural gas.

  3. Development, construction, and use of pneumometric tubes for measurement of steam flow in the steam lines of PVG-1000 at NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, Yu. S.; Ageev, A. G.; Vasil'eva, R. V.; Korol'kov, B. M.

    2007-05-15

    A system for the direct measurement of steam flow in steam lines after a steam generator, which utilizes a special design of pneumometric tubes and a computing unit that accounts for variation in steam pressure, has been developed to improve the quality of water-level regulation in the steam generators of VVER-1000 power-generating units in the stationary and transitional modes. The advantage of the pneumometric tubes consists in their structural simplicity, high erosion resistance, and absence of irrevocable losses during measurement of steam flow. A similar measurement system is used at foreign NPP. The measurement system in question has been placed in experimental service at the No. 3 unit of the Balakovo NPP, and has demonstrated its worthiness. This measurement system can also be used to determine steam flow in the steam lines of NPP units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors, and PBMK-1000 power-generating units.

  4. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  5. STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach used is to inject steam into 1- dimensional columns that have been packed with contaminated soil from the site. Temperatures in the system are monitored aliquots of the effluent collected for analysis. A sample of the initial soil, the final steamed soil, the effluen...

  6. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  7. Running Out of Steam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Promod

    2000-01-01

    Explains why schools should evaluate whether their older steam-heating systems are still cost-effective, or need to be repaired or replaced. The symptoms of deterioration are listed along with discussions on repair or replacement decision making on three areas of steam heating systems: boilers; distribution system; and terminal equipment. (GR)

  8. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.; Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed.

  9. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  10. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  11. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojan, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  12. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  13. Refurbishing steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-12-01

    Power-plant operators are reducing maintenance costs of their aging steam turbines by using wire-arc spray coating and shot peening to prolong the service life of components, and by replacing outmoded bearings and seals with newer designs. Steam-turbine operators are pressed with the challenge of keeping their aging machines functioning in the face of wear problems that are exacerbated by the demand for higher efficiencies. These problems include intense thermal cycling during both start-up and shutdown, water particles in steam and solid particles in the air that pit smooth surfaces, and load changes that cause metal fatigue.

  14. Solar steam nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Polman, Albert

    2013-01-22

    Silica-gold core-shell nanoparticles that are immersed in water act as efficient nanoscale generators of steam when illuminated with sunlight. In their paper in this issue of ACS Nano, Halas, Nordlander, and co-workers demonstrate this intriguing phenomenon that results from the nucleation of steam at the surface of individual nanoparticles that are heated by the sun. The same effect is also used to demonstrate distillation of ethanol. The solar steam nanobubble generation phenomenon results from the complex interplay of many different phenomena that occur at the nanoscale, and can find a broad range of applications. PMID:23282196

  15. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  16. Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1986-08-12

    An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

  17. CORCO downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1982-03-01

    The opening of a new frontier in steaming moved forward in Jan. 1982 when a CORCO (Chemical Oil Recovery Co.) generator described as the first commercial down-hole steam generator went into operation in Kern County's Devils Den field, 60 miles northwest of Bakersfield, CA. A major reason for selecting the down-hole generator for the Devils Den field is that along with steam the unit puts away flue gas resulting from combustion. There is no pressure to speak of in the escudo, and it is hoped that the inert gas will build up bottom-hole pressure to assist in oil recovery. Another reason is that the down-hole generator, rated for 7 million btu/hr, makes it possible to tailor steam injection to the well's requirements. The advantages and disadvantages of the CORCO generator are described, along with its application in the Kern River field.

  18. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  19. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  20. Cost Reduction Strategies - Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    Boilers play a particularly important role in integrated mills because they not only provide the steam needed for key processes but also consume by-product fuels generated in the coke ovens, blast furnace, and BOF.

  1. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  2. A beamline design and data acquisition with the 20-MeV, 20-ps electron beam for the higher-order mode studies of the APS SR-rf cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Nassiri, A.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    A beamline has been designed and assembled to use the ANL Chemistry Division 20-MeV electron linac for the testing of higher-order mode excitation and damping in rf cavities. The beamline consists of two sections (a beam collimating section with a 1.5 inches-OD vacuum line, and a cavity test section with a 3 inches-OD vacuum line), separated by two double aluminum foil windows. The beam diagnostics consist of a stripline beam position monitor, integrating current transformers, fluorescent screens, and a Faraday cup. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used for beamline control, monitoring, and data acquisition. Also described is the diagnostic system used for beam image capture and analysis using EPICS-controlled hardware and PV-WAVE software. The rf cavity measurement will be described in a separate paper.

  3. A beamline design and data acquisition with the 20-MeV, 20-ps electron beam for the higher-order mode studies of the APS SR-rf cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Nassiri, A.; Daly, R.

    1993-07-01

    A beamline has been designed and assembled to use the ANL Chemistry Division 20-MeV electron linac for the testing of higher-order mode excitation and damping in rf cavities. The beamline consists of two sections (a beam collimating section with a 1.5 inches-OD vacuum line, and a cavity test section with a 3 inches-OD vacuum line), separated by two double aluminum foil windows. The beam diagnostics consist of a stripline beam position monitor, integrating current transformers, fluorescent screens, and a Faraday cup. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used for beamline control, monitoring, and data acquisition. Also described is the diagnostic system used for beam image capture and analysis using EPICS-controlled hardware and PV-WAVE software. The rf cavity measurement will be described in a separate paper.

  4. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  5. Numerical investigation of three-dimensional flows of steam-water mixture in the housing of the PGV-1000 steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroshilin, A. E.; Kroshilin, V. E.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2008-05-01

    Results are given of numerical simulation of three-dimensional pattern of flow of a two-phase steam-water mixture in the house of a PGV-1000 horizontal steam generator obtained using the BAGIRA best-estimate thermohydrodynamic computer codes. The space distributions of velocities and local void fractions in the steam generator housing for different modes of operation of power-generating unit are calculated and compared with available experimental data.

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of the possibility to increase cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a heat pump operating with steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenin, V. M.; Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.; Sinkevich, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Cogeneration turbines operate in different operation modes that considerably differ as to the working process conditions. In summer time, when heat demand is minimal, almost all steam flow passes through all turbine stages and enters into the condenser (condensing mode of operation). When heat supply is needed, the steam bleed-offs are used. The several last stages of the turbine (low-pressure part—LPP) have a control diaphragm at the inlet. When the heat supply is large, the diaphragm is maximally closed, and the entire steam flow, with an exception for a minimal ventilation flow is delivered to the steam bleed-offs (cogeneration mode). LPP flow path is designed for the optimal operation in the condensing mode. While running in cogeneration mode, the LPP operating conditions are far from optimal. Depending on the ventilation steam flow rate and outlet pressure, the LPP power can drop to zero or even become negative (ventilation mode). It is proposed to control an outlet steam pressure by using the heat pump that operates with steam. The heat pump energy consumption can be compensated and even exceeded by optimizing the steam expansion process in LPP. In this respect, operating conditions of cogeneration turbine LPPs during the cold season are analyzed. A brief description of a heat pump operating with steam is made. The possibility of increasing cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a steam heat pump is shown.

  7. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: Steam rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, I.G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton`s and Avogadro`s laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  10. Steam Rankine Solar Receiver, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deanda, L. E.; Faust, M.

    1981-01-01

    A steam rankine solar receiver (SRSR) based on a tubular concept was designed and developed. The SRSR is an insulated, cylindrical coiled tube boiler which is mounted at the focal plane of a fully tracking parabolic solar reflector. The concentrated solar energy received at the focal plane is then transformed to thermal energy through steam generation. The steam is used in a small Rankine cycle heat engine to drive a generator for the production of electrical energy. The SRSR was designed to have a dual mode capability, performing as a once through boiler with and without reheat. This was achieved by means of two coils which constitute the boiler. The boiler core size of the SRSR is 17.0 inches in diameter and 21.5 inches long. The tube size is 7/16 inch I.D. by 0.070 inch wall for the primary, and 3/4 inch I.D. by 0.125 inch wall for the reheat section. The materials used were corrosion resistant steel (CRES) type 321 and type 347 stainless steel. The core is insulated with 6 inches of cerablanket insulation wrapped around the outer wall. The aperture end and the reflector back plate at the closed end section are made of silicon carbide. The SRSR accepts 85 kwth and has a design life of 10,000 hrs when producing steam at 1400 F and 2550 psig.

  11. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  12. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  13. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  14. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  15. Spectroscopic Localization by Simultaneous Acquisition of the Double-Spin and Stimulated Echoes

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Assaf; Gonen, Oded

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To design a proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) localization sequence that combines the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) benefits of Point Resolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) with the high pulse bandwidths, low chemical shift displacements (CSD), low specific absorption rates (SAR), short echo times (TE) and superior radio-frequency transmit field (B1+) immunity of Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM), by simultaneously refocusing and acquiring both the double-spin and stimulated echo coherence pathways from the volume of interest. Methods We propose a family of 1H-MRS sequences comprising three orthogonal spatially-selective pulses with flip angles 90°<α, β, γ<128°. The stimulated and double-spin echo are refocused in-phase simultaneously by altering the pulses’ phases, flip angles and timing, as well as the inter-pulse gradient spoiling moments. The ≈90° nutations of α, β, γ provide STEAM-like advantages (lower SAR, in-plane CSD and TE; greater B1+ immunity), but with SNRs comparable with PRESS. Results Phantom and in vivo brain experiments show that 83–100% of the PRESS SNR (metabolite-dependent) is achieved at under 75% of the SAR and 66% lower in-plane CSD. Conclusion The advantages of STEAM can be augmented with the higher SNR of PRESS by combining the spin and stimulated echoes. Quantification, especially of J-coupled resonances and intermediate and long TEs, must be carefully considered. PMID:24664399

  16. Adaptation of the modified Bouc–Wen model to compensate for hysteresis in respiratory motion for the list-mode binning of cardiac SPECT and PET acquisitions: Testing using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Paul K. R.; Shazeeb, Mohammed Salman; Könik, Arda; Lindsay, Clifford; Mukherjee, Joyeeta M.; Johnson, Karen L.; King, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Binning list-mode acquisitions as a function of a surrogate signal related to respiration has been employed to reduce the impact of respiratory motion on image quality in cardiac emission tomography (SPECT and PET). Inherent in amplitude binning is the assumption that there is a monotonic relationship between the amplitude of the surrogate signal and respiratory motion of the heart. This assumption is not valid in the presence of hysteresis when heart motion exhibits a different relationship with the surrogate during inspiration and expiration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the novel approach of using the Bouc–Wen (BW) model to provide a signal accounting for hysteresis when binning list-mode data with the goal of thereby improving motion correction. The study is based on the authors’ previous observations that hysteresis between chest and abdomen markers was indicative of hysteresis between abdomen markers and the internal motion of the heart. Methods: In 19 healthy volunteers, they determined the internal motion of the heart and diaphragm in the superior–inferior direction during free breathing using MRI navigators. A visual tracking system (vts) synchronized with MRI acquisition tracked the anterior–posterior motions of external markers placed on the chest and abdomen. These data were employed to develop and test the Bouc–Wen model by inputting the vts derived chest and abdomen motions into it and using the resulting output signals as surrogates for cardiac motion. The data of the volunteers were divided into training and testing sets. The training set was used to obtain initial values for the model parameters for all of the volunteers in the set, and for set members based on whether they were or were not classified as exhibiting hysteresis using a metric derived from the markers. These initial parameters were then employed with the testing set to estimate output signals. Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient between the

  17. Adaptation of the modified Bouc–Wen model to compensate for hysteresis in respiratory motion for the list-mode binning of cardiac SPECT and PET acquisitions: Testing using MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Dasari, Paul K. R.; Shazeeb, Mohammed Salman; Könik, Arda; Lindsay, Clifford; Mukherjee, Joyeeta M.; Johnson, Karen L.; King, Michael A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Binning list-mode acquisitions as a function of a surrogate signal related to respiration has been employed to reduce the impact of respiratory motion on image quality in cardiac emission tomography (SPECT and PET). Inherent in amplitude binning is the assumption that there is a monotonic relationship between the amplitude of the surrogate signal and respiratory motion of the heart. This assumption is not valid in the presence of hysteresis when heart motion exhibits a different relationship with the surrogate during inspiration and expiration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the novel approach of using the Bouc–Wen (BW) model to provide a signal accounting for hysteresis when binning list-mode data with the goal of thereby improving motion correction. The study is based on the authors’ previous observations that hysteresis between chest and abdomen markers was indicative of hysteresis between abdomen markers and the internal motion of the heart. Methods: In 19 healthy volunteers, they determined the internal motion of the heart and diaphragm in the superior–inferior direction during free breathing using MRI navigators. A visual tracking system (VTS) synchronized with MRI acquisition tracked the anterior–posterior motions of external markers placed on the chest and abdomen. These data were employed to develop and test the Bouc–Wen model by inputting the VTS derived chest and abdomen motions into it and using the resulting output signals as surrogates for cardiac motion. The data of the volunteers were divided into training and testing sets. The training set was used to obtain initial values for the model parameters for all of the volunteers in the set, and for set members based on whether they were or were not classified as exhibiting hysteresis using a metric derived from the markers. These initial parameters were then employed with the testing set to estimate output signals. Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient between the

  18. District steam and the St. Louis steam loop

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, T.M.; Sauer, H.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Owned and operated by large public electric utilities, district steam systems flourished in most northern US cities in the first half of this century. Following World War II, however, district steam systems became minor and, in some cases, unprofitable portions of the utilities' operations. Consequently, public utilities ceased promoting district steam to existing and potential customers, leading to the decline of their use. In recent years, district steam systems have been revitalized by independent enterprises that have the commitment and expertise to make these systems once again reliable and cost-effective energy sources. This paper reports on one such system, The St. Louis Steam Loop. The St. Louis steam loop consists of 22 miles of insulated underground steam piping encompassing a 400-square block area in the city's downtown business district. The loop is supplied with steam by the Ashley Plant, which was built in 1904 for the St. Louis World's Fair. Due to the rising cost of oil, which has been used to fuel the Ashley Plant since 1972, and the subsequent loss of customers, many people considered the steam system a dinosaur in the jet age. In 1982, Trigen-St. Louis Energy Corporation purchased the steam system and embarked on an aggressive campaign to upgrade all aspects of the system, including valves, piping, and meters. In 1999, Trigen-St. Louis will install an ISMW state-of-the-art combustion turbine cogenerator to provide 95% of the steam to the steam loop. A primary reason for the St. Louis Steam Loop's longevity is that it has reliably supplied steam to many downtown buildings for the better part of the 20th century.

  19. Failure investigation of eddystone main steam piping

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, J.F.; Bynum, J.E.; Daikoku, T.; Ellis, F.V.; Haneda, H.; Rafiee, M.H.; Siddall, W.F.

    1985-10-01

    In March 1983, personnel at Philadelphia Electric's Eddystone No. 1 power plant discovered a through wall leak in the main steam outlet piping. This pipe was designed to carry steam at a pressure of 5300 psi (36,538 kPa) and a temperature of 1210F(654C). The pipe was made of 316 stainless steel and had been operated approximately 130,000 hours at the time that failure was discovered. Subsequent inspection revealed that many OD cracks existed in this piping system. This paper details the investigation into the cause of the failure. The following elements are highlighted: the in-place metallography which successfully used the plastic replica technique; the elasticplastic stress analysis and life prediction techniques carried out to assess probable failure modes and loadings; and the experimental stress analysis which was conducted to confirm analytical hypotheses.

  20. Steamer of steam circulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, M.

    1986-09-23

    A conveyor steamer is described which consists of: a room enclosed with heat-insulated walls, floor, and ceiling, the room having an entrance and an exit for goods to be steamed, a conveyor means for carrying the goods to be steamed, the conveyor means traversing into the entrance of the room, through the room, and out of the exit of the room; a source of heated primary steam; first pipe means, arranged beneath the conveyor means, for jetting the heated primary steam upwardly from across the floor of the room; second pipe means disposed across the entire ceiling of the room arranged above the conveyor means, for scavenging spent steam from across the entire ceiling of the room; and an ejector-condenser means, interconnected between the first pipe means, the source of primary heated steam and the second pipe means, for mixing the spent steam from the second pipe means with the heated primary steam in the first pipe means; whereby the spent steam mixed with the heated primary steam is caused to recirculate in the first pipe means through the room, thus saving energy and consuming less heated primary steam so that cost reductions will result.

  1. ADVANCED STEAM GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Geo. A.; Casleton, Kent H.; Lewis, Robie E.; Rogers, William A.; Woike, Mark R.; Willis; Brian P.

    2001-11-06

    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultra-low or ''zero''-emissions power generation systems. In some proposed concepts, nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with another diluent such as carbon dioxide or steam. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO{sub 2} and steam or water streams. The concentrated CO{sub 2} stream could then serve as input to a CO{sub 2} sequestration process or utilized in some other way. Some of these concepts are illustrated in Figure 1. This project is an investigation of one approach to ''zero'' emission power generation. Oxy-fuel combustion is used with steam as diluent in a power cycle proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) [1,2]. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to produce nearly pure oxygen for combustion. In this particular concept, the combustion temperatures are moderated by steam as a diluent. An advantage of this technique is that water in the product stream can be condensed with relative ease, leaving a pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration. Because most of the atmospheric nitrogen has been separated from the oxidant, the potential to form any NOx pollutant is very small. Trace quantities of any minor pollutants species that do form are captured with the CO{sub 2} or can be readily removed from the condensate. The result is a nearly zero-emission power plant. A sketch of the turbine system proposed by CES is shown in Figure 2. NETL is working with CES to develop a reheat combustor for this application. The reheat combustion application is unusual even among oxy-fuel combustion applications. Most often, oxy-fuel combustion is carried out with the intent of producing very high temperatures for heat transfer to a product. In the reheat case, incoming steam is mixed with the oxygen and natural gas fuel to control the temperature of the output stream to about

  2. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  3. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  4. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  5. Project DEEP STEAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschliman, D. P.; Clay, R. G.; Donaldson, A. B.; Eisenhawer, S. W.; Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Mulac, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oils from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are the development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. During the period January 1-March 31, 1981, effort has continued on a low pressure combustion downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and on two high pressure designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). The Sandia design was prepared for deployment in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. Initial bare string field data are reported on the insulated tubular test at Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada.

  6. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  7. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  8. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  9. 16 CFR 802.1 - Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., for certain new engine components to be used in the manufacture of airplane engines. The acquisition... regional public utility and steam to several industrial sites. This transaction is exempt under §...

  10. 16 CFR 802.1 - Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., for certain new engine components to be used in the manufacture of airplane engines. The acquisition... regional public utility and steam to several industrial sites. This transaction is exempt under §...

  11. Steam drive recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, E. S.; Hopkins, D. N.

    1984-09-18

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  12. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1984-10-23

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  13. Downhole steam generator shows merit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Production from a 5-spot pattern in Kern River Field reached 25,000 bbl during a 5-month test of a down-hole steam generator-equivalent to the amount of oil expected if steam injection from the conventional source had been continued. The test evaluated the down-hole generator as a steam source relatively free of atmospheric pollutants. The biggest objection to steam recovery of heavy crude is the volume of combustion products vented to the atmosphere, and these frequently contain small amounts of sulfur compounds. One big advantage of generating steam down hole is elimination of heat losses in the injection well. The practical limit for conventional steam injection is in a reservoir approximately 2,500 ft deep; the down-hole generator should operate economically to 6,000 ft. The test proved the feasibility of the method, and cleared the way for a series of down-hole generator installation and retrieval tests.

  14. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make.), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries).

  15. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  16. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.

    1980-04-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment of solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  17. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  18. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  19. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Ginsberg, T.

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  20. Steam distillation of crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, J.H.; Hsueh, L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to generate crude oil steam distillation data for the prediction of phase behavior in steamflood simulation and to correlate the steam distillation yields for a variety of crude oils. Thirteen steam distillation tests were run on 10 crude oils ranging in gravity from 9.4 to 37/sup 0/API (1.004 to 0.840 g/cm/sup 3/). In each test the crude was steam distilled sequentially at about 220, 300, 400, and 500/sup 0/F (104, 149, 204, and 260/sup 0/C). The cumulative steam distillation yields at 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) ranged from about 20 to 55 vol%. Experimental results showed that crude oil steam distillation yields at steamflood conditions are significant, even for heavy oils. The effects of differences in steam volume throughput and steam temperature were taken into account when comparing yields for different crudes or repeat runs on the same crude. Steam distillation yields show a high correlation with crude oil API gravity and wax content.

  1. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  2. Teacher Trainees' Information Acquisition in Lesson Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanni, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have addressed teacher trainees' information acquisition in the context of a task. The paper reports findings from an empirical study on teacher trainees' use of information (seeking) channels and sources, and their modes of information acquisition in lesson planning. Method: Semi-structured (retrospectively held)…

  3. Steam/fuel system optimization report: 6000-tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vakil, T.D.

    1983-07-01

    The design and configuration of the steam and fuel system for the 6000-ton-per-day (tpd) SRC-I Demonstration plant have been optimized, based on requirements for each area of the plant that were detailed in Area Baseline Designs of December 1982. The system was optimized primarily for the two most likely modes of plant operation, that is, when the expanded-bed hydrocracker (EBH) is operating at either high or low conversion, with all other units operating. However, the design, as such, is also operable under four other anticipated operating modes. The plant is self-sufficient in fuel except when the coker/calciner unit is not operating; then the required fuel oil import ranges from 80 to 125 MM Btu/h, lower heating value (LHV). The system affords stable operation under varying fuel gas availability and is reliable, flexible, and efficient. The optimization was based on maximizing overall efficiency of the steam system. The system was optimized to operate at five different steam-pressure levels, which are justifiable based on the plant's team requirements for process, heat duty, and power. All identified critical equipment drives will be run by steam turbines. Also part of the optimization was elimination of the steam evaporator in the wastewater treatment area. This minimized the impact on the steam system of operating in either the discharge of zero-discharge mode; the steam system remains essentially the same for either mode. Any further optimization efforts should be based on overall cost-effectiveness.

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION STEAM TECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steam Enhanced Remediation is a process in which steam is injected into the subsurface to recover volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants. It has been applied successfully to recover contaminants from soil and aquifers and at a fractured granite site. This SITE demonstra...

  5. Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    The Steam System Scoping Tool quickly evaluates your entire steam system operation and spots the areas that are the best opportunities for improvement. The tool suggests a range of ways to save steam energy and boost productivity.

  6. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  7. IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

  8. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  9. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  10. Galileo probe relay receiver - Acquisition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Der Embse, U. A.

    1983-01-01

    The probe-to-orbiter data link for the Jovian mission uses a Manchester encoded BPSK waveform which is demodulated by the Galileo probe relay receiver. Signal acquisition and tracking consists of a sequential probability ratio signal search, frequency acquisition with a least-squares estimator, wide-band phase lock acquisition, and a self-regulating mode control. A discrete Fourier transform serves as the basic mechanism to generate the algorithms that provide this orderly transition to phase tracking. Acquisition and tracking is addressed in this paper with emphasis on key algorithms, rationale, and theoretical/measured performance.

  11. Downhole steam generation: material studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Weirick, L.J.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    One enhanced oil recovery technique for extracting heavy crude from deep reservoirs by steam at the bottom of an injection well. Development of a downhole steam generator that will produce steam and inject it into formations at depths greater than 2500 feet is one objective of a Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories development effort - Project DEEP STEAM. Extensive material studies have been performed in support of Project DEEP STEAM; current efforts are devoted primarily to the selection and evaluation of materials for use in downhole steam generators. This paper presents observations of the performance of candidate metals and refractory ceramics (combustor liners) during tests of two prototypic, high pressure, diesel/air combustion, direct contact, downhole steam generators. The first downhole test of such a generator provides data on the performance of various metals (304L, 310 and 316S stainless steels and plain carbon steel) exposed for several weeks to a warm, aerated saltwater environment. A number of corrosion mechanisms acted to cause severely degraded perforance of some of the metals. Several refractory liner designs were evaluated during ground level tests of a generator having a ceramic-lined combustion chamber. Of the two refractories employed, alumina and silicon carbide, the alumina liners exhibited more serious surface degradation and corrosion.

  12. ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Bullard, S.B.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2003-04-22

    Efficiency increases in fossil energy boilers and steam turbines are being achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure at the turbine inlets well beyond the critical point of water. To allow these increases, advanced materials are needed that are able to withstand the higher temperatures and pressures in terms of strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. As part of a larger collaborative effort, the Albany Research Center (ARC) is examining the steam-side oxidation behavior for ultrasupercritical (USC) steam turbine applications. Initial tests are being done on six alloys identified as candidates for USC steam boiler applications: ferritic alloy SAVE12, austenitic alloy Super 304H, the high Cr-high Ni alloy HR6W, and the nickel-base superalloys Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Inconel 740. Each of these alloys has very high strength for its alloy type. Three types of experiments are planned: cyclic oxidation in air plus steam at atmospheric pressure, thermogravimetric ana lysis (TGA) in steam at atmospheric pressure, and exposure tests in supercritical steam up to 650 C (1202 F) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). The atmospheric pressure tests, combined with supercritical exposures at 13.8, 20.7, 24.6, and 34.5 MPa (2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 psi) should allow the determination of the effect of pressure on the oxidation process.

  13. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  14. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  15. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  16. Bioequivalent chemical steam sterilization indicators.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A; Manne, S

    1984-01-01

    Biological indicators used to monitor steam sterilization cycles have two major shortcomings--the incubation period needed to determine if sterilization was accomplished, and the reliance on test packs for gathering information in each load. Chemical indicators do not suffer from these shortcomings. Chemical indicators can respond to time, temperature, and steam parameters to thus parallel the BI reaction. Nine commercially available chemical indicators and four biological indicators were evaluated under the conditions of dry heat, in a biological indicator-evaluator resistometer vessel, and in a hospital sterilizer. The results indicate that wider use of integrated chemical steam sterilization indicators is recommended. PMID:6493101

  17. Economic effectiveness of using super-high values of initial steam parameters in cogeneration power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Zakharenkov, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper reports the results of numerical investigations into both thermodynamic and economic components of the effect of an increase in the initial steam parameters to super-high values for cogeneration power units. As an initial variant, the heat flow diagram of the turbine plant equipped with the T-250/300-23.5 TMZ steam turbine was adopted. In the course of investigations, the ranges of initial steam pressure p 0 = 23.5-30.0 MPa, steam temperature t 0 = 540-600°C, and steam pressure after single reheat p rh = 3.6-4.5 MPa were considered. In the calculations of the thermodynamic efficiency, the extent of the effect of an increase in steam parameters on the out and the electric efficiency of a power unit when a cogeneration steam turbine operates in condensing and heat-extraction modes were estimated. In the economic part of the calculations, indicators of the commercial efficiency of investments into appropriate projects and the levels of total investment and production costs were determined. The results of the calculations made it possible to estimate the optimum level of super-high values of the initial steam parameters for a cogeneration power unit equipped with the T-280/335-26.1 steam turbine. The best indicators of the commercial efficiency were achieved for the variant with the following parameters of live steam and steam in the reheater: p 0 = 26.1 MPa, p rh = 4.035 MPa, t 0/ t rh = 575/575°C. In this case, the following values were obtained: 42.56% gross efficiency, 40.94% net efficiency, 334 MW rated capacity in the condensing operation mode, and 279.1 MW in the heat-extraction mode at Q T = 1381.6 GJ/h (330 Gcal/h). The use of higher steam parameters would result in a significant increase in the cost of projects. It has been shown that the restoration of initial design values of both live steam temperature and its temperature after reheat t 0/ t rh = 565/560°C may be advisable at the upgrading of power units equipped with T-250

  18. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  20. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  1. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  2. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  3. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  4. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  5. Analysis and potential of once-through steam generators in line focus systems - Final results of the DUKE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    The direct steam generation in line focus systems such as parabolic troughs and linear Fresnel collectors is one option for providing `solar steam' or heat. Commercial power plants use the recirculation concept, in which the steam generation is separated from the superheating by a steam drum. This paper analyzes the once-through mode as an advanced solar field concept. It summarizes the results of the DUKE project on loop design, a new temperature control strategy, thermo-mechanical stress analysis, and an overall cost analysis. Experimental results of the temperature control concept at the DISS test facility at Plataforma Solar de Almería are presented.

  6. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  7. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  8. The aeroacoustics of a steam kettle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrywood, R. H.; Agarwal, A.

    2013-10-01

    The whistle in a steam kettle provides a near-perfect example of a hole tone system, in which two orifice plates are held a short distance apart in a cylindrical duct. This setup leads to distinct audible tones for a large range of flow rates. The main objective of the current paper is to understand the physical mechanism behind the generation of hole tones (whistling of steam kettles). A variety of experiments were undertaken, primarily focusing on how the acoustics of the hole tone system varied depending on the flow rate, whistle geometry, and upstream duct length. These were supplemented by flow visualisation experiments using water. The results show that the whistle's behaviour is divided into two regions of operation. The first, occurring at Reynolds numbers (based on orifice diameter and jet velocity) below Reδ ≈ 2000, exhibits a near-constant frequency behaviour. A mathematical model based on a Helmholtz resonator has been developed for this part of the mechanism. The second, for Reynolds numbers greater than Reδ ≈ 2000, the whistle exhibits a constant Strouhal number behaviour. A physical model has been developed to describe this part of the mechanism where the resonant modes of the upstream duct are coupled with the vortex shedding at the jet exit.

  9. Slant-hole collimator, dual mode sterotactic localization method

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of a slant-hole collimator in the gamma camera of dual mode stereotactic localization apparatus allows the acquisition of a stereo pair of scintimammographic images without repositioning of the gamma camera between image acquisitions.

  10. Comparative analysis of steam delivery cost for surface and downhole steam drive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    A basis is established for evaluating the economic performances of the technologies for enhanced recovery of heavy crude being investigated through the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM. Conventional surface steam drive is compared with: (1) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam; (2) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation; (3) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation; (4) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source; and (5) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. A parametric analysis is performed for varying depths, injection rates, and steam qualities.

  11. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  12. Overview of steam generator tube degradation and integrity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-10-01

    The degradation of steam generator tubes in pressurized water nuclear reactors continues to be a serious problem. Primary water stress corrosion cracking is commonly observed at the roll transition zone at U-bends, at tube denting locations, and occasionally in plugs and sleeves. Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack commonly occur near the tube support plate crevice, near the tube sheet in crevices or under sludge piles, and occasionally in the free span. A particularly troubling recent trend has been the increasing occurrence of circumferential cracking at the RTZ on both the primary and secondary sides. Segmented axial cracking at the tubes support plate crevices is also becoming more common. Despite recent advances in in-service inspection technology, a clear need still exists for quantifying and improving the reliability of in- service inspection methods with respect to the probability of detection of the various types of flaws and their accurate sizing. Improved inspection technology and the increasing occurrence of such degradation modes as circumferential cracking, intergranular attack, and discontinuous axial cracking have led to the formulation of a new performance-based steam generator rule. This new rule would require the development and implementation of a steam generator management program that monitors tube condition against accepted performance criteria to ensure that the tubes perform the required safety function over the next operating cycle. The new steam generator rule will also be applied to severe accident conditions to determine the continued serviceability of a steam generator with degraded tubes in the event of a severe accident. Preliminary analyses are being performed for a hypothetical severe accident scenario to determine whether failure will occur first in the steam generator tubes, which would lead to containment bypass, or instead in the hot leg nozzle or surge line, which would not.

  13. Dynamic interleaved 1H/31P STEAM MRS at 3 Tesla using a pneumatic force-controlled plantar flexion exercise rig

    PubMed Central

    Meyerspeer, M.; Krššák, M.; Kemp, G.J.; Roden, M.; Moser, E.

    2016-01-01

    1 Objective To develop a measurement method for interleaved acquisition of 1H and 31P STEAM localised spectra of exercising human calf muscle. 2 Materials and Methods A nonmagnetic exercise rig with a pneumatic piston and sensors for force and pedal angle was constructed to enable plantar flexion measured in the 3 Tesla MR scanner, which holds the dual tuned (1H,31P) surface coil used for signal transmission and reception. 3 Results 31P spectra acquired in interleaved mode benefit from higher SNR (factor of 1.34± 0.06 for PCr) compared to standard acquisition due to the Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and substantial PCr/Pi changes during exercise can be observed in 31P spectra. 1H spectral quality is equal to that in single mode experiments and allows Cr2 changes to be monitored. 4 Conclusion The feasibility of dynamic interleaved localised 1H and 31P spectroscopy during plantar flexion exercise has been demonstrated using a custom-built pneumatic system for muscle activation. This opens the possibility of studying the dynamics of metabolism with multi nuclear MRS in a single run. PMID:16320091

  14. Target Acquisition and Positioning Study (TAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Scientific Instruments for the Large Space Telescope (LST) require a high degree of accuracy for positioning targets within their respective entrance apertures. The acquisition, verification of position, and guidance during an experiment must be accomplished with a minimum loss of observing time for the maximum effectiveness of the total mission. This study evaluates several viable concepts and modes of operation that are applicable for a Target Acquisition and Positioning System (TAPS) that is responsive to the LST instrument requirements.

  15. Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, T; Allen, Lloyd; Irving, Patricia M.

    2002-12-01

    has developed a proprietary catalyst formulation for the fuel processor that is being developed for use with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The catalyst has been tested for the steam reforming of various hydrocarbons such as natural gas, iso-octane, retail gasoline, and hexadecane. A 300h continuous test has shown that the catalyst has very stable performance for steam reforming of iso-octane at 800?C with a steam/C ratio of 3.6. The same catalyst was also tested for steam reforming hexadecane (a surrogate of diesel) for 73h as well as natural gas for over 150h continuously, without deactivation or carbon deposition. Sulfur tolerance of the catalyst was tested using iso-octane containing various concentrations of sulfur. There was no catalyst deactivation after a 220h continuous test using iso-octane with 100ppm sulfur. For comparison, a nickel catalyst (12wt.% Ni/Al2O3) was also tested using different levels of sulfur in iso-octane. The results indicated that the InnovaTek catalyst has a substantially improved sulfur resistance compared to the nickel catalysts currently used for steam reforming. In addition, a variation of the catalyst was also used to reduce CO concentration to < 1% by water gas shift reaction.

  16. Steam generator hand hole shielding.

    PubMed

    Cox, W E

    2000-05-01

    Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

  17. Steam generator tube inspection in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Shigetaka

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator tube inspection was first carried out in 1971 at Mihama Unit-1 that is first PWR plant in Japan, when the plant was brought into the first annual inspection. At that time, inspection was made on sampling basis, and only bobbin coil probe was used. After experiencing various kinds of tube degradations, inspection method was changed from sampling to all number of tubes, and various kinds of probes were used to get higher detectability of flaw. At present, it is required that all the tubes shall be inspected in their full length at each annual inspection using standard bobbin coil probe, and some special probes for certain plants that have susceptibility of occurrence of flaw. Sleeve repaired portion is included in this inspection. As a result of analyses of eddy current testing data, all indications that have been evaluated to be 20% wall thickness or deeper shall be repaired by either plugging or sleeving, where flaw morphology is to be a wastage or wear. Other types of flaw such as IGA/SCC are not allowed to be left inservice when those indications are detected. These inspections are performed according to inspection procedures that are approved by regulatory authority. Actual inspections are witnessed by the Japan Power engineering and inspection corporation (JAPEIC)`s inspectors during data acquisition and analysis, and they issue inspection report to authority for review and approval. It is achieved high safety performance of steam generator through this method of inspections, however. some tube leakage problems were experienced in the past. To prevent recurrence of such events, government is conducting development and verification test program for new eddy current testing technology.

  18. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  19. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images. PMID:24505657

  20. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  1. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  2. A Steam-Plasma Igniter for Aluminum Powder Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghyup, Lee; Kwanyoung, Noh; Jihwan, Lim; Woongsup, Yoon

    2015-05-01

    High-temperature ignition is essential for the ignition and combustion of energetic metal fuels, including aluminum and magnesium particles which are protected by their high-melting-temperature oxides. A plasma torch characterized by an ultrahigh-temperature plasma plume fulfills such high-temperature ignition conditions. A new steam plasma igniter is designed and successfully validated by aluminum power ignition and combustion tests. The steam plasma rapidly stabilizes in both plasma and steam jet modes. Parametric investigation of the steam plasma jet is conducted in terms of arc strength. A high-speed camera and an oscilloscope method visualize the discharge characteristics, and optical emission spectroscopy measures the thermochemical properties of the plasma jet. The diatomic molecule OH fitting method, the Boltzmann plot method, and short exposure capturing with an intensified charge coupled device record the axial distributions of the rotational gas temperature, excitation temperature, and OH radical distribution, respectively. The excitation temperature at the nozzle tip is near 5500 K, and the gas temperature is 5400 K.

  3. Salisbury hospital's steam trap success.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    With the Carbon Reduction Commitment now fully in force, and the NHS tasked with achieving tough carbon emission reduction targets in line with both UK and EU mandates, healthcare estates teams across the country are seeking cost-effective ways to reduce energy consumption. Against this backdrop, Salisbury District Hospital has implemented a concerted energy-saving programme, key elements of which include replacing existing bucket steam traps with higher performing, lower maintenance, and more effective GEM venturi steam traps from Thermal Energy International (TEI), installing a new gas CHP engine, and looking into fitting a TEI condensate economiser system. PMID:21485315

  4. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  5. Organic Evaporator steam valve failure

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R. A.

    1992-09-29

    DWPF Technical has requested an analysis of the capacity of the organic Evaporator (OE) condenser (OEC) be performed to determine its capability in the case where the OE steam flow control valve fails open. Calculations of the OE boilup and the OEC heat transfer coefficient indicate the OEC will have more than enough capacity to remove the heat at maximum OE boilup. In fact, the Salt Cell Vent Condenser (SCVC) should also have sufficient capacity to handle the maximum OE boilup. Therefore it would require simultaneous loss of OEC and/or SCVC condensing capacity for the steam valve failure to cause high benzene in the Process Vessel Vent System (PVVS).

  6. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Faass, G.S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous hydrolysis of poplar chips by steam at 300-350 psi resulted in the separation of hemicellulose (I) cellulose and lignin components. The I fraction was readily depolymerised by steam to acetic acid, furfural, methanol, and xylose.

  7. Are Your Steam Traps Leaking Money?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Contends that small defects in steam heating systems often go unnoticed, while efficiency drops. Presents guidelines for detecting steam loss through trap orifices and determining how much they are costing. (Author/MLF)

  8. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  10. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  11. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  12. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  13. Steam-water relative permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  14. The STEAM behind the Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carmen Petrick; King, Barbara; González, Diana

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for STEAM-based (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) knowledge and skills across a wide range of professions (Brazell 2013). Yet students often fail to see the usefulness of mathematics beyond the classroom (Kloosterman, Raymond, and Emenaker 1996), and they do not regularly make connections between…

  15. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  16. Downhole steam generator: field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Eson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Excessive air pollution and heat losses up to 32% in the surface lines and out the stacks of conventional generators are reasons why conventional steam generation is efficient. These problems are addressed and overcome through the use of a direct-fired down-hole steam generator (DSG). By performing the combustion process at high pressure, and then adding water, a mixture of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and steam is discharged directly into the heavy oil reservoir. This study documents a series of field tests of a direct-fired DSG showing its ability to produce and inject high quality steam into heavy oil reservoirs without the need for expensive stack scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), as well as sophisticated nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) control techniques. Results from the 6-in. diameter, 6-ft long, 7.1-mmBtu/hr DSG showed that corrosion can be controlled and production can be improved dramatically in actual field tests in California heavy oil reservoirs.

  17. New downhole steam generator tested

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1981-07-01

    Completion of 2 field tests of a new-model down-hole steam generator paves the way for further evaluation and development of a system destined to increase California's heavy oil production. Current air pollution restrictions there prevent installation of conventional steam generators in several areas of interest to oil operators. The current series of tests, conducted by Chemical Oil Recovery Co. (CORCO) of Bakersfield, California, follows an earlier prototype operation conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the US Department of Energy. The CORCO tests were conducted on the surface with the generator's output going into Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production Co.'s overland-Riokern Well No. 80, located in the Kern River field 4 miles north of Bakersfield. The first test was concluded with just under 1000 bbl of steam injected, less than planned due to a higher-than-expected injection pressure. The unit operated at less than 25% capacity because of the air compressor limitation. Compressor output was only 285 psi, not enough to inject the desired volumes into the reservoir. Test data shows that injection amounted to 150 bpd of 90 to 95% quality steam at 225-psi wellhead pressure. After injection, the well was shut in for 3 days to allow soaking, then put on production. Initial production was 40 bopd at 175 F.

  18. Direct firing downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Binsley, R.L.; Wagner, W.R.; Wright, D.E.

    1982-06-29

    Direct firing downbole steam generator basically comprises an injector assembly axially connected with a combustion chamber. Downstream of the combustion chamber and oriented so as to receive its output is a heat exchanger wherein preheated water is injected into the heat exchanger through a plurality of one-way valves, vaporized and injected through a nozzle, packer and check valve into the well formation.

  19. Recent Developments in Superheated Steam Processing of Foods-A Review.

    PubMed

    Alfy, Anto; Kiran, B V; Jeevitha, G C; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-10-01

    Although the use of superheated steam has been known for quite a long time, only in the recent past has it emerged as a viable technology for food processing. Superheated steam, having higher enthalpy, can quickly transfer heat to the material being processed, resulting in its rapid heating. The major advantages of using superheated steam for food processing are better product quality (color, shrinkage, and rehydration characteristics), reduced oxidation losses, and higher energy efficiency. This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent studies on the application of superheated steam for food-processing operations such as drying, decontamination and microbial load reduction, parboiling, and enzyme inactivation. The review encompasses aspects such as the effect of superheated steam processing on product quality, mathematical models reported for superheated steam drying, and the future scope of application in food processing. Recent studies on process improvisation, wherein superheated steam is used at low pressure, in fluidized bed mode, sequential processing with hot air/infrared, and in combination with micro droplets of water have also been discussed. PMID:25162315

  20. Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

    2004-10-01

    At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

  1. Steam generator tube integrity program leak rate tests. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Bickford, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary results on leak rate tests performed on through-wall defected Inconel 600 steam generator tubing. Tube defects included an EDM (electro-discharge machine) notch and IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracks) of various lengths. Tests were conducted at PWR operating temperatures with leakage of hot water/steam into air. A number of IGSCC cracks were unstable under the experiment conditions of these initial tests, continuing to grow until system capacity limitations resulted in decreased pressure differential. However, initial tesing also pointed to a need for reconfiguration of the test apparatus to sustain increased flow and, more importantly, alter the mode of control. The initial test configuration is based on flow control, with pressure differential across the specimen an independent variable. This often results in pressure increases too rapid to establish the initiation of crack instability. A reconfigured system based on pressure control with flow as an independent parameter is being recommended for future tests.

  2. Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena in High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Cells

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high temperature process heat. The overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. An overview of high temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic thermodynamics, experimental methods, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  3. Steam jet ejectors for the process industries. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Power, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Steam jet ejectors were for many years the workhorse of the chemical process industries for producing vacuum. With increasing emphasis on stricter pollution control, their use was curtailed. There are still many applications, however, such as those with large capacity requirements, where ejectors are the only equipment that can produce sufficient vacuum. Chapter 1 is a short overview on how to use the text. Chapter 2 discusses what an ejector is and how it works. How ejector stages work is reviewed in Chapter 3. Engineering calculations for ejector stages is thoroughly discussed in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, contact and surface condensers are reviewed, and calculation procedures are presented. The various types of pressure control are discussed in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 is an excellent review of installation of ejector vacuum systems. The final chapter of Part 2 (Chapters 3--8) thoroughly covers all aspects of operation, testing, troubleshooting and maintenance. Part 3, consisting of two chapters, is devoted to specifying and purchasing steam jet ejectors. Part 4 on other ejector applications and upgrading ejector usage also consists of two chapters. Chapter 11 reviews steam-jet refrigeration, steam-jet and gas-jet compressors, liquid jet eductors, desuperheaters, special design situations, and designing one's own systems. Upgrading of existing ejector procedures and hardware is reviewed in Chapter 12. The 12 appendixes cover: physical properties of common fluids; handy vacuum engineering data and rules of thumb; SI unit conversions; sizing air and steam metering orifices for testing; drill sizes; ejector operating costs and design optimization; forms for ejector calculations, tests, and inspections; instructions for preparing ejector specifications; test kit contents list; ejector manufacturers and suppliers of referenced hardware and information; and failure modes and symptoms.

  4. Experimental investigation on combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribaturin, N. A.; Fedorov, V. A.; Alekseev, M. V.; Bogomolov, A. R.; Sorokin, A. L.; Azikhanov, S. S.; Shevyrev, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data are represented on the investigation of combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated (initial temperature of approximately 150°C) steam at atmospheric pressure. The influence of the ratio of mass flows of the combustible mixture and steam on the qualitative composition of combustion products and the temperature of produced steam is revealed. Main laws for combustion of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, which affect the completeness of mixture combustion, are determined. Experimental data on the influence of concentrations of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the flow of the steam and the combustible mixture upon the completeness of combustion are given. It is found that, when burning the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow with a temperature of 1000-1200°C, it is possible using a variation of the combustible mixture flow. At the same time, the volume fraction of noncondensable gases in the produced steam is no more than 2%. It is revealed that there are several combustion modes of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, in which, in one case, the steam always suppresses combustion and, in another one, detonation of the combustible mixture combustible mixture occurs. It is found that with the excess air factor close to unit, the combustion of the methane-oxygen mixture within steam and the vapor conversion of methane, which result in the appearance of free hydrogen in the produced high-temperature steam, are possible. The description and the principle of the operation of the experimental bench for investigation of combustion of methane-oxygen and hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in the medium of steam are given. Results of experimental investigations of burning fuel and oxygen in the medium of steam are used in the development of a steam superheater for a hightemperature steam turbine.

  5. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  6. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, K.L.

    THIS PAPER IS A STUDY OF A CHILD'S EARLIEST PRETRANSFORMATIONAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES. A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS (1) THAT SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION OCCURS THROUGH THE TESTING OF HYPOTHESES REFLECTING THE INITIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACQUISITION MECHANISM AND THE LANGUAGE DATA TO WHICH THE CHILD IS EXPOSED, AND (2) THAT…

  7. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect

    DiBella, F.A. )

    1992-08-01

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  8. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect

    DiBella, F.A.

    1992-08-01

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  9. Can Production Precede Comprehension in L2 Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila

    2015-01-01

    So far, the comprehension and production language modes have typically been studied separately in generative second language acquisition research, with the focus shifting from one to the other. This article revisits the asymmetric relationship between comprehension and production by examining the second language (L2) acquisition of the noun phrase…

  10. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  11. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  12. Direct firing downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.R.; Wright, D.E.; Binsley, R.L.

    1982-06-29

    A direct firing down-hole steam generator is composed of an injector assembly axially connected with a combustion chamber. Downstream of the combustion chamber and oriented so as to receive its output is a heat exchanger where preheated water is injected into the heat exchanger through a number of one-way valves. The heated water is vaporized and injected through a nozzle, packer, and check valve into the well formation. 9 claims.

  13. Ultrasonic guided wave inspection concepts for steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.L.; Rajana, K.M. ); Carr, F.T. )

    1994-02-01

    Some very exciting and promising results have been obtained with respect to the utilization and guided wave techniques for inspecting steam generator tubing. In addition to some theoretical considerations that were studied recently, work has been carried out in special probe design and development. This special probe is used in demonstration of law detection feasibility, and in understanding the conceptual development of a complete flaw detection system. This includes transducer, pulser-receiver system, and appropriate signal processing and pattern recognition software for reliable inspection. Ultrasonic NDE techniques have progressed quite rapidly during this decade for two principal reasons: advanced signal processing, and the use and understanding of multi-mode ultrasonic wave propagation. Both concepts are useful in the proposed work on guided wave propagation in steam generator tubing. These new directions go beyond the use of normal beam longitudinal waves and angle beam shear waves for inspection. Guided waves such as surface and Lamb waves can be used to monitor larger volumes of material with greater efficiency. The generation of these waves, however, is more complex. Theoretically one can produce a large number of modes in a structure with a simple loading arrangement. However, the generation of sufficient amounts of energy in a specific mode strongly depends on several factors. They include the loading system, angle of attack, probe frequency, frequency bandwidth, and a whole host of special transducer design and instrumentation parameters.

  14. COS Target Acquisition Guidelines and Bright Object Protection Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Brittany L.; Friedman, S.; Keyes, T.; Soderblom, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph will provide unparalleled high sensitivity spectroscopy of faint ultraviolet sources. To effectively utilize the unique capabilities of COS, target selection and acquisitions should be carefully planned. Acquisitions of faint objects with COS will typically use the NUV imaging mode. For brighter sources, spiral search and peakup acquisition modes are available for both FUV and NUV. We highlight guidelines and strategies for observers to craft target acquisitions with all modes and how to choose between them. Based upon COS Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) modeling, we illustrate the time requirements for different target acquisition scenarios. To preserve the health and safety of COS detectors, separate bright object protection rules have been created for each detector. We explain these rules and their implications for potential COS targets and users. Most science observations will be performed in TIME-TAG mode in which individual photon arrival times and locations are recorded. This mode is preferred because it allows for optimized data reduction. Brighter objects that produce high count rates must be handled by using ACCUM mode that collects photons only by location on the detector. We discuss the count rate limits and specific data quality considerations of each mode.

  15. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  16. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  17. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines - Steam Tip Sheet #2

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Determination of steam wetness in the steam-generating equipment of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorburov, V. I.; Gorburov, D. V.; Kuz'min, A. V.

    2012-05-01

    Calculation and experimental methods for determining steam wetness in horizontal steam generators for nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors, namely, the classic salt technique and calculations based on operating parameters are discussed considered and compared.

  19. Design of steam silencers for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lazalde-Crabtree, H.

    1985-01-01

    Steam silencers are a means of reducing the loud noise caused by venting steam into the atmosphere as a consequence of load-reductions in a geothermal power plant. For new plants, or for those in which noise measurements cannot be made, an analytical method is given to determine the unsilenced noise levels. Designs fo two types of steam silencers, based on experimental work and theoretical considerations, are presented.

  20. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  1. Calculation of steam-water injector properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlicek, Petr; Linhart, Jiri

    2014-08-01

    The topic of this article is a calculation of steam-water injector properties using simplified one dimensional global model. In this case the injector is used as combined mixing heat exchanger and water pump. It mixes steam with water and inject water into an area with a set back-pressure. At the exit only liquid phase is present, which is caused by a shock wave which occurs in highly wet steam.

  2. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  3. Excessive Acquisition in Hoarding

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Tolin, David F.; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E.; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  4. Syngas Generation from Organic Waste with Plasma Steam Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, G.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Smith, R. A.; Elliott, J.; Unruh, D.

    2014-05-01

    A plasma steam reforming system to process waste is in the process of being set up at the University of California, Merced. The proposed concept will use two different plasma regimes, i.e. glow discharge and arc torches to process a percentage of the total liquid waste stream generated at the campus together with shredded local organic solid waste. One of the main advantages of the plasma technology to be utilized is that it uses graphite electrodes that can be fed to the reactor to achieve continuous operation, thus, electrode or nozzle life is not a concern. The waste to energy conversion process consists of two stages, one where a mixture of steam and hydrogen is generated from the liquid in a glow-discharge cell, and a second stage where the mixture of exhaust gases coming out of the first device are mixed with solid waste in a reactor operating in steam reforming mode interacting with a plasma torch to generate high-quality syngas. In this paper, the results of a thermodynamic model developed for the two stages are shown. The syngas composition obtained indicates that the fraction of CO2 present decreases with increasing temperature and the molar fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide become dominant. The fraction of water vapour present in the product gases coming out of the second stage needs to be condensed before the syngas can be utilized in a prime mover.

  5. WRATS Integrated Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) data acquisition system (DAS) is a 64-channel data acquisition display and analysis system specifically designed for use with the WRATS 1/5-scale V-22 tiltrotor model of the Bell Osprey. It is the primary data acquisition system for experimental aeroelastic testing of the WRATS model for the purpose of characterizing the aeromechanical and aeroelastic stability of prototype tiltrotor configurations. The WRATS DAS was also used during aeroelastic testing of Bell Helicopter Textron s Quad-Tiltrotor (QTR) design concept, a test which received international attention. The LabVIEW-based design is portable and capable of powering and conditioning over 64 channels of dynamic data at sampling rates up to 1,000 Hz. The system includes a 60-second circular data archive, an integrated model swashplate excitation system, a moving block damping application for calculation of whirl flutter mode subcritical damping, a loads and safety monitor, a pilot-control console display, data analysis capabilities, and instrumentation calibration functions. Three networked computers running custom-designed LabVIEW software acquire data through National Instruments data acquisition hardware. The aeroelastic model (see figure) was tested with the DAS at two facilities at NASA Langley, the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and the Rotorcraft Hover Test Facility (RHTF). Because of the need for seamless transition between testing at these facilities, DAS is portable. The software is capable of harmonic analysis of periodic time history data, Fast Fourier Transform calculations, power spectral density calculations, and on-line calibration of test instrumentation. DAS has a circular buffer archive to ensure critical data is not lost in event of model failure/incident, as well as a sample-and-hold capability for phase-correct time history data.

  6. A REVIEW OF THE OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL ALLOYS IN STEAM

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Ian G; Dooley, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this review is the state of knowledge of the oxidation behavior in steam of alloys with potential for use as pressure parts in steam boilers. Growth of steam-side oxides has implications for scale exfoliation, tube blockage and overheating, and turbine erosion. Mitigation of such problems requires mechanistic understanding of the influences of alloy composition and microstructure as well as time, temperature, and boiler operating parameters on the evolution of specific scale structures. The oxidation behavior in steam of three classes of alloys is addressed: ferritic steels (particularly the 9-12 wt% Cr alloys), austenitic steels, and high-temperature nickel-based alloys. Understanding the interplay among compositional and microstructural requirements for strengthening and oxidation resistance, and their influence on the rate and mode of scale evolution is key to the most effective application of these alloy classes. Underlying these interests is the apparently different mode of oxide growth in steam than in air, especially contributions from inward transport of oxidant species. The particular species involved and their roles in the oxidation process are expected to exert a large influence on the oxide morphologies developed, while the fate of any hydrogen released in the alloy is a further topic of particular interest.

  7. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  8. Pneumatic transport of coal by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmann, J.M.; Wildman, D.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Steam has been suggested as the transport gas in power plant facilities where the availability high pressure steam already exists. The transport of coal pneumatically by the use of steam to a loading ratio of 10 has been studied experimentally in a 0.0107 meter diameter pipe. Analysis of the energy losses in transport of the steam-coal mixture has been carried out using a model based on thermodynamic and fluid mechanics principles. Good agreement between the data and model has been obtained.

  9. Pneumatic transport of coal by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Ekmann, J.M.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Steam has been suggested as the transport gas in power plant facilities where the availability of high pressure steam already exists. The transport of coal pneumatically by the use of steam to a loading ratio of 10 has been studied experimentally in a 3/8'' pipe. Analysis of the energy losses in transport of the steam-coal mixture has been carried out using a model based on thermodynamic and fluid mechanics principles. Good agreement between the data and model has been obtained. 4 references, 2 figures.

  10. Steam consumption reduction by eutectic freeze crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Bichsel, S.E.; Cleary, M.; Barron, T.S.; Heist, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Steam production in American beet sugar factories can be reduced by 600 pounds per ton of beets by using hydrate freeze crystallization in place of pan evaporators for sugar crystallization. This is a relatively constant number, regardless of current factory energy use. Further reduction is limited by the juice heating needs in the purification operations. Steam for juice heating is 20 to 30% on beets, or 400 to 600 pounds of steam per ton. In efficient factories this is about the steam flow to the evaporators when the pan crystallizers are replaced by freeze crystallization. An approach is described here for a rapid evaluation of effects on the steam balance of basic process changes. It provides a visual guide to restructuring the steam balance that simplifies optimization when such changes are made. The graphic approach is useful in illustrating methods of reducing energy use in a sugar factory, in addition to the current analysis of integration of the hydrate freeze process. For example, membrane and vapor recompression evaporators for juice concentration must be accompanied by major factory modifications to produce any net savings of steam. The reason is the needs for specific steam quantity and quality for the pan evaporators and juice heaters, supplied through the current evaporator trains. Reduction of the steam rate below 25 to 35% on beets will require changes to the conventional juice purification process.

  11. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  12. Steam sterilization: a comparison of Steam-Clox and some european biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Hoborn, J

    1975-07-01

    Results of a study of the reaction of a chemical indicator (Steam-Clox) and of two biological indicators exposed to steam sterilization with varying amounts of air introduced with the steam, indicate that the chemical indicator is capable of detecting significantly smaller amounts of air than either of the biological indicators tested. PMID:1236614

  13. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  14. RPV steam generator pressure boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.

    1996-03-01

    As the types of SG tube degradation affecting PWR SGs has changed, and improvements in tube inspection and repair technology have occurred, current SG regulatory requirements and guidance have become increasingly out of date. This regulatory situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis, however to resolve this problem in the long term, the NRC has begun development of a performance-based rule. As currently structured, the proposed steam generator rule would require licensees to implement SG programs that monitor the condition of the steam generator tubes against accepted performance criteria to provide reasonable assurance that the steam generator tubes remain capable of performing their intended safety functions. Currently the staff is developing three performance criteria that will ensure the tubes can continue to perform their safety function and therefore satisfy the SG rule requirements. The staff, in developing the criteria, is striving to ensure that the performance criteria have the two key attributes of being (1) measurable (enabling the tube condition to be {open_quotes}measured{close_quotes} against the criteria) and (2) tolerable (ensuring that failures to meet the criteria do not result in unacceptable consequences). A general description of the criteria are: (1) Structural integrity criteria: Ensures that the structural integrity of the SG tubes is maintained for the operating cycle consistent with the margins intended by the ASME Code. (2) Leakage integrity criteria: Ensures that postulated accident leakages and the associated dose releases are limited relative to 10 CFR Part 50 guidelines and 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix A GDC 19. (3) Operational leakage criteria: Ensures that the operating unit will be shut down as a defense-in depth measure when operational SG tube leakage exceeds established leakage limits.

  15. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  16. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

  17. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E.

    2009-07-15

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Steam generators and related auxiliaries

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.L.

    1986-04-01

    The current capability of the power generation industry to supply steam generating equipment for large central fossil stations is much lower than that of several years ago. Volatile energy prices make it very difficult to predict long-term demand changes, but current conditions strongly suggest that demand forecasts and orders will increase from current levels. This combination of circumstances strongly suggest that, while not a certainty, the potential for material and equipment shortages is a very real possibility that belongs in any current assessment of the future of the industry.

  19. Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

  20. 13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, parallel motion links and steam chest. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. 3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTHWEST. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING FOURTH STEAM UNIT IN PLACE AT FAR SOUTH END. April 6, 1950 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. LIFTING BEAM DESIGN/ANALYSIS FOR THE DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL SYSTEM TRAILER

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; BENEGAS TR

    1993-03-15

    This supporting document details calculations completed to properly design an adjustable lifting beam. The main use of the lifting beam is to hoist the Data Acquisition and Controls Systems (DACS) trailer over a steam line. All design work was completed using the American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction (AISC, 1989) and Hanford Hoisting and Rigging Manual (WHC, 1992).

  4. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  5. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  6. 2D-simulation of wet steam flow in a steam turbine with spontaneous condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lan-Xin; Zheng, Qun; Liu, Shun-Long

    2007-06-01

    Removal of condensates from wet steam flow in the last stages of steam turbines significantly promotes stage efficiency and prevents erosion of rotors. In this paper, homogeneous spontaneous condensation in transonic steam flow in the 2-D rotor-tip section of a stage turbine is investigated. Calculated results agree with experimental data reasonably well. On the basis of the above work, a 2-D numerical simulation of wet steam flow in adjacent root sections of a complex steam turbine stage was carried out. Computational results were analyzed and provide insights into effective removal of humidity.

  7. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

  9. BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.A.; Ishii, Mamoru

    1998-12-31

    Historically, the focus of thermal-hydraulics analyses on large-break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) has been on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. The authors present some numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University multidimensional integrated test assembly (PUMA).

  10. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED BEDROCK FOR STEAM INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most difficult setting in which to conduct groundwater remediation is that where chlorinated solvents have penetrated fractured bedrock. To demonstrate the potential viability of steam injection as a means of groundwater clean-up in this type of environment, steam will be in...

  12. Integrated coal drying and steam gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Nahas, N.C.

    1981-08-18

    Carbonaceous solids slurried in an aqueous solution, which preferably contains catalyst constituents having gasification activity, are dried by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in a fluid bed slurry dryer and the resultant dried solids are subsequently gasified with steam generated in the dryer.

  13. Program assists steam drive design project

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A.A.

    1984-08-27

    A new program for the HP-41CV programmable calculator will compute all parameters required for a steam drive project design. The Marx and Langenheim model assumptions are used to solve a more advanced version of the Myhill and Stegemeier model. Also, the Mandl and Volek model assuptions are used to compute the size of the steam zone.

  14. A high-speed transputer-based data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, C. F. M.; Santos, J. M. G. B.; Simões, J. B.; Correia, C. M. B. A.; Zilker, M.

    1996-01-01

    A 250 MHz 8-bit transputer-based data acquisition VME bus module is described. This module has been designed as the acquisition node of a transputer-based real-time processing and data reduction system for the reflectometry diagnostic in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak experiment. The architecture of the board is detailed, emphasizing the advantages of using recently delivered devices, like fast synchronous FIFOs, in a mixed ECL/TTL data acquisition architecture. It is shown that the implemented architecture leads naturally to the implementation of hardware triggers that allow the acquisition channels to operate as stand-alone modules in a self-triggered, self-timed, data acquisition mode. The advantages of using transputers as local control and processing units are discussed. The use of the board in the reflectometry diagnostic and the general processing goals of the system are presented together with data characterizing the performance of the acquisition channels.

  15. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  16. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  17. COS Target Acquisition Guidelines and Bright Object Protection Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Keyes, T.; Shaw, B.; Soderblom, D.; Friedman, S.; COS/STIS STScI Team; COS IDT Team

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph will provide spectroscopy of faint ultraviolet sources with unparalleled sensitivity. However, careful planning is required to effectively utilize the unique capabilities of COS. Faint object acquisition with COS will typically utilize the Near-UV (NUV) imaging mode. For brighter sources, spiral search and peakup acquisition modes are available for both the NUV and Far-UV (FUV). Here we highlight guidelines and strategies for observers to craft target acquisitions in all modes and describe how to choose between them. Based upon COS Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) modeling, we illustrate the time requirements for different target acquisition scenarios. To preserve the health and safety of COS detectors, separate bright object protection rules have been created for each detector. We explain these rules and their implications for potential COS targets and users. Most science observations will be performed in time-tag (TTAG) mode in which individual photon arrival times and locations are recorded. This mode is preferred because it allows for optimized data reduction. Brighter objects that produce high count rates must be handled by using accumulation (ACCUM) mode that collects photons according to their location on the detector. For each observation mode we discuss the count rate limits and specific data quality considerations.

  18. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  19. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  20. Experimental research of flow parameters on the last stage of the steam turbine 1090 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Kamil; Hoznedl, Michal; Bednář, Lukáš; Mrózek, Lukáš; Kalista, Robert

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with a brief description of measurement and evaluation of flow parameters at the output from the last stage of the low pressure steam turbine casing for the saturated steam with the nominal power 1090 MW. Measurement was carried out using a seven-hole pneumatic probe traversing along the length of the blade in several peripheral positions under nominal and selected partial modes. The result is knowledge of distribution of the static, dynamic and total pressure along the length of the blade and velocity distribution including their components. This information is the input data for determination of efficiency of the last stage, the loss coefficient of the diffuser and other significant parameters describing efficiency of selected parts of the steam turbine.

  1. Adaptive line enhancers for fast acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H.-G.; Nguyen, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    Three adaptive line enhancer (ALE) algorithms and architectures - namely, conventional ALE, ALE with double filtering, and ALE with coherent accumulation - are investigated for fast carrier acquisition in the time domain. The advantages of these algorithms are their simplicity, flexibility, robustness, and applicability to general situations including the Earth-to-space uplink carrier acquisition and tracking of the spacecraft. In the acquisition mode, these algorithms act as bandpass filters; hence, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is improved for fast acquisition. In the tracking mode, these algorithms simply act as lowpass filters to improve signal-to-noise ratio; hence, better tracking performance is obtained. It is not necessary to have a priori knowledge of the received signal parameters, such as CNR, Doppler, and carrier sweeping rate. The implementation of these algorithms is in the time domain (as opposed to the frequency domain, such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT)). The carrier frequency estimation can be updated in real time at each time sample (as opposed to the batch processing of the FFT). The carrier frequency to be acquired can be time varying, and the noise can be non-Gaussian, nonstationary, and colored.

  2. Steam stripping recycle developed for gasifier liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    When coal is gasified in fixed bed processes such as the British Gas/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, the crude product contains steam which on cooling results in the formation of an aqueous liquor. This liquor contains soluble species such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride and phenols. These liquors are environmentally unacceptable and their disposal can be a serious problem. British Gas has developed a new process for the purification of such aqueous effluent liquors. It has been discovered that the gasification steam may be used, at gasification pressure, to strip the volatile compounds from such liquors and thereby include these compounds in the reactant stream where they are gasified within the main reactor. A portion of the gasifier feed steam may be superheated, passed through the condensate liquor, combined with the remaining portion of the gasifier feed steam and then injected through the tuyeres of the gasification plant. In this way an effluent liquor is produced with contains substantially only inorganic compounds, and these can be removed by conventional treatments. Although high-pressure steam stripping removes any lighter volatile components, compounds such as the higher molecular weight phenols may not be readily stripped out. The invention therefore provides also for the use of oxygen-containing gas under pressure to purify the effluent. The oxygen-containing gas may either be used alone, in a mixture with steam or as a second stage following the steam-stripping process.

  3. Cyclic steaming in heavy oil diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Beatty, F.D.

    1995-12-31

    Chevron currently uses cyclic steaming as a recovery method to produce economically its heavy oil diatomite resource in the Cymric field, San Joaquin Valley, California. A highly instrumented, cyclically steaming well from this field was simulated in this study to delineate important production mechanisms, to optimize operations, and to improve reservoir management. The model was constrained, as much as possible, by the available measured data. Results show that fluid flow from the well to the reservoir is primarily through the hydraulic fracture induced by the injected steam. Parameters with unique importance to modeling cyclic steaming in diatomites are: (1) induced fracture dimension (length and height), (2) matrix permeability, (3) oil/water capillary pressure, (4) grid size perpendicular to fracture face, and (5) producing bottomhole pressures. Additionally, parameters important for conventional steam injection processes, such as relative permeabilities and injected steam volume, quality, and rate, are important for diatomites also. Oil production rates and steam/oil ratios calculated by this model compare reasonably with field data.

  4. Acquisition signal transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An encoded information transmitter which transmits a radio frequency carrier that is amplitude modulated by a constant frequency waveform and thereafter amplitude modulated by a predetermined encoded waveform, the constant frequency waveform modulated carrier constituting an acquisition signal and the encoded waveform modulated carrier constituting an information bearing signal, the acquisition signal providing enhanced signal acquisition and interference rejection favoring the information bearing signal. One specific application for this transmitter is as a distress transmitter where a conventional, legislated audio tone modulated signal is transmitted followed first by the acquisition signal and then the information bearing signal, the information bearing signal being encoded with, among other things, vehicle identification data. The acquistion signal enables a receiver to acquire the information bearing signal where the received signal is low and/or where the received signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio in an environment where there are multiple signals in the same frequency band as the information bearing signal.

  5. High Speed data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Peter S.

    1998-02-01

    A general introduction to high Speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E781) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab.

  6. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  7. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  8. Rx for Acquisitions Hangups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huleatt, Richard S.

    1973-01-01

    A system of ordering library materials efficiently, quickly and at low cost is presented. The procedure bypasses purchasing departments and helps reduce acquisitions time by authorizing direct ordering by the library. Forms and procedures used are discussed. (1 reference) (DH)

  9. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier....

  10. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier....

  11. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier....

  12. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier....

  13. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier....

  14. Sullair low pressure downhole steam generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists and engineers are continually searching for techniques to release more oil from known reservoirs to improve productivity and lessen dependence on new finds. Based on a record of success dating to the early 1960s, thermal methods, and in particular methodology for steam treating deep reservoirs, have become an area of intense activity. In the U.S. alone, it has been reported that ca 300,000 bopd was produced in 1981 by traditional surface steam methods. Of the thermal techniques emerging, downhole steam generation is of particular interest in this discussion. 11 references.

  15. Electric-arc steam plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Radko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation results on the arc plasmatorch for water-steam heating are presented. The construction arrangement of steam plasma generator with copper electrodes of the stepped geometry was firstly implemented. The energy characteristics of plasmatorch and erosion of electrodes reflect the features of their behavior at arc glow in the plasma-forming environment of steam. The results of numerical study of the thermal state of the composite copper-steel electrodes had a significant influence on optimization of anode water-cooling aimed at improvement of its operation life.

  16. Mode S baseline radar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, E. F.; Baker, L. H.

    1982-11-01

    The baseline performance characteristics of the moving target detector (MTD) and radar data acquisition system (RDAS) as an integral part of the Mode S sensor, were determined. The MTD and RDAS were separately evaluated to determine their capability to provide radar data suitable for utilization by the Mode S sensor and automated radar terminal system (ARTS). The design modifications made to the Mode S sensor to provide the capability of interfacing to either an MTD or RDAS were evaluated to determine if they were in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration engineering requirement, FAA-ER-240-26. Radar baseline technical performance data was provided to characterize the MTD, RDAS, Mode S, and ARTS. The minimum radar tracking requirements are studied to determine if they are adequate to provide reliable radar track data to an air traffic control facility. It was concluded that the Mode S sensor, when integrated with an MTD-2 radar digitizer, can provide reliable primary radar track data to the ARTS III system for automated radar track acquisition.

  17. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  18. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  19. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  20. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  1. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  2. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  3. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  4. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  5. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  6. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  7. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  8. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is...

  9. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  10. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  11. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  12. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  13. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  14. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main...

  15. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance...

  16. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  17. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  18. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  19. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  20. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114... Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic steam generator inspection. Except as provided in § 229.33, each steam generator shall be inspected and tested in accordance...

  1. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  2. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114... Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic steam generator inspection. Except as provided in § 229.33, each steam generator shall be inspected and tested in accordance...

  3. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  4. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114... Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic steam generator inspection. Except as provided in § 229.33, each steam generator shall be inspected and tested in accordance...

  5. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. Furthermore, the impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  6. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. The impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  7. Shore-to-ship steam purification Inverse Flash Steam Purifier (IFSTEP) field unit tests. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.; Maga, S.; Silbernagel, M.

    1995-10-01

    The Inverse Flash Steam Purifier (IFSTEP), a device to remove noncondensable gases from steam, was developed, tested, and evaluated. IFSTEP provides an alternative to methods that generate pure steam. Steam can now be purified at selected points in the steam distribution line, thus improving steam for facilities where required. This differs from reverse osmosis, de-mineralization, and de-alkalization that necessarily purify all the steam, as they are feed water treatment methods. With IFSTEP, simple water softening is adequate. The expense of the comprehensive feed water treatment, hazardous material handling, and labor intensive operation is diminished. Test data illustrate the behavior of IFSTEP during early bench tests and current field tests. Under a wide variety of upstream pressure and downstream steam demands, including boiler shutoff and startup conditions, IFSTEP consistently provided clean steam. The best results were achieved with a pressure difference control valve, which maintained a constant pressure or temperature difference between the shell and tube side of the heat exchanger. A prototype design is presented that reflects the improvements suggested by all previous testing. The prototype is modular to allow capacity growth and to meet most activity requirements.

  8. US PWR steam generator management: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview on the status of steam generator management activities in US PWRs, and includes: (1) an overview of the impact of steam generator problems; (2) a brief discussion of historical damage trends and the current damage mechanism of most concern; (3) a discussion of the elements of {open_quotes}steam generator management{close_quotes}; and (4) a description of the approach being followed to implement a degradation-specific protocol for tubing inspection and repair. This paper was prepared in conjunction with another paper presented during the Plenary Session of this Conference, {open_quotes}Steam Generator Degradation: Current Mitigation Strategies for Controlling Corrosion{close_quotes}, and is provided as a supplement to that material.

  9. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  10. Horizontal steam generators: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Ryzhov, S. B.; Davidenko, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Main results of the 40-year experience gained from operation of horizontal steam generators in VVER-type reactor installations used in Russia and many foreign countries are described. Existing unresolved problems are pointed out.

  11. CRBRP steam-generator design evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, W.R.; Gillett, J.E.; Lagally, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The overall design of the CRBRP Steam Generator is briefly discussed. Two areas of particular concern are highlighted and considerations leading to the final design are detailed. Differential thermal expansion between the shell and the steam tubes is accommodated by the tubes flexing in the curved section of the shell. Support of the tubes by the internals structure is essential to permit free movement and minimize tube wear. Special spacer plate attachment and tube hole geometry promote unimpeded axial movement of the tubes by allowing individual tubes to rotate laterally and by providing lateral movement of the spacer plates relative to the adjacent support structure. The water/steam heads of the CRBRP Steam Generator are spherical heads welded to the lower and upper tubesheets. They were chosen principally because they provide a positively sealed system and result in more favorable stresses in the tubesheets when compared to mechanically attached steamheads.

  12. Operational experiences of a downhole steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. W.

    The US Department of Energy supported the development of downhole steam generators for enhanced oil recovery as a part of Project DEEP STEAM. A final step in the development program was to deploy a downhole steam generator in the field to demonstrate its reliable operation and to evaluate the effect of the combined steam/exhaust products effluent on the reservoir. Sandia National Laboratories entered into an agreement with the City of Long Beach to place two direct contact, high pressure combustors in the Wilmington Field in Long Beach, California. These units one downhole and the other on the surface, have now been operated for a few months and gas communication with the production wells measured. The operational experience of this field experiment are discussed.

  13. Downhole steam generator at Kern River

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1980-05-01

    Testing of a prototype down-hole steam generator for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations has begun at a heavy oil reservoir in the Kern River oil field in California. Steam and combustion gases are directed into an 800-ft-deep reservoir through a standard surface steam delivery system, although the system is designed to function at depths to 4500 ft. Present steam injection techniques require one-third of the oil recovered to be used to fuel the injection system, and the boilers require scrubbers to control emissions to specifications. The down-hole system is expected to use only 2/3 as much fuel as the conventional systems and to have less impact on air quality.

  14. Downhole steam generator subject of Sandia tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The first field test of a down-hole steam generator developed to inject hot steam directly into deeply buried heavy oil reservoirs began in mid-April near Long Beach, CA. The 23-ft-long, 6-in.-diameter generator, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, will produce up to 800 cu ft of 500 F steam a minute (1.2 MW thermal) at the bottom of a 2500-ft well. Goals of the test are to demonstrate the feasibility of operating the generator at realistic depths and to determine its overall performance and environmental impact. Development of the generator is part of the US Department of Energy's Project Deep Steam to identify techniques for recovering heavy oil from deeply buried (greater than 2500 ft) reservoirs.

  15. Operational experiences of a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has supported the development of downhole steam generators for enhanced oil recovery as a part of Project DEEP STEAM. A final step in the development program was to deploy a downhole steam generator (DHSG) in the field to demonstrate its reliable operation and to evaluate the effect of the combined steam/exhaust products effluent on the reservoir. Sandia National Laboratories entered into an agreement with the City of Long Beach to place two direct contact, high pressure combustors in the Wilmington Field in Long Beach, California. These units one downhole and the other on the surface, have now been operated for a few months and gas communication with the production wells measured. The operational experience of this field experiment are discussed.

  16. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  17. BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown.

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.

    1998-05-08

    Historically, thermal hydraulics analyses on Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) have been focused on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. This paper discusses some theoretical issues as well as presenting numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA).

  18. Oxidation of Alloys for Advanced Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.E.; Alman, D.E.

    2006-09-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steam oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines.

  19. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  20. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  1. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  2. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  3. Steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, D.P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing complex. They were: (1) Reheating of dehumidified clean room makeup air with heat extracted during precooling; (2) Preheating of deionization feedwater with refrigerant heat of condensation; (3) Preheating of boiler combustion air with heat extracted from boiler flue gas; (4) Preheating of boiler feedwater with heat extracted from gas turbine exhaust; (5) Variable-speed operation of boiler feedwater pumps and forced-draft fans; and (6) Preheating of boiler makeup water with heat extracted from boiler surface blow-down. The first two advancements (steam conservation measures) saved about $1,010,000 per year by using recovered waste heat rather than steam-derived heat at selected heating loads. The last four advancements (boiler plant efficiency measures) reduced the cost of steam produced by about 13%, or $293,500 per year, by reducing use of natural gas and electricity at the steam boiler plant. These advancements should prove of interest to industrial energy users faced with replacement of aging, inefficient boiler plants, rising fuel and power prices, and increasing pressures to reduce operating costs in order to enhance competitiveness.

  4. Nonuniform steam generator U-tube flow distribution during natural circulation tests in ROSA-IV large scale test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kukita, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Tasaka, K. ); Chauliac, C. )

    1988-08-01

    Natural circulation experiments were conducted in a large-scale (1/48 scale in volume) full-height simulator of a Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor. This facility has two steam generators each containing 141 full-size U-tubes of 9 different heights. Transition of the natural circulation mode was observed in the experiments as the primary of side mass inventory was decreased. Three major circulation modes were observed: single-phase liquid natural circulation, two-phase natural circulation, and reflux condensation. For all these circulation modes, and during the transitions between the modes, the mass flow distribution among the steam generator U-tubes was significantly nonuniform. The longer U-tubes indicated reversed flow at higher primary side mass inventories and also tended to empty earlier than the shorter U-tubes when the primary side mass inventory was decreased.

  5. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon R. Holcomb, NETL Joesph Tylczak, NETL Rongxiang Hu, NETL and URS Corp

    2011-09-15

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm. Towards this end, further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  6. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon R. Holcomb, NETL Joesph Tylczak, NETL Rongxiang Hu, NETL and URS Corp

    2011-09-15

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm. Towards this end, further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  7. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  8. Acoustic resonance in the combustion conduits of a steam locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, S.; Oengoeren, A.; Vogel, H.H.

    1996-12-01

    The sound emission of a modern, oil fired steam rack locomotive increased sharply when the locomotive speed exceeded the design value of 12 km/hr. The results of pressure and noise measurements, together with an acoustical model of the combustion conduits indicated that the acoustic resonance modes of the combustion conduits are excited by the pressure pulsations generated by the exhaust from the steam cylinders at multiples of the piston frequency. Additionally, when the acoustic resonance is initiated, the resulting pulsations trigger the flame instability of the oil burners which, in turn, enhances the resonance. By means of the acoustical model, a Helmholtz resonator has been designed and optimized to reduce the acoustic response such that it does not excite the flame instability. A second set of measurements, after installing the resonator, has shown a reduction in the noise level by an amount exceeding 21 dBA. The paper focuses upon the identification of the excitation source and the implementation of the countermeasure which are of interest to other applications involving combustion oscillations.

  9. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  10. The application of windows multithread in high-speed continual large-capacity data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tai-Yong; Zeng, Ju-Xiang; He, Hui-Long; Deng, Hui

    2005-12-01

    Three modes of Windows Multithread techniques in data acquisition system are explored in this paper. In the first mode, data acquisition is in one thread while the processing and display of data and the large-capacity data saving share another thread. In the second mode, data acquisition and the data processing and display are in one thread, and the large-capacity data saving in another thread. In the third mode, double level buffer queue technology is added based on the first mode technique. Experiments on the data acquisition system reveal that the third mode is the optimal alternative. It fully utilizes the capacity of data acquisition card and makes access to high-speed continual data acquisition and large-capacity data saving. The monitoring system which adopts the third mode has been developed and applied to some urban waterworks in Shanghai which has been in good mode during the past two years and saved a vast sum of costs on system maintenance and monitoring.

  11. Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system: ORCAS.

    PubMed

    Naivar, Mark A; Parson, Jimmie D; Wilder, Mark E; Habbersett, Robert C; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry; Nolan, John P; Graves, Steven W; Martin, John C; Jett, James H; Freyer, James P

    2007-11-01

    A digital signal processing (DSP)-based digital data acquisition system has been developed to support novel flow cytometry efforts. The system flexibility includes how it detects, captures, and processes event data. Custom data capture boards utilizing analog to digital converters (ADCs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) detect events and capture correlated event data. A commercial DSP board processes the captured data and sends the results over the IEEE 1394 bus to the host computer that provides a user interface for acquisition, display, analysis, and storage. The system collects list mode data, correlated pulse shapes, or streaming data from a variety of detector types using Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows host computers. It extracts pulse features not found on commercial systems with excellent sensitivity and linearity over a wide dynamic range. List mode data are saved in FCS 3.0 formatted files while streaming or correlated waveform data are saved in custom format files for postprocessing. Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system is compact, scaleable, flexible, and modular. Programmable feature extraction algorithms have exciting possibilities for both new and existing applications. The recent availability of a commercial data capture board will enable general availability of similar systems. PMID:17680705

  12. STEAM PLANT, TRA609. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. STEAM UNITS, OFFICE, MAINTENANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEAM PLANT, TRA-609. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. STEAM UNITS, OFFICE, MAINTENANCE AREA, UTILITY ROOM FOR ELECTRIC GEAR, AIR INTAKE AND FILTERING, DIESEL GENERATOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-809-2, 8/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0609-00-098-100684, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  14. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  15. STEAM STIRRED HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-06-01

    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.

  16. Chemistry of Earth's Putative Steam Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegley, B.; Schaefer, L.

    2007-12-01

    The concept of a steam atmosphere generated by impact devolatilization of planetesimals accreted during Earth's formation is over 20 years old (Matsui and Abe, 1986; Lange and Ahrens, 1982). Surprisingly, with the possible exception of a few qualitative remarks, no one has critically assessed this scenario. We use thermochemical equilibrium and, where relevant, thermochemical kinetic calculations to model the chemistry of the "steam" atmosphere produced by impact volatilization of different types of accreting material. We present results for our nominal conditions (1500 K, total P = 100 bar). We also studied the effects of variable temperature and total pressure. The composition of the accreting material is modeled using average compositions of the Orgueil CI chondrite, the Murchison CM2 chondrite, the Allende CV3 chondrite, average ordinary (H, L, LL) chondrites, and average enstatite (EH, EL) chondrites. The major gases released from CI and CM chondritic material are H2O, CO2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4, and SO2 in decreasing order of abundance. About 10% of the atmosphere is CO2. The major gases released from CV chondritic material are CO2, H2O, CO, H2, and SO2 in decreasing order of abundance. About 20% of the total atmosphere is steam. The major gases released from average ordinary chondritic material are H2, CO, H2O, CO2, CH4, H2S, and N2 in decreasing order of abundance. The "steam" atmosphere is predominantly H2 + CO with steam being about 10% of the total atmosphere. The major gases released from EH chondritic material are H2, CO, H2O, CO2, N2, and CH4 in decreasing order of abundance. The "steam" atmosphere is predominantly H2 + CO with about 10% of the total atmosphere as steam. This work was supported by the NASA Astrobiology and Origins Programs.

  17. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  18. High Speed data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.S.

    1998-02-01

    A general introduction to high Speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E781) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Image Acquisition Context

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, W. Dean; Bray, Bruce; Brown, Nicolas; Mori, Angelo Rossi; Spackman, Kent A.; Golichowski, Alan; Jones, Robert H.; Korman, Louis; Dove, Brent; Hildebrand, Lloyd; Berg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To support clinically relevant indexing of biomedical images and image-related information based on the attributes of image acquisition procedures and the judgments (observations) expressed by observers in the process of image interpretation. Design: The authors introduce the notion of “image acquisition context,” the set of attributes that describe image acquisition procedures, and present a standards-based strategy for utilizing the attributes of image acquisition context as indexing and retrieval keys for digital image libraries. Methods: The authors' indexing strategy is based on an interdependent message/terminology architecture that combines the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard, the SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine) vocabulary, and the SNOMED DICOM microglossary. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary provides context-dependent mapping of terminology to DICOM data elements. Results: The capability of embedding standard coded descriptors in DICOM image headers and image-interpretation reports improves the potential for selective retrieval of image-related information. This favorably affects information management in digital libraries. PMID:9925229

  20. Data Acquisition Backend

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr., Charles L.; Ezell, N. Dianne Bull; Roberts, Michael

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to summarize the development and testing of the data acquisition module portion of the Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) system developed at ORNL. The proposed system has been presented in an earlier report [1]. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [2].

  1. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    PubMed

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3). PMID:18198117

  2. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  3. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  4. Following Native Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiburg, Michael S.

    Native language acquisition is a natural and non-natural stage-by-stage process. The natural first stage is development of speech and listening skills. In this stage, competency is gained in the home environment. The next, non-natural stage is development of literacy, a cultural skill taught in school. Since oral-aural native language development…

  5. Telecommunications and data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  6. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  7. Experimental investigation of the steam wetness in a 1000 MW steam turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolovratník, Michal; Bartoš, Ondřej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the experimental data of the wetness distribution obtained in the year 2015 in front of and behind the last stage of the 1000MW steam turbine in the power plant Temelín. Two different optical probes developed at Czech Technical University were used. For the first time in the Czech Republic pneumatic and optical measurement of the wet steam flow field in front of the last stage of a nuclear power-station steam turbine was provided. This unique measurement opportunity provided lots of new information for the manufacturer and operator of the steam turbine and valuable experimental data for the phase transition modelling in the wet steam flow. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  8. The Life Assessment of Steam Turbine Rotors for Fossil Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sungho; Song, Geewook; Kim, Bumshin; Hyun, Jungseb; Ha, Jeongsoo

    The operational mode of thermal power plants has been changed from base load to duty cycle. From the changeover, fossil power plants cannot avoid frequent thermal transient states, for example, start up and stop, which results in thermal fatigue damage at the heavy section components. The rotor is the highest capital cost component in a steam turbine and requires long outage for replacing with a new one. For an optimized power plant operational life, inspection management of the rotor is necessary. It is known in general that the start-up and shutdown operations greatly affect the steam turbine life. The start-up operational condition is especially severe because of the rapid temperature and rotational speed increase, which causes damage and reduction of life of the main components life of the steam turbine. The start-up stress of a rotor which is directly related to life is composed of thermal and rotational stresses. The thermal stress is due to the variation of steam flow temperature and rotational stress is due to the rotational speed of the turbine. In this paper, the analysis method for the start-up stress of a rotor is proposed, which considers simultaneously temperature and rotational speed transition, and includes a case study regarding a 500MW fossil power plant steam turbine rotor. Also, the method of quantitative damage estimation for fatigue-creep damage to operational conditions, is described. The method can be applied to find weak points for fatigue-creep damage. Using the method, total life consumption can be obtained, and can be also be used for determining future operational modes and life extension of old fossil power units.

  9. Coordinating Council. Seventh Meeting: Acquisitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The theme for this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting was Acquisitions. In addition to NASA and the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) presentations, the report contains fairly lengthy visuals about acquisitions at the Defense Technical Information Center. CASI's acquisitions program and CASI's proactive acquisitions activity were described. There was a presentation on the document evaluation process at CASI. A talk about open literature scope and coverage at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics was also given. An overview of the STI Program's Acquisitions Experts Committee was given next. Finally acquisitions initiatives of the NASA STI program were presented.

  10. [Defective function of bioindicators for steam sterilization].

    PubMed

    Botzenhart, K; Merkt-Kinzler, M

    1990-05-01

    It can be shown, that under certain conditions commercially available indicators with Bacillus stearothermophilus and packages of native spores from soil prepared according to DIN 58 946/4 react differently to treatment in a lab-type steam sterilizer. The differences were most evident when incomplete evacuation of air had to be supposed. These results lead to the conclusion that some bioindicators are not able to show the inefficient function of steam sterilizers caused by local residuals of air. This may be caused by the properties of the selected strain, by the conditions of growth and preparation of the spores and by the culture medium used after exposition. The results of our experiments as well as the resistance of mesophilic spore forming bacilli against dry heat described by other authors make it necessary to test the resistance of bioindicators for steam sterilization not only against steam according to DIN 58946/4 but also against dry heat or mixtures of steam and air. PMID:2393488

  11. Molecular recordings by directed CRISPR spacer acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Seth L; Nivala, Jeff; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Church, George M

    2016-07-29

    The ability to write a stable record of identified molecular events into a specific genomic locus would enable the examination of long cellular histories and have many applications, ranging from developmental biology to synthetic devices. We show that the type I-E CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas system of Escherichia coli can mediate acquisition of defined pieces of synthetic DNA. We harnessed this feature to generate records of specific DNA sequences into a population of bacterial genomes. We then applied directed evolution so as to alter the recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif by the Cas1-Cas2 complex, which enabled recording in two modes simultaneously. We used this system to reveal aspects of spacer acquisition, fundamental to the CRISPR-Cas adaptation process. These results lay the foundations of a multimodal intracellular recording device. PMID:27284167

  12. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. Using microfiber and steam technology to improve cleaning outcomes in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth; Williams, Natalie; Sloane, Tracy; Wright, Louise; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2015-02-01

    The use of microfiber and steam technology may be seen as a novel cleaning method that can improve the outcome of cleaning. We describe its use in an intensive care setting, its impact on vancomycin-resistant enterococci acquisition, and the importance of ensuring adequate education of cleaning staff. Such new methods can have a significant impact on the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms, provided systems are in place to ensure that the methodology is adhered to and that cleaning hours are adequate. PMID:25637118

  14. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  15. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaguo; Lu, Yonggi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  16. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  17. Feasibility evaluation of a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.E.; Binsley, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    A discussion is presented of a downhole steam generator (DHSG); benefits and features are described. The work was done under the management of Sandia Laboratories as part of the U.S. DOE's Project Deep Steam. The effort began with a comparison of alternate ways of generating steam downhole. The most economical was found to be the indirect system, where heat from low-pressure (approximately 5-atm (500-kPal))combustion of fuel oil and air is transferred to high pressure water. A feasibility test unit was constructed and tested extensively; results are described. Comparative economic analyses indicate that the DHSG is competitive with conventional systems even at moderate depths. Below 2,500 ft (762 m) it is a clear choice. 3 refs.

  18. Subsurface steam sampling in Geysers wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.; Koenig, B.; Hirtz, P.; Normann, R.; Henfling, J.

    1997-01-01

    A new downhole sampling tool has been built for use in steam wells at The Geysers geothermal reservoir. The tool condenses specimens into an initially evacuated vessel that is opened down hole at the direction of an on-board computer. The tool makes a temperature log of the well as it is deployed, and the pressure and temperature of collected specimens are monitored for diagnostic purposes. Initial tests were encouraging, and the Department of Energy has funded an expanded effort that includes data gathering needed to develop a three-dimensional model of The Geysers geochemical environment. Collected data will be useful for understanding the origins of hydrogen chloride and non-condensable gases in the steam, as well as tracking the effect of injection on the composition of produced steam. Interested parties are invited to observe the work and to join the program.

  19. Geothermal noncondensable gas removal from turbine inlet steam

    SciTech Connect

    Coury, G.; Guillen, H.V.; Cruz, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    Noncondensable gas (NCG), which is always present in geothermal steam, causes power plant inefficiencies that result in increased steam consumption and higher plant costs. In many steam fields over the world, the NCG content exceeds 5%w in the steam, a level at which steam consumption and costs increase rapidly as a function of the NCG concentration. Steam rates increase as the NCG level rises because of two factors. First, the steam jet ejectors and vacuum pumps that evacuate NCG from the turbine-condenser require more steam and electric power for their operation. Second, higher gas levels lead to a higher condenser pressure (that is, a higher turbine outlet pressure), thus yielding a lower power output per unit of steam feeding the turbine. The increased steam rate leads to higher costs for steam field development. Cooling water consumption also increases per unit of net power output when the NCG level increases, mainly due to the added cooling needs of the inter and after condensers within the vacuum system. Thus, costs of the cooling water system, and parasitic power losses within the circulating pump and tower fans, will also increase. These problems can be alleviated when a reboiler system is used for steam cleaning--that is, the reboiler system removes NCG from steam upstream of the turbine. This is accomplished with a simple, standard heat exchanger (the reboiler) within which geothermal steam is condensed and its NCG components are discharged. The heat of condensation is used to produce NCG-free steam by evaporation of clean water. The source of clean water is the same condensate recovered from condensing steam. The reboiler system design and operation is described, and then applied to the Botong geothermal plant on Luzon in the Philippines. The reduction in steam rate and cooling water usage is summarized.

  20. Semantic Approaches to Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmer, N.

    1973-01-01

    Critical evaluation of Schlesinger's theory of language acquisition as expounded in Production of Utterances and Language Acquisition'' in The Ontogenesis of Grammar'', p63-101, New York: Academic Press, 1971. (RS)

  1. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis for Steaming Times-dependent Profiling of Steamed Panax quinquefolius and Its Ginsenosides Transformations Induced by Repetitious Steaming

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bai-Shen; Xu, Ming-Yang; Li, Zheng; Wang, Yi-Bo; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of Panax quinquefolius and its associated therapeutic values are critically affected by the repetitious steaming times. The times-dependent steaming effect of P. quinquefolius is not well-characterized and there is also no official guideline on its times of steaming. In this paper, a UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method was developed for the qualitative profiling of multi-parametric metabolic changes of raw P. quinquefolius during the repetitious steaming process. Our method was successful in discriminating the differentially multi-steamed herbs. Meantime, the repetitious steaming-inducing chemical transformations in the preparation of black American ginseng (American ginseng that was subjected to 9 cycles of steaming treatment) were evaluated by this UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling method. Under the optimized UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS conditions, 29 major ginsenosides were unambiguously identified and/or tentatively assigned in both raw and multi-steamed P. quinquefolius within 19 min, among them 18 ginsenosides were detected to be newly generated during the preparatory process of black American ginseng. The mechanisms involved were further deduced to be hydrolysis, dehydration, decarboxylation and addition reactions of the original ginsenosides in raw P. quinquefolius through analyzing mimic 9 cycles of steaming extracts of 14 pure reference ginsenosides. Our novel steaming times-dependent metabolic profiling approach represents the paradigm shift in the global quality control of multi-steamed P. quinquefolius products. PMID:23717129

  2. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat: Report at the end of the reference phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheek, K. H.

    1982-05-01

    The work carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal is described. On the basis of the status achieved to date, it can be stated that the mode of operation of the gas generator developed, including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal, is technically feasible. Moreover, throughput can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole, industrial application of steam gasification, using nuclear process heat, stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved, but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favorable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations, these are 20 to 25% lower.

  3. Long-term oxidation of selected alloys in superheated steam at 482 and 538/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Griess, J.C.; Maxwell, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The oxidation of several Cr-Mo steels and austenitic materials in superheated steam at 482 and 538/sup 0/C (900 and 1000/sup 0/F) is studied. The investigation was conducted in a once-through loop that received steam from the superheater circuit of the Bartow Power Plant of the Florida Power Corporation. This report presents the results from this investigation, which was terminated after 28,339 h when the mode of power plant operation was changed from baseload to peaking.

  4. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  5. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  6. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  7. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  8. 23rd steam-station cost survey

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, G.D.; Going, M.C.

    1983-11-01

    The results of the 23rd Steam Station Cost Survey covering the year 1982 are summarized. The major categories of the survey are as follows: general data; output data, 1982; fuel consumption, 1982; operation 1982 (mills/net kWh); investment ($/net kWh); energy cost, 1982 (mills/net kWh); and station performance, 1982. Thirty-one fossil-fuel steam plants and four nuclear stations were included in the survey. Fuel and operating cost increases are felt to be responsible for the moderate rise in total busbar-enery costs. 11 figures, 1 table.

  9. Downhole steam generator for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The HI-KO steam generator (HI-KO DSG) is operated electronically and is designed to operate efficiently and cost effectively at any depth, temperature, and injection pressure with minimal labor and maintenance. The generator is transported easily and is free of pollutants, both above and below ground. Moreover, the well needs no special cement job to prepare it for steaming; nor are corrosive gases created in the liner. The HI-KO DSG operates at ca 100% efficiency. Being controlled from the surface, the btu's and temperature going into the formation are monitored at all times.

  10. Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, D.

    1998-07-01

    Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

  11. MDSplus data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Stillerman, J.A.; Fredian, T.W.; Klare, K.; Manduchi, G.

    1997-01-01

    MDSplus, a tree based, distributed data acquisition system, was developed in collaboration with the ZTH Group at Los Alamos National Lab and the RFX Group at CNR in Padua, Italy. It is currently in use at MIT, RFX in Padua, TCV at EPFL in Lausanne, and KBSI in South Korea. MDSplus is made up of a set of X/motif based tools for data acquisition and display, as well as diagnostic configuration and management. It is based on a hierarchical experiment description which completely describes the data acquisition and analysis tasks and contains the results from these operations. These tools were designed to operate in a distributed, client/server environment with multiple concurrent readers and writers to the data store. While usually used over a Local Area Network, these tools can be used over the Internet to provide access for remote diagnosticians and even machine operators. An interface to a relational database is provided for storage and management of processed data. IDL is used as the primary data analysis and visualization tool. IDL is a registered trademark of Research Systems Inc. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. The Acquisition of Colour Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, Gail Rex; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    1986-01-01

    Reports two studies which investigated the acquisition of color terms by preschool children. The first was designed to clarify the role of certain conceptual factors in the acquisition of color terms. The second explored how input may interact with these conceptual factors and help to guide the acquisition of color words. (SED)

  13. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  14. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  15. 7. Detail view of steam engine showing cylinder, crosshead guide, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of steam engine showing cylinder, crosshead guide, eccentric red and valve mechanism. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  16. 12. View of disassembled steam engine sitting in open shed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of disassembled steam engine sitting in open shed showing base, columns and entablature. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  17. 4. View of steam engine looking SW showing valve end; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of steam engine looking SW showing valve end; flywheel and reduction gears to left. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  18. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  19. 6. Detail view of steam engine showing base, governor drive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view of steam engine showing base, governor drive pulley and eccentric. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  20. 7. Detail view of steam engine showing flywheel spokes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of steam engine showing flywheel spokes and hub sector. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 16. SOUTH SIDE OF STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER IN OPERABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SOUTH SIDE OF STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER IN OPERABLE CONDITION, WITH STACKS OF ORIGINAL BOILERS IN BACKGROUND. June 10, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 10. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. CHIPPER AT LEFT, STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. CHIPPER AT LEFT, STEAM PLANT AT RIGHT. NOTE STEAM EXHAUSTS IN ROOF; LEFT IS MAIN ENGINE, RIGHT IS CARRIAGE DRIVE ENGINE. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  4. 32. INTERIOR LAYOUT PLAN OF CROSSCUT STEAM AND DIESEL PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR LAYOUT PLAN OF CROSSCUT STEAM AND DIESEL PLANT, TRACED FROM DRAWING BY C.C. MOORE AND CO., ENGINEERS. July 1947 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING UNIT USED TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY FOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS AND FOR THE TOWN OF RAINELLE. STEAM ENGINE IS A HAMILTON CORLISS. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  6. 60. 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE LOOKING WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE LOOKING WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH HIGH ARCHED PASSAGEWAYS AT LEFT (FORMER WINDOWS) IS 1902 STEAM TURBINE. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  7. 20. BASE OF STEAM TURBINE NO. 1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BASE OF STEAM TURBINE NO. 1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING WORTHINGTON CONDENSER IN PLACE. April 14, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Project DEEP STEAM: Fourth meeting of the technical advisory panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. L.; Donaldson, A. B.; Eisenhawer, S. W.; Hart, C. M.; Johnson, D. R.; Mulac, A. J.; Wayland, J. R.; Weirick, L. J.

    1981-07-01

    The status of project DEEP STEAM was reviewed. Proceedings, are divided into five main sections: (1) the injection string modification program; (2) the downhole steam generator program; (3) supporting activities; (4) field testing; and (5) recommendations and discussion.

  9. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  10. Wireless Monitoring of the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

    2014-01-01

    A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in the steam pipes and the data acquisition is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh environment encountered at manholes and the pipe high temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware includes a pulser, receiver and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of in the condensed water under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

  11. Wireless monitoring of the height of condensed water in steam pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

    2014-04-01

    A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in steam pipes. The data acquisition in this system is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh manhole environment and the pipe temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware that includes a pulser, receiver, a data processor and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of the condensed water height under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

  12. Hypertext Glosses for Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition: Effects of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study compared how three different gloss modes affected college students' L2 reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. The study also compared how results on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition may differ depending on the four assessment methods used. A between-subjects design was employed with three groups of Mandarin-speaking…

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a) The design pressures of the steam...

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a) The design pressures of the steam...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam and exhaust piping. 56.50-15 Section 56.50-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-15 Steam and exhaust piping. (a) The design pressures of the steam...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3548 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3548 Section 29.3548 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3548 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3058 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3058 Section 29.3058 Agriculture... Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  18. 7 CFR 29.2300 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.2300 Section 29.2300 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2300 Steam... machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1060 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.1060 Section 29.1060 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1060 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3058 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3058 Section 29.3058 Agriculture... Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3548 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3548 Section 29.3548 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3548 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  2. 7 CFR 29.2300 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.2300 Section 29.2300 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2300 Steam... machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1060 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.1060 Section 29.1060 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1060 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  4. 7 CFR 29.2300 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.2300 Section 29.2300 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2300 Steam... machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3548 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3548 Section 29.3548 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3548 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  6. 7 CFR 29.3548 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3548 Section 29.3548 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3548 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  7. 7 CFR 29.3058 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3058 Section 29.3058 Agriculture... Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  8. 7 CFR 29.2300 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.2300 Section 29.2300 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2300 Steam... machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  9. 7 CFR 29.1060 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.1060 Section 29.1060 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1060 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  10. 7 CFR 29.3058 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3058 Section 29.3058 Agriculture... Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  11. 7 CFR 29.1060 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.1060 Section 29.1060 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1060 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  12. 7 CFR 29.2300 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.2300 Section 29.2300 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2300 Steam... machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1060 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.1060 Section 29.1060 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1060 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  14. 7 CFR 29.3548 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3548 Section 29.3548 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3548 Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3058 - Steam-dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam-dried. 29.3058 Section 29.3058 Agriculture... Steam-dried. The condition of unfermented tobacco as customarily prepared for storage by means of a redrying machine or other steam-conditioning equipment....

  16. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for...

  17. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  18. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  19. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhold steam generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generatjion, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generatjion are discussed. (JMT)

  20. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  1. 22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING TOPS OF DIESEL ENGINES AT FAR NORTH END, PRIOR TO INSTALLATION OF STEAM UNIT NO. 4. Ca. 1948 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Steam Pyrolysis of Polyimides: Effects of Steam on Raw Material Recovery.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shogo; Hosaka, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-11-17

    Aromatic polyimides (PIs) have excellent thermal stability, which makes them difficult to recycle, and an effective way to recycle PIs has not yet been established. In this work, steam pyrolysis of the aromatic PI Kapton was performed to investigate the recovery of useful raw materials. Steam pyrolysis significantly enhanced the gasification of Kapton at 900 °C, resulting in 1963.1 mL g(-1) of a H2 and CO rich gas. Simultaneously, highly porous activated carbon with a high BET surface area was recovered. Steam pyrolysis increased the presence of polar functional groups on the carbon surface. Thus, it was concluded that steam pyrolysis shows great promise as a recycling technique for the recovery of useful synthetic gases and activated carbon from PIs without the need for catalysts and organic solvents. PMID:26488423

  3. STEAM INJECTION DEMONSTRATION AT LORING QUARRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first phase of the research project was to characterize the fracture system and contaminant distribution as the steam injection and extraction and monitoring wells were installed. Rock cores and conventional geophysical logs were used to characterize the fracture system. Ro...

  4. Workshop Proceedings: Pitting in Steam Generator Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A two-day workshop focused on the probable causes of steam generator pitting at two nuclear plants and on whether pitting is a low-temperature or a high-temperature phenomenon. Participants also heard descriptions of various pit-resistant metals that are suitable for tube sleeving.

  5. Methanol Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.; Dagle, Robert A.; Holladay, Jamie D.

    2007-09-11

    Review article covering developments in methanol steam reforming in the context of PEM fuel cell power systems. Subjects covered include methanol background, use, and production, comparison to other fuels, power system considerations, militrary requirements, competing technologies, catalyst development, and reactor and system development and demonstration.

  6. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Wallman, P. Henrik; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  7. From the Steam Engine to DNA: Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, James

    1998-01-01

    Contends that a dynamic web of change links individuals to one another and to the events of the past and future. Links James Watt's improvements to the steam engine to the invention of the copier, carbon paper, and the safety match, as well as to the discovery of DNA. (PA)

  8. Fuzzy control of a boiler steam drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.; Crockett, W.K.

    1995-10-01

    The authors controlled the inlet water flow to a dynamic model of a steam drum using fuzzy logic. The drum level varied little with step inputs in steam flow. The fuzzy logic controller performed at least as well as a well-tuned traditional PI (which is notoriously difficult to tune). Using plant data in the model provided further evidence that fuzzy logic control gave excellent results. The drum level is a function of inlet water, steam production, and blowdown. To compensate for upsets caused by steam production, independent variables used in the fuzzy controller were drum level and change in drum level. The dependent variable was the change required in the inlet flow. By modeling a 175,000 lb/hr Riley-Stoker boiler, they determined the universe of discourse for each of the three variables. Three triangular and two trapezoidal membership functions characterize each of these universes. The knowledge of experts provided the fuzzy associative memory (FAM) for the variables. The authors modeled the complete dynamic system using Tutsim (Tutsim Products, 200 California Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94306).

  9. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.; Whelan, James A.

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  10. Selection of labyrinth seals in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency, vibration stability, operational durability, and cost of the main types of peripheral seals used in steam turbines are considered. A comparison between the conventional and honeycomb seals is given. Conditions subject to which replacement of conventional seals by honeycomb ones can be justified are pointed out. The use of variable-pitch multicomb seals as the most promising ones is recommended.

  11. Characterization of PWR steam generator deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Varrin, R. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Restoring the thermal performance of the steam generators often requires the utility to remove deposits by expensive chemical means. This work demonstrates that careful characterization of secondary side deposit samples can reveal their chemical and physical properties which in turn contribute to an overall assessment of the need for and extent of steam generator inspection and maintenance. More specifically, knowledge of deposit characteristics can contribute to: (1) determination of the source of corrosion products, (2) assessment of feedwater chemistry control strategies, (3) prediction of rates of tube degradation, and (4) evaluation of degraded heat transfer performance or flow instabilities. Despite the relationships between deposits and steam generator operation and performance, few utilities elect to perform the types of characterizations which are suitable for the determination of the specific chemical and physical nature of their particular deposits. One of the principal goals of this document is to encourage utilities to consider deposit characterization an integral part of an overall effort to assess and maintain the material condition of the steam generators at their plant. This document includes a review of the nature of deposits and relates deposit characteristics to a variety of secondary side phenomena including corrosion and fouling. Candidate techniques for revealing relevant deposit properties are provided so that inferences regarding the role of deposits in promoting or causing these phenomena at their plant can be developed.

  12. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  13. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  14. Analytical steam injection model for layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

  15. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOEpatents

    Cunha, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  16. Assessment of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 against an inadvertent steam line isolation valve closure in the Ringhals 2 power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pelayo, F. ); Sjoberg, A. )

    1992-03-01

    A TRAC-PF1/MOD1 simulation has been conducted to assess the capability of the code to predict a steam line isolation valve closure transient. Extensive use of results from Ringhals 2 data acquisition system was made to drive the initial conditions and some of the necessary boundary conditions. The results of the simulation revealed the importance of proper modeling of steam generator internals as well as the modeling of pressurizer walls and spray nozzles in order to reasonably predict the condensation phenomena.

  17. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Kinetic Systems and Langley Research Center determined that high speed CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) data acquisition systems could significantly improve Langley's ARTS (Advanced Real Time Simulation) system. The ARTS system supports flight simulation R&D, and the CAMAC equipment allowed 32 high performance simulators to be controlled by centrally located host computers. This technology broadened Kinetic Systems' capabilities and led to several commercial applications. One of them is General Atomics' fusion research program. Kinetic Systems equipment allows tokamak data to be acquired four to 15 times more rapidly. Ford Motor company uses the same technology to control and monitor transmission testing facilities.

  18. Early object rule acquisition.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D E

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625

  19. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  20. HYPERCP data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Luebke, W.R.; Chakravorty, A.

    1997-12-31

    For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data axe acquired from the front-end digitization systems at {approx} 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of {approx} 1 {mu}s per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with {approx_lt}30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates.

  1. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

  2. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.

    1982-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil-bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generation are discussed.

  3. Acquisition of Scientific Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Noland, Lynn

    2014-05-16

    Whitworth University constructed a 63,00 sq. ft. biology and chemistry building which opened in the Fall of 2011. This project provided for new state-of-the-art science instrumentation enabling Whitworth students to develop skills and knowledge that are directly transferable to practical applications thus enhancing Whitworth student's ability to compete and perform in the scientific workforce. Additionally, STEM faculty undertake outreach programs in the area schools, bringing students to our campus to engage in activities with our science students. The ability to work with insturmentation that is current helps to make science exciting for middle school and high school students and gets them thinking about careers in science. 14 items were purchased following the university's purchasing policy, that benefit instruction and research in the departments of biology, chemistry, and health sciences. They are: Cadaver Dissection Tables with Exhaust Chamber and accessories, Research Microscope with DF DIC, Phase and Fluorescence illumination with DP72 Camera, Microscope with Fluorescence, Microcomputer controlled ultracentrifuge, Ultracentrifuge rotor, Variable Temperature steam pressure sterilizer, Alliance APLC System, DNA Speedvac, Gel Cocumentation System, BioPac MP150, Glovebox personal workstation,Lyophilizer, Nano Drop 2000/2000c Spectrophotometer, C02 Incubator.

  4. A study of steam injection in fractured media

    SciTech Connect

    Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

    1996-02-01

    Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

  5. Enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from Cynara cardunculus pretreated by steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria C; Ferro, Miguel D; Paulino, Ana F C; Mendes, Joana A S; Gravitis, Janis; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2015-06-01

    The correct choice of the specific lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment allows obtaining high biomass conversions for biorefinery implementations and cellulosic bioethanol production from renewable resources. Cynara cardunculus (cardoon) pretreated by steam explosion (SE) was involved in second-generation bioethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. Steam explosion pretreatment led to partial solubilisation of hemicelluloses and increased the accessibility of residual polysaccharides towards enzymatic hydrolysis revealing 64% of sugars yield against 11% from untreated plant material. Alkaline extraction after SE pretreatment of cardoon (CSEOH) promoted partial removal of degraded lignin, tannins, extractives and hemicelluloses thus allowing to double glucose concentration upon saccharification step. Bioethanol fermentation in SSF mode was faster than SHF process providing the best results: ethanol concentration 18.7 g L(-1), fermentation efficiency of 66.6% and a yield of 26.6g ethanol/100 g CSEOH or 10.1 g ethanol/100 g untreated cardoon. PMID:25836040

  6. Embrittlement of pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 by steam oxidation under simulated LOCA transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desquines, J.; Drouan, D.; Guilbert, S.; Lacote, P.

    2016-02-01

    During a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the mechanical behavior of high temperature steam oxidized fuel rods is an important issue. In this study, as-received and pre-hydrided axial tensile samples were steam oxidized in a vertical furnace and water quenched in order to simulate a LOCA transient. The samples were then subjected to a mechanical test to determine the failure conditions. Two different rupture modes were evidenced; the first one associated to linear elastic fracture mechanics and the second one is associated to sample failure without applied load. The oxidized cladding fracture toughness was determined relying on intensive metallographic analysis. The sample failure conditions were then back predicted confirming that the main rupture parameters are well captured.

  7. A hypothetical profile of ordinary steam turbines with reduced cost and enhanced reliability for contemporary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Leyzerovich, A.S.

    1998-12-31

    Power steam turbines should be characterized with the reduced cost and enhanced reliability and designed on the basis of experience in steam turbine design and operation accumulated in the world`s practice for the latest years. Currently, such turbines have to be particularly matched with requirements of operation for deregulated power systems; so they should be capable of operating in both base-load and cycling modes. It seems reasonable to have such turbines with the single capacity about 250--400 MW, supercritical main steam pressure, and single steam reheat. This makes it possible to design such turbines with the minimum specific metal amount and length, with the integrated HP-IP and one two-flow LP cylinders. With existing ferritic and martensitic-class steels, the main and reheat steam temperatures can be chosen at the level of 565--580 C (1050--1075 F) without remarkable supplemental expenditures and a sacrifice of reliability. To reduce the capital cost and simplify operation and maintenance, the turbine`s regenerative system can be designed deaeratorless with motor-driven boiler-feed pumps. Such turbines could be used to replace existing old turbines with minimum expenditures. They can also be combined with large high-temperature gas-turbine sets to shape highly efficient combined-cycle units. There exist various design and technological decisions to enhance the turbine reliability and efficiency; they are well worked up and verified in long-term operation practice of different countries. For reliable and efficient operation, the turbine should be furnished with advanced automatic and automated control, diagnostic monitoring, and informative support for the operational personnel.

  8. Next generation PET data acquisition architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.F.; Reed, J.H.; Everman, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    New architectures for higher performance data acquisition in PET are proposed. Improvements are demanded primarily by three areas of advancing PET state of the art. First, larger detector arrays such as the Hammersmith ECAT{reg_sign} EXACT HR{sup ++} exceed the addressing capacity of 32 bit coincidence event words. Second, better scintillators (LSO) make depth-of-interaction (DOI) and time-of-flight (TOF) operation more practical. Third, fully optimized single photon attenuation correction requires higher rates of data collection. New technologies which enable the proposed third generation Real Time Sorter (RTS III) include: (1) 80 M byte/sec Fibre Channel RAID disk systems, (2) PowerPC on both VMEbus and PCI Local bus, and (3) quadruple interleaved DRAM controller designs. Data acquisition flexibility is enhanced through a wider 64 bit coincidence event word. PET methodology support includes DOI (6 bits), TOF (6 bits), multiple energy windows (6 bits), 512 x 512 sinogram indexes (18 bits), and 256 crystal rings (16 bits). Throughput of 10 M events/sec is expected for list-mode data collection as well as both on-line and replay histogramming. Fully efficient list-mode storage for each PET application is provided by real-time bit packing of only the active event word bits. Real-time circuits provide DOI rebinning.

  9. Data-acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned.

  10. Portable data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J; Rogers, H

    1999-05-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a Portable Data Acquisition (DAQ) System that is basically a laboratory-scale of Program Logic Control (PLC). This DAQ system can obtain signals from numerous sensors (e.g., pH, level, pressure, flow meters), open and close valves, and turn on and off pumps. The data can then be saved on a spreadsheet or displayed as a graph/indicator in real-time on a computer screen. The whole DAQ system was designed to be portable so that it could sit on a bench top during laboratory-scale treatability studies, or moved out into the field during larger studies. This DAQ system is also fairly simple to use. All that is required is some working knowledge of LabVIEW 4.1, and how to properly wire the process equipment. The DAQ system has been used during treatability studies on cesium precipitation, controlled hydrolysis of water- reactive wastes, and other waste treatment studies that enable LLNL to comply with the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Improved data acquisition allows the study to be better monitored, and therefore better controlled, and can be used to determine the results of the treatment study more effectively. This also contributes to the design of larger treatment processes.

  11. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition planning. 873.105 Section 873.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.105 Acquisition planning. (a) Acquisition planning is...

  12. 39 CFR 777.41 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acquisition procedures. 777.41 Section 777.41... ACQUISITION POLICIES Voluntary Acquisitions § 777.41 Acquisition procedures. (a) Voluntary Acquisitions... under § 777.32 of this part, if the acquisition were by eminent domain or the under threat thereof,...

  13. 39 CFR 777.41 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acquisition procedures. 777.41 Section 777.41... ACQUISITION POLICIES Voluntary Acquisitions § 777.41 Acquisition procedures. (a) Voluntary Acquisitions... under § 777.32 of this part, if the acquisition were by eminent domain or the under threat thereof,...

  14. 39 CFR 777.41 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acquisition procedures. 777.41 Section 777.41... ACQUISITION POLICIES Voluntary Acquisitions § 777.41 Acquisition procedures. (a) Voluntary Acquisitions... under § 777.32 of this part, if the acquisition were by eminent domain or the under threat thereof,...

  15. 39 CFR 777.41 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acquisition procedures. 777.41 Section 777.41... ACQUISITION POLICIES Voluntary Acquisitions § 777.41 Acquisition procedures. (a) Voluntary Acquisitions... under § 777.32 of this part, if the acquisition were by eminent domain or the under threat thereof,...

  16. 39 CFR 777.41 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acquisition procedures. 777.41 Section 777.41... ACQUISITION POLICIES Voluntary Acquisitions § 777.41 Acquisition procedures. (a) Voluntary Acquisitions... under § 777.32 of this part, if the acquisition were by eminent domain or the under threat thereof,...

  17. Convertible, tri-mode solar conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, D. A.

    A convertible, tri-mode solar collection system has been developed to provide year-round operation in the Northeastern U.S. Employing a plastic hot air duct-box in addition to conventional linear parabolic concentrators and thermal storage units, the system is able to provide wintertime hot air for residential heating and summertime steam for electrical power generation. Because of its superior utilization factor, it is expected that the device will pay back for an initial investment in a significantly shorter time than present alternatives

  18. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlasek, Szymon; Lalik, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Sornek, Krzysztof; Kupski, Robert; Raś, Anita

    2016-03-01

    A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units - quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics) are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  19. XPS and IGC characterization of steam treated triticale straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyan; Boluk, Yaman

    2010-10-01

    The surface chemical composition and surface energy of native and steam treated triticale straws have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to reveal the effect of steam treatment temperature and time. The XPS results show that the contents of C elements and C-C group on the exterior surface of native triticale straw are much higher than those on the interior surface, indicating that there was a high quantity of wax on the exterior surface of the native triticale straw. Upon steam treatment, both carbon levels and C-C groups reduce with increasing steam temperature and treatment time of the exterior surfaces. However, the effect of steam treatment on the interior surface is very limited. In terms of the surface acid and base properties, the steam treated samples exhibited higher acid and base properties than the native sample, indicating a more polar surface of the steam treated sample.

  20. Project DEEP STEAM preliminary field test, Bakersfield, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mulac, A.J.; Beyeler, J.A.; Clay, R.G.; Darnall, K.R.; Donaldson, A.B.; Donham, T.D.; Fox, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    A successful field test of the DEEP STEAM technology has been conducted. A direct contact steam generator was operated in the Kern River reservoir in cooperation with Chevron USA. The objectives of the test were demonstration of long term operation of a downhole steam generator, investigation of reservoir response, and the environmental consequences of the technology. The test was extensively instrumented to provide data on generator performance and reservoir response. The results show that the system is capable of long term operation in the oil field. It was demonstrated that substantial environmental improvements over surface steam production can be expected from injection of combustion products with steam in the downhole steam concept. The reservoir character was not altered by the test injection and appeared the same as that for pure steam injection.

  1. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  2. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  3. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  4. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  5. SNAP: Simulating New Acquisition Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfeld, Louis E.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation models of acquisition processes range in scope from isolated applications to the 'Big Picture' captured by SNAP technology. SNAP integrates a family of models to portray the full scope of acquisition planning and management activities, including budgeting, scheduling, testing and risk analysis. SNAP replicates the dynamic management processes that underlie design, production and life-cycle support. SNAP provides the unique 'Big Picture' capability needed to simulate the entire acquisition process and explore the 'what-if' tradeoffs and consequences of alternative policies and decisions. Comparison of cost, schedule and performance tradeoffs help managers choose the lowest-risk, highest payoff at each step in the acquisition process.

  6. "Data Acquisition Systems"

    SciTech Connect

    Unterweger, Michael; Costrell, Louis deceased

    2009-07-07

    This project involved support for Lou Costrell and myself in the development of IEEE and IEC standards for nuclear counting and data acquisition systems. Over the years, as a result of this support, Lou and I were able to attend standards meetings of IEEE and IEC, which led directly to the publication of many standards for NIM systems, FastBus and CAMAC. We also chaired several writing committees as well as ANSI N42 (Nuclear instrumentation), IEEE NIM (NIM standard), IEEE NID (NPSS nuclear instruments and detector) and IEC TC45 WG9 (Nuclear instrumentation). Through this support we were able to assure that the interests of the US and DOE were expressed and implemented in the various standards.

  7. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  8. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  9. DSPS in data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-12-31

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance.

  10. What Are the Underlying Skills of Silent Reading Acquisition? A Developmental Study from Kindergarten to the 2nd Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Kochva, Irit

    2013-01-01

    Research on reading acquisition and on the processes underlying it usually examined reading orally, while silent reading, which is the more common mode of reading, has been rather neglected. As accumulated data suggests that these two modes of reading only partially overlap, our understanding of the natural mode of reading may still be limited.…

  11. HMD cueing mode degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Richard P.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.; Herz, Norman E., Jr.

    2003-09-01

    Pilot cueing is a valuable use of Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) as it greatly helps the user to visually locate electronically identified targets. It is well known that a target which is hard to spot in the sky can be easily tracked and studied after it has been visually located. Transients, including sun glint, can reveal much about distant targets as they are visually studied. This is implicit in the "Visual Rules of Engagement". The term "Virtual Beyond Visual Range" has been coined to reflect the fact that optimized HMD cueing can extend visual identification to ranges previously covered only by radar data. The visual acquisition range can drop by a factor of three, however, when HMD image correlation errors expand the uncertainty zone a pilot must visually search. We have demonstrated that system errors, tolerable for off axis missile targeting, can produce this large drop in operational effectiveness. Studies using the Spectron SE1430 HMD analysis system have shown that errors of this magnitude can develop in current HMD models, and that these errors were neither identified by "ready room" tests nor were they correctable in the cockpit. The focus of this study was to develop affordable techniques to quantify the relationship of combat effectiveness to HMD defects for this and other advanced operating modes. When combined with field monitoring of HMD degradation, this makes economic optimization of the HMD supply/maintenance model possible while fulfilling operational mission requirements.

  12. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  13. Large steam turbine repair: A survey

    SciTech Connect

    Findlan, S.J.; Lube, B. )

    1991-07-01

    This report covers a survey taken to document the current state-of-the-art in repairs to large steam turbines. One objective was to provide information to assist utilities in making repair or replacement decisions. The survey revealed that a large number of repairs have been successfully repaired involving both mechanical and welding repair techniques. Repair techniques have been improving in recent years and are being used more frequently. No guidelines or codes exist for the repair of steam turbine components so each repair is primarily controlled by agreement between the utility, contractor and insurer. Types of repairs are reviewed in this report and in addition, the capabilities of various contractors who are currently active in providing repair service. 40 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  15. Steam engine research for solar parabolic dish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demler, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar concentrator provides an opportunity to generate high grade energy in a modular system. Most of the capital is projected to be in the dish and its installation. Assurance of a high production demand of a standard dish could lead to dramatic cost reductions. High production volume in turn depends upon maximum application flexibility by providing energy output options, e.g., heat, electricity, chemicals and combinations thereof. Subsets of these options include energy storage and combustion assist. A steam engine design and experimental program is described which investigate the efficiency potential of a small 25 kW compound reheat cycle piston engine. An engine efficiency of 35 percent is estimated for a 700 C steam temperature from the solar receiver.

  16. Solar steam generation by heat localization.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Ni, George; Marconnet, Amy Marie; Loomis, James; Yerci, Selcuk; Miljkovic, Nenad; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces or vacuum. New solar receiver concepts such as porous volumetric receivers or nanofluids have been proposed to decrease these losses. Here we report development of an approach and corresponding material structure for solar steam generation while maintaining low optical concentration and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. We achieve solar thermal efficiency up to 85% at only 10 kW m(-2). This high performance results from four structure characteristics: absorbing in the solar spectrum, thermally insulating, hydrophilic and interconnected pores. The structure concentrates thermal energy and fluid flow where needed for phase change and minimizes dissipated energy. This new structure provides a novel approach to harvesting solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications. PMID:25043613

  17. Models for water steam condensing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróblewski, Włodzimierz; Dykas, Sławomir; Chmielniak, Tadeusz

    2012-08-01

    The paper presents a description of selected models dedicated to steam condensing flow modelling. The models are implemented into an in-house computational fluid dynamics code that has been successfully applied to wet steam flow calculation for many years now. All models use the same condensation model that has been validated against the majority of available experimental data. The state equations for vapour and liquid water, the physical model as well as the numerical techniques of solution to flow governing equations have been presented. For the single-fluid model, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for vapour/liquid mixture are solved, whereas the two-fluid model solves separate flow governing equations for the compressible, viscous and turbulent vapour phase and for the compressible and inviscid liquid phase. All described models have been compared with relation to the flow through the Laval nozzle.

  18. Driver performance data acquisition system for ergonomics research

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Goodman, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    A portable ergonomics data acquisition system consisting of state-of-the-art hardware being designed is described here. It will be employed to record driver, vehicle, and environment parameter data from a wide range of vehicles and trucks. The system will be unobtrusive to the driver and inconspicuous to the outside world. It will have three modes of data gathering and provide for extended periods of data collection. Modularity, flexibility, and cost will be key drivers in the development effort. The ergonomics data acquisition system project is being conducted in two phases--a feasibility study and a development, construction, and validation phase.

  19. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...: Comments on the proposed rule published May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32214) must be received by September 3, 2013... 25 CFR 151.12 (78 FR 32214). The proposed rule would remove procedural requirements that are no...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions...

  20. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  1. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  2. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  3. Evaluation of alternatives in downhole steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The objective is to evaluate two alternative approaches, taken by Sandia and World Energy Systems in their development of downhole steam generators, in terms of the requirements for commercialization and the technical and economic goals which each one must reach in order to satisfy those requirements. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The high-pressure downhole steam generator being developed by Sandia has potential for commercialization for production of heavy oil in the next few years. (2) The critical performance parameter is oil yield and can be expressed in terms of bbl oil/million Btu of steam generated; the yield which is required for clear economic attractiveness of the high-pressure generator is 1.2 bbl/10/sup 6/ Btu which corresponds to 5.3 bbl steam/bbl oil. (3) The downhole hydrogen/oxygen burner being developed by World Energy Systems has potential for commercialization for production of resources which are now unproducible or uneconomical. (4) The critical performance provided in nearly 1100 pre- and post-training forms returned by the solarr and 201 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Ground water data indicate that high uranium values occur almost exclusively in the western portion of the quadrangle along the eastern portion of the Williston Basin. These high uranium values occur primarily in Pleistocene delta deposits and in glacial outwash and till. Groundwater in this area is geographically associated with high values of calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and total alkalinity. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium value the relative concentration of Sm/sup 2 +/ and Sm/sup 3 +/ ions changes with the change of composition.

  4. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOEpatents

    Ehrke, Alan C.; Knepp, John B.; Skoda, George I.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  5. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus: steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C; Eugenio, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Steam explosion and steam pre-treatment have proved capable of enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. However, until now, these methods had not been compared under the same operational conditions and using the same raw material. Both pre-treatments lead to increased yields in the saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus; but results have been better with steam pre-treatments, despite the more accessible surface of exploded samples. The reason for this finding could be enzymatic inhibition: steam explosion causes a more extensive extraction of hemicelluloses and releases a greater amount of degradation products which can inhibit enzymatic action. Enzymatic inhibition is also dependent on the amount and chemical structure of lignin, which was also a contributing factor to the lower enzymatic yields obtained with the most severe pre-treatment. Thus, the highest yields (46.7% glucose and 73.4% xylose yields) were obtained after two cycle of steam treatment, of 5 and 3 min, at 183°C. PMID:24980031

  6. Rotor thermal stress monitoring in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonín, Bouberle; Jan, Jakl; Jindřich, Liška

    2015-11-01

    One of the issues of steam turbines diagnostics is monitoring of rotor thermal stress that arises from nonuniform temperature field. The effort of steam turbine operator is to operate steam turbine in such conditions, that rotor thermal stress doesn't exceed the specified limits. If rotor thermal stress limits are exceeded for a long time during machine operation, the rotor fatigue life is shortened and this may lead to unexpected machine failure. Thermal stress plays important role during turbine cold startup, when occur the most significant differences of temperatures through rotor cross section. The temperature field can't be measured directly in the entire rotor cross section and standardly the temperature is measured by thermocouple mounted in stator part. From this reason method for numerical solution of partial differential equation of heat propagation through rotor cross section must be combined with method for calculation of temperature on rotor surface. In the first part of this article, the application of finite volume method for calculation of rotor thermal stress is described. The second part of article deals with optimal trend generation of thermal flux, that could be used for optimal machine loading.

  7. Completion system for downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevier, J.E.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes an apparatus for providing electrical power to a downhole steam generator in a cased well. The method consists of: a packer supported on a string of tubing, the packer having means for sealing against casing in the well and at least one conduit extending longitudinally through the packer; a connector box mounted below the lower end of the packer, the connector box having a connector plate containing a plurality of passages; a plurality of feed through electrical connectors mounted in insulators in the passages in the connector plate; support means for mounting the steam generator below the connector box; an aperture located in the sidewall of the tubing immediately above the packer; an electrical cable extending from the surface alongside the tubing into the aperture and through the conduit into the connector box, the electrical cable having a plurality of electrical conductors, each of which ends in a terminal that is electrically connected to one of the electrical connectors; and electrical conductors extending between the steam generator and engaging a lower end of each electrical connector in the connection plate.

  8. Steam Generator Group Project. Annual report, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Lewis, M.

    1984-02-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) is an NRC program joined by additional sponsors. The SGGP utilizes a steam generator removed from service at a nuclear plant (Surry 2) as a vehicle for research on a variety of safety and reliability issues. This report is an annual summary of progress of the program for 1982. Information is presented on the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), especially designed and constructed for this research. Loading of the generator into the SGEF is then discussed. The report then presents radiological field mapping results and personnel exposure monitoring. This is followed by information on field reduction achieved by channel head decontaminations. The report then presents results of a secondary side examination through shell penetrations placed prior to transport, confirming no change in generator condition due to transport. Decontamination of the channel head is discussed followed by plans for eddy current testing and removal of the plugs placed during service. Results of a preliminary profilometry examination are then provided.

  9. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  10. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  11. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K.

    2013-11-15

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  12. Data analysis for steam generator tubing samples

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generators program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC`s mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report provides a description of the application of advanced eddy-current neural network analysis methods for the detection and evaluation of common steam generator tubing flaws including axial and circumferential outer-diameter stress-corrosion cracking and intergranular attack. The report describes the training of the neural networks on tubing samples with known defects and the subsequent evaluation results for unknown samples. Evaluations were done in the presence of artifacts. Computer programs are given in the appendix.

  13. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  14. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam.

    PubMed

    van Doornmalen, J P C M; Kopinga, K

    2013-11-01

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1%) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M(TM) Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation. PMID:24289436

  15. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Doornmalen, J. P. C. M.; Kopinga, K.

    2013-11-01

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3MTM Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  16. Reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring with crosshole EM

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    1995-06-01

    Crosshole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 m. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile using the LLNL frequency domain crosshole EM system. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then 6 and 12 months later to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the EM data before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images, from data collected before and after steam flooding, show resistivity changes that indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands although steam injection occurred in all three sand layers.

  17. Heat Entrapment Effects Within Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, W. M. B.; Chato, D. J.; Doherty, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a model problem to address heat entrapment effects or the local accumulation of thermal energy within liquid acquisition devices. We show that the parametric space consists of six parameters, namely the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, the aspect ratio, and heat flux ratios for the bottom, side, and top boundaries of the enclosure. For the range of Ra considered 1 to 10(sup 9), beyond Ra on the order of 10(sup 5), convective instability is the dominant mode of convection in comparison to natural convection. The flow field transitions to asymmetric modes at Ra on the order of 10(sup 7). Direct numerical simulation of a large geometric length scale prototype for Ra on the order of 10(sup 9) shows that the flow field evolves from small wavelength instability which gives rise to nonlinear growth of thermals, propagation of the instability occurs via growth of secondary and tertiary modes, and a travelling wave mode occurs prior to asymmetry. The effect of a large aspect ratio is to increase the number of modes in the vertical direction. Due to the slow diffusion of heat in the prototype, asymptotic states are not readily attained, we show that dynamical similarity can be used for a model which allows the attainment of asymptotic states and that transition to a chaotic state occurs for Ra on the order of 10(sup 9) via a broadband power spectrum. These dynamical events show that for the baseline condition in which heat is absorbed from background laboratory environment, higher heat flux is absorbed at the top and bottom boundaries of the enclosure than a nominal value of 34.9 ergs per square centimeter -second.

  18. 77 FR 75780 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-64; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-64; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCIES... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-64, which amends the Federal...

  19. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  20. Knowledge Acquisition in Observational Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    This paper presents findings from research on knowledge acquisition in observational astronomy to demonstrate the kinds of intuitive models children form and to show how these models influence the acquisition of science knowledge. Sixty children of approximate ages 6, 9, and 12 were given a questionnaire to investigate their knowledge of the size,…