Science.gov

Sample records for acquisition pollution prevention

  1. 77 FR 63803 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (FAR 52.223-5) AGENCY... previously approved information collection requirement concerning pollution prevention and right-to-know... 17, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0147,...

  2. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  4. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  5. Pollution Prevention Incentives for Major Weapon System Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Waste Cleanup ............................... 9 Pollution Prevention ................................... 11 Chronology of Events...billion to cleanup hazardous waste sites. This is a 28 percent increase over FY92’s budget request and more than four times the 1987 request (2:3...long-term cost savings of pollution prevention. Attention to the operational impact of reducing hazardous waste in current acquisitions needs

  6. TRI Pollution Prevention Reporting Tipsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    TRI Pollution Prevention Reporting Tipsheet is provided to encourage and assist TRI facilities with reporting optional P2 information on their TRI reporting forms, and to facilitate information sharing within and across organizations.

  7. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  8. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  10. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  11. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  12. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  13. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

  14. Pollution prevention by design

    SciTech Connect

    Crumpler, P.

    1997-10-01

    Waste is a common problem throughout the companies comprising the chemical process industries (CPI). It is especially a concern to those who manage solid waste, wastewater systems, hazardous waste or air-pollution-control devices--typically systems for handling end-of-the-pipe wastes. Regardless of its type, waste is almost always composed of purchased raw materials that did not become part of a final product. For example, some chemical manufacturers, such as liquid latex producers, have found that their wastewater stream is a dilute form of their primary product. Much of this waste is the result of process inefficiencies that cause entrapment and loss of raw materials. These are conventionally disposed through equipment cleaning. However, rethinking and improving process design, piping and vessel design and material-handling techniques can improve process efficiency. The result is reduced waste generation, reduced operating costs, cleaner equipment and increased profits.

  15. 48 CFR 52.223-5 - Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pollution Prevention and... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information. As prescribed in 23.1005, insert the following clause: Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (MAY 2011)...

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-5 - Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pollution Prevention and... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information. As prescribed in 23.1005, insert the following clause: Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (MAY 2011)...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-5 - Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution Prevention and... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information. As prescribed in 23.1005, insert the following clause: Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (AUG 2003)...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-5 - Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pollution Prevention and... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information. As prescribed in 23.1005, insert the following clause: Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (MAY 2011)...

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-5 - Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pollution Prevention and... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information. As prescribed in 23.1005, insert the following clause: Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (MAY 2011)...

  20. Advancing Environmental Justice through Pollution Prevention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Report represents the efforts of the NEJAC on the topic of Advancing Environmental Justice through Pollution Prevention to identify and discuss the myriad of opportunities in applying pollution prevention to benefit environmental justice communities.

  1. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the source... and alternatives and must discuss potential pollution prevention measures when such measures are feasible for incorporation into the proposal or alternatives. Where pollution cannot be prevented,...

  2. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the source... and alternatives and must discuss potential pollution prevention measures when such measures are feasible for incorporation into the proposal or alternatives. Where pollution cannot be prevented,...

  3. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT&E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact.

  4. Guide to Pollution Prevention in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppino, Tony; Gilbert, Reg

    The purpose of this guide is to help citizen advocates create and improve the environmental practices of industry and government in the Great Lakes Basin. The practices advocated focus on pollution prevention instead of relying solely on pollution control. An introduction examines the larger issues of pollution prevention and zero discharge as the…

  5. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  6. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B.; Dorsey, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  7. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  8. FY 2011 Pollution Prevention Grant Results Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pollution Prevention Program reports the environmental results of grants. These grants produce annual environmental results in pounds of hazardous materials reduced, BTUs of energy, water and dollars saved.

  9. FY 2012 Pollution Prevention Grant Results Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pollution Prevention Program reports the environmental results of grants. These grants produce annual environmental results in pounds of hazardous materials reduced, BTUs of energy, water and dollars saved.

  10. FY 2013 Pollution Prevention Grant Results Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pollution Prevention Program reports the environmental results of grants. These grants produce annual environmental results in pounds of hazardous materials reduced, BTUs of energy, water and dollars saved.

  11. Process simulation tools for pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K.

    1996-02-01

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized. Process simulators can be effective tools in achieving the objectives of pollution prevention. Here the authors look at the capabilities and limitations of existing simulators for handling pollution prevention. They discuss the new tools under development. A process simulator is a large computer program that simulates the operations of chemical and allied processes. Chemical process plants usually consist of many process units. Each of these can, in principle, be modeled mathematically. Process simulators provide an overall integration of the mathematical models of these commonly encountered process units.

  12. Pollution Prevention Guideline for Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Edwin; Barnett, Stanley M.; Ray, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to manage waste after a classroom laboratory experiment which generally has the potential to generate large amounts of waste. Focuses on pollution prevention and the selection processes to eliminate or minimize waste. (YDS)

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for organization 1700.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2007-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Organization 1700 in June, 2006. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Organization 1700 in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with Organization 1700 to implement the recommendations.

  14. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  15. Pollution prevention training for facility designers

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, J.A.; Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.

    1994-05-01

    An Orientation to Pollution Prevention for Facility Design training course was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Waste Minimization Division. The 3-hour course will be offered at the Hanford Quality Training and Resource Center beginning Summer, 1994. The course, intended for design engineers and project managers, contains two modules. The first module defines pollution prevention using actual success stories to illustrate pollution prevention concepts, benefits, and their relationship to design. The second module presents a newly developed job aid, the Pollution Prevention Design Guideline. The main challenges of developing the course were to present the material in a manner that participants would want to design for pollution prevention, and provide tools so that participants could design for pollution prevention. As such, the course is very interactive and uses a variety of presentation techniques. Participants are challenged to discuss the course materials in the context of their own design projects, and they practice using their new knowledge on an actual design project. The biggest measure of the course`s success is the extent to which the participants bring the materials back to their work place. An attitudinal survey and a knowledge-based questionnaire are administered before and after the course in order to gage this.

  16. Pollution prevention: The role of a university

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1995-12-01

    Pollution prevention is at the top of the waste management hierarchy in the United States. If you don`t create pollution in the first place, concerns about transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of waste are moot. While industry is on the front line in accomplishing significant pollution prevention, universities can play a meaningful role in its accomplishment as well. Universities can do this through three basic missions: education, research, and public service. Examples of how this is carried out at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville are provided. To be fully effective, universities need to organize in an interdisciplinary manner and adopt a public outreach agenda.

  17. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention... transportation of oil and gas or sulphur, the lessee shall take measures to prevent unauthorized discharge of... for discharge. Oil drainage shall be piped to a properly designed, operated, and maintained...

  18. POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION INITIATIVE (TDI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pollution prevention (P2) technologies save money and help prevent the release of toxic and hazardous wastes into the environment, many companies are reluctant to install new equipment or change the current processes. Some of the reluctance is initiated by lack of time a...

  19. Pollution prevention drives membrane technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cartwright, P.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, such membrane technologies as crossflow micro-, ultra-, and nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and pervaporation offer interesting possibilities, each tackling a specific aspect of pollution control. Although none of these methods can, on its own, alter or break down pollutants, each has the ability to separate, fractionate and concentrate contaminants. In addition, they: permit continuous, uninterrupted processing via automatic control; use far less energy than traditional treatment methods; require only minimal temperature changes and no chemical additives; exert no impact on contaminants, and keep them physically separated from the stream; and are easy to install, either alone or combined with other treatment systems, since they are modular and contain few moving parts. The paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of membrane technology and recommends thorough testing.

  20. Pollution Prevention: Where Sustainability Begins

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Sept. 24, 2015) Benjamin Franklin famously wrote, An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. It's true-stopping something bad from happening is easier than fixing it later. This is the core concept behind the U.S. Environmental Pro

  1. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for Landscape Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.; Raubfogel, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    DOE orders mandate the development of a waste minimization program. The program`s goals are to: reduce volumes of wastes and toxicity; implement a system of tracking and reporting improvements; and devise a method for performing tasks. To satisfy the requirements of this program, Sandia conducts pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) to identify waste-generating processes. The information collected from a PPOA then is used to identify waste minimization opportunities. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted using Sandia`s new methodology for prioritizing, evaluating and managing site-wide waste streams. This new methodology and the list of priority waste streams are described in the wastes revision of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Plant. This PPOA addresses landscape waste minimization, partially in response to recent legislation and regulations.

  2. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  3. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  4. EPA Definition of Pollution Prevention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPA’s Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

  6. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Technical Art

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, H.M.

    1995-09-01

    This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted to evaluate Technical Art, which is part of the Technical Communications Department at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It is located in Building 912, Room 138. This assessment documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, and recommends possible ways to minimize waste.

  7. TOOLS AND METHODS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design tools for pollution prevention can be described to fall into three categories: 1. Analytical Tools; 2. Process Tools; 3. Economic Tools. Ideally, these three types of tools would be needed to make sound environmental decisions. Frequently, however, decisions will b...

  8. AN ORGANIZATION GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Pollution Prevention (P2) Guide provides information to help organizations get P2 programs started on t re-evaluate existing P2 programs. It presents an alternative method for working on P2 projects and four approaches to implementing a P2 program in an organization. The int...

  9. 76 FR 18894 - Oil Pollution Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 135, revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 71, in Appendix E to Part 112, the...

  10. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... shall take measures to prevent unauthorized discharge of pollutants into the offshore waters. The lessee... life, wildlife, recreation, navigation, commercial fishing, or other uses of the ocean. (1)...

  11. Development of Pollution Prevention Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Polle, Juergen; Sanchez-Delgado, Roberto

    2013-12-30

    This project investigated technologies that may reduce environmental pollution. This was a basic research/educational project addressing two major areas: A. In the algae research project, newly isolated strains of microalgae were investigated for feedstock production to address the production of renewable fuels. An existing collection of microalgae was screened for lipid composition to determine strains with superior composition of biofuel molecules. As many microalgae store triacylglycerides in so-called oil bodies, selected candidate strains identified from the first screen that accumulate oil bodies were selected for further biochemical analysis, because almost nothing was known about the biochemistry of these oil bodies. Understanding sequestration of triacylglycerides in intracellular storage compartments is essential to developing better strains for achieving high oil productivities by microalgae. At the onset of the project there was almost no information available on how to obtain detailed profiles of lipids from strains of microalgae. Our research developed analytical methods to determine the lipid profiles of novel microalgal strains. The project was embedded into other ongoing microalgal projects in the Polle laboratory. The project benefited the public, because students were trained in cell cultivation and in the operation of state-of-the-art analytical equipment. In addition, students at Brooklyn College were introduced into the concept of a systems biology approach to study algal biofuels production. B. A series of new nanostructured catalysts were synthesized, and characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. Our catalyst design leads to active nanostructures comprising small metal particles in intimate contact with strongly basic sites provided by the supports, which include poly(4-vinylpyridine), magnesium oxide, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide. The new materials display a good potential as catalysts

  12. Hanford Site pollution prevention progress report

    SciTech Connect

    BETSCH, M.D.

    1999-10-05

    The Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) are pleased to issue the attached Pollution Prevention Progress Report. We have just met the most aggressive waste reduction and A recycling goals to date and are publishing this report to recognize A the site's progress, and to ensure it will sustain success beyond 1 Fiscal Year 2000. This report was designed to inform the been made by RL and ORP in Waste Minimization (WMin) and Pollution Prevention (P2). RL, ORP and their contractors are committed to protecting the environment, and we reiterate pollution prevention should continue to be at the forefront of the environmental cleanup and research efforts. As you read the attached report, we believe you will see a clear demonstration of RL and ORP's outstanding performance as it has been responsible and accountable to the nation, its employees, and the community in which we live and work. commitment that all employees have for environmental stewardship. The report provides useful information about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) environmental policy and programs, and contains countless examples of waste minimization projects. This year was the first year our site received the White House Closing the Circle in the category of Affirmative Procurement. This Award recognizes our site for designing a comprehensive strategy for achieving 100 percent purchases of the U.S.Environmenta1 Protection Agency designated recycled items. DOE-Headquarters also acknowledged the site in 1999 for its public outreach efforts in communicating pollution prevention to Hanford Site employees and the community. Our site is truly a recognized leader in outreach as it has kept this title for two consecutive years. In previous years, we received the White House Closing the Circle Honorable Mention in Affirmative Procurement and several other National DOE Awards. Through partnership with the local community and stakeholders, the site and its contractors have a clear

  13. Pollution Prevention Accomplishments Hanford Site FY2001

    SciTech Connect

    COENENBERG, J.G.

    2001-12-01

    In Fiscal Year 2001, the Hanford Site Prime Contractors, Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI), CH2M Hill hanford Group (CHG), Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) achieved over $32 million in cost savings/avoidance. The total cost savings/avoidance includes accomplishments reported to DOE Headquarters and additional accomplishments achieved on the Hanford Site. This accomplishment report highlights the major successes totaling over $5.5 million in cost savings/avoidance. The following summarizes the FY 2001 waste reduced, and cost savings/avoidance by waste category for accomplishments documented in this report. Additionally, this accomplishment report documents the hanford site Return on Investment (ROI) projects completed or in progress during FY 2001. The ROI projects continue to show excellent results this past year. The ROI program funds waste minimization projects that provide a high return on investment. The funding is available to all Hanford contractors for pollution prevention projects. This accomplishment report highlights 7 ROI projects implemented and 6 projects that were in progress during FY 2001. The annual cost savings of the ROI projects completed and in progress is over $53.5 million. The Hanford Site continues to be the leader in pollution prevention and waste minimization across the DOE complex. This was evidenced by meeting aggressive Hanford Site waste generation goals and operating an outstanding recycling program. Additionally, waste streams are continuously evaluated and reduced through effective analysis and implementation via Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments.

  14. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataramani, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    A clear understanding of the process, reaction pathways, process equipment, operational requirements, and waste stream characteristics are critical for the evaluation, selection, and implementation of pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry. Although pollution prevention opportunities are always preferred over treatment and disposal techniques, consideration of a full range of options--including at-source treatments and disposal--is a practical necessity to ensure protection of the environment using best available technology. General housekeeping can also play a major role in waste minimization. Waste minimization and pollution prevention are not new concepts for the pharmaceutical industry. But the confidential and highly competitive nature of the business stands in the way of disseminating information regarding specific activities in this area. The pharmaceutical industry could probably do much better in this respect. Successful implementation of waste minimization in the pharmaceutical industry requires that a process modification not have a negative impact on product quality. Recovered and recycled materials must meet quality specifications that are similar to those for virgin raw materials.

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  17. 46 CFR 91.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 91.25-38 Section 91.25-38 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification... design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  18. 46 CFR 91.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 91.25-38 Section 91.25-38 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification... design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  19. 46 CFR 91.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 91.25-38 Section 91.25-38 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification... design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  20. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  1. 46 CFR 189.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 189.25-38 Section 189.25-38... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection... meets the vessel design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155,...

  2. 46 CFR 189.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 189.25-38 Section 189.25-38... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection... meets the vessel design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155,...

  3. 46 CFR 91.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 91.25-38 Section 91.25-38 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification... design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  4. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  5. 46 CFR 189.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 189.25-38 Section 189.25-38... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection... meets the vessel design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155,...

  6. 46 CFR 91.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 91.25-38 Section 91.25-38 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification... design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  7. 46 CFR 189.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 189.25-38 Section 189.25-38... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection... meets the vessel design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155,...

  8. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  9. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  10. 46 CFR 189.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 189.25-38 Section 189.25-38... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection... meets the vessel design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155,...

  11. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B....

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    SciTech Connect

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  13. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  15. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR...

  16. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR...

  17. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR...

  18. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR...

  19. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann

    1992-03-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  20. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann.

    1992-01-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  1. Risk based tiered approach (RBTASM) for pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Elves, R G; Sweeney, L M; Tomljanovic, C

    1997-11-01

    Effective management of human health and ecological hazards in the manufacturing and maintenance environment can be achieved by focusing on the risks associated with these operations. The NDCEE Industrial Health Risk Assessment (IHRA) Program is developing a comprehensive approach to risk analysis applied to existing processes and used to evaluate alternatives. The IHRA Risk-Based Tiered Approach (RBTASM) builds on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) effort to remediate underground storage tanks. Using readily available information, a semi-quantitative ranking of alternatives based on environmental, safety, and occupational health criteria was produced. A Rapid Screening Assessment of alternative corrosion protection products was performed on behalf of the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). Using the RBTASM in pollution prevention alternative selection required higher tiered analysis and more detailed assessment of human health risks under site-specific conditions. This example illustrates the RBTASM for a organic finishing line using three different products (one conventional spray and two alternative powder coats). The human health risk information developed using the RBTASM is considered along with product performance, regulatory, and cost information by risk managers downselecting alternatives for implementation or further analysis.

  2. Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-09-23

    This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

  3. Pollution prevention requirements in United States environmental laws

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, J.; Sherman, P.

    1995-09-01

    This section discusses federal legal authority to require pollution prevention. It presents an overview of the authority to implement pollution prevention that exists in the following major environmental statutes: the Pollution Prevent Act (PPA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Clean Air Act (CAA); the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

  4. Pollution-preventing anionic lithographic inks.

    PubMed

    Maji, Chandrakant S; Bhaskarwar, Ashok N

    2003-12-12

    Lithographic printing presses use aliphatic and aromatic solvents for cleaning various surfaces, which are coated with the ink. The conventional printing inks also contain volatile solvents. During printing and cleaning operations, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the inks and cleaning solvents are lost to the atmosphere by evaporation and these losses are quantifiable and alarmingly high. A new type of ink based on castor oil, which completely eliminates emissions of VOCs, has been developed. Synthesis of resins and the kinetics of washing of the ink, similar to the recently announced pollution-preventing ink [development of a VOC-free lithographic printing system. TAGA Proc., 324], with water at a slightly elevated pH are studied. A correlation between the mass-transfer coefficient characterizing the washing of ink and the experimental process variables is confirmed. New data are also reported on flake-formation dynamics.

  5. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

  6. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1998-09-24

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

  7. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  8. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design,...

  9. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment...

  10. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design,...

  11. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment...

  12. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment...

  13. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment...

  14. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL - 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help metal finishing facilities meet the goal of profitable pollution prevention, the USEPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a computer program that estimates the rate of solid, liquid waste generation and air emissions. This progr...

  15. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design,...

  16. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design,...

  17. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with—...

  18. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design,...

  19. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment...

  20. D&D TECHNOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia L.

    2003-02-27

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called ''D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention'' and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX{reg_sign} to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX{reg_sign} is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX{reg_sign} chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign}, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign} will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated

  1. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs).

  2. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... Superfund, TRI, EPCRA, RMP and Oil Information Center at (800) 424-9346 or TDD (800) 553-7672...

  3. A pound of prevention: Air pollution and the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.L.; Rose, R.

    1996-12-31

    The expanded use of fuel cells in transportation and power generation is an exciting proposition for public health officials because of the potential of this technology to help reduce air pollution levels around the globe. Such work is about prevention -- prevention of air emissions of hazardous substances. Prevention is a key concept in public health. An example is quarantine, which aims to prevent the spread of a disease-causing organism. In the environmental arena, prevention includes cessation of pollution. Air pollution prevention policies also have a practical impact. Sooner or later ideas on technology, especially new technology, must be sold to policy makers, legislators, and eventually the public. Advocating technologies that will improve human health and welfare can be an effective marketing strategy.

  4. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  5. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  6. Incorporation of pollution prevention principles in environmental methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-07-01

    The principles of pollution prevention (P2) have not been sufficiently incorporated into analytical methods. In this paper, we focus on the needs for and the benefits of incorporating the principles of P2 into environmental analytical methods.

  7. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  8. GUIDE TO INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENTS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an overview of industrial assessments and the general framework for conducting an assessment. It describes combined assessments for pollution prevention and energy, "industrial assessments," providing guidance to those performing assessments at industrial o...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  10. FY 2013 Pollution Prevention Grant Program Request for Proposals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pollution Prevention (P2) grant program funds state and tribal technical assistance projects to help businesses identify better environmental strategies and solutions for reducing or eliminating waste at the source.

  11. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2007-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O.; Lanik, P.

    1997-09-18

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding.

  15. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries for 2011 and 2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  16. Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) user guide

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    When Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) were launched at the Hanford Site during the summer of 1994, the first comment received from those using them expressed the desire for a method to report assessments electronically. As a temporary measure, macros were developed for use on word processing systems, but a more formal database was obviously needed. Additionally, increased DOE and Washington state reporting requirements for pollution prevention suggested that a database system would streamline the reporting process. The Pollution Prevention Group of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted with the Data Automation Engineering Department from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICFKH) to develop the system. The scope was to develop a database that will track P2OAs conducted by the facilities and contractors at the Hanford Site. It will also track pollution prevention accomplishments that are not the result of P2OAs and document a portion of the Process Waste Assessments conducted in the past. To accommodate the above criteria, yet complete the system in a timely manner, the Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) is being implemented in three phases. The first phase will automate the worksheets to provide both input and output of the data associated with the worksheets. The second phase will automate standard summary reports and ad hoc reports. The third phase will provide automated searching of the database to facilitate the sharing of pollution prevention experiences among various users. This User`s Guide addresses only the Phase 1 system.

  17. GREEN CHEMISTRY AND POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Chemistry and Design for the Environment bring benefits as they can be a relatively low societal cost way to avoid pollution before it occurs. EPA supports these fields from the early stages of research and knowledge development through to assessment, economic analysis, edu...

  18. Atmospheric Pollution: Its Origins and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meetham, A. R.

    Although atmospheric pollution can be reduced or eliminated in many different ways, each way involves questions of economics, the time factor, availability of materials, priority over other urgent reforms, and individual and social psychology. To provide a basis for consideration of these questions, this book gives information not only about the…

  19. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... into the offshore waters. The lessee shall not create conditions that will pose unreasonable risk to... other uses of the ocean. (1) When pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on...

  20. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... into the offshore waters. The lessee shall not create conditions that will pose unreasonable risk to... other uses of the ocean. (1) When pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on...

  1. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... into the offshore waters. The lessee shall not create conditions that will pose unreasonable risk to... other uses of the ocean. (1) When pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on...

  2. Pollution prevention: Avoiding the need to manage wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, M.

    1993-12-01

    Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.

  3. Pollution Abatement and Prevention Analysis (PAPA) Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    and prevention opportunities and activities that are in research , development, demonstration, and commercialization. (5) Selected case studies jointly...organizes Army policy into four categories: compliance, restoration , prevention, and conservation. These categories are referred to as the four "pillars" of...this pillar are generally categorized as "must fund" projects. (2) The restoration pillar focuses on cleaning up contaminated sites at Army

  4. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments. Guidance for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide help to you, Hanford waste generators, in finding ways to reduce waste through Pollution Prevention (P2) and Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs). It is based on guidance from other sites, and serves to compliment the Hanford-specific training on P2OAs offered by the Pollution Prevention group at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The chapters of this document include help on how to choose major waste generating activities, how to conduct a P2OA, how to get results, and how to show progress. There is also a chapter on special situations and problems your facility may encounter. This first chapter tells you why you should consider conducting P2OAs and why they may be required.

  6. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, J.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  7. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for electronics prototype laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2005-10-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/California Electronics Prototype Laboratory (EPL) in May 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Electronics Prototype Laboratory personnel in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with the EPL to implement the recommendations.

  8. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  10. THE USE OF TRACI FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Use of TRACI for
    Pollution Prevention and Sustainable Development

    Jane C. Bare1 and Gregory A. Norris2
    1) Systems Analysis Branch, Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, O...

  11. 2010-2014 Pollution Prevention Program Strategic Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Strategic Plan identifies a number of opportunities for EPA's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program to help reduce: the emission of greenhouse gasses; the use of hazardous materials; and the use of natural resources, while contributing to a greener and more sustainable economy.

  12. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  13. Joint Group on Pollution Prevention: Partnering for Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) partnership. Details are given on what groups comprise JG-PP, the proven methodology for what JG-PP can accomplish, the common problems, joint solutions, and shared efforts, and some of the JG-PP projects.

  14. U.S. EPA POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CLEANER PRODUCTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation was made at the 2002 annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes, held on May 12-16, 2002 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The presentation covered six pollution prevention and cleaner production tools developed by NRMRL.

  15. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  16. REGULATORY BARRIERS TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: A POSITION PAPER OF THE IMPLEMENTATION COUNCIL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention/waste minimization is a win-win-win situation for government, industry, and the public, which offers more than just protection of the environment for all. ndustry gains from reduced capital and operating costs, reduced liabilities,cleaner and safer working co...

  17. Analysis of the Tri-Service Pollution Prevention Programs, Comparison of Characteristics, and Recommendations for Improvement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Agency shall incorporate waste prevention and recycling in the agency’s daily operations and work to increase and expand markets for recovered...conservation, and the use of innovative pollution prevention technologies. Pollution prevention has been an integral, proactive, expanding , and...maintenance operations. The Army is expanding its pollution prevention Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) program, and is broadening

  18. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department`s use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled.

  19. Pollution prevention assessments for marine maintenance and commercial printing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, H.L.; Erten-Unal, M.; Marchello, J.M.; Burgess, M.; Aydlett, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper represents the results of ten pollution prevention/waste minimization assessments performed on marine maintenance and commercial printing industries in the Hampton Roads area of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The pollution prevention project is the result of a working partnership (the Partnership) formed between Old Dominion University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (ODU) and Hampton Roads Sanitation District Industrial Waste Division (HRSD) for the Pollution Prevention Incentives for States (PPIS) grant awarded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Local businesses were provided with direct on-site technical consultation on waste reduction, and possible alternatives for the reduction or elimination of solid and hazardous waste, waste water discharges, and air emissions, were evaluated. Financial analyses of identified technology and procedural options were developed in order to prepare comprehensive reports for each business on findings and recommendations. Industry profiles are provided in order to establish the type of services rendered by the facilities participating within the program. Material usage, waste generation, and waste minimization recommendations are examined for both the marine maintenance and commercial printing industries. In addition to loss prevention and good housekeeping, waste minimization recommendations for the commercial printing industry include hazardous solvent source reduction, recycling of available markets, and silver recovery during photoprocessing operations.

  20. Pollution Prevention in Air Force System Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    in the federal government through the EIS process, is to avoid, minimize, or compensate for adverse environmental impacts before an action is taken...about illness and injuries at the plant." 110 By June 1989, more than 200 workers had filed lawsuits or worker compensation claims. By March 1989, the...adjusted to compensate for the citizen’s lack of resources compared to the agency. This provides a means to adjust the distribution of analytical

  1. Hanford site pollution prevention plan progress report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-08-26

    This report tracks progress made during 1995 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307,`Plans,` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, `Waste Reduction,` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in- process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material.

  2. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for the SNL/NM cafeterias.

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2005-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the two Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico cafeteria facilities between May and August 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to assess waste and resource reduction opportunities and issue Pollution Prevention (P2) recommendations for Sandia's food service facilities. This PPOA contains recommendations for energy, water and resource reduction, as well as material substitution based upon environmentally preferable purchasing. Division 3000 has requested the PPOA report as part of the Division's compliance effort to implement the Environmental Management System (EMS) per DOE Order 450.1. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM P2 Group will work with Division 3000 and the respective cafeteria facilities to implement these options.

  3. Connecticut DEEP to Receive $160,000 EPA Pollution Prevention Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CT DEEP has been selected to receive approximately $160,000 over two years as one of five Pollution Prevention grants being awarded by EPA's New England Regional Office for the FY2016-FY2017 Pollution Prevention Grants cycle.

  4. FY 2013 Request for Proposals for the Pollution Prevention Information Network Grants Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) grant program funds regional centers that serve both unique regional pollution prevention (P2) information needs and national audience needs for information on source reduction and related P2 practices.

  5. EPA'S APPROACH TO POLLUTION PREVENTION REF: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS, PP. 53-58, JUNE 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA'S adoption of pollution prevention as the cornerstone of its future efforts on environmental protection is described as are the roles of the Pollution Prevention Office and the Waste Minimization Branch. Copy of paper available at NTIS as PB89236418.

  6. PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION: NEW METHODS REDUCE THE MAGNITUDE OF WASTE STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized. Process simulators can be effective tools in a...

  7. New Hampshire DES to Receive $160,000 EPA Pollution Prevention Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NHDES has been selected to receive $160,000 over two years as one of five Pollution Prevention grants being awarded by EPA’s New England Regional Office for the FY2016-FY2017 Pollution Prevention Grants cycle.

  8. 40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution.... (c) Where a State plan does not provide for public announcement regarding air pollution...

  9. 40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution.... (c) Where a State plan does not provide for public announcement regarding air pollution...

  10. 40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution.... (c) Where a State plan does not provide for public announcement regarding air pollution...

  11. 40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution.... (c) Where a State plan does not provide for public announcement regarding air pollution...

  12. 40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution.... (c) Where a State plan does not provide for public announcement regarding air pollution...

  13. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment benchmarking: Recommendations for Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) are an important first step in any pollution prevention program. While P2OAs have been and are being conducted at Hanford, there exists no standard guidance, training, tracking, or systematic approach to identifying and addressing the most important waste streams. The purpose of this paper then is to serve as a guide to the Pollution Prevention group at Westinghouse Hanford in developing and implementing P2OAs at Hanford. By searching the literature and benchmarks other sites and agencies, the best elements from those programs can be incorporated and pitfalls more easily avoided. This search began with the 1988 document that introduces P2OAs (then called Process Waste Assessments, PWAS) by the Environmental Protection Agency. This important document presented the basic framework of P20A features which appeared in almost all later programs. Major Department of Energy programs were also examined, with particular attention to the Defense Programs P20A method of a graded approach, as presented at the Kansas City Plant. The graded approach is a system of conducting P2OAs of varying levels of detail depending on the size and importance of the waste stream. Finally, private industry programs were examined briefly. While all the benchmarked programs had excellent features, it was determined that the size and mission of Hanford precluded lifting any one program for use. Thus, a series of recommendations were made, based on the literature review, in order to begin an extensive program of P2OAs at Hanford. These recommendations are in the areas of: facility Pollution Prevention teams, P20A scope and methodology, guidance documents, training for facilities (and management), technical and informational support, tracking and measuring success, and incentives.

  15. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995.

  16. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  17. Pollution Prevention Cost Savings Using Supply Chain Reengineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Supply chain management was explored as a tool to prevent hazardous waste and reduce operating costs. Previous research had shown that pollution prevention measures were often costly and no expectation of cost savings could be realized. The reengineering of the Air Force hazardous material supply chain brought about by the Hazardous Material Pharmacy Program was tested to evaluate if hazardous waste had been precluded in this effort and if costs had also been avoided. To date, no research had explored the use of supply chain

  18. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  19. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment... this section, you may install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in...

  20. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment... this section, you may install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in...

  1. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment... this section, you may install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in...

  2. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  3. Regulations to prevent marine pollution. Tankships in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Höfer, T

    1999-01-01

    This report gives an inside view on discussions held at the headquarters of the International Maritime Organization, the United Nations agency concerned with maritime safety and the prevention of pollution from ships. Marine environmental protection regulations and their historical development are presented and discussed. The regulative measures that have been taken under the responsibility of this organization during the last decades to reduce accidental and operational discharge from tankships have achieved success although the marine environment is still suffering. Those standards which will come into force will further reduce the risks of accidental pollution. The report summarizes aspects beyond issues of environmental science which have to be analysed in order to reduce the impact of tankships on the marine environment. The report ends with the thesis that safer ships and improved occupational conditions on board are prerequisites for cleaner seas.

  4. Regulatory perspective for prevention of groundwater pollution. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish a regulatory perspective for preventing groundwater pollution, which is a serious problem in many regions of the country. Historically, pollution-control regulations have been haphazard and uncoordinated. Few have been designed to consider the problems unique to this source. The paper outlines important hydrologic factors to establish a basis for an improved regulatory program for groundwater quality protection. Significant factors include the hydrologic role of ground water, the uses and regional importance of groundwater, and groundwater contamination pathways. A review of past and present trends in regulatory protection includes two regulatory approaches that are generally superior and a listing of key factors that planners should consider when designing land-use regulations. The paper concludes with a discussion of some possible problems of implementing an improved regulatory program, such as limits on our technical or enforcement capabilities. 52 references, 7 figures.

  5. 40 CFR 63.2495 - How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prevention standard? 63.2495 Section 63.2495 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... prevention standard? (a) You may elect to comply with the pollution prevention alternative requirements... you seek to comply by using the pollution prevention alternative must begin with the same...

  6. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan.

  7. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees.

  8. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann |

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  9. Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

  10. 40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The requirements of § 51.152(a) of this chapter are not... during air pollution emergency episodes....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The requirements of § 51.152(a) of this chapter are not... during air pollution emergency episodes....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on..., entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for New Mexico, is approved as meeting the requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on..., entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for New Mexico, is approved as meeting the requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The requirements of § 51.152(a) of this chapter are not... during air pollution emergency episodes....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The requirements of § 51.152(a) of this chapter are not... during air pollution emergency episodes....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The requirements of § 51.152(a) of this chapter are not... during air pollution emergency episodes....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on..., entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for New Mexico, is approved as meeting the requirements...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on..., entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for New Mexico, is approved as meeting the requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on..., entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for New Mexico, is approved as meeting the requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2495 - How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I comply with the pollution... Manufacturing Alternative Means of Compliance § 63.2495 How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard? (a) You may elect to comply with the pollution prevention alternative requirements specified...

  1. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. The Assistant Administrator, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP), serves as...

  2. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  3. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Pollution Prevention... Part 455—List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices on this table that an individual facility must comply with to be eligible for the pollution...

  4. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  5. 40 CFR 63.2495 - How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I comply with the pollution... Chemical Manufacturing Alternative Means of Compliance § 63.2495 How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard? (a) You may elect to comply with the pollution prevention alternative...

  6. 40 CFR 63.2495 - How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I comply with the pollution... Chemical Manufacturing Alternative Means of Compliance § 63.2495 How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard? (a) You may elect to comply with the pollution prevention alternative...

  7. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S. E.; McLauglin, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  8. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  9. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ``Plans,`` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ``Waste Reduction,`` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD.

  10. Pollution prevention in environmental restoration projects: communication, innovation, and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    With the change in US Department of Energy`s (DOE) primary mission from weapons production to complex clean-up, there is an increased emphasis to utilize proven tools and techniques that, when modified, will assist in this massive remediation effort. Tools and techniques which increase process efficiency while minimizing costs are highly attractive. The introduction of formalized Pollution Prevention (P2) practices into the DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) program should be encouraged to the measurable degree of success that P2 has obtained in DOE process operations. Most notably, the integration of Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs) into the ER process is highly recommended for three reasons: waste stream generation volumes will be minimized; the results of P2 implementation will be properly measured, quantified, and documented for use on other projects; and negative impacts to human health and the environment will be lessened. the application of P2 principles is encouraged as a Best Management Practice (BMP), in addition to minimizing waste generation to achieve DOE waste reduction goals. The challenge is how to apply P2 practices to ER projects and obtain quantifiable waster reductions.

  11. "MARK I" MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS OCCURRING AS A RESULT OF PRODUCT DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for assessing progress in pollution prevention resulting from product redesign, reformulation or replacement is described. The method compares the pollution generated by the original product with that from the modified or replacement product, taking into account, if...

  12. Pollution prevention program yields award winning results: Creating a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, F.

    1995-12-31

    In 1993, a large government facility set foot on the road to excellence in pollution prevention. The US Coast Guard Support Center at Governors Island, New York enthusiastically embraced pollution prevention (commonly referred to as P2) by aggressively implementing a broad spectrum of P2 initiatives. The most impressive accomplishment of the Support Center`s P2 efforts has been its significant improvement in hazardous materials management. The first step in implementing the program involved educating the procurement staff and end-users as to what types of products are considered green and which are unacceptable and why. Employees were encouraged to procure and test products that were either recycled, recyclable, or non-toxic, and where possible, biodegradable. To discourage the purchase of hazmat items, the new program placed responsibility for obtaining and submitting the necessary material safety data sheet (MSDS) on the requisitioner. The procurement staff was then trained to identify hazmat procurement requests by vendor, product name, and application. All hazmat procurements and the MSDS were extensively reviewed, and the chemical constituents compared against the EPA SARA Title III ``Consolidated List of Lists``. Where appropriate, if a non-toxic product could not be located, an acceptable alternative with a lesser degree of risk to the environment would be substituted. When no suitable product could be found, the Pollution Prevention Coordinator would search out individual manufacturers and suppliers to locate green products. Once a product had been tested and evaluated in use and found to meet the customer needs, the information was forward to GSA and DOD acquisition personnel for inclusion into the Federal stock system.

  13. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Prevention. 1.43 Section 1.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. The Assistant Administrator, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP), serves as...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2495 - How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prevention standard? 63.2495 Section 63.2495 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Manufacturing Alternative Means of Compliance § 63.2495 How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard? (a) You may elect to comply with the pollution prevention alternative requirements specified...

  15. Special Advanced Studies for Pollution Prevention. Delivery Order 0058: "The Monitor" - Summer 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL AWARD FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION - Linda Larson Proudly, Rob- ins’ Environ- mental Man- agement Di- rectorate not only main- tains high en...AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2005-400 SPECIAL ADVANCED STUDIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION Delivery Order 0058: “The Monitor” – Summer 1999 Science...STUDIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION Delivery Order 0058: “The Monitor” – Summer 1999 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e

  16. Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE`s sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities.

  17. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y. |

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  18. Pollution prevention/waste minimization guidelines for facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Encke, D.B.

    1993-04-01

    The mission of the 560 square mile (1450 sq Km) Hanford site, located in south eastern Washington, was changed from defense production to environmental restoration and waste management in 1989. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) signed in 1989 between DOE, EPA and Washington State, agreed to clean up most of the Hanford site within 30 years. To accomplish the clean-up and comply with the schedule established in the TPA, a number of treatment and support facilities will have to be built. While these facilities are designed to treat wastes that have already been generated, the routine operation and maintenance of these facilities will generate their own wastes. With careful planning, new facilities or modifications to existing facilities can be designed in a manor such that little pollution or waste is generated through normal operation and maintenance. The project the author is working on is concerned with avoiding or reducing the generation of new waste by assuring that pollution prevention and waste minimization are considered in the design phase of these facilities.

  19. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  20. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports.

  1. Deployment of pollution prevention during design -- a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-15

    Traditionally, pollution prevention (P2) assessments have been performed on existing facilities and ongoing operations, well after the completion of design and construction. It has been theorized that more success can be achieved by moving P2 upstream into the design process, where an estimated 70% of a project`s total life cycle costs are initially fixed. Decisions made during design to prevent or minimize the amount of waste generated can reap benefits for many years to come. This is especially true when designing systems for handling hazardous and radioactive wastes for treatment, storage, and disposal. P2 assessments performed during design of such projects can uncover significant savings to be reaped during project construction, operations, and/or decommissioning. However, many project managers are still reluctant to include some type of P2 review or assessment as part of the design effort, because the immediate payback to the design entity is difficult to quantify. This paper presents the results of a P2 assessment performed on a design project at Hanford which identified close to $500,000 in construction savings while minimizing low-level and mixed radioactive waste generation. This paper describes the process used to per-form the assessment, discusses its results, and provides lessons-learned for future P2 design assessments.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  5. Preventive techniques of pollution control, the reliability and safety in core sectors including thermal power plant installations and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, J.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a study of pollution control techniques, thermal power plant reliability and safety, and economics. Included are some illustrative examples dealing with pollution control. Topics include environmental planning, prevention strategy, pesticide use, food pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, thermal power plant emissions, and pollution control equipment.

  6. Violence Prevention in the Middle Level Curriculum: Student Characteristics and Acquisition of Knowledge about Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enger, John M.; And Others

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined the effects of a violence-prevention program on students' acquisition of knowledge about violence. The violence-prevention program, an adaptation of the Prothrow-Stith (1987) curriculum model, was implemented in seventh-grade health-education classes in a rural Mississippi River-delta…

  7. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  9. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements. 250.806 Section 250.806 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements. (a) General requirements. (1) Except...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1934 Section 52.1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan originally submitted by the Governor of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1934 Section 52.1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan originally submitted by the Governor of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1934 Section 52.1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan originally submitted by the Governor of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1934 Section 52.1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan originally submitted by the Governor of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1934 Section 52.1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The plan originally submitted by the Governor of...

  15. Rhode Island DEM to Receive $129,000 EPA Pollution Prevention Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The RI Dept. of Environmental Management (RI DEM) has been selected to receive $129,000 over two years as one of five Pollution Prevention grants being awarded by EPA’s New England Regional Office for the FY2016-FY2017 Pollution Prevention Grants cycle.

  16. VT DEC to Receive $160,000 EPA Pollution Prevention Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The VT DEC has been selected to receive approximately $160,000 over two years as one of five Pollution Prevention grants being awarded by EPA’s New England Regional Office for the FY2016-FY2017 Pollution Prevention Grants cycle.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal finishing processes are a type of chemical processes and can be modeled using Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). Currently, the U.S. EPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a pollution prevention software tool for the meta...

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T) - 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help metal finishing facilities meet the goal of profitable pollution prevention, the USEPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a computer program that estimates the rate of solid, liquid waste generation and air emissions. This progr...

  19. Incorporation of pollution prevention into the engineering command media

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, E.; Hammonds, C.

    1997-10-08

    It has long been recognized that incorporation of pollution prevention (P2) into projects during the design phase yields superior results as compared to modification of facilities after construction. Generation of waste during construction can be minimized, products containing recycled materials can be incorporated into the facility, and the processes or systems can be optimized for P2 from the beginning. However, design engineers must have the proper mindset and training in order to achieve this, since standard engineering practice does not necessarily lead to construction of systems that are optimized for P2. It was determined that incorporation of P2 principles and methods into command media that govern the conduct of design and construction was one way of achieving P2 objectives during design. This would incorporate certain P2 elements into criteria and standard designs so that these elements are automatically incorporated into the designs. The Central Engineering Services (CES) Command Media, which provide direction, methodology, and criteria for performance of engineering design and construction, consist of Engineering Procedures, Master Design Criteria, Technical Specifications, and Engineering Standards. Incorporated in these documents are regulatory requirements, national consensus codes and standards, accepted and proven practices and designs, as well as DOE Orders governing design and construction. The documents were reviewed to identify potential areas into which P2 principles, practices, and methodologies could be incorporated.

  20. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    SciTech Connect

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies.

  1. Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of wooden cabinets

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088, May 1992). The WMAC team at Colorado state University performed an assessment at a plant that manufacturers wooden kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Components purchased from vendors are prepared for production through cutting, sanding, and routing operations. Stain, sealer, and top-coat are applied in separate spray booths. After the final coating, the components are dried and assembled. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint sludge from the spray booth water curtains is generated in a large amount and that significant cost savings could be achieved by dewatering the sludge before it is shipped offsite for disposal and reusing the water. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  2. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE`s Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999.

  3. 25th Anniversary of Pollution Prevention Act Serves as Reminder That Everyone Can Take Steps for a Healthy Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Sept. 21, 2015) Each year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency celebrates Pollution Prevention Week - the third week in September - to highlight ways the agency is working with an array of organizations to prevent pollution right

  4. Chemicals and excess materials disposition during facility deactivation as a means of pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, S.D.

    1998-05-28

    This paper presents several innovative and common sense approaches to pollution prevention that have been employed during facility deactivation at the Hanford Site in South Central Washington. It also presents several pollution prevention principles applicable to other projects. Innovative pollution prevention ideas employed at the Hanford site during facility deactivation included: (1) Recycling more than 185,000 gallons of radioactively contaminated nitric acid by sending it to an operating nuclear fuels reprocessing facility in England; (2) Recycling millions of pounds of chemicals and excess materials to other industries for reuse; (3) Evaporating flush water at a low rate and discharging it into the facility exhaust air stream to avoid discharging thousands of gallons of liquid to the soil column; and (4) Decontaminating and disposing of thousands of gallons of radioactively contaminated organic solvent waste to a RCRA licensed, power-producing, commercial incinerator. Common sense pollution prevention ideas that were employed include recycling office furniture, recycling paper from office files, and redeploying tools and miscellaneous process equipment. Additional pollution prevention occurred as the facility liquid and gaseous discharge streams were deactivated. From the facilities deactivation experiences at Hanford and the ensuing efforts to disposition excess chemicals and materials, several key pollution prevention principles should be considered at other projects and facilities, especially during the operational periods of the facility`s mission. These principles include: Institute pollution prevention as a fundamental requirement early in the planning stage of a project or during the operational phase of a facility`s mission; Promote recognition and implementation of pollution prevention initiatives; Instill pollution prevention as a value in all participants in the project or facility work scope; Minimize the amount of chemical products and materials

  5. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, B.G.

    1998-11-16

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity...

  8. Strategies for Preventing and Resolving Temporary Fossilization in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Manqiu; Xiao, Zhihong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the practice of college English teaching and learning in China, the paper reviews the phenomenon and causes of the temporary fossilization in second language acquisition and offers some corresponding strategies for preventing and surmounting the obstacles in the hope of promoting the reactivation of the next climax.

  9. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    SciTech Connect

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-20

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation.

  10. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  11. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option.

  12. 76 FR 38410 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. TRI Analysis of Community-Scale Pollution Prevention Activities: North Birmingham, Alabama (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This analysis compared TRI data about pollution prevention and waste management activities from facilities located in North Birmingham with facilities in the same industry sectors that are located elsewhere in the country.

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors. FY 1995 report

    SciTech Connect

    Pemberton, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors are faced with environmental concerns and large waste management costs. Federal legislation and DOE Orders require sites to develop waste minimization/pollution prevention programs. In response to these requirements, the Kansas City Plant developed a pollution prevention tool called a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). Pilot assessments resulted in the development of a graded approach to reduce the amount of effort required for activities that utilized nonhazardous and/or low-volume waste streams. The project`s objectives in FY95 were to validate DOE`s PPOA Graded Approach methodology, provide PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, enhance the methodology with energy analysis and tools for environmental restoration activities, implement a DOE-wide PPOA database, and provide support to DOE EM-334 in the completion of a report which estimates the future potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization in the DOE complex.

  15. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS CIVIL WORKS FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) summarized here were conducted at the following representative Army Corps of Engineers (USAGE) Civil Works facilities: Pittsburgh Engineering Warehouse and Repair Station (PEWARS) and Emsworth Locks and Dams in Pittsburgh, P...

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. COAST GUARD AVIATION TRAINING CENTER - MOBILE, AL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment of pollution prevention opportunities at the U.S. Coast Guard Aviation Training Center in Mobile, AL, identified waste reduction opportunities in five major processing areas: flight simulator operation, aircraft maintenance, aircraft fueling, aircraft washing, and...

  17. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  18. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE APPLICATION OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention requires the assessment of various multimedia environmental impacts to ensure that the alternative selected most closely represents the environmental goals and priorities of the facility. While some facility's environmental policies are easy to assess, others...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND EMISSIONS AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR THE COMPOSITE WOOD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information gathered on emissions from the composite wood industry (also called the Plywood and particleboard industry) and potential pollution prevention options. Information was gathered during a literature search that included trade association publicatio...

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - MANUFACTURING AND FABRICATION REPAIR LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  1. A computer based system for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunity assessments at SNL/NM

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, M.S.; Leishman, N.L.; Walsh, M.L.; Nelson, J.D.; Davis, R.L.; Bueno, N.C.

    1996-07-01

    Prioritizing waste generators is necessary to determine which are the best candidates for Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs). This paper describes the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) PPOA Ranking System. The system uses a multimedia approach that considers hazardous and radioactive waste disposal data, and hazardous chemical usage data (from which air emissions are extrapolated). Pollution prevention information is included, from the SNL Pollution Prevention Opportunities database that identifies waste streams that have readily apparent pollution prevention opportunities. The system also considers the relative costs of waste management and the chargeback fees paid for waste generation. From these data, organizations are ranked with an algorithm developed in Microsoft Access{trademark} on a personal computer. The concept could readily be transferred to other facilities needing to decide where to perform PPOAs.

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND THE USE OF LOW-VOC/HAP COATINGS AT WOOD FURNITURE MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a study of pollution prevention and the use of low-VOC/HAP (volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant) coatings at wood furniture manufacturing facilities. The study is to identify wood furniture and cabinet manufacturing facilities that have converted...

  4. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER in...National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Navy. ANY POSSIBLE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE ARE SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. FINAL REPORT HEAVY METAL ADSORBENTS

  5. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report February 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2008-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories, California pollution prevention annual program report for calendar year 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Farren, Laurie J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the ''SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual''. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  7. The U.S. Department of Energy pollution prevention program: Applications for small business

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D.

    1997-05-14

    This report shows the benefits small businesses can realize by instituting cost-effective pollution prevention improvements. It is a series of pollution prevention assessments that were conducted at small businesses in Richland, Washington. It describes a technology transfer test of US Department of Energy (USDOE) pollution prevention methods to small businesses through eleven pollution prevention assessments conducted at small businesses in the city of Richland. The assessment method tested was first developed at the USDOE Hanford Site, located in Richland, Washington. Two pilot studies were initially conducted to determine the usefulness of the assessment method for small businesses. Then, four additional pollution prevention assessments were conducted using a refined process. In order to determine the assessment method`s usefulness by different practitioners, a number of the assessments contained in this report were conducted by the undergraduate and graduate students at Washington State University at Tri-Cities as part of their class projects. These students were trained in the pollution prevention assessment process by the author of this report and conducted five small business assessments using the same methods and materials as in the remainder of the study.

  8. Preventing pollution by commune, brigade-run industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This article reports on efforts to control pollution in Shunde County, China. With regard to the county's economic output value, state-run enterprises produce 19.8%; enterprises run by communes, brigades and collectives produce 52.7%; and agriculture produces 27.5%. Shunde County has an environmental protection office, an environmental monitoring station, and an environmental control office. Of the 4,161 large and small enterprises in the county, polluting enterprises number 1,739 (41.8%) and the remaining 2,422 (or 58.2%) have little or no pollution. Topics considered include deepening the understanding of environmental protection, the functional role of the county's office for environmental protection, and environmental management measures.

  9. WET-WEATHER POLLUTION PREVENTION BY PRODUCT SUBSTITUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of building/construction materials has shown that many of these materials such as galvanized metal, concrete, asphalt, and wood products have the potential to release pollutants into urban stormwater runoff and snowmelt. However, much of this previous research...

  10. WET-WEATHER POLLUTION PREVENTION BY PRODUCT SUBSTITUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of urban stormwater runoff and building/construction materials has shown that many materials such as galvanized metal, concrete, asphalt, and wood products, have the potential to release pollutants into urban stormwater runoff, and snowmelt. However, much of t...

  11. Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

  12. MANUAL: POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE PAINTS AND COATINGS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paints and coatings industry represents a significant source of multimedia pollution through the wide use of solvent-based process materials and the extensive amounts of wastewater generated by the operations. This manual presents recommended practices for minimizing the gene...

  13. HARD CHROME POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the project, five chromium emission prevention/control devices were tested tha cover the spectrum of prevention/control techniques currently in use in small- and large-size hard chromium electroplating job shops. The Project results show that some of the tested devices had ch...

  14. Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

    1995-10-01

    With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy`s waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation.

  15. Pollution Prevention, An Investment Decision Model to Assess Financial Feasibility for Application to Air Force Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    product and include 3-1 I indirect labor, indirect materials, tooling , machining , quality control, maintenance, scheduling, resource planning, and...6-7 7.1 Research Proccess Feedback Loop .... ......... .. 7-7 viii List of Tables Table Page 4.1 Cost Considerations by Level...decision making tool which enables them to make quick and effective choices regarding alternatives to pollution management. Pollution Prevention The

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Pemberton, S.

    1995-01-01

    One of the tools used in a successful pollution prevention program is a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). The purpose of this project was to share the Kansas City Plant`s (KCP`s) PPOA expertise with other Department of Energy (DOE) personnel and DOE contractors. This consisted of five major activities in FY94: (1) Validating DOE`s PPOA Graded Approach methodology; (2) Providing DOE-funded PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors; (3) Developing a promotional campaign; (4) Conducting a feasibility study to develop a DOE-wide PPOA information exchange mechanism; and (5) Organizing and coordinating information sharing among related DOE EM-334 pollution prevention projects. This report documents the FY94 efforts, lessons learned, and future plans for all of the PPOA-related activities.

  17. Pollution Prevention Plan for the Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization Off-Site Union Valley Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization (ACO) Off-Site Union Valley Facility (Union Valley Facility) is managed by Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, L.L.C. (B and W Y-12) through the Y-12 National Security Complex organization. Accordingly, the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program encompasses the operations conducted at the Union Valley Facility. The Y-12 Program is designed to fully comply with state, federal and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements concerning waste minimization/pollution prevention as documented in the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program Plan. The Program is formulated to reduce the generation and toxicity of all Y-12 wastes in all media, including those wastes generated by the Union Valley Facility operations. All regulatory and DOE requirements are met by the Y-12 Program Plan.

  18. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Pemberton, S.

    1997-03-01

    One of the tools used in a successful pollution prevention program is a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). PPOAs can be used to identify the nature and amounts of waste and energy usage from processes and projects within a site`s operations, identify the opportunities that exist for pollution prevention and energy conservation, and then evaluate those opportunities for feasible implementation. The purpose of this project is to share the Kansas City Plant`s (KCP`s) PPOA methodology and experience with other DOE personnel and DOE contractors. This consisted of three major activities in FY96: (1) completing the PPOA training module specific to Environmental Restoration activities; (2) providing PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, and (3) implementing and maintaining the DOE-wide PPOA database. This report documents the FY96 efforts, lessons learned, and future plans for all of the PPOA-related activities.

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    SciTech Connect

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Facilities Maintenance Team (FMT) paint shop.

    SciTech Connect

    Klossner, Kristin Ann

    2003-05-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/California Facilities Maintenance Team Paint Shop Operations in August and September 2002. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Paint Shop personnel in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed and recommends options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with the Paint Shop to implement the recommendations.

  1. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the Maintenance Engineering Department (Organization 8513).

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

    2003-04-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Maintenance Engineering Department (85 13) in September and October of 2002. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist 8513 in reducing the generation of waste and increasing the purchase of environmentally preferable products. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will continue to work with 8513 to implement the recommendations.

  2. Environmental Research Brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a Manufacturer of pressure-sensitive adhesive tape

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Minimization Assessment Center at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures three varieties of pressure-sensitive tape. The team report indicated that waste natural rubber adhesive is shipped offsite for disposal in large quantities, and that singificant cost savings could be achieved by redesigning the adhesive applicator on the coater for natural rubber adhesive. This research brief discusses the manufacturing process, existing waste management practices, pollution prevention opportunities, and gives additional recommendations. Tables summarize current waste generation and recommended pollution prevention opportunity.

  3. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China.

  4. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution.

    PubMed

    Flores Céspedes, F; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Pérez García, S; Fernández Pérez, M

    2007-10-01

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. Sorption capacity of the sorbents for chloridazon and metribuzin, ranging from 0.53mgkg(-1) for the metribuzin sorption on bentonite to 2.03x10(5)mgkg(-1) for the sorption of chloridazon on the activated carbon, was the most important factor modulating the herbicide release.

  5. Pollution prevention and control procedure case study: an application for petroleum refineries.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Encarnación; Martínez, Jose-Luis

    2005-06-01

    There is global environmental concern about the pollution from industries and other organizations that should not only be controlled but also prevented. Many alternatives are available to those in charge of environmental protection, but they should be able to draw on a systematic procedure to help implement prevention and control measures. At present, there are three immediate tasks: defining the objective of any environmental study, identifying the potential pollution sources, and selecting alternatives to these sources. However, it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives by using as large a number of criteria as possible and making them cumulative so as to enable the classification and selection of the best available techniques for each pollution source. The petroleum refining industry plays an important role in the developed economies and also has a potential for pollution generation that must be controlled. The best solution for all (i.e., petroleum companies, the public, and the environment) is pollution prevention, because this option will protect all of them and will also reduce costs in terms of lower raw materials consumption as well as reducing potential fines. The procedure we have presented in this article has been applied successfully.

  6. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

  7. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternative Practices 8 Table 8 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 8 Table 8 to Part 455—List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices on this...

  8. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alternative Practices 8 Table 8 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 8 Table 8 to Part 455—List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices on this...

  9. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alternative Practices 8 Table 8 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 8 Table 8 to Part 455—List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices...

  10. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alternative Practices 8 Table 8 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 8 Table 8 to Part 455—List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices...

  11. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D D), and surveillance and maintenance (S M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  12. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), and surveillance and maintenance (S&M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  13. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research project to develop tools and methodologies to measure aerosol chemical and particle dispersion through space. These tools can be used to devise pollution prevention strategies that could reduce occupant chemical exposures and guide manufactu...

  14. Innovative pollution prevention program at Air Force owned Raytheon operated facility incorporating Russian technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stallings, J.H.; Cepeda-Calderon, S.

    1999-07-01

    Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, Arizona is owned by the Air Force and operated by Raytheon Missile Systems Company. A joint Air Force/Raytheon Pollution Prevention Team operates at AFP 44 with the ultimate goal to minimize or eliminate the use of hazardous substances. The team works together to uncover new technologies and methods that will replace chemicals used in the plant's missile manufacturing facilities. The program maximizes pollution prevention by first eliminating hazardous material use, then chemical recycling, next hazardous waste reduction and finally wastewater treatment and recycling. From fiscal years 1994 through 1997, nine pollution prevention projects have been implemented, totaling $2.6 million, with a payback averaging less than two years. A unique wastewater treatment method has been demonstrated as part of this program. This is electroflotation, a Russian technology which removes dispersed particles from liquid with gas bubbles obtained during water electrolysis. A unit was built in the US which successfully removed organic emulsions from wastewater. Operational units are planned for the removal of waste from waterfall paint booths. The pollution prevention joint team continues to be very active with two projects underway in FY 98 and two more funded for FY 99.

  15. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B. G.

    1997-11-25

    This document provides guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste. Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The program documentation is intended to demonstrate generator compliance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements as well as state and Federal regulations.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preventing the occurrence of an emergency due to the effects of these pollutants on the health of persons. 1... that Atmospheric Stagnation Advisory is in effect or the equivalent local forecast of stagnant... application of these criteria will remain in effect until the criteria for that level are no longer met....

  17. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... preventing the occurrence of an emergency due to the effects of these pollutants on the health of persons. 1... that Atmospheric Stagnation Advisory is in effect or the equivalent local forecast of stagnant... application of these criteria will remain in effect until the criteria for that level are no longer met....

  18. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments of US Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This project summary describes three Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments conducted at US Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works facilities under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from industrial processes at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOA) and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. The assessments were conducted using the procedures outlined in EPA`s Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The assessments had two major phases. The first phase quantified waste generation and management practices. The second phase identified and evaluated the feasibility of opportunities and techniques to eliminate, reduce, or recycle wastes. The facilities studied in the PPOAs were: a navigation lock and dam; a warehouse and a maintenance and repair facility; a hydroelectric power plant; and a flood control dam and reservoir with associated public recreation areas. Other Federal agencies, such as the Bureau of Reclamation and the Tennessee Valley Authority have similar functions and facilities, as do states and the private sector. Thus, the results of the PPOAs described in the three full reports have applicability to a broad audience.

  19. MULTIMEDIA COMPANION TO AN ORGANIZATIONAL GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION ( CD-ROM )

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Companion Multimedia CD-ROM: An Organizational Guide to Pollution Prevention provides videos and slides of a three-day workshop series conducted in each of the ten US EPA Regions, and based on the publication EPA/625/R-01/003. It has been produced to assist in training tho...

  20. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  2. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST) AND POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of the USEPA's Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool, including a discussion of the models used and outputs. The tool is currently being expanded to include pollution prevention considerations as part of the model. The current st...

  3. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  4. POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDIES: LOW-VOC/HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a brief profile of the wood furniture industry, discusses pollution prevention activities typically implemented, describes the four low-VOC/HAP coating technologies studied. and summarizes one case study for each of the low-VOC/HAP coating yechnologies inves...

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVES FOR PUBLIC WORKS CENTER (TRANSPORTATION) WASTE FLUIDS AT NAVAL STATION MAYPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the recommended pollution prevention alternatives resulting from an investigation of operations at thePublic Works Center - Transportation Division (PWC-T) at Naval Station Mayport, located near Jacksonville Beach, Florida. il sampling and by-pass filtratio...

  6. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers. 291.4 Section 291.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY,...

  7. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current version of this tool. The presentation will...

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current ver...

  9. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current version of this tool. The presentation wi...

  10. OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT THE 33/50 PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document compiles information on existing pollution prevention methods and dentifies research needs. It helps define areas for research to increase application of existing methods and create new approaches for source reduction and recovery/recycling of 17 chemical groups ta...

  11. MULTIMEDIA COLLECTION TO AN ORGANIZATIONAL GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION ( DVD-ROM ); WORKSHOP SERIES, MANUAL, SUPPLEMENTAL CD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Multimedia Collection to An Organizational Guide to Pollution Prevention (DVD-ROM) provides videos and slides of a three-day workshop series conducted in each of the ten US EPA Regions, and is based on the publication An Organizational Guide to Pollution Prevention CD-ROM (E...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  15. A tool for designing pollution prevention into US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, J.A.; Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, pollution prevention activities within the Department of Energy (DOE) have focused on existing process waste streams. However, the DOE estimates that 70 percent of the opportunity to reduce or eliminate pollutants is gained or lost during design. Design is considered a critical component of the DOE`s operations, products and services, as evidenced by the numerous new facilities planned to support the cleanup mission of the complex. Pollution prevention during design: (a) significantly reduces the potential generation of waste and environmental releases, (b) promotes the use of energy efficient materials, (c) minimizes resource consumption, and (d) lowers life-cycle costs. Life-cycle cost considerations during design can include construction, operation, and eventual decommissioning of the facility. This paper highlights: (1) the development of the guideline, including specific examples of the guideline`s content and intended use, (2) a discussion on the philosophy and content of the training module, (3) a strategy for integrating the guideline`s use into the existing DOE design process, and (4) future plans for enhancing the guideline and training class while continuing to integrate pollution prevention into the DOE design process.

  16. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  17. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  18. Economic costs and benefits associated with investments in pollution prevention structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Both fertilizers and pesticides are primary sources of surface and groundwater contamination in the US. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. The general objective of these programs is to provide research, development, and application of pollution prevention technologies and strategies for industries which market or use fertilizers, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals. From an economic perspective, the installation of pollution prevention structures, as well as adherence to other regulatory requirements carries a real cost to the agrichemical retailer. However, there may also be benefits tied to the adoption of new technology that would offset some or all of the additional operating costs accrued as a result of investment in the environmental technology. This paper attempts to document the economic costs associated with investments in pollution prevention technologies and adherence to environmental regulations at TVA demonstrator sites; as well as the potential benefits an agribusiness dealer may accrue as a result of the environmental investment.

  19. Optical techniques: using coarse and detailed scans for the preventive acquisition of fingerprints with chromatic white-light sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-11-01

    The preventive application of automated latent fingerprint acquisition devices can enhance the Homeland Defence, e.g. by improving the border security. Here, contact-less optical acquisition techniques for the capture of traces are subject to research; chromatic white light sensors allow for multi-mode operation using coarse or detailed scans. The presence of potential fingerprints could be detected using fast coarse scans. Those Regions-of- Interest can be acquired afterwards with high-resolution detailed scans to allow for a verification or identification of individuals. An acquisition and analysis of fingerprint traces on different objects that are imported or pass borders might be a great enhancement for security. Additionally, if suspicious objects require a further investigation, an initial securing of potential fingerprints could be very useful. In this paper we show current research results for the coarse detection of fingerprints to prepare the detailed acquisition from various surface materials that are relevant for preventive applications.

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brochure is part of a series of information packages prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Aimed at the international community, the packages focus on key environmental and public health issues being investigated by EPA. The products highlight...

  1. Information exchange within the U.S. Department of Energy pollution prevention community

    SciTech Connect

    Thuot, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Improving Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Program (PP/WMIN) technologies, actions, and culture could be an important cost-cutting step for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Communicating ideas, concepts, process changes, and achievements is essential for the success of this program. The need to openly communicate ideas and concepts in a cost-effective manner is essential in an organization that has such diverse components as research and development, weapons production, and power generation. This approach is in contrast to the historic DOE culture developed within the cold war period in which compartmentalization, independence, and secrecy were stressed. DOE has now recognized that for any pollution prevention program to be successful, the many diverse elements of the organization must share information. Avenues for such information exchange are examined in this report.

  2. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    PubMed

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings.

  3. Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

  4. Compliance through pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Edwards AFB -- Development, results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Beutelman, H.P.; Lawrence, A.

    1999-07-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), located in the Mojave Desert of southern California, is required to comply with environmental requirements for air pollution emissions, hazardous waste disposal, and clean water. The resources required to meet these many compliance requirements represents an ever increasing financial burden to the base, and to the Department of Defense. A recognized superior approach to environmental management is to achieve compliance through a proactive pollution prevention (P2) program which mitigates, and when possible, eliminates compliance requirements and costs, while at the same time reducing pollution released to the environment. At Edwards AFB, the Environmental Management Office P2 Branch developed and implemented a strategy that addresses this concept, better known as Compliance Through Pollution Prevention (CTP2). At the 91st AWMA Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Edwards AFB presented a paper on its strategy and implementation of its CTP2 concept. Part of that strategy and implementation included accomplishment of process specific focused P2 opportunity assessments (OAs). Starting in 1998, Edwards AFB initiated a CTP2 OA project where OAs were targeted on those operational processes, identified as compliance sites, that contributed most to the compliance requirements and costs at Edwards AFB. The targeting of these compliance sites was accomplished by developing a compliance matrix that prioritized processes in accordance with an operational risk management approach. The Edwards AFB CTP2 PPOA project is the first of its kind within the Air Force Material Command, and is serving as a benchmark for establishment of the CTP2 OA process.

  5. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  7. Report: EPA Needs Accurate Data on Results of Pollution Prevention Grants to Maintain Program Integrity and Measure Effectiveness of Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.

  8. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

  10. Report: Pollution Prevention: Effectiveness of EPA’s Efforts to Encourage Purchase of Recycled Goods Has Not Been Demonstrated

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2003-P-00013, Sept 22, 2003. In an effort to prevent pollution and conserve natural resources and virgin materials, Congress requires that the Federal Government’s purchasing power be used to steer materials away from disposal toward recycling.

  11. Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS GARRISON DAM HYDRO- ELECTRIC POWERPLANT - RIVERDALE, NORTH DAKOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works dam and hydroelectric power plant. ecommended methods for reducing pollution resulting primarily from the operation of these fac...

  13. Integrated pollution prevention and control for heavy ceramic industry in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J

    2007-03-22

    The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations.

  14. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  15. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  16. "APEC blue"--The effects and implications of joint pollution prevention and control program.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Hu, Qingmi

    2016-05-15

    To ensure good air quality in Beijing during Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, Beijing and its neighboring five provinces and the associated cities were combined under the Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program, which implemented rigorous cooperative emission reduction measures. The program was a unique and large-scale artificial experiment that showed that such measures can achieve excellent results, and it led to the popular "APEC blue" catchphrase (i.e., Beijing's skies became blue as pollution levels decreased). This artificial experiment provided the means to effectively conduct JPCAP strategies in the future. Accordingly, our research focused on the characteristics of the six primary pollutants in Beijing. We found that the JPCAP measures directly reduced concentrations of all pollutants except O3. Through correlation analysis, we found that the band distribution of the cities with strong correlations in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations was affected by wind conditions. Therefore, JPCAP measures should account for specific seasonal and climatic conditions. Based on cluster analysis using the results from the correlation analysis, we divided 13 cities within a 300-km radius of Beijing into different groups according to the similarity of their PM2.5 and PM10 correlation coefficients. For JPCAP measures relevant to PM2.5 and PM10, we found differences in the degrees of collaboration among cities. Therefore, depending upon the pollutant type, the JPCAP strategy should account for the cities involved, the scope of the core area, and the optimal cities to involve in the collaborative efforts based on cost-effectiveness and collaborative difficulty among the involved cities.

  17. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.; MUSOLINO,S.V.

    2001-06-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations.

  18. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  19. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  20. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 5, Chemical management, pollution prevention and other compliance programs. Draft revision

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.L.

    1993-11-18

    Compliance with environmental regulations and US Department of Energy Orders (DOE) relating to environmental protection is an important part of SRS`s program. Over the past few years, the number of environmental regulations has increased. The strategy to comply with new and existing environmental regulations and DOE orders is described in chapter two. In this chapter, the following environmental programs are described: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); and SPCC/BMP/Pollution Prevention Plans;The implementation section identifies issues and those responsible to achieve defined objectives.

  1. FY 2001 Pollution Prevention/Compliance, Acquisition and Technology Division Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Executive Orders, and Initiatives (e.g., Vice President Al Gore’s 1998 Clean Water Action Plan Initiative that inspired the development of the Unified...USACHPPM. 1998 . Drinking Water System Compliance Assessment Protocol. USAEC and USACE. 1998 . Wellhead Protection Model Schedule of Services. . USAEC and...USACE. 1998 . Cross Connection Control Program Model Schedule of Services. USAEC and USACE. 1998 . Guidance for Providing Safe Drinking Water at Army

  2. FY 2002 Pollution Prevention/Compliance, Acquisition and Technology Division Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    revised Acts, executive orders, and initiatives (e.g., former-Vice President Al Gore’s 1998 Clean Water Action Plan Initiative that inspired the...Poster. 1999. Potable Water Emergency/Contingency Plan ( Water Supply Information Paper No. IP 31-020). USAEC and USACHPPM. 1998 . Drinking Water ...Connection Control Program Model Schedule of Services. USAEC and USACE. 1998 . Guidance for Providing Safe Drinking Water at Army Installations (USACHPPM

  3. Survey of risk reduction and pollution prevention practices in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry.

    PubMed

    Enander, R T; Gute, D M; Missaghian, R

    1998-07-01

    In 1996 a survey of pollution prevention, environmental control, and occupational health and safety practices was conducted in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry sector. In conjunction with project partners, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management developed a multidimensional survey instrument to identify risk reduction opportunities. Investigators sought to characterize the range of environmental and industrial hygiene control employed by Rhode Island facilities for the purposes of focusing state technical and compliance assistance efforts. Data were collected on a diverse range of subject areas including work force demographics; source reduction; potential health hazards; worker protection and safety; solid and hazardous waste management; and air pollution control. Nearly one-half of the shops employ three or fewer people, and in many cases, spray painters double as body repair technicians thereby increasing their potential exposure to workplace contaminants. While nearly all of the shops reported that they use spray painting booths, only 38% own booths the more effective downdraft design. Based on the self-reported data, recently promulgated state air pollution control regulations (requiring the use of compliant coatings, enclosed or modified spray gun cleaners, and high-volume, low-pressure, spray guns) appear to be effective at motivating companies toward source reduction. A range of risk reduction opportunities were identified as input material changes, technology changes, and improved operating practices. Better methods of risk communication; a professional licensing requirement; and targeted training, compliance, and technical assistance would help to achieve greater levels of risk reduction in this mature, high-hazard industry.

  4. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  5. Full report: Assessment and opportunity identification of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    US industry produces about 12 billion tons of waste a year, or two-thirds of the waste generated in the US. The costs of handling and disposing of these wastes are significant, estimated to be between $25 and $43 billion in 1991, and represent an increase of 66% since 1986. US industry also uses about one-third of all energy consumed in the nation, which adds to the environmental burden. Industrial wastes affect the environmental well-being of the nation and, because of their growing costs, the competitive abilities of US industry. As part of a national effort to reduce industrial wastes, the US Congress passed the Energy Policy Act (EPAct, P.L. 102-486). Section 2108, subsections (b) and (c), of EPAct requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify opportunities to demonstrate energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes; to assess their availability and the energy, environmental, and cost effects of such technologies; and to report the results. Work for this report clearly pointed to two things, that there is insufficient data on wastes and that there is great breadth and diversity in the US industrial sector. This report identifies: information currently available on industrial sector waste streams, opportunities for demonstration of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies in two industries that produce significant amounts of waste--chemicals and petroleum, characteristics of waste reducing and energy saving technologies identifiable in the public literature, and potential barriers to adoption of waste reducing technologies by industry.

  6. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Steam Plant -- Level 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level 3 pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the K-1501 Steam Plant at the K-25 Site. The primary objective was to identify and evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the Steam Plant. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated to first reduce the quantity of waste generated and second to recycle the waste. This report provides a process description of the facility; identification, evaluation, and recommendations of P2 options; an implementation schedule with funding sources; and conclusions. Largely for economic reasons, only 3 of the 14 P2 options are being recommended for implementation. All are source reduction options. When implemented, these three options are estimated to reduce the annual generation of waste by 658,412 kg and will result in a cost savings of approximately $29,232/year for the K-25 Site. The recommended options are to: install a flue gas return System in Boiler 7; reduce steam loss from traps; and increase lapse time between rinses. The four boilers currently in operation at the Steam Plant use natural gas or fuel oil as fuel sources.

  7. Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT AT THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS JOHN H. KERR DAM AND RESERVOIR - BOYDTON, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works facilities including a flood control reservoir and associated public use areas. ecommended methods for reducing pollution result...

  9. Healthcare Workers and Post-Elimination Era Measles: Lessons on Acquisition and Exposure Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Shruti K.; Okubo, Sandra; Klish, Stephen; Dickey, Linda; Huang, Susan S.; Zahn, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background. When caring for measles patients, N95 respirator use by healthcare workers (HCWs) with documented immunity is not uniformly required or practiced. In the setting of increasingly common measles outbreaks and provider inexperience with measles, HCWs face increased risk for occupational exposures. Meanwhile, optimal infection prevention responses to healthcare-associated exposures are loosely defined. We describe measles acquisition among HCWs despite prior immunity and lessons from healthcare-associated exposure investigations during a countywide outbreak. Methods. Primary and secondary cases, associated exposures, and risk factors were identified during a measles outbreak in Orange County, California from, 30 January 2014 to 21 April 2014. We reviewed the effect of different strategies in response to hospital exposures and resultant case capture. Results. Among 22 confirmed measles cases, 5 secondary cases occurred in HCWs. Of these, 4 had direct contact with measles patients; none wore N95 respirators. Four HCWs had prior evidence of immunity and continued working after developing symptoms, resulting in 1014 exposures, but no transmissions. Overall, 13 of 15 secondary cases had face-to-face contact with measles patients, 8 with prior evidence of immunity. Conclusions. HCWs with unmasked, direct contact with measles patients are at risk for developing disease despite evidence of prior immunity, resulting in potentially large numbers of exposures and necessitating time-intensive investigations. Vaccination may lower infectivity. Regardless of immunity status, HCWs should wear N-95 respirators (or equivalent) when evaluating suspected measles patients. Those with direct unprotected exposure should be monitored for symptoms and be furloughed at the earliest sign of illness. PMID:26354971

  10. The green campus movement: Bringing pollution prevention programs to a college near you

    SciTech Connect

    Arenstein, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Two year community/technical colleges find themselves both the educators and communicators assessing and teaching the environmental mandates of business, government (local, state and federal), and industry. It is evident that many educational institutions are not always environmentally conscious (green) and may not always be in compliance with state and federal environmental laws and regulations. It is very difficult to educate students (both full time and continuing education) in programs designed to protect the environment when few campuses implement pollution prevention activities on site. With this in mind, it is imperative that the college campuses practice what is preached. One way to accomplish this is to make college campuses green campuses, which may be defined as: An educational institution that has implemented environmentally beneficial programs and practices. This includes both pollution prevention activities to minimize the environmental impact of campus programs and administrative operations and the inclusion of environmental instructional materials in relevant courses. The PETE (Partnership for Environmental Technology Education) organization is currently working on grants from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy to promote green campus activities at colleges around the country. This paper will detail the green campus activities being undertaken at colleges across the nation, especially PETE's Green Campus Initiative program. It will discuss the problems faced in the development, marketing, implementation, and evaluation of green campus pollution prevention and energy efficiency programs. Making a campus green can entail changes to many aspects of campus life, including looking at how an institution deals with such issues as: Waste Curriculum; Water Quality/Use; Building Design; Pest Control/Use of Agricultural Chemicals; Consciousness/Environmental Concern; Air Quality: Outdoor/Indoor; Energy Consumption; Investments

  11. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act... air pollution emergency episodes and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority...

  12. METHODOLOGIES FOR QUANTIFYING POLLUTION PREVENTION BENEFITS FROM LANDFILL GAS CONTROL AND UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes developing emission factors for controlled primary pollutants (e.g., nonmethane organic compounds) and secondary air pollutants (e.g., carbon monoxide). The report addresses the following criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, carbon mo...

  13. Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Dodge, Robert L

    2011-01-11

    Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

  14. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  15. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments.

  16. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Executive summary (revised May 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The volume summarizes results and policy alternatives identified during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery, jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A significant finding of the study was that at the facility, current and expected environmental regulatory requirements can be achieved for 20-25% of the cost of current mandated approaches. Major recommendations are: (1) Government and industry need to explore opportunities to produce better environmental results more cost effectively; (2) The authors need to improve environmental release data collection, analysis, and management; (3) EPA should provide incentives for conducting facility-wide assessments and developing multi-media release reduction strategies; (4) The authors should encourage additional public-private partnerships on environmental management issues; (5) EPA and the petroleum industry should conduct research on the potential health and ecological effects of VOCs.

  17. Achieving multiple compliance objectives through a storm water pollution prevention plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.J.; Cataldo, R.

    1997-09-01

    All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as part of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.

  18. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2011-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

  19. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  20. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction.

  1. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-03

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases.

  2. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments.

  3. Method and apparatus for preventing air pollution by the entrainment of particulate material

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.Z.

    1986-05-06

    A particulate material handling system is described which is capable of reducing the pollution of air by the entrainment of particulate solids. The system consists of: a covered elevated conveyor means from which the particulate material can be deposited to form a pile of that material in a designated area or to add to such a pile and air diversion means which is adapted to so cooperate with the conveyor as to prevent wind from entraining fines in the particulate material as it is dumped onto the pile or into the area and to prevent wind from stripping and entraining material from the pile by diverting the wind upwardly over the top of the elevated conveyor means and creating an eddy in the air on the leeward side of the pile of particulate material. Particulate material entrained in the air diverted over the elevated conveyor means will drop out of the air currents in the region where the eddy currents are formed and be deposited on the leeward side of the pile, the air diversion means being vertically oriented and adapted to extend lengthwise along at least the initial segment of the pile and essentially along the longitudinal centerline. The air diversion means have a lower edge which is adapted to be proximate to, in contact with, or buried in the pile depending on the height of the pile, and the conveyor being so constructed that it is capable of depositing particulate material on both sides of the air diversion means.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF N-METHYL PYRROLIDONE (NMP) AS A POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVE TO PAINT STRIPPING WITH METHYLENE CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NMP is a viable pollution prevention alternative to methylene chloride. Maine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), Albany, GA, USA was the host site for the demonstration. MCLB's primary function is maintenance of military ground supp...

  5. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced
    plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emission...

  6. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emissions u...

  7. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  8. Site Contamination Problems in the Republic of Latvia: Ongoing Clean-up Activities and Future Pollution Prevention Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    and Future Pollution Prevention Plans Ilgonis Strauss*, Ivan Semyoniv, Una Blumberga * Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development of...Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development have started to incorporate environmentally sound approaches in practice of military...Plans Ilgonis Strauss, Ivan Semyoniv, Una Blumberga Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development of the Republic of Latvia

  9. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning. PMID:23226111

  10. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Karrari, Parissa; Mehrpour, Omid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  11. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-08-23

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper.

  12. Retrieval Enhances Route Knowledge Acquisition, but Only When Movement Errors Are Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jonathan W.; Carpenter, Shana K.; Sjolund, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the "testing effect" have shown that retrieval significantly improves learning. However, most of these studies have been restricted to simple types of declarative verbal knowledge. Five experiments were designed to explore whether testing improves acquisition of route knowledge, which has a procedural component consisting of…

  13. 75 FR 77733 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement provisions regarding, the Duncan Hunter National Defense... leverage resources. This interim rule, which implements section 865 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense... Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 (Pub. L. 110-417) required...

  14. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act). DATES... Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section...

  15. 40 CFR 700.17 - Addresses for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses for the Office of Pollution... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Addresses § 700.17 Addresses for the Office of Pollution... non-docket materials—(1) United States Postal Service mailing address. Office of Pollution...

  16. Scheduled oil sampling: A proactive approach towards pollution prevention and waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, C.; Zirker, L.

    1995-11-01

    The Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) maintains an emergency fire protection system which provides fire water during emergency conditions. The diesel engine driving this system receives regular preventative maintenance (PM) and servicing. The Waste Minimization Plan for WROC requires that all systems and processes be given a regular assessment to verify any Pollution Prevention (P2) or Waste Minimization (Waste Min.) activities. The WROC Maintenance group has implemented a proactive or best management practice (BMP) that reflects this P2/Waste Min. awareness. The diesel engine is operated for 30 minutes each week to maintain its readiness. A typical owner`s manual for industrial engines require that the oil be changed every 100-hours of operation or 6-months; only 13-hours of operation occur during the 6-months before the required oil change. Thirteen hours of operation would not warrant changing the oil. The WROC proactive approach to this problem is to perform an annual Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS). An 8-ounce sample of oil is obtained and sent to a SOS lab. The SOS lab analyzes the condition (breakdown) of the oil and, provides a detailed analysis of metal particulates (from engine wear), and checks for impurities, such as, sulphur, water, coolant, and fuel in the system. The oil is changed only when the sampling results warrant that an oil change is necessary. The actual costs of the oil, filters, and labor far exceed the costs of performing the SOS. The projected cost savings after 8 years is about $12,000 in labor, oil changing costs, and hazardous waste analysis.

  17. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  18. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams.

  19. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of locking devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Hurst, B.T.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that fabricates and finishes metal components that are assembled into several types of locking devices. Raw materials are machined and then shipped offsite for heat-treating, stored until needed, or buffed and cleaned. Then, all parts other than those made of stainless steel are electroplated, electrostatically powder coated, or lacquer coated. The various component parts are then assembled into the locking devices. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the vapor degreasers generate a significant amount of waste and that vapor degreasing could be replaced with an aqueous cleaning system for intermediate cleaning. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  20. Central noradrenergic lesion induced by DSP-4 impairs the acquisition of avoidance reactions and prevents molecular changes in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Radwanska, Kasia; Nikolaev, Evgenij; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2010-10-01

    The noradrenergic system plays and an important modulatory role in memory consolidation of emotionally arousing tasks. However, the molecular cascades regulated in the brain by norepinephrine and involved in memory formation are still largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of the noradrenergic system on the acquisition of a highly emotionally arousing task-two-way active avoidance training-and its molecular and cellular substrates. The selective norepinephrine neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2 bromobenzylamine (DSP-4, 50mg/kg) was used. DSP-4-treated rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus. Immunohistochemical mapping of the neuronal plasticity-related molecules c-Fos protein and the activated form of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (phosphorylated ERK [pERK]) was then employed. We found that DSP-4 treatment depleted the expression of the norepinephrine marker dopamine -hydroxylase (DBH) in the locus coeruleus and its projection area, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, confirming locus coeruleus noradrenergic lesion in the experimental animals. Furthermore, DSP-4 treatment impaired the acquisition of the avoidance reaction. We also found that acquisition of the active avoidance reaction induced c-Fos expression and ERK activation in the amygdala and piriform cortex. This upregulation was prevented by DSP-4 treatment. Thus, our data suggest that the noradrenergic system is involved in the acquisition of the active avoidance reaction by regulating ERK pathway activity and c-Fos expression in the amygdala and piriform cortex.

  1. 77 FR 183 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... section of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009, to prevent abuse of... (b) and (d) of section 865 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). The...

  2. Better Acquisition Management Through ADR and Other Best Practices for Preventing and Resolving Bid Protests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Sheinman , Paul Benishek Naval Postgraduate School Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...Protests at the COFC: Motions to Dismiss, Opposition to TRO/PI/Perm I ; Bonds; Judgment on Administrative Record; National Security Considerations...Respondents By Agency 17 SURVEY PARTS: • PART I : Use of Prevention and Resolution Strategies; Use of ADR; Obstacles to Effective Prevention and Resolution

  3. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project report, 20 June-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.; Smith, J.; Snow, S.; Thomas, R.

    1995-08-01

    The approach for conducting a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) at the Norfolk NAS is described along with background information about the site. Section 2 provides background information related to cooling tower operations and water treatment processes. Section 3 describes the current cooling tower activities and operations that were observed during the NAS site visit. Possible alternative practices for minimizing these wastes are discussed in Section 4. Recommendations on potential follow-up activities are also included in Section 4. Appendices include PPOA worksheets (Appendix A), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) discharge limits (Appendix B), discharge data (Appendix C), material safety data sheets (MSDS) (Appendix D), the Hampton Roads Sanitation District Cooling Tower Waste Discharge Policy with Industrial Wastewater Pollutant Limitations and Discharge Requirements (Appendix E), and the MSDS for DIAS-Aid Tower Treatment XP-300 (Appendix F).

  4. Mobile real-time data acquisition system for application in preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Sebastian; Arndt, Dagmar; Thurow, Kerstin; Stoll, Regina

    2010-05-01

    In this article, the development of a system for online monitoring of a subject's physiological parameters and subjective workload regardless of location has been presented, which allows for studies on occupational health. In the sector of occupational health, modern acquisition systems are needed. Such systems can be used by the subject during usual daily routines without being influenced by the presence of an examiner. Moreover, the system's influence on the subject should be reduced to a minimum to receive reliable data from the examination. The acquisition system is based on a mobile handheld (or smart phone), which allows both management of the communication process and input of several dialog data (e.g., questionnaires). A sensor electronics module permits the acquisition of different physiological parameters and their online transmission to the handheld via Bluetooth. The mobile handheld and the sensor electronics module constitute a wireless personal area network. The handheld allows the first analysis, the synchronization of the data, and the continuous data transfer to a communication server by the integrated mobile radio standards of the handheld. The communication server stores the incoming data of several subjects in an application-dependent database and allows access from all over the world via a Web-based management system. The developed system permits one examiner to monitor the physiological parameters and the subjective workload of several subjects in different locations at the same time. Thereby the subjects can move almost freely in any area covered by the mobile network. The mobile handheld allows the popping-up of the questionnaires at flexible time intervals. This electronic input of the dialog data, in comparison to the manual documentation on papers, is more comfortable to the subject as well as to the examiner for an analysis. A Web-based management application facilitates a continuous remote monitoring of the physiological and the

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  6. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of metal fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Coleman, T.N.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088, May 1992). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures various types of metal fasteners for automobiles, furniture, and appliances. Products are manufactured from steel, brass, copper, and aluminum wire and rod stock in two production lines-large part production and small part production. In large part production, header machines press wire stock into specific product shapes which are washed, machined, and in some cases heat-treated and polished. Small parts are manufactured from wire and rod stock in a series of machining operations, then washed, heat treated and polished, before shipment to an outside firm for surface finishing. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that a large amount of plant oil waste is shipped off-site for fuels blending and a significant quantity of oily sludge waste is shipped offsite for disposal as non-hazardous waste. Large cost savings can be achieved by the plant through the use of alternative methods of removing metal chips from parts, thereby reducing intermediate washings.

  7. Activities of the National Institutes of Health relating to energy efficiency and pollution prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Ficca, S A; Chyun, Y D; Ebrahimi, M; Kutlak, F; Memarzadeh, F

    2000-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is one of the world's premier biomedical research centers. Although NIH owns and operates more than 1,300 acres and 197 buildings across the country, the main campus is in Bethesda, Maryland. This campus consists of over 312 acres and 75 laboratories and other buildings, which consume vast amounts of energy. Aware of the NIH role in setting biomedical research agendas and priorities, its administrators strive to set good examples in energy efficiency and pollution prevention. Three current projects are presented as "best practices" examples of meeting the stated commitment of NIH to leadership in environmental stewardship: a) design and current construction of a 250-bed clinical research hospital designed to allow conversion of patient care units to research laboratories and vice-versa; b) design and construction of a six-story research laboratory that combines energy-saving innovations with breakthroughs in research technologies; and c) a massive, $200-million modernization of the campus utility infrastructure that involves generation systems for steam and chilled water and distribution systems for chilled water, steam, potable water, electricity, communications and computer networking, compressed air, and natural gas. Based on introduction of energy-efficiency measures, millions of dollars in savings for energy needs are projected; already the local electric utility has granted several million dollars in rebates. The guiding principles of NIH environmental stewardship help to ensure that energy conservation measures maximize benefits versus cost and also balance expediency with efficiency within available funding resources. This is a committee report for the Leadership Conference: Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. PMID:11121359

  8. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been done to implement material substitution programs, this

  9. Activities of the National Institutes of Health relating to energy efficiency and pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Ficca, S A; Chyun, Y D; Ebrahimi, M; Kutlak, F; Memarzadeh, F

    2000-12-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is one of the world's premier biomedical research centers. Although NIH owns and operates more than 1,300 acres and 197 buildings across the country, the main campus is in Bethesda, Maryland. This campus consists of over 312 acres and 75 laboratories and other buildings, which consume vast amounts of energy. Aware of the NIH role in setting biomedical research agendas and priorities, its administrators strive to set good examples in energy efficiency and pollution prevention. Three current projects are presented as "best practices" examples of meeting the stated commitment of NIH to leadership in environmental stewardship: a) design and current construction of a 250-bed clinical research hospital designed to allow conversion of patient care units to research laboratories and vice-versa; b) design and construction of a six-story research laboratory that combines energy-saving innovations with breakthroughs in research technologies; and c) a massive, $200-million modernization of the campus utility infrastructure that involves generation systems for steam and chilled water and distribution systems for chilled water, steam, potable water, electricity, communications and computer networking, compressed air, and natural gas. Based on introduction of energy-efficiency measures, millions of dollars in savings for energy needs are projected; already the local electric utility has granted several million dollars in rebates. The guiding principles of NIH environmental stewardship help to ensure that energy conservation measures maximize benefits versus cost and also balance expediency with efficiency within available funding resources. This is a committee report for the Leadership Conference: Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

  10. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove

  11. Integrating hazardous waste management into a multimedia pollution prevention paradigm. A protoype regulatory program for petroleum refinesments

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

    1996-12-31

    An emerging trend in environmental regulatory management promises enhanced environmental protection and more flexibility for regulated entities. This trend reflects three concepts. First, regulations designed to reduce one type of environmental pollution (e.g., air pollution) should not increase other types of pollution (e.g. hazardous waste). Second, pollution prevention is an important alternative to end-of-pipe control requirements. Third, offering polluting entities the flexibility of meeting certain performance criteria may produce better environmental results than prescribing specific technologies or approaches. A significant body of literature supports the need to develop regulatory programs that incorporate these concepts. However, there is little evidence that these concepts have been integrated into actual multimedia regulatory programs. Argonne National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy are developing a prototype regulatory program for petroleum refineries that embraces these concepts. The development approach in this case study comprises several steps: (1) identifying and evaluating existing regulations governing petroleum refineries (if any); (2) characterizing expected future operating conditions of refineries; (3) setting goals for the regulatory program; (4) identifying and evaluating options for the program; (5) developing a prototype based on selected options; (6) identifying and addressing implementation issues; and (7) testing the prototype on a pilot basis. The approach being used in the U.S. effort is flexible and can be used in environmental management efforts throughout the Pacific Basin--in both developing and developed countries.

  12. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Oil Pollution... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol...

  13. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International Oil Pollution... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol...

  14. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International Oil Pollution... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol...

  15. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Oil Pollution... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol...

  16. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International Oil Pollution... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol...

  17. Environmental and risk screening for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunities in the U.S. printed wiring board manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Lam, Carl W; Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-05-15

    Modern manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWBs) involves extensive use of various hazardous chemicals in different manufacturing steps such as board preparation, circuit design transfer, etching and plating processes. Two complementary environmental screening methods developed by the U.S. EPA, namely: (i) the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) and (ii) Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI), are used to quantify geographic and chemical environmental impacts in the U.S. PWB manufacturing industry based on Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data. Although the release weight percentages of industrial chemicals such as methanol, glycol ethers and dimethylformamide comprise the larger fraction of reported air and water emissions, results indicate that lead, copper and their compounds' releases correspond to the highest environmental impact from toxicity potentials and risk-screening scores. Combining these results with further knowledge of PWB manufacturing, select alternative chemical processes and materials for pollution prevention are discussed. Examples of effective pollution prevention options in the PWB industry include spent etchant recovery technologies, and process and material substitutions. In addition, geographic assessment of environmental burden highlights states where promotion of pollution prevention strategies and emissions regulations can have the greatest effect to curb the PWB industry's toxic release impacts.

  18. Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent HIV Acquisition in Serodiscordant Couples in a Hyperendemic Community in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bärnighausen, Till; Tanser, Frank; Iwuji, Collins C.; De Gruttola, Victor; Seage, George R.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Pillay, Deenan; Harling, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was highly efficacious in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in stable serodiscordant couples in the HPTN-052 study, a resource-intensive randomized controlled trial with near-perfect ART adherence and mutual HIV status disclosure among all participating couples. However, minimal evidence exists of the effectiveness of ART in preventing HIV acquisition in stable serodiscordant couples in “real-life” population-based settings in hyperendemic communities of sub-Saharan Africa, where health systems are typically resource-poor and overburdened, adherence to ART is often low, and partners commonly do not disclose their HIV status to each other. Methods. Data arose from a population-based open cohort in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 17 016 HIV-uninfected individuals present between January 2005 and December 2013 were included. Interval-censored time-updated proportional hazards regression was used to assess how the ART status affected HIV transmission risk in stable serodiscordant relationships. Results. We observed 1619 HIV seroconversions in 17 016 individuals, over 60 349 person-years follow-up time. During the follow-up period, 1846 individuals had an HIV-uninfected and 196 had an HIV-infected stable partner HIV incidence was 3.8/100 person-years (PY) among individuals with an HIV-infected partner (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–5.6), 1.4/100 PY (.4–3.5) among those with HIV-infected partners receiving ART, and 5.6/100 PY (3.5–8.4) among those with HIV-infected partners not receiving ART. Use of ART was associated with a 77% decrease in HIV acquisition risk among serodiscordant couples (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, .07–.80). Conclusions. ART initiation was associated with a very large reduction in HIV acquisition in serodiscordant couples in rural KwaZulu-Natal. However, this “real-life” effect was substantially lower than the effect observed in the HPTN-052

  19. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic literature suggests that exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. Objectives: We investigated maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks 2–8 of pregnancy and their associations with congenital heart defects. Methods: Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case–control study, were assigned 1-week and 7-week averages of daily maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and 24-hr measurements of fine and coarse particulate matter using the closest air monitor within 50 km to their residence during early pregnancy. Depending on the pollutant, a maximum of 4,632 live-birth controls and 3,328 live-birth, fetal-death, or electively terminated cases had exposure data. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for maternal demographics and tobacco and alcohol use, were constructed. Principal component analysis was used to assess these relationships in a multipollutant context. Results: Positive associations were observed between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary valve stenosis. Exposure to fine particulate matter was positively associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome but inversely associated with atrial septal defects. Examining individual exposure-weeks suggested associations between pollutants and defects that were not observed using the 7-week average. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructions and nitrogen dioxide and between hypoplastic left heart syndrome and particulate matter were supported by findings from the multipollutant analyses, although estimates were attenuated at the highest exposure levels. Conclusions: Using daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of susceptibility during pregnancy. Citation: Stingone JA, Luben TJ

  20. 77 FR 74662 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Accident Prevention Plans and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and ways in which we can... INFORMATION: A. Purpose The FAR clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, requires Federal construction..., traumatic injury, occupational disease or damage to property, materials, supplies or equipment. Records...

  1. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  2. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610

  3. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  4. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  5. [Study on strategies of pollution prevention in coastal city of Zhejiang Province based on scenario analysis].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin-Ping; Chen, Lü-Jun; Du, Peng-Fei; Qian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Scenario analysis was used to study the environmental burden in a coastal city of Zhejiang province under different patterns of economic development. The aim of this research is to propose advices on decision making by illustrating how to make emissions reduced by transforming the pattern of economic development in a developed coastal area, which had acquired the level of 70 000 yuan GDP per cap. At first, 18 heavy pollution industries were screened out, by referencing total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Then, a model of scenario analysis and the back-up calculation program were designed to study the sustainable development of the heavy pollution industries. With 2008 and 2015 as the reference year and the target year respectively, emissions of four pollutants mentioned above in the 18 heavy pollution industries in the city were analyzed under six scenarios. The total emissions of 4 pollutants should be reduced to an expectant degree, which is set as the constraint prerequisite of the scenario analysis. At last, some suggestions for decision-making are put forward, which include maintaining a moderate increase rate of GDP around 7%, strengthening the adjustment of economic structure, controlling the increasing rate of industrial added value of the industries with heavy pollution, optimizing the structure of industries with heavy pollution, decreasing the intensity of waste emission by implementing cleaner production to reduce emission produce at the source, and strengthening regulations on the operation of waste treatment plants to further promote the efficiency of waste treatment. Only by implementing such measures mentioned above, can the total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide of the 18 industries with heavy pollution in the city be reduced by a 10%, 10%, 5%, and 15% respectively based on the reference year.

  6. PERSONAL COMPUTER MONITORS: A SCREENING EVALUATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM EXISTING PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD LAMINATES AND POTENTIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a screening evaluation of volatile organic emissions from printed circuit board laminates and potential pollution prevention alternatives. In the evaluation, printed circuit board laminates, without circuitry, commonly found in personal computer (PC) m...

  7. Environmental and economic solutions: Pollution prevention technical assistance and the City of Los Angeles Hazardous and Toxic Materials Office

    SciTech Connect

    Toy-Chen, D.; Joyce, M.M.

    1994-12-31

    The City of Los Angeles faces a challenge to assist industrial facilities to minimize and manage hazardous materials in order to sustain the local economy and natural environment. Industrial facilities in Los Angeles County released into the environment or transferred off-site 103,442,074 tons of hazardous materials and waste in 1988. This enormous quantity of hazardous waste requires generators to be in compliance with several environmental regulatory agencies. The City of Los Angeles Hazardous and Toxic Materials (HTM) Office has increased the awareness, commitments, and implementation of hazardous waste at the source, the amount of toxic pollutants discharged into the City`s publicly owned treatment works, surface and groundwaters, soils and atmosphere can be substantially reduced. Quantifying hazardous waste minimization progress is extremely difficult and complex. However, the HTM Office anticipates that if the challenge of pollution prevention is successful, more businesses will decide to remain in the region and Los Angeles residents will feel convinced that industry is making good faith efforts to protect the environment. Pollution prevention is a long term solution for the hazardous waste crisis that society has only recently recognized.

  8. Economic Analysis of Costs Incurred from Chemical Exposures in the Workplace Resulting in Non-Carcinogenic Responses as Additional Justification for Pollution Prevention Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-26

    The Air Force Chief of Staff, General Merrill McPeak, and the Secretary of the Air Force, Mr. Donald Rice , further emphasized pollution prevention in...studies include in vivo animal bioassays and invitro and tissue culture tests. These studies involve the actual dosing of animals or cultures to determine...and Donald B. Rice . Air Force Pollution Prevention Program. Memorandum to all Commanders. HQ USAF, Washington D.C: 13 Nov 1991. 50. Meyer, Gary. OEHL

  9. Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition in Urban Latinos and Implications for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Kristina Marie; Burton, Nicole; Ruiz, Marco Andres

    2015-01-01

    The risk of HIV in the Latino population in the United States is increasing. This population has a disproportionate number of new HIV cases, with the largest burden in the seventeen southern states. The purpose of this study is to assess risk factors for HIV among HIV-positive Latinos in care in New Orleans, Louisiana, through a retrospective chart review. The Chi square test of proportions, Student's t-test, and Wilcox rank sum test were used to test differences by sex and immigration status. Men were more likely to be incarcerated, use drugs, and drink alcohol. Undocumented Latinos were younger and had increased language barriers. Legally documented participants were more likely to use drugs, have a psychiatric diagnosis, and syphilis. Understanding the complex risk factors that surround HIV in the Latino population is useful for the development of effective and comprehensive prevention programs.

  10. Prevention of chloridazon and metribuzin pollution using lignin-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Manuel; Villafranca-Sánchez, Matilde; Flores-Céspedes, Francisco; Pérez-García, Susana; Daza-Fernández, Isabel

    2010-05-01

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in lignin-based granules with different sizes to obtain controlled release formulations (CRFs) and reduce water pollution risk. Kinetics release tests in water and soil showed that the release rate of both from CRFs diminished in comparison to technical products. A linear correlation was obtained between the time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released (T(50)) into water and granule size of the CRFs. Besides, a linear correlation was reached between T(50) values in water and soil. Mobility experiments carried out in calcareous soil show that the use of lignin-based CRFs reduces the presence of both herbicides in the leachate compared to the technical grade products. The set of experiments developed in this research can be useful to design, prepare and evaluate formulations with CR properties which can reduce the pollution derived from the use of herbicides.

  11. WET-WEATHER POLLUTION PREVENTION THROUGH MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION AS PART OF INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of urban stormwater runoff and building/construction materials has shown that many materials such as galvanized metal, concrete, asphalt, and wood products, have the potential to release pollutants into urban stormwater runoff and snowmelt. However, much of th...

  12. CHIRAL CHEMISTRY OF PESTICIDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Upwards of 25% of pesticides and other toxic pollutants are chiral; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers. The enantiomers of a chiral compound have identical physical and abiotic chemical properties, but differ in biological properties such as microb...

  13. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T) BETA VERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MFFP2T is a computer-based simulation of metal finishing facilities that is intended to allow the facility to evaluate the effect of process modifications on pollution generation within the facility. MFFP2T has been developed consists of two basic parts, a process simulation ...

  14. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  15. Phytoremediation: An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erakhrumen, Andrew Agbontalor

    2007-01-01

    The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world especially in Nigeria and its Niger-Delta region in particular. This region is bedeviled with this problem perhaps owing to interplay of demographic and socio-economic forces coupled with the various activities that revolve round the…

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES USING HIERARCHICAL DESIGN AND SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of chemical processes is normally an interactive process of synthesis and analysis. When one also desires or needs to limit the amount of pollution generated by the process the difficulty of the task can increase substantially. In this work, we show how combining hier...

  17. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  18. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  19. Special Advanced Studies for Pollution Prevention. Delivery Order 0058: "The Monitor" - Spring 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Technology) - Electroless nickel (EN) process that contains silicon carbide (SiC) particles ➨ Niplate 800 (Surface Technology) - Composite diamond coating (CDC...that combines a hard nickel matrix (6-9 weight - % phosphorous ➨ Niklad 797 (MacDermid) - Electroless Nickel Phosphorous (ENP) process that produces...technology for non-CARC painting equipment 13 Reduce/eliminate pollution from the manufacturing and testing of military clothing and textiles 14 Depainting

  20. Prevention of Secondary Pollution Caused by Dredging Bottom Sediment Containing Mercury in Minamata Bay,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In Minamata Bay, sediment containing 25 ppm mercury (about 1,500,000 m3) has accumulated on the bottom (about 2,110,000 M2), and the fish and...shellfish in Minamata Bay are now polluted by mercury. Since October 1977, we have been dredging to provide a safe environment to ensure the inhabitants...8217 health. We have restored Minamata Bay by dredging a part (about 1,500,000 m2) and using the other part (about 600,000 m2) as a disposal area. During

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE STAMP DISTRIBUTION NETWORK, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OPERATIONS, MERRIFIELD, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICES, PITTSBURGH, PA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  4. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MATERIALS DISTRIBUTION CENTER, TOPEKA, KANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BULK MAIL CENTER, DALLAS, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  6. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of request for public comments regarding an extension to an... Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve...

  7. Cotton production and water quality: Economic and environmental effects of pollution prevention. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Crutchfield, S.R.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Hansen, L.T.; Quiroga, R.

    1992-12-01

    Cotton production, compared with other crops, is less likely to cause erosion-induced water-quality problems because cotton acreage is not the major source of erosion in most regions. For cotton production, the most widespread potential damages to water quality are nitrates from fertilizer polluting ground water and pesticides contaminating surface water. This damage could be reduced by restricting chemical and fertilizer use on all cotton production, but doing so could reduce cotton yields and raise cotton prices. The same level of water-quality improvement could be achieved at less cost by targeting the chemical use or erosion restrictions only to cotton farms with the most vulnerable soils. Data come from a 1989 USDA survey of cotton producers.

  8. Data acquisition system using six degree-of-freedom inertia sensor and ZigBee wireless link for fall detection and prevention.

    PubMed

    Dinh, A; Teng, D; Chen, L; Ko, S B; Shi, Y; Basran, J; Del Bello-Hass, V

    2008-01-01

    Fall detection and prevention require logged physiological activity data of a patient for a long period of time. This work develops a data acquisition system to collect motion data from multiple patients and store in a data base. A wireless sensor network is built using high precision inertia sensors and low power Zigbee wireless transceivers. Testing results prove the system function properly. Researchers and physicians can now retrieve and analyze the accurate data of the patient movement with ease.

  9. Development of a Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System, Life Cycle Assessment Systems, and Pollution Prevention Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocher, Walter M.

    2003-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) opportunities and Greening the Government (GtG) activities, including the development of the Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System (RTEMS), are currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTEMS project entails the ongoing development of a monitoring system which includes sensors, instruments, computer hardware and software, plus a data telemetry system.Professor Kocher has been directing the RTEMS project for more than 3 years, and the implementation of the prototype system at GRC will be a major portion of his summer effort. This prototype will provide mulitmedia environmental monitoring and control capabilities, although water quality and air emissions will be the immediate issues addressed this summer. Applications beyond those currently identified for environmental purposes will also be explored.

  10. 1999 Annual Report on Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress as Required by DOE Order 5400.1

    SciTech Connect

    SEGALL, P.

    2000-03-01

    Hanford's missions are to safely clean-up and manage the site's legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford's environmental management or clean-up mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infrastructure, and site) for other missions. Hanford's science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford's original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation's defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford's operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The clean-up activity is an immense and challenging undertaking. Including characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

  11. Pollution prevention and stratospheric ozone layer protection through innovative procurement methods: The chiller basic ordering agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.E.; Coyle, J.E.; Guice, J.R. Jr.; Kale, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the General Services Administration (GSA) have devised an affirmative procurement vehicle to encourage replacement of chillers using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants harmful to the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. Procurement selections are based on lowest life cycle cost. Linked with a DOE-developed Equipment Specification for 100 to 2,000 ton chillers that is crafted broadly enough to address about 90% of the Federal water-cooled chiller procurements, the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) process significantly reduces redundant design, procurement, and other costs associated with Federal purchasing of chillers through the cutting of red tape associated with buying industrial equipment. While serving to minimize the release of ozone-depleting substances (about six million tons of CFCs) to the environment, the installation of more energy-efficient chillers also promotes environmental stewardship in that reduced energy consumption translates into reduced emissions of noxious gases from the generation of electricity. Use of the BOA to purchase chillers consistent with Federal energy efficiency standards will contribute to reductions of almost a million tons annually of nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide, and other pollutants from power plant emissions. Reduced electricity consumption of approximately 1.5 billion kilowatt hours per year by switching to more efficient chillers equates to an annual monetary savings of $75 million.

  12. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections. PMID:23066395

  13. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  14. DRUG USAGE AND DISPOSAL: OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP AND POLLUTION PREVENTION (WITH AN EMPHASIS ON ACTIVITIES IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides the background for understanding the many complex variables that combine to cause pollution of the environment with the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals. It also summarizes the many approaches that could potentially reduce this pollution. Significan...

  15. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  16. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Strong Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  17. Increasing fine particulate air pollution in China and the potential use of exposure and biomarker data in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Chris H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Lo, Charles; Hertz, Marshall; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-03-16

    Increased industrialization and urbanization have led to marked increases in air pollutants in China over the last decade. Pollutant levels in the north and eastern regions are often four times higher than current daily levels in the United States. Recent reports indicate a higher incidence of lung cancer and mortality in men and urban dwellers, but the contribution of air pollution to these findings remains unknown. Future studies that define individual exposures, combined with biomarkers linked to disease, will be essential to the understanding of risk posed by air pollution in China.

  18. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  19. An Integrated Multi-Institutional Diabetes Prevention Program Improves Knowledge and Healthy Food Acquisition in Northwestern Ontario First Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Lara S.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Rimal, Rajiv; Treuth, Margarita S.; Sharma, Sangita; Rosecrans, Amanda; Harris, Stewart B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the impact results of a feasibility study in Canada for prevention of risk factors for diabetes in seven northwestern Ontario First Nations. Baseline and follow-up data were collected before and after the 9-month intervention program in schools, stores, and communities that aimed to improve diet and increase physical activity…

  20. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Prevention Recommend on ...

  1. Evaluation of TVA`s model site and individual technology pollution prevention demonstration programs and their impact on the agrichemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-06-01

    The high volume of fertilizer and pesticides funneled through a relatively small number of distribution outlets has made these agribusiness sites potential sources of surface/groundwater contamination in watersheds surrounding the agrichemical facilities. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. Since inception, the pollution prevention program and the technologies advanced by it have made a very positive impact on the US agrichemical industry, as well as on other TVA programs. This paper is an attempt to document these impacts, with primary focus being placed on the program`s impact on the agribusiness dealer who implements the pollution prevention technologies/practices recommended by TVA.

  2. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  3. The impact of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" on PM2.5 concentrations in Jing-Jin-Ji region during 2012-2020.

    PubMed

    Cai, Siyi; Wang, Yangjun; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Chang, Xing; Hao, Jiming

    2017-02-15

    In order to cope with heavy haze pollution in China, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan including phased goals of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was issued in 2013. In this study, China's emission inventories in the baseline 2012 and the future scenarios of 2017 and 2020 have been developed based on this Action Plan. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, one of the most polluted regions in China, was taken as a case to assess the impact of phased emission control measures on PM2.5 concentration reduction using WRF-CMAQ model system. With the implementation of the Action Plan, the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), PM2.5, non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3) in 2017 will decrease by36%, 31%, 30%,12%, and -10% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. In 2020, the emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5, NMVOC, and NH3 will decrease by 40%, 44%, 40%, 22%, and -3% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. Consequently, the ambient annual PM2.5 concentration under the scenarios of 2017 and 2020 will be 28.3% and 37.8% lower than those in 2012, respectively. The Action Plan provided an effective approach to alleviate PM2.5 pollution level in Jing-Jin-Ji region. However, emission control of NMVOC and NH3 should be paid more attention and be strengthened in future. Meanwhile, emission control of NOx, SO2, NH3 and NMVOC synergistically are highly needed in the future because multiple pollutants impact on PM2.5 and O3 concentrations nonlinearly.

  4. Health Hazard Assessment and Toxicity Clearances in the Army Acquisition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macko, Joseph A., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Army Materiel Command, Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Support Office (AAPPSO) is responsible for creating and managing the U.S. Army Wide Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program. They have established Integrated Process Teams (IPTs) within each of the Major Subordinate Commands of the Army Materiel Command. AAPPSO provides centralized integration, coordination, and oversight of the Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program (AAPPP) , and the IPTs provide the decentralized execution of the AAPPSO program. AAPPSO issues policy and guidance, provides resources and prioritizes P2 efforts. It is the policy of the (AAPPP) to require United States Army Surgeon General approval of all materials or substances that will be used as an alternative to existing hazardous materials, toxic materials and substances, and ozone-depleting substances. The Army has a formal process established to address this effort. Army Regulation 40-10 requires a Health Hazard Assessment (HHA) during the Acquisition milestones of a new Army system. Army Regulation 40-5 addresses the Toxicity Clearance (TC) process to evaluate new chemicals and materials prior to acceptance as an alternative. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine is the Army's matrixed medical health organization that performs the HHA and TC mission.

  5. Adenovirus-Vectored Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Directed Against gp120 Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Acquisition in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Jackson, Andrew; Beloor, Jagadish; Kumar, Priti; Sutton, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite nearly three decades of research, a safe and effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has yet to be achieved. More recently, the discovery of highly potent anti-gp160 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has garnered renewed interest in using antibody-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we encoded bNAbs in first-generation adenoviral (ADV) vectors, which have the distinctive features of a large coding capacity and ease of propagation. A single intramuscular injection of ADV-vectorized bNAbs in humanized mice generated high serum levels of bNAbs that provided protection against multiple repeated challenges with a high dose of HIV-1, prevented depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells, and reduced plasma viral loads to below detection limits. Our results suggest that ADV vectors may be a viable option for the prophylactic and perhaps therapeutic use of bNAbs in humans. PMID:25953321

  6. DEVELOPING A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (CO-MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is developing a Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishing industry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes that are less polluting to the environment. Metal finishing process lines can be simulated and evaluated...

  7. An overview of industrial wastewater treatment and analysis as means of preventing pollution of surface and underground water bodies—the case of Nkana Mine in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The wastewaters coming from mining operations usually have low pH (acidic) values and high levels of metal pollutants depending on the type of metals being extracted. If unchecked, the acidity and metals will have an impact on the surface water. The organisms and plants can adversely be affected and this renders both surface and underground water unsuitable for use by the communities. The installation of a treatment plant that can handle the wastewaters so that pH and levels of pollutants are reduced to acceptable levels provides a solution to the prevention of polluting surface and underground waters and damage to ecosystems both in water and surrounding soils. The samples were collected at five points and analyzed for acidity, total suspended solids, and metals. It was found that the pH fluctuated between pH 2 when neutralization was forgotten and pH 11 when neutralization took place. The levels of metals that could cause impacts to the water ecosystem were found to be high when the pH was low. High levels of metals interfere with multiplication of microorganisms, which help in the natural purification of water in stream and river bodies. The fish and hyacinth placed in water at the two extremes of pH 2 and pH 11 could not survive indicating that wastewaters from mining areas should be adequately treated and neutralized to pH range 6-9 if life in natural waters is to be sustained.

  8. Correlates of HIV Acquisition in a Cohort of Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061

    PubMed Central

    Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Wang, Lei; Mannheimer, Sharon; del Rio, Carlos; Shoptaw, Steven; Magnus, Manya; Buchbinder, Susan; Wilton, Leo; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Cummings, Vanessa; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fields, Sheldon D.; Griffith, Sam; Elharrar, Vanessa; Wheeler, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States (US) are affected by HIV at disproportionate rates compared to MSM of other race/ethnicities. Current HIV incidence estimates in this group are needed to appropriately target prevention efforts. Methods From July 2009 to October 2010, Black MSM reporting unprotected anal intercourse with a man in the past six months were enrolled and followed for one year in six US cities for a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention to reduce HIV infection. HIV incidence based on HIV seroconversion was calculated as number of events/100 person-years. Multivariate proportional hazards modeling with time-dependent covariates was used to identify correlates of HIV acquisition. Results Of 1,553 Black MSM enrolled, 1,164 were HIV-uninfected at baseline and included in follow-up. Overall annual HIV incidence was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.4%) and 5.9% among men ≤30 years old (95% CI: 3.6, 9.1%). Men ≤30 years old reported significantly higher levels of sexual risk and were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection diagnosed during follow-up. Younger men also were more likely to not have a usual place for health care, not have visited a health care provider recently, and to have unmet health care needs. In multivariate analysis, age ≤30 years (hazard ratio (HR): 3.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 8.3) and unprotected receptive anal intercourse with HIV-positive or unknown status partners (HR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 9.1) were significantly associated with HIV acquisition. Conclusion In the largest cohort of prospectively-followed Black MSM in the US, HIV incidence was high, particularly among young men. Targeted, tailored and culturally appropriate HIV prevention strategies incorporating behavioral, social and biomedical based interventions are urgently needed to lower these rates. PMID:23922989

  9. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  10. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FORENSIC & TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION - NATIONAL FORENSIC LABORATORY, DULLES, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the...

  11. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 2. Technical report. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 104-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  12. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 1. Executive summary. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 101-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  13. Governing Change: Land-Use Change and the Prevention of Nonpoint Source Pollution in the North Coastal Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  14. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    PubMed

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  15. Behavior, preferences, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at preventing pollution by pharmaceuticals and personal care products in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Howley, Peter; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment has been held up as a potential threat to ecosystem and human health. Using a custom-designed survey of residents living in Xiamen, China, this paper examines individuals' disposal practices, awareness of the environmental impact of PPCPs, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at reducing the likelihood of PPCPs being released into the environment. The vast majority of respondents report that they dispose of PPCPs through the thrash. The results of a contingent valuation experiment suggest a substantial willingness to pay (WTP) for policy measures aimed at reducing PPCP pollution. Income as well as subjective perceptions relating to overall financial health, expenditure on PPCPs, and overall concern with environmental issues emerged as significant predictors of respondents' WTP. Our results should be of interest to policymakers looking for ways to mitigate the introduction of PPCPs in the environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:793-800. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Risk Behavior among Women enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial of an Adenoviral Vector Vaccine to Prevent HIV Acquisition: the Step Study

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Richard M.; Metch, Barbara; Buchbinder, Susan; Cabello, Robinson; Donastorg, Yeycy; Figoroa, John-Peter; Adbul-Jauwad, Hend; Joseph, Patrice; Koenig, Ellen; Metzger, David; Sobieszycz, Magda; Tyndall, Mark; Zorilla, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Report of risk behavior, HIV incidence, and pregnancy rates among women participating in the Step Study, a phase IIB trial of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine in HIV-negative individuals who were at high risk of HIV-1. Design Prospective multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial Methods Women were from North American (NA) and Caribbean and South America (CSA) sites. Risk behavior was collected at screening and 6-month intervals. Differences in characteristics between groups were tested with Chi-square, two-sided Fisher’s exact tests, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess behavioral change. Results Among 1134 enrolled women, the median number of male partners was 18; 73.8% reported unprotected vaginal sex, 15.9% unprotected anal sex and 10.8% evidence of a sexually transmitted infection in the 6 months prior to baseline. With 3344 person-years (p–y) of follow up, there were 15 incident HIV infections: incidence rate was 0.45 per 100/p-y (95% CI 0.25, 0.74). Crack cocaine use in both regions (relative risk [RR]=2.4 [1.7,3.3]) and in CSA, unprotected anal sex (RR=6.4 [3.8. 10.7]) and drug use (RR=4.1 [2.1, 8.0]) were baseline risk behaviors associated with HIV acquisition. There was a marked reduction in risk behaviors after study enrollment with some recurrence in unprotected vaginal sex. Of 963 non-sterilized women, 304 (31.6%) became pregnant. Conclusions Crack cocaine use and unprotected anal sex are important risk criteria to identify high-risk women for HIV efficacy trials. Pregnancy during the trial was a common occurrence and needs to be considered in trial planning for prevention trials in women. PMID:23807272

  17. EPA's Interpretation of Regulations that Determine Pollutants Covered By Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Waste minimization and pollution prevention initiatives within Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) boiler house operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of ANL-E Plant Facility and Services-Utilities and Systems (PFS-US) is to operate and maintain utility services in a cost-effective manner, while utilizing new and innovative methods whenever possible. PFS-US operates an on-site coal burning boiler plant that generates steam for use throughout the Laboratory as a source to heat buildings, as well as for use in research experiments. In the recent past, PFS-US has embarked upon a series of initiatives to improve operating efficiency of boiler house operations. The results of these projects have had the following impacts on boiler house performance and operations: (1) boiler house efficiency and operations have improved, (2) boiler house operating costs have been reduced, (3) specific operating and maintenance costs have been avoided or eliminated, and (4) the amount of waste and pollution generated has been reduced. Through the implementation of these initiatives, over $250,000 of revenue and cost savings have been incurred by ANL-E. In addition, the Laboratory and DOE will benefit annually from revenues, cost savings, and the reduction of environmental liability resulting from these initiatives.

  19. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  20. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-03

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  1. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  2. Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

  3. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Marco, C. F.; Dorsey, J. R.; Evans, M.; Fowler, D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Lim, S. F.; McQuaid, J.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S. J.; Monks, P. S.; Nemitz, E.; Oram, D. E.; Owen, S. M.; Phillips, G. J.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Pyle, J. A.; Reeves, C. E.; Ryder, J.; Siong, J.; Skiba, U.; Stewart, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an “environmentally friendly” fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided. PMID:19841269

  4. Integrated Use of GLEAMS and GIS to Prevent Groundwater Pollution Caused by Agricultural Disposal of Animal Waste

    PubMed

    Garnier; Lo Porto A; Marini; Leone

    1998-09-01

    / In modern intensive animal farming the disposal of a large amount of waste is of great concern, as, if not properly performed, it can cause the pollution of water, mainly because of the high content of nitrate and phosphate. This paper presents the results of a study intended to assess the environmental sustainability of animal waste disposal on agricultural soils in the alluvial plain of the River Chiana (Tuscany, Italy), a particularly sensitive area because of the high vulnerability of the shallow aquifer and of the intensive agricultural and breeding activities. With this aim, a strategy has been employed, that consists of the integrated use of a management model and GISs. The consequences on groundwater of applying animal waste to different kind of soils and crop arrangements have been simulated by means of the management model GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems, ver 2.01). As the huge amount of data required by such a sophisticated model does not allow applications at a scale larger than the field size, IDRISI and GRASS GIS packages have been used to divide the study area into land units, with homogeneous environmental characteristics, and then to generalize on these units the outputs of the model. The main conclusions can be synthesized as follows: The amount of animal waste produced in some of the investigated areas (i.e., municipal territory) is greater than that disposable on their own agricultural soil with no risks to the groundwater; consequently a cooperative approach among municipalities is necessary in order to plan waste disposal in a comprehensive and centralized way.KEY WORDS: Land use; Animal waste disposal; Groundwater protection; GIS, Management models

  5. Oil Pollution Act (OPA) and Federal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Oil Pollution Prevention regulation sets forth requirements for prevention of, preparedness for, and response to oil discharges at specific non-transportation-related facilities, including federal facilities.

  6. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  7. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  8. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  9. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    atmospheric pollution making by Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. The average weighted WPI forms the basis of weather type number, synoptic weather forecast allows you to define a subtype of the weather. This classification is used in the system of MWF in the resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters (mountainous region of Northern Caucasus), making for the purpose of timely warnings of medical personnel of medical institutions to strengthen health surveillance and, if necessary, conduct prevention of MPR. MPR to changing weather conditions are most manifest in connection with resettlement of patients from their places of permanent residence to the unusual climatic conditions of the resort. In this regard, in order to enhance the spa rehabilitation of meteosensitive patients with coronary artery disease at PSRIC a physiological method was developed for early and routine prophylaxis of maladaptive pathological and, above all, MPR using the method of transcranial electric-pulse meso-diencephalic modulation by MDMK-4 apparatus with a frontooccipital location of the electrodes. Clinical manifestation of the MPR in adverse weather conditions in patients with coronary artery disease, hypertension with dysadaptation syndrome is characterized by frequent recurrences of angina, rhythm disorders, cerebral symptoms, vascular crisis, violations in the field of psycho-emotional area and other disorders. These meteopathies are eliminated with high efficiency using the MDMK-4 apparatus in individually selected modes at the planned rate of prophylaxis for 10 procedures. In order to urgent MPR prevention the procedures can be used situationally. The high preventive and curative effects of transcranial electric-pulse meso-diencephalic modulation of the MDMK-4 apparatus is shown by positive dynamics of the clinical status of patients, including data on the MPR test survey, the Kerdem vegetative index, rheoencephalography indicators, electrocardiography, neurovascular reactivity, Holter

  10. DEGREASER SYSTEM POLLUTION PREVENTION EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the capability of various engineering changes to an existing vapor degreaser to reduce solvent emissions to the atmosphere while remaining within the established U.S. Air Force (USAF) exposure limits for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA).

  11. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  12. USING SIMULATION FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to design or modify chemical processes in a way that minimizes the formation of unwanted by-products is an ongoing goal for process engineers. Two simulation and design methods are discussed here: Process Integration (PI) developed by El-Halwagi and Manousiouthakis a...

  13. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  14. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  17. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  18. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  19. Mergers + acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  20. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  1. An Integrated Approach for Pollution Monitoring: Smart Acquirement and Smart Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arco, E.; Boccardo, P.; Gandino, F.; Lingua, A.; Noardo, F.; Rebaudengo, M.

    2016-09-01

    Air quality is a factor of primary importance for the quality of life. The increase of the pollutants percentage in the air can cause serious problems to the human and environmental health. For this reason it is essential to monitor its values to prevent the consequences of an excessive concentration, to reduce the pollution production or to avoid the contact with major pollutant concentration through the available tools. Some recently developed tools for the monitoring and sharing of the data in an effective system permit to manage the information in a smart way, in order to improve the knowledge of the problem and, consequently, to take preventing measures in favour of the urban air quality and human health. In this paper, the authors describe an innovative solution that implements geomatics sensors (GNSS) and pollutant measurement sensors to develop a low cost sensor for the acquisition of pollutants dynamic data using a mobile platform based on bicycles. The acquired data can be analysed to evaluate the local distribution of pollutant density and shared through web platforms that use standard protocols for an effective smart use.

  2. Commandant's international technical series. Volume 9. International regulations on the prevention of pollution from ships carrying hazardous chemicals in bulk. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    MARPOL was developed to minimize accidental and operational pollution from ships carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk. Accidental pollution could result from a collision, a grounding, or an overflow of a cargo tank. Operational pollution results from the disposal of cargo tank washings. Major amendments were made to the original Annex II by the International Maritime Organization. The United States and other States party to MARPOL will implement Annex II, as amended, on April 7, 1987. Implementation will affect seagoing ships transporting noxious liquid substances to and from such ships. The attached documents contain internationally agreed requirements, interpretations, and guidelines necessary for the implementation of Annex II. The documents attached include: (1) MARPOL Annex II as amended by amendments adopted by the twenty-second session of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee; (2) Unified Interpretations of Annex II; (3) Standards for the Procedures and Arrangements for the Discharge of Noxious Liquid Substances; (4) Ammendments to the Bulk Chemical Code and the International Bulk Chemical Code to include marine pollution concerns; (5) Guidelines on the Provision of Adequate Reception Facilities in Ports, Part II (Noxious Liquid Substances). The contents of these documents are being placed in regulations. The purpose of this document is to give members of the interested public advance notification of impending regulations.

  3. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  4. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents Health Studies & Clinical Trials ... Trials GuLF Study What NIEHS is Doing on Water Pollution Survival of the resilient: rapid killifish evolution ...

  5. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  6. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  9. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  10. Analysis and Development of an F-5 Pollution Prevention Management Program with Recommendations for Creation of Similar Programs for other Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    to as near zero as feasible. The key is to move quickly away from dependence on hazardous materials. We must mobilize our whole team and find ways to...succeed we must mobilize our whole team and find ways to move faster. (26:1) The Plan included six objectives which were to guide Air Force actions...Institute of Techonology (AFIT). She graduated from AFIT on 21 September 1993 with a Master of Science degree in Logistics Management, Acquisition

  11. Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer: where do we stand in research to identify opportunities for prevention?

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A; Michels, Karin B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Bernstein, Leslie; Attfield, Kathleen R; Gray, Sharon

    2007-06-15

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of death in US women in mid-life. Treatment has adverse effects, adding to the importance of finding modifiable risk factors. At the invitation of Susan G. Komen for the Cure, we reviewed studies of breast cancer and environmental pollutants, diet (assessed prospectively), body size, and physical activity, and animal studies that identify chemicals as potential mammary carcinogens. Databases developed in the review include information on 216 chemicals that increased mammary gland tumors in animal studies and 450 epidemiologic studies (accessible at www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and www.komen.org/environment). Exposure to potential mammary carcinogens is widespread from chemicals found in consumer products, air and drinking water pollution, food, and women's workplaces. Epidemiologic studies have included only a small number of chemicals identified as mammary carcinogens or as hormone disruptors, which may have implications for breast cancer; however, evidence is emerging for associations between breast cancer and polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organic solvents. Prospective diet studies have not revealed consistent associations with breast cancer. Improved exposure assessment methods will help advance future human studies of both diet and environmental pollutants. Studies of physical activity show that it is protective. In the same vein as evidence-based medicine, messages for patients, policymakers, and the public should support decision-making based on the strength of current evidence; such messages might address exposure reduction for some pollutants. Investments in research on environmental factors in breast cancer have potentially large public health benefits.

  12. Prevention of inflammation-mediated acquisition of metastatic properties of benign mouse fibrosarcoma cells by administration of an orally available superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Okada, F; Shionoya, H; Kobayashi, M; Kobayashi, T; Tazawa, H; Onuma, K; Iuchi, Y; Matsubara, N; Ijichi, T; Dugas, B; Hosokawa, M

    2006-01-01

    Weakly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic QR-32 cells derived from a fibrosarcoma in C57BL6 mouse are converted to malignant cells once they have grown after being coimplanted with a gelatine sponge which induces inflammation. We administered a newly developed peroral superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxykine, and as control vehicle, gliadin and saline, starting 2 days before the coimplantation and continued daily throughout the experiment. In the oxykine group, tumour incidence was lower (41%) than in the gliadin or saline group (83 and 79%, respectively). The inhibitory effect of oxykine was lost when an individual component of oxykine was administered, that is, SOD alone and gliadin alone. The effect was also abolished when administered by intraperitoneal route. When perfused in situ with nitroblue tetrazolium, an indicator of superoxide formation, the tumour masses from gliadin and saline groups displayed intense formazan deposition, whereas, those from oxykine group had less deposition. Enzymatic activity of SOD was also increased in oxykine group. Arising tumour cells in gliadin and saline groups acquired metastatic phenotype, but those in oxykine group showed reduced metastatic ability. These results suggested that the orally active SOD derivative prevented tumour progression promoted by inflammation, which is thought to be through scavenging inflammatory cell-derived superoxide anion. PMID:16508635

  13. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  14. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Sheena; Dunn, David T; Desai, Monica; Dolling, David I; Gafos, Mitzy; Gilson, Richard; Sullivan, Ann K; Clarke, Amanda; Reeves, Iain; Schembri, Gabriel; Mackie, Nicola; Bowman, Christine; Lacey, Charles J; Apea, Vanessa; Brady, Michael; Fox, Julie; Taylor, Stephen; Antonucci, Simone; Khoo, Saye H; Rooney, James; Nardone, Anthony; Fisher, Martin; McOwan, Alan; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Anne M; Gazzard, Brian; Gill, Owen N

    2016-01-01

    ) in a similar population would need access to 1 year of PrEP to avert one HIV infection. We recorded no serious adverse drug reactions; 28 adverse events, most commonly nausea, headache, and arthralgia, resulted in interruption of PrEp. We detected no difference in the occurrence of sexually transmitted infections, including rectal gonorrhoea and chlamydia, between groups, despite a suggestion of risk compensation among some PrEP recipients. Interpretation In this high incidence population, daily tenofovir–emtricitabine conferred even higher protection against HIV than in placebo-controlled trials, refuting concerns that effectiveness would be less in a real-world setting. There was no evidence of an increase in other sexually transmitted infections. Our findings strongly support the addition of PrEP to the standard of prevention for men who have sex with men at risk of HIV infection. Funding MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Public Health England, and Gilead Sciences. PMID:26364263

  15. An Acquisition Guide for Executives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide covers the following subjects; What is Acquisition?, Purpose and Primary Functions of the Agency’s Acquisition System, Key Organizations in Acquisitions, Legal Framework, Key Players in Acquisitions, Acquisition Process, Acquisition Thresholds

  16. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  18. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  19. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Technology for Non-Invasive Assessment of Corrosion-Induced Damage in Piping for Pollution Prevention in DOD Fuel Storage Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    established in the facilities at the NSWCCD, incorporating welds, elbows , and hidden corrosion-induced defects to serve as a test bed for ultrasonic guided...effects of correlating results for sensors at different distances from a defect, and the effects of welds and elbows in the paths of the pipeline. These...launching and receiving guided waves must take into account the locations of flanges, valves, elbows , and other obstructions, which sometimes prevent

  20. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  1. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  2. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  3. Defense Acquisition Workforce Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Acquisition , Technology & Logistics, 2000). PBSA “involves acquisition strategies, methods, and techniques that describe and communicate measurable ... Acquisition Workforce Distribution of DoD Workforce and Attrition Rates Seperation Rates Distribution of Workforce by Years of Service 38 A final issue... measurement . 14 Provisions within the IMPROVE Act demand greater accountability from the acquisition workforce, improve financial management, expand

  4. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  5. System Safety in Aircraft Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    principal purpose is the prevention of accidents or deaths/ injuries related thereto. Until a recent meeting cosponsored by SOHP and OUSDRE, communication...results in preventing the loss of a single aircraft ML.214/9OV 83 ($15 million for the AH-64, $25 million for the F-18, $200 million for the B-1B). - An...acquisition program. There- fore, it is essential to have interest and support of system safety by "off-line" management at levels high enough to be effective

  6. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  7. Guideline for minimizing radiation exposure during acquisition of coronary artery calcium scans with the use of multidetector computed tomography: a report by the Society for Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention Tomographic Imaging and Prevention Councils in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Voros, Szilard; Rivera, Juan J; Berman, Daniel S; Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Cury, Ricardo C; Desai, Milind Y; Dey, Damini; Halliburton, Sandra S; Hecht, Harvey S; Nasir, Khurram; Santos, Raul D; Shapiro, Michael D; Taylor, Allen J; Valeti, Uma S; Young, Phillip M; Weissman, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning is an important tool for risk stratification in intermediate-risk, asymptomatic subjects without previous coronary disease. However, the clinical benefit of improved risk prediction needs to be balanced against the risk of the use of ionizing radiation. Although there is increasing emphasis on the need to obtain CAC scans at low-radiation exposure to the patient, very few practical documents exist to aid laboratories and health care professionals on how to obtain such low-radiation scans. The Tomographic Imaging Council of the Society for Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, in collaboration with the Prevention Council and the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, created a task force and writing group to generate a practical document to address parameters that can be influenced by careful attention to image acquisition. Patient selection for CAC scanning should be based on national guidelines. It is recommended that laboratories performing CAC examinations monitor radiation exposure (dose-length-product [DLP]) and effective radiation dose (E) in all patients. DLP should be <200 mGy × cm; E should average 1.0-1.5 mSv and should be <3.0 mSv. On most scanner platforms, CAC imaging should be performed in an axial mode with prospective electrocardiographic triggering, using tube voltage of 120 kVp. Tube current should be carefully selected on the basis of patient size, potentially using chest lateral width measured on the topogram. Scan length should be limited for the coverage of the heart only. When patients and imaging parameters are selected appropriately, CAC scanning can be performed with low levels of radiation exposure.

  8. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  9. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Air Quality Index (AQI) The EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is ... For more tools to help you learn about air quality, visit Tracking Air Quality . Top of Page File ...

  10. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  11. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  12. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  13. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  14. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, K.L.

    THIS PAPER IS A STUDY OF A CHILD'S EARLIEST PRETRANSFORMATIONAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES. A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS (1) THAT SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION OCCURS THROUGH THE TESTING OF HYPOTHESES REFLECTING THE INITIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACQUISITION MECHANISM AND THE LANGUAGE DATA TO WHICH THE CHILD IS EXPOSED, AND (2) THAT…

  15. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  16. Food pollution.

    PubMed

    Trevino, R J

    1999-06-01

    Food can influence the human body in many ways, both positively and negatively. Several key elements of contemporary food cultivation and production are presented, along with their potential consequences to our health. The history of food cultivation and consumption is contrasted between early hunter-gatherer societies and modern day societies. Natural nutrient-rich foods produced from the soil in early societies have been replaced with artificial supplements and treated with pesticides and herbicides to control plant disease. The evolution of pesticides is chronicled from the synthesis of DDT in 1870 to present day. Several commonly used chemicals are described along with their documented side effects. A number of methods of pest control from ancient to modern day are offered as alternatives to polluting chemicals. Integrated pest management is proposed as a promising, economically feasible method of pest management, reducing pollution and risk to wildlife and human health.

  17. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  18. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  19. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...