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Sample records for acquisition radar building

  1. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. 23. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #202, mechanical equipment room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #202, mechanical equipment room no. 2 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. 24. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #203, communications room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #203, communications room - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. 16. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #102, electrical equipment room; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #102, electrical equipment room; the prime power distribution system. Excellent example of endulum-types shock isolation. The grey cabinet and barrel assemble is part of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) retrofill project - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. 26. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #301, transmitter area no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #301, transmitter area no. 2; power supply assembly (in foreground) and amplifier modulators - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. 19. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, sign reads: Three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, sign reads: Three 660-ton trane chillers, each chiller can supply enough cooling for approximately 250 average air-conditioned homes - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 18. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, deionizers (filter tanks) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, deionizers (filter tanks) for data processor cooling and ice backup; sign reads: Deionizer units provide high-purity water by removal of oxygen, and organic and mineral content from water - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. 31. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data storage "racks"; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data storage "racks"; sign read: M&D controller, logic control buffer, data transmission controller - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. 29. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data processing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data processing system area; data processor maintenance and operations center, showing data processing consoles - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. 15. Front security entrance to the perimeter acquisition radar building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Front security entrance to the perimeter acquisition radar building, showing rotogates 1 and 2 and entrance door to security operations control center (SOCC), room #108 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. 17. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, mechanical equipment room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, mechanical equipment room no. 1; sign reads: Heat exchangers (shell and tube type). Provide precise temperature control of water for cooling critical electronic equipment - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  14. 39. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #504, techinal maintenance and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #504, techinal maintenance and repair center (TMRC) and tactical support equipment (TSE) storage area; storage-travel wave tubes - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. View (facing into perimeter acquisition radar building) through first level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View (facing into perimeter acquisition radar building) through first level of utility tunnel. This tunnel connects the PARB with its power plan - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Utility Tunnel, Between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. 40. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #510B, chemical, biological, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #510B, chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) air filter room no. 1 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. 42. Perimeter acquisition radar building plaque, commemorating parransferral from U.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Perimeter acquisition radar building plaque, commemorating parransferral from U.S. Army ballistic missile defense organization to U.S. Air Force aerospace defense command (dated 1 October 1977) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. 38. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #414, digital/electrical repair shop; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #414, digital/electrical repair shop; showing work areas available for maintenance and equipment repair - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply room; computer power supply on left and water flow on right. This room is directly below data processing area (room #318). Sign on right reads: High purity water digital rack - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  1. 14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar building security area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 6. View toward southeast, northwest oblique of perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View toward southeast, northwest oblique of perimeter acquisition radar building, with view of par power plant - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 8. View toward northeast, southwest oblique of perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View toward northeast, southwest oblique of perimeter acquisition radar building showing accessway #101 leading into par power plant from service road B in foreground - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #214, control room; showing central monitoring station console in foreground. Well and booster control panel in left background and electric power management panel on far right - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. 8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment room; showing battery racks. The dc power of these batteries is distributed to motor-control centers, the annunciator system, and fire alarm and tripping circuits - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  8. 1. View from south to north of perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from south to north of perimeter acquisition radar power plant diesel engine exhaust and the small engine intake. On the right is the ventilating air intake/exhaust, distinguishable by its square shape, whereas the diesel columns are rectangular - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 2. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant accessway 101, showing equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant accessway 101, showing equipment blast lock #102 entrance for fire trucks and equipment. An underground structure at its origin, the 177-foot long accessway is above ground at its south end, terminating in the parking lot of service road B - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. 7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment room; showing battery room (in background) and multiple source power converter (in foreground). The picture offers another look at the shock-isolation system developed for each platform - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. 3. Photocopy of photograph showing acquisition radar from 'Procedures and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph showing acquisition radar from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Hercules Missile Battery,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-82 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1959 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  12. 4. Photocopy of photograph showing battery acquisition radar from 'Procedures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph showing battery acquisition radar from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Hercules Missile Battery,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-82 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1959 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  13. Autonomous system for initializing synthetic aperture radar seeker acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.C.

    1993-08-03

    A method is described of guiding a missile having an active seeker including a synthetic aperture radar operating in a squint mode to a target aircraft having a search radar therein the maximum range of active seeker acquisition being within said missile's maneuver capability to intercept, and the maximum range of active seeker acquisition not exceeding the capability of the active seeker, said method comprising the steps of: launching said missile in response to detection of the search radar; implementing a passive seeker mode of operation to passively guide said missile towards said target aircraft in a manner to avoid detection of said missile by said target aircraft; transferring from said passive seeker mode to an active seeker mode in response to detected shutdown of said search radar; maneuvering said missile to execute a turn angle away from said target aircraft such that the search field of said synthetic aperture radar sweeps through an entire target uncertainty volume, said turn angle being within a first preselected limit and a second preselected limit such that said target aircraft does not cross over said missile's terminal flight path; and intercepting said target aircraft within a lethal range of said missile.

  14. Data acquisition system for Doppler radar vital-sign monitor.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander M; Lubecke, Victor M

    2007-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) units increase the dynamic range of a system to compensate for the limited dynamic range of analog to digital converters. This problem is compounded in wireless systems in which large changes in signal strength are effects of a changing environment. These issues are evident in the direct-conversion Doppler radar vital-sign monitor. Utilizing microwave radar signals reflecting off a human subject, a two-channel quadrature receiver can detect periodic movement resulting from cardio-pulmonary activity. The quadrature signal is analyzed using an arctangent demodulation that extracts vital phase information. A data acquisition (DAQ) system is proposed to deal with issues inherent in arctangent demodulation of a quadrature radar signal.

  15. 60. VIEW OF RADAR AREA, STORAGE BUILDINGS AND TANKS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF RADAR AREA, STORAGE BUILDINGS AND TANKS, LOOKING WEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 106 showing passageway links to other buildings east and west, and DR 3 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  17. 10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing passageway links to other building to east and DR 1 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  18. 74. Transmitter building no. 102, view of radar digital test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Transmitter building no. 102, view of radar digital test and maintenance cabinet area control panel and date storage system showing ampex tape storage devices. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. 11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing personnel exit door at side building, showing DR 1 antenna from oblique angle on foundation berm with DR 2 and DR 3 antennae in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Eye safe single aperture laser radar scanners for 3D acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubov, D.; McCormick, K.; Nolan, P.; Volfson, L.; Finegan, T. M.

    2016-05-01

    The single aperture implementation of laser radars in combination with beam scanning solutions enables low cost, compact and efficient laser systems for 3D acquisition. The design benefits include the lack of dead zones, improved stability and compact footprint for the system implementation. In our presentation we focus on the scanning solution development for 3D laser radars that is based on all solid state magneto-optic design. The novel solid-state scanner implementation results are presented.

  1. The economics of data acquisition computers for ST and MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some low cost options for data acquisition computers for ST (stratosphere, troposphere) and MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere) are presented. The particular equipment discussed reflects choices made by the University of Alaska group but of course many other options exist. The low cost microprocessor and array processor approach presented here has several advantages because of its modularity. An inexpensive system may be configured for a minimum performance ST radar, whereas a multiprocessor and/or a multiarray processor system may be used for a higher performance MST radar. This modularity is important for a network of radars because the initial cost is minimized while future upgrades will still be possible at minimal expense. This modularity also aids in lowering the cost of software development because system expansions should rquire little software changes. The functions of the radar computer will be to obtain Doppler spectra in near real time with some minor analysis such as vector wind determination.

  2. Data Acquisition System for Multi-Frequency Radar Flight Operations Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leachman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    A three-channel data acquisition system was developed for the NASA Multi-Frequency Radar (MFR) system. The system is based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial PC (personal computer) and two dual-channel 14-bit digital receiver cards. The decimated complex envelope representations of the three radar signals are passed to the host PC via the PCI bus, and then processed in parallel by multiple cores of the PC CPU (central processing unit). The innovation is this parallelization of the radar data processing using multiple cores of a standard COTS multi-core CPU. The data processing portion of the data acquisition software was built using autonomous program modules or threads, which can run simultaneously on different cores. A master program module calculates the optimal number of processing threads, launches them, and continually supplies each with data. The benefit of this new parallel software architecture is that COTS PCs can be used to implement increasingly complex processing algorithms on an increasing number of radar range gates and data rates. As new PCs become available with higher numbers of CPU cores, the software will automatically utilize the additional computational capacity.

  3. An overview of data acquisition, signal coding and data analysis techniques for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the data acquisition, signal processing, and data analysis techniques that are currently in use with high power MST/ST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere/stratosphere troposphere) radars. This review supplements the works of Rastogi (1983) and Farley (1984) presented at previous MAP workshops. A general description is given of data acquisition and signal processing operations and they are characterized on the basis of their disparate time scales. Then signal coding, a brief description of frequently used codes, and their limitations are discussed, and finally, several aspects of statistical data processing such as signal statistics, power spectrum and autocovariance analysis, outlier removal techniques are discussed.

  4. Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

    2008-01-14

    In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

  5. MICROPROCESSOR-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR A BOREHOLE RADAR.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Jerry A.; Wright, David L.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient microprocessor-based system is described that permits real-time acquisition, stacking, and digital recording of data generated by a borehole radar system. Although the system digitizes, stacks, and records independently of a computer, it is interfaced to a desktop computer for program control over system parameters such as sampling interval, number of samples, number of times the data are stacked prior to recording on nine-track tape, and for graphics display of the digitized data. The data can be transferred to the desktop computer during recording, or it can be played back from a tape at a latter time. Using the desktop computer, the operator observes results while recording data and generates hard-copy graphics in the field. Thus, the radar operator can immediately evaluate the quality of data being obtained, modify system parameters, study the radar logs before leaving the field, and rerun borehole logs if necessary. The system has proven to be reliable in the field and has increased productivity both in the field and in the laboratory.

  6. Multi-frequency fine resolution imaging radar instrumentation and data acquisition. [side-looking radar for airborne imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rendleman, R. A.; Champagne, E. B.; Ferris, J. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Marks, J. M.; Salmer, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a dual polarized L-band radar imaging system to be used in conjunction with the present dual polarized X-band radar is described. The technique used called for heterodyning the transmitted frequency from X-band to L-band and again heterodyning the received L-band signals back to X-band for amplification, detection, and recording.

  7. State transition storyboards: A tool for designing the Goldstone solar system radar data acquisition system user interface software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, S. D.

    1987-01-01

    Effective user interface design in software systems is a complex task that takes place without adequate modeling tools. By combining state transition diagrams and the storyboard technique of filmmakers, State Transition Storyboards were developed to provide a detailed modeling technique for the Goldstone Solar System Radar Data Acquisition System human-machine interface. Illustrations are included with a description of the modeling technique.

  8. 3. Distant view toward east, west face of perimeter acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Distant view toward east, west face of perimeter acquisition radar building with data link satellite dish on south side - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. Comparing EM Models to RCS Measurements for Building-Penetration Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; Ueberschaer, R

    2007-05-18

    For the DARPA VisiBuilding program, SRI International and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are using a variety of electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes and measurement techniques to analyze how radar pulses interact with building structures and materials. Of primary interest is how interior wall and corner reflections are delayed, attenuated, and dispersed by the exterior wall materials. In this paper, we compare microwave frequency-domain radar cross section (RCS) chamber measurements of scale models of simple buildings to finite-element and finite-difference full-wave time-domain and ray-tracing models. The ability to accurately reconstruct the building from these models is compared with the reconstruction from chamber measurements. We observe that careful attention to the spatial sampling in the EM models is essential to achieving good reconstruction at the higher frequencies.

  10. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar: building tomorrow's tools today

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong

    2006-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system transmits electromagnetic (EM) waves at a wavelength that can range from a few millimeters to tens of centimeters. The radar wave propagates through the atmosphere and interacts with the Earth’s surface. Part of the energy is reflected back to the SAR system and recorded. Using a sophisticated image processing technique, called SAR processing (Curlander and McDonough, 1991), both the intensity and phase of the reflected (or backscattered) signal of each ground resolution element (a few meters to tens of meters) can be calculated in the form of a complex-valued SAR image representing the reflectivity of the ground surface. The amplitude or intensity of the SAR image is determined primarily by terrain slope, surface roughness, and dielectric constants, whereas the phase of the SAR image is determined primarily by the distance between the satellite antenna and the ground targets, slowing of the signal by the atmosphere, and the interaction of EM waves with ground surface. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) imaging, a recently developed remote sensing technique, utilizes the interaction of EM waves, referred to as interference, to measure precise distances. Very simply, InSAR involves the use of two or more SAR images of the same area to extract landscape topography and its deformation patterns.

  11. 116. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. 101, "equipment room details" - mechanical, AS-BLT AW 35-46-03, sheet 73.1, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. Development of Ku-band rendezvous radar tracking and acquisition simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The fidelity of the Space Shuttle Radar tracking simulation model was improved. The data from the Shuttle Orbiter Radar Test and Evaluation (SORTE) program experiments performed at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) were reviewed and analyzed. The selected flight rendezvous radar data was evaluated. Problems with the Inertial Line-of-Sight (ILOS) angle rate tracker were evaluated using the improved fidelity angle rate tracker simulation model.

  13. Hailfall: the relationship between radar-derived hail kinetic energy and hail damage to buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohl, Roman; Schiesser, Hans-Heinrich; Aller, Dörte

    Relationships between radar-derived hail kinetic energy and hail damage to residential and agricultural buildings are presented for nine hail cells that occurred over the Swiss Mittelland (1992-1999). Hail kinetic energy ( EKINPIX) was calculated from C-band Doppler radar Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicators (CAPPIs) at a height of 1.5 km and daily hail damage claim data were available per Swiss community through several cantonal building insurance companies. In order to derive point-to-point relationships, hailfall and damage variables were triangulated on a 2×2-km grid and cross-correlation coefficients were then calculated for entire hail cells. The results show that high season hail storms (15 June-15 August) produced higher mean damage than low season storms (before and after) and weighted logistic damage functions produced correlation coefficients of 0.83 (0.86) for high (low) season storms over residential buildings and 0.79 (0.88) over agricultural buildings. The relationship between EKINPIX and total loss ratios (damage in relation to total sums insured) reveals no seasonal difference in hailstorm intensities and nonweighted logistic functions yield correlation coefficients of 0.85 (0.84) for residential (agricultural) buildings. The comparison between actual and predicted losses showed that nonweighted functions overestimated actual damage and that altered damage functions (flatter slope gradients) predicted damages that are in the range of the actual losses. Damage functions are calibrated using EKINPIX, total loss ratios and actual losses from two independent hail cells. One hail cell showed that damage induced through rainfall that followed hailfall multiplied the final loss considerably. The valuable agreement between radar-measured hailfall intensity and total loss ratios suggests that the established damage functions could be used by insurance companies to derive possible maximal hail losses to a building portfolio of interest.

  14. MIDAS-W: a workstation-based incoherent scatter radar data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Gorczyca, A. M.; Grydeland, T.

    2000-09-01

    The Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) is based on an abstract model of an incoherent scatter radar. This model is implemented in a hierarchical software system, which serves to isolate hardware and low-level software implementation details from higher levels of the system. Inherent in this is the idea that implementation details can easily be changed in response to technological advances. MIDAS is an evolutionary system, and the MIDAS hardware has, in fact, evolved while the basic software model has remained unchanged. From the earliest days of MIDAS, it was realized that some functions implemented in specialized hardware might eventually be implemented by software in a general-purpose computer. MIDAS-W is the realization of this concept. The core component of MIDAS-W is a Sun Microsystems UltraSparc 10 workstation equipped with an Ultrarad 1280 PCI bus analog to digital (A/D) converter board. In the current implementation, a 2.25 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) is bandpass sampled at 1 µs intervals and these samples are multicast over a high-speed Ethernet which serves as a raw data bus. A second workstation receives the samples, converts them to filtered, decimated, complex baseband samples and computes the lag-profile matrix of the decimated samples. Overall performance is approximately ten times better than the previous MIDAS system, which utilizes a custom digital filtering module and array processor based correlator. A major advantage of MIDAS-W is its flexibility. A portable, single-workstation data acquisition system can be implemented by moving the software receiver and correlator programs to the workstation with the A/D converter. When the data samples are multicast, additional data processing systems, for example for raw data recording, can be implemented simply by adding another workstation with suitable software to the high-speed network. Testing of new data processing software is also greatly simplified, because a

  15. Reconstructing 2-D/3-D Building Shapes from Spaceborne Tomographic Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M.; Zhu, X. X.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present an approach that allows automatic (parametric) reconstruction of building shapes in 2-D/3-D using TomoSAR point clouds. These point clouds are generated by processing radar image stacks via advanced interferometric technique, called SAR tomography. The proposed approach reconstructs the building outline by exploiting both the available roof and façade information. Roof points are extracted out by employing a surface normals based region growing procedure via selected seed points while the extraction of façade points is based on thresholding the point scatterer density SD estimated by robust M-estimator. Spatial clustering is then applied to the extracted roof points in a way such that each roof cluster represents an individual building. Extracted façade points are reconstructed and afterwards incorporated to the segmented roof cluster to reconstruct the complete building shape. Initial building footprints are derived by employing alpha shapes method that are later regularized. Finally, rectilinear constraints are added to yield better geometrically looking building shapes. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated by examples using TomoSAR point clouds generated from a stack of TerraSAR-X high-resolution spotlight images from ascending orbit only covering two different test areas with one containing relatively smaller buildings in densely populated regions and the other containing moderate sized buildings in the city of Las Vegas.

  16. Acquisition of building geometry in the simulation of energy performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2001-06-28

    Building geometry is essential to any simulation of building performance. This paper examines the importing of building geometry into simulation of energy performance from the users' point of view. It lists performance requirements for graphic user interfaces that input building geometry, and discusses the basic options in moving from two- to three-dimensional definition of geometry and the ways to import that geometry into energy simulation. The obvious answer lies in software interoperability. With the BLIS group of interoperable software one can interactively import building geometry from CAD into EnergyPlus and dramatically reduce the effort otherwise needed for manual input.The resulting savings may greatly increase the value obtained from simulation, the number of projects in which energy performance simulation is used, and expedite decision making in the design process.

  17. Improving crop classification through attention to the timing of airborne radar acquisitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisco, B.; Ulaby, F. T.; Protz, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radar remote sensors may provide valuable input to crop classification procedures because of (1) their independence of weather conditions and solar illumination, and (2) their ability to respond to differences in crop type. Manual classification of multidate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery resulted in an overall accuracy of 83 percent for corn, forest, grain, and 'other' cover types. Forests and corn fields were identified with accuracies approaching or exceeding 90 percent. Grain fields and 'other' fields were often confused with each other, resulting in classification accuracies of 51 and 66 percent, respectively. The 83 percent correct classification represents a 10 percent improvement when compared to similar SAR data for the same area collected at alternate time periods in 1978. These results demonstrate that improvements in crop classification accuracy can be achieved with SAR data by synchronizing data collection times with crop growth stages in order to maximize differences in the geometric and dielectric properties of the cover types of interest.

  18. Forth system for coherent-scatter radar data acquisition and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennier, A. D.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A real time collection system was developed for the Urbana coherent scatter radar system. The new system, designed for use with a microcomputer, has several advantages over the old system implemented with a minicomputer. The software used to collect the data is described as well as the processing software used to analyze the data. In addition a magnetic tape format for coherent scatter data exchange is given.

  19. Acquisition and use of Orlando, Florida and Continental Airbus radar flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, Michael C.; Mathews, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse is developing a lookdown pulse Doppler radar for production as the sensor and processor of a forward looking hazardous windshear detection and avoidance system. A data collection prototype of that product was ready for flight testing in Orlando to encounter low level windshear in corroboration with the FAA-Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR). Airborne real-time processing and display of the hazard factor were demonstrated with TDWR facilitated intercepts and penetrations of over 80 microbursts in a three day period, including microbursts with hazard factors in excess of .16 (with 500 ft. PIREP altitude loss) and the hazard factor display at 6 n.mi. of a visually transparent ('dry') microburst with TDWR corroborated outflow reflectivities of +5 dBz. Range gated Doppler spectrum data was recorded for subsequent development and refinement of hazard factor detection and urban clutter rejection algorithms. Following Orlando, the data collection radar was supplemental type certified for in revenue service on a Continental Airlines Airbus in an automatic and non-interferring basis with its ARINC 708 radar to allow Westinghouse to confirm its understanding of commercial aircraft installation, interface realities, and urban airport clutter. A number of software upgrades, all of which were verified at the Receiver-Transmitter-Processor (RTP) hardware bench with Orlando microburst data to produce desired advanced warning hazard factor detection, included some preliminary loads with automatic (sliding window average hazard factor) detection and annunciation recording. The current (14-APR-92) configured software is free from false and/or nuisance alerts (CAUTIONS, WARNINGS, etc.) for all take-off and landing approaches, under 2500 ft. altitude to weight-on-wheels, into all encountered airports, including Newark (NJ), LAX, Denver, Houston, Cleveland, etc. Using the Orlando data collected on hazardous microbursts, Westinghouse has developed a lookdown pulse Doppler

  20. An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

  1. Chlorofluorocarbon environmental issues related to conservation acquisition in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Recent scientific evidence strongly suggests that the release of large quantities of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases into the atmosphere will result in environmentally harmful long-term effects. Because of those effects, a massive worldwide effort is currently under way to ban their use. At request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a literature search to identify the issues surrounding the CFC phaseout. The search was focused on how these issues impact the commercial building sector. Information was obtained that describes: How the release of CFCs into the atmosphere may affect the global environment; legislative and regulatory programs initiated to restrict CFCs; potential impacts the reduced CFC supply will have on commercial buildings; the most promising CFC substitute technologies; and the potential costs of CFC restriction. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Single-Side Two-Location Spotlight Imaging for Building Based on MIMO Through-Wall-Radar.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Jiangang; Guo, Yong

    2016-09-07

    Through-wall-radar imaging is of interest for mapping the wall layout of buildings and for the detection of stationary targets within buildings. In this paper, we present an easy single-side two-location spotlight imaging method for both wall layout mapping and stationary target detection by utilizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) through-wall-radar. Rather than imaging for building walls directly, the images of all building corners are generated to speculate wall layout indirectly by successively deploying the MIMO through-wall-radar at two appropriate locations on only one side of the building and then carrying out spotlight imaging with two different squint-views. In addition to the ease of implementation, the single-side two-location squint-view detection also has two other advantages for stationary target imaging. The first one is the fewer multi-path ghosts, and the second one is the smaller region of side-lobe interferences from the corner images in comparison to the wall images. Based on Computer Simulation Technology (CST) electromagnetic simulation software, we provide multiple sets of validation results where multiple binary panorama images with clear images of all corners and stationary targets are obtained by combining two single-location images with the use of incoherent additive fusion and two-dimensional cell-averaging constant-false-alarm-rate (2D CA-CFAR) detection.

  3. Single-Side Two-Location Spotlight Imaging for Building Based on MIMO Through-Wall-Radar

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yong; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Jiangang; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Through-wall-radar imaging is of interest for mapping the wall layout of buildings and for the detection of stationary targets within buildings. In this paper, we present an easy single-side two-location spotlight imaging method for both wall layout mapping and stationary target detection by utilizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) through-wall-radar. Rather than imaging for building walls directly, the images of all building corners are generated to speculate wall layout indirectly by successively deploying the MIMO through-wall-radar at two appropriate locations on only one side of the building and then carrying out spotlight imaging with two different squint-views. In addition to the ease of implementation, the single-side two-location squint-view detection also has two other advantages for stationary target imaging. The first one is the fewer multi-path ghosts, and the second one is the smaller region of side-lobe interferences from the corner images in comparison to the wall images. Based on Computer Simulation Technology (CST) electromagnetic simulation software, we provide multiple sets of validation results where multiple binary panorama images with clear images of all corners and stationary targets are obtained by combining two single-location images with the use of incoherent additive fusion and two-dimensional cell-averaging constant-false-alarm-rate (2D CA-CFAR) detection. PMID:27618039

  4. Single-Side Two-Location Spotlight Imaging for Building Based on MIMO Through-Wall-Radar.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Jiangang; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Through-wall-radar imaging is of interest for mapping the wall layout of buildings and for the detection of stationary targets within buildings. In this paper, we present an easy single-side two-location spotlight imaging method for both wall layout mapping and stationary target detection by utilizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) through-wall-radar. Rather than imaging for building walls directly, the images of all building corners are generated to speculate wall layout indirectly by successively deploying the MIMO through-wall-radar at two appropriate locations on only one side of the building and then carrying out spotlight imaging with two different squint-views. In addition to the ease of implementation, the single-side two-location squint-view detection also has two other advantages for stationary target imaging. The first one is the fewer multi-path ghosts, and the second one is the smaller region of side-lobe interferences from the corner images in comparison to the wall images. Based on Computer Simulation Technology (CST) electromagnetic simulation software, we provide multiple sets of validation results where multiple binary panorama images with clear images of all corners and stationary targets are obtained by combining two single-location images with the use of incoherent additive fusion and two-dimensional cell-averaging constant-false-alarm-rate (2D CA-CFAR) detection. PMID:27618039

  5. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior in data acquisition room showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior in data acquisition room showing data racks. The system recorded multiple channels of data during tests. INEEL negative no. HD-41-8-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-05-28

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building.

  7. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  8. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  9. Talk aloud problem solving: Exploration of acquisition and frequency building in science text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembek, Ginny

    Discovering new ways to help students attain higher levels of scientific knowledge and to think critically is a national goal (Educate to Innovate campaign). Despite the best intentions, many students struggle to achieve a basic level of science knowledge (NAEP, 2011). The present study examined Talk Aloud Pair Problem Solving and frequency building with five students who were diagnosed with a disability and receive specialized reading instruction in a special education setting. Acquisition was obtained through scripted lessons and frequency building or practice strengthened the student's verbal repertoire making the problem solving process a durable behavior. Overall, students all demonstrated improvements in problem solving performance when compared to baseline. Students became more significantly accurate in performance and maintenance in learning was demonstrated. Generalization probes indicated improvement in student performance. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  10. Effects of various event building techniques on data acquisition system architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Barsotti, E.; Booth, A.; Bowden, M.

    1990-04-01

    The preliminary specifications for various new detectors throughout the world including those at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) already make it clear that existing event building techniques will be inadequate for the high trigger and data rates anticipated for these detectors. In the world of high-energy physics many approaches have been taken to solving the problem of reading out data from a whole detector and presenting a complete event to the physicist, while simultaneously keeping deadtime to a minimum. This paper includes a review of multiprocessor and telecommunications interconnection networks and how these networks relate to event building in general, illustrating advantages of the various approaches. It presents a more detailed study of recent research into new event building techniques which incorporate much greater parallelism to better accommodate high data rates. The future in areas such as front-end electronics architectures, high speed data links, event building and online processor arrays is also examined. Finally, details of a scalable parallel data acquisition system architecture being developed at Fermilab are given. 35 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.

  11. An in situ approach to detect tree root ecology: linking ground-penetrating radar imaging to isotope-derived water acquisition zones.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Marney E; Anglaaere, Luke C N

    2013-05-01

    Tree root distribution and activity are determinants of belowground competition. However, studying root response to environmental and management conditions remains logistically challenging. Methodologically, nondestructive in situ tree root ecology analysis has lagged. In this study, we tested a nondestructive approach to determine tree coarse root architecture and function of a perennial tree crop, Theobroma cacao L., at two edaphically contrasting sites (sandstone and phyllite-granite derived soils) in Ghana, West Africa. We detected coarse root vertical distribution using ground-penetrating radar and root activity via soil water acquisition using isotopic matching of δ(18)O plant and soil signatures. Coarse roots were detected to a depth of 50 cm, however, intraspecifc coarse root vertical distribution was modified by edaphic conditions. Soil δ(18)O isotopic signature declined with depth, providing conditions for plant-soil δ(18)O isotopic matching. This pattern held only under sandstone conditions where water acquisition zones were identifiably narrow in the 10-20 cm depth but broader under phyllite-granite conditions, presumably due to resource patchiness. Detected coarse root count by depth and measured fine root density were strongly correlated as were detected coarse root count and identified water acquisition zones, thus validating root detection capability of ground-penetrating radar, but exclusively on sandstone soils. This approach was able to characterize trends between intraspecific root architecture and edaphic-dependent resource availability, however, limited by site conditions. This study successfully demonstrates a new approach for in situ root studies that moves beyond invasive point sampling to nondestructive detection of root architecture and function. We discuss the transfer of such an approach to answer root ecology questions in various tree-based landscapes. PMID:23762519

  12. An in situ approach to detect tree root ecology: linking ground-penetrating radar imaging to isotope-derived water acquisition zones.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Marney E; Anglaaere, Luke C N

    2013-05-01

    Tree root distribution and activity are determinants of belowground competition. However, studying root response to environmental and management conditions remains logistically challenging. Methodologically, nondestructive in situ tree root ecology analysis has lagged. In this study, we tested a nondestructive approach to determine tree coarse root architecture and function of a perennial tree crop, Theobroma cacao L., at two edaphically contrasting sites (sandstone and phyllite-granite derived soils) in Ghana, West Africa. We detected coarse root vertical distribution using ground-penetrating radar and root activity via soil water acquisition using isotopic matching of δ(18)O plant and soil signatures. Coarse roots were detected to a depth of 50 cm, however, intraspecifc coarse root vertical distribution was modified by edaphic conditions. Soil δ(18)O isotopic signature declined with depth, providing conditions for plant-soil δ(18)O isotopic matching. This pattern held only under sandstone conditions where water acquisition zones were identifiably narrow in the 10-20 cm depth but broader under phyllite-granite conditions, presumably due to resource patchiness. Detected coarse root count by depth and measured fine root density were strongly correlated as were detected coarse root count and identified water acquisition zones, thus validating root detection capability of ground-penetrating radar, but exclusively on sandstone soils. This approach was able to characterize trends between intraspecific root architecture and edaphic-dependent resource availability, however, limited by site conditions. This study successfully demonstrates a new approach for in situ root studies that moves beyond invasive point sampling to nondestructive detection of root architecture and function. We discuss the transfer of such an approach to answer root ecology questions in various tree-based landscapes.

  13. Floodplain management: Land acquisition versus preservation of historic buildings in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Wendy J.; Mitchell, Bruce

    1983-07-01

    Non-structural adjustments in floodplain management are often avoided because they are seen to infringe on personal rights, adversely affect property values and restrict local tax bases. Land acquisition programs in urban areas encounter a further problem when they lead to demolition of buildings and other structures considered to have historical or architectural value. An experience in Cambridge, Ontario demonstrates that the potential conflict between flood damage reduction and historical preservation objectives can be exacerbated as a result of uncoordinated planning efforts, inflexibility in interpreting mandates, unclear roles for participating agencies, and lack of cooperation Many of these dilemmas can be resolved through consultation and discussion early in the planning process as well as through a willingness to be flexible and to search for a compromise

  14. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

  15. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  16. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  17. Technological Supports for Onsite and Distance Education and Students' Perceptions of Acquisition of Thinking and Team-Building Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Morin, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares students' perceptions of support provided in the acquisition of various thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the various activities, resources and technologies (ART) integrated into an upper level Distributed Computing (DC) course. The findings indicate that students perceived strong support for their acquisition…

  18. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  19. The US Geological Survey's side-looking airborne radar acquisition program: Image data from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Kovar, A.N.; Schoonmaker, J.W. Jr. )

    1993-04-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been systematically collecting side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) image data for the US since 1980. The image strip swaths, ranging in width from 20 to 46 km, are acquired commercially by X-band (3 cm) radar systems. Data are acquired with 60 percent side-lap for better mosaic preparation and stereoscopic capability. The image strips are assembled into 1[degree] x 2[degree] mosaic quadrangles that are based on the USGS 1:250,000-topographic map series for control, format, and nomenclature. These mosaics present the data in a broad synoptic view that facilitates geologic interpretation. SLAR image mosaics have been prepared for more than 35 percent of the US west of the Rocky Mountain front. In addition to quadrangle mosaics, regional composite mosaics have been prepared as value-added products. These include Pacific Northwest (14 quadrangles), southern California Coastal (from San Francisco to San Diego), Reno-Walker (includes parts of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks), Uinta Basin (Salt Lake City, Price and Grand Junction), and Salton Sea Region (San Diego, Santa Ana, El Centro and Salton Sea). Most of the image data are available on computer compatible tapes and photographic products. To make the data more accessible and reasonably priced, the strip images are being processed into CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory). One demonstration CD-ROM includes the mosaics of Las Vegas, Mariposa, Ritzville, Walla Walla, and Pendleton quadrangles.

  20. How does the interaction between spelling and motor processes build up during writing acquisition?

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    How do we recall a word's spelling? How do we produce the movements to form the letters of a word? Writing involves several processing levels. Surprisingly, researchers have focused either on spelling or motor production. However, these processes interact and cannot be studied separately. Spelling processes cascade into movement production. For example, in French, producing letters PAR in the orthographically irregular word PARFUM (perfume) delays motor production with respect to the same letters in the regular word PARDON (pardon). Orthographic regularity refers to the possibility of spelling a word correctly by applying the most frequent sound-letter conversion rules. The present study examined how the interaction between spelling and motor processing builds up during writing acquisition. French 8-10 year old children participated in the experiment. This is the age handwriting skills start to become automatic. The children wrote regular and irregular words that could be frequent or infrequent. They wrote on a digitizer so we could collect data on latency, movement duration and fluency. The results revealed that the interaction between spelling and motor processing was present already at age 8. It became more adult-like at ages 9 and 10. Before starting to write, processing irregular words took longer than regular words. This processing load spread into movement production. It increased writing duration and rendered the movements more dysfluent. Word frequency affected latencies and cascaded into production. It modulated writing duration but not movement fluency. Writing infrequent words took longer than frequent words. The data suggests that orthographic regularity has a stronger impact on writing than word frequency. They do not cascade in the same extent.

  1. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  2. Goldstone solar system radar signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R.; Satorius, E.; Sanchez, O.

    1992-01-01

    A performance analysis of the planetary radar data acquisition system is presented. These results extend previous computer simulation analysis and are facilitated by the development of a simple analytical model that predicts radar system performance over a wide range of operational parameters. The results of this study are useful to both the radar system designer and the science investigator in establishing operational radar data acquisition parameters which result in the best systems performance for a given set of input conditions.

  3. Goldstone solar system radar signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Satorius, E.; Sanchez, O.

    1992-01-01

    A performance analysis of the planetary radar data acquisition system is presented. These results extend previous computer simulation analysis and are facilitated by the development of a simple analytical model that predicts radar system performance over a wide range of operational parameters. The results of this study are useful to both the radar systems designer and the science investigator in establishing operational radar data acquisition parameters which result in the best systems performance for a given set of input conditions.

  4. Building a "Working" Theory of Second Language Acquisition: For Classroom and ESL Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Dorothy Valcarcel

    This paper offers a collection of educational tools for those educators looking for a practical theory of second language acquisition. Educators working with English as a second language (ESL) learners should consider the following factors in trying to develop a working theory: (1) an understanding of what language is, classroom learning, the…

  5. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1988-01-01

    Planning, direction, experimental design, and coordination of data-acquisition and engineering activities in support of all Goldstone planetary radar astronomy were performed. This work demands familiarity with the various components of a planetary radar telescope (transmitter, receiver, antenna, computer hardware and software) as well as knowledge of how the entire system must function as a cohesive unit to meet the particular scientific objectives at hand in a given observation. Support radar data-processing facilities, currently being used for virtually all Goldstone data reduction includes: a VAX 11/780 computer system, an FPS 5210 array processor, terminals, tape drives, and image-display devices, as well as a large body of data-reduction software to accommodate the variety of data-acquisition formats and strategems. Successful 113-cm radar observation of Callisto and the near-Earth asteroid 1981 Midas and Goldstone/VLA radar observations of Saturn's rings were obtained. Quick-look verification programs from data taken with phase-coded cw (i.e., ranging) waveforms, applicable to Venus, the Moon, and small bodies were completed. Definition of scientific and engineering requirements on instrument performance, radar system configuration, and personnel, for all 1988 Goldstone radar investigations was accomplished.

  7. Dual-Band Deramp Radar Design for Ocean Current Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    A mission has been proposed to remotely measure ocean surface currents and surface wind velocities. It will provide the highest resolution and repeat time of these measurements to date for ocean current models with scientific and societal applications. A ground-based experimental radar unit is needed for proof of concept. The proposed experiment set up is to mount the radar on an oil rig to imitate satellite data acquisition. This summer, I completed the radar design. The design employs chirp/deramp topology with simultaneous transmit/receive channels. These two properties allow large system bandwidth, extended sample time, close range imaging, and low sampling rate. The radar operates in the Ku and Ka microwave bands, at 13.5 and 35.5 GHz, respectively, with a system bandwidth of 300 MHz. I completed the radar frequency analysis and research on potential components and antenna configurations. Subsequent work is needed to procure components, as well as to build, test, and deploy the radar.

  8. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  9. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  11. Radar reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-07-01

    This TOP describes a method for measuring the radar reflectivity characteristics of aircraft. It uses a rotating platform and various radar systems to obtain calibrated radar Automatic Gain Control values for each degree of aspect angle for the aircraft. The purpose of this test is to provide comparable values of radar reflectivity for Army aircraft at various radar frequencies and parameter for fixed positions and aspect angles on the aircraft. Data collected on each specific aircraft can be used to evaluate radar reflectivity characteristics of aircraft skin material, paint, and structural changes such as flat versus curved surfaces.

  12. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  13. Evaluation of Different EEG Acquisition Systems Concerning Their Suitability for Building a Brain–Computer Interface: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2016-01-01

    One important aspect in non-invasive brain–computer interface (BCI) research is to acquire the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a proper way. From an end-user perspective, it means with maximum comfort and without any extra inconveniences (e.g., washing the hair), whereas from a technical perspective, the signal quality has to be optimal to make the BCI work effectively and efficiently. In this work, we evaluated three different commercially available EEG acquisition systems that differ in the type of electrodes (gel-, water-, and dry-based), the amplifier technique, and the data transmission method. Every system was tested regarding three different aspects, namely, technical, BCI effectiveness and efficiency (P300 communication and control), and user satisfaction (comfort). We found that water-based system had the lowest short circuit noise level, the hydrogel-based system had the highest P300 spelling accuracies, and the dry electrode-based system caused the least inconveniences. Therefore, building a reliable BCI is possible with all the evaluated systems, and it is on the user to decide which system meets the given requirements best. PMID:27746714

  14. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Helmus, Scott Collis

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  15. UWB micro-doppler radar for human gait analysis using joint range-time-frequency representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhou; Fathy, Aly E.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, standalone ultra wideband (UWB) micro-Doppler radar sensor that goes beyond simple range or micro-Doppler detection to combined range-time-Doppler frequency analysis. Moreover, it can monitor more than one human object in both line-of-sight (LOS) and through wall scenarios, thus have full human objects tracking capabilities. The unique radar design is based on narrow pulse transceiver, high speed data acquisition module, and wideband antenna array. For advanced radar post-data processing, joint range-time-frequency representation has been performed. Characteristics of human walking activity have been analyzed using the radar sensor by precisely tracking the radar object and acquiring range-time-Doppler information simultaneously. The UWB micro-Doppler radar prototype is capable of detecting Doppler frequency range from -180 Hz to +180 Hz, which allows a maximum target velocity of 9 m/s. The developed radar sensor can also be extended for many other applications, such as respiration and heartbeat detection of trapped survivors under building debris.

  16. Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram

    2004-10-01

    Weather radar is an indispensable component for remote sensing of the atmosphere, and the data and products derived from weather radar are routinely used in climate and weather-related studies to examine trends, structure, and evolution. The need for weather remote sensing is driven by the necessity to understand and explain a specific atmospheric science phenomenon. The importance of remote sensing is especially evident in high-profile observational programs, such as the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar) network, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), and ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement). A suite of ground-based and airborne radar instruments is maintained and deployed for observing wind, clouds, and precipitation. Weather radar observation has become an integral component of weather forecasting and hydrology and climate studies. The inclusion of weather radar observations in numerical weather modeling has enhanced severe storm forecasting, aviation weather, hurricane intensity and movement, and the global water cycle.

  17. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  18. Block diagrams of the radar interface and control unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Interface and Control Unit is the heart of the radar module, which occupies one complex channel of the High-Speed Data Acquisition System of the Goldstone Solar System Radar. Block diagrams of the interface unit are presented as an aid to understanding its operation and interconnections to the rest of the radar module.

  19. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  20. Rapid and Robust Damage Detection using Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Owen, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Under ARIA (Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis) project at JPL and Caltech, we developed a prototype algorithm and data system to rapidly detect surface change caused by natural or man-made damage using a radar remote sensing technique of InSAR coherence. We tested the algorithm with a building demolition site in the City of Pasadena, California. The results show clear signal at the demolition site, with about 150% SNR improvement compared to conventional approach. Out of fourteen strongest detected signals, we confirmed that at least eleven of them were associated with real demolition and construction projects. We applied the algorithm to the February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand, which killed 185 people and caused financial damage of US $16-24 billion. We produced a damage proxy map (DPM) using radar data from ALOS satellite (Figure A), where red pixels identify regions where there may have been earthquake induced building damage, landslides, and liquefaction. The distribution of the red regions agrees well with the post-earthquake assessment performed on the ground by inspectors from the New Zealand government and summarized in their damage assessment zone map (Figure B). The DPM was derived from radar data acquired 3 days after the earthquake, whereas the ground truth zone map was first published 4 months after the earthquake. In addition to all-weather and day-and-night capability of radar, the sensitivity of radar signal to surface property change is high enough for reliable damage assessment. Current and future satellite and airborne missions should keep the expected composite data acquisition latency within a day. Rapidly produced accurate damage assessment maps will help saving people, assisting effective prioritization of rescue operations at early stage of response, and significantly improve timely situational awareness for emergency management and national / international assessment for response and recovery.

  1. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  2. Radar history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putley, Ernest

    2008-07-01

    The invention of radar, as mentioned in Chris Lavers' article on warship stealth technology (March pp21-25), continues to be a subject of discussion. Here in Malvern we have just unveiled a blue plaque to commemorate the physicist Albert Percival Rowe, who arrived in 1942 as the head of the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE), which was the Air Ministry research facility responsible for the first British radar systems.

  3. Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Shively, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture…

  4. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  5. Differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry for landslide monitoring: a priori GIS based assessment of feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, S.; Singer, J.; Minet, Ch.; Thuro, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades differential radar interferometry (D-InSAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing technique for detection and deformation monitoring of landslides with an accuracy of a few millimeters. However, due to the inclined imaging geometry, areas with a topographic relief (where landslides usually occur) appear heavily distorted in the radar image. Thereby slopes inclined towards the radar sensor appear shortened (foreshortening) and in extreme even can cause an overlapping of different radar signals (layover effect); slopes oriented away from the radar seem stretched (elongation) or even can be shadowed by a steep mountain (shadowing). These effects limit or even prohibit the use of a radar image for interferometric applications. Besides these geometric distortions, the land cover has great influence on the applicability of differential radar interferometry. For example vegetation-free areas such as buildings and rocks show high coherence values over a long time period (high stability of their backscattering properties), whereas areas covered by vegetation, especially forests, have varying backscattering properties at different times (e.g. due to wind; temporal decorrelation). Areas with high coherence values in the radar interferogram are better suited for D-InSAR applications. To date prior to an investigation using D-InSAR these limiting effects usually are only roughly estimated, sometimes leading to disappointing results when the actual radar images are analyzed. Therefore we present a GIS routine, which based on freely available digital elevation model (DEM) data (SRTM) not only accurately predicts the areas in which layover and shadowing will occur, but also determines the percentage of measurability of the movement of a landslide (portion oriented in radar line of sight) for a given radar acquisition geometry. Additionally land cover classification data (e.g. CORINE) is used to evaluate the influence of the landslide's land cover on D

  6. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  7. Robust Sparse Sensing Using Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. V.; Kruger, A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Xu, W.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of a weather radar to detect weak echoes is limited by the presence of noise or unwanted echoes. Some of these unwanted signals originate externally to the radar system, such as cosmic noise, radome reflections, interference from co-located radars, and power transmission lines. The internal source of noise in microwave radar receiver is mainly thermal. The thermal noise from various microwave devices in the radar receiver tends to lower the signal-to-noise ratio, thereby masking the weaker signals. Recently, the compressed sensing (CS) technique has emerged as a novel signal sampling paradigm that allows perfect reconstruction of signals sampled at frequencies lower than the Nyquist rate. Many radar and remote sensing applications require efficient and rapid data acquisition. The application of CS to weather radars may allow for faster target update rates without compromising the accuracy of target information. In our previous work, we demonstrated recovery of an entire precipitation scene from its compressed-sensed version by using the matrix completion approach. In this study, we characterize the performance of such a CS-based weather radar in the presence of additive noise. We use a signal model where the precipitation signals form a low-rank matrix that is corrupted with (bounded) noise. Using recent advances in algorithms for matrix completion from few noisy observations, we reconstruct the precipitation scene with reasonable accuracy. We test and demonstrate our approach using the data collected by Iowa X-band Polarimetric (XPOL) weather radars.

  8. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  9. Recent progress in the Urbana MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Urbana radar, which operates at 40.92 MHz with a peak power of about 1.2 MW into a 100 x 120 m phased array antenna was improved. An accelerated data-acquisition system, a beam-steering system, and a transmit/receive switch were installed. With these changes, the radar is in regular operations for two hours every day around local noon gathering stratospheric and mesospheric data. Special campaigns are mounted in addition under severe weather conditions.

  10. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle. [(pulse radar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are discussed of a study to define a radar and antenna system which best suits the space shuttle rendezvous requirements. Topics considered include antenna characteristics and antenna size tradeoffs, fundamental sources of measurement errors inherent in the target itself, backscattering crosssection models of the target and three basic candidate radar types. Antennas up to 1.5 meters in diameter are within specified installation constraints, however, a 1 meter diameter paraboloid and a folding, four slot backfeed on a two gimbal mount implemented for a spiral acquisition scan is recommended. The candidate radar types discussed are: (1) noncoherent pulse radar (2) coherent pulse radar and (3) pulse Doppler radar with linear FM ranging. The radar type recommended is a pulse Doppler with linear FM ranging. Block diagrams of each radar system are shown.

  11. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  12. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-12-11

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology.

  13. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology. PMID:26690444

  14. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel †

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology. PMID:26690444

  15. Soil-penetrating synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Boverie, B.; Brock, B.C.; Doerry, A.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the results for the first year of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort. This effort included a system study, preliminary data acquisition, and preliminary algorithm development. The system study determined the optimum frequency and bandwidth, surveyed soil parameters and targets, and defined radar cross section in lossy media. The data acquisition imaged buried objects with a rail-SAR. Algorithm development included a radar echo model, three-dimensional processing, sidelobe optimization, phase history data interpolation, and clutter estimation/cancellation.

  16. Detail view of southeast corner of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of southeast corner of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation, showing Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Tower concrete pier in background, camera facing north - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  17. Oblique view to the south of the Transmitter Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the south of the Transmitter Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Five Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  18. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  19. Comet radar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    will enjoy significant simplifying benefits compared to using the same instrument for Mars or lunar radar science: (1) The proximity of operations leads to a much higher signal to noise, as much as +30 dB. (2) The lack of an ionosphere simplifies data modeling and analysis. (3) The body is globally illuminated during every data acquisition, minimizing ambiguity or 'clutter' and allowing for tomographic reconstruction. What is novel is the data processing, where instead of a planar radargram approach we coherently process the data into an image of the deep interior. CORE thus uses a MARSIS-SHARAD heritage radar to make coherent reflection sounding measurements, a 'CAT SCAN' of a comet nucleus. What is unique about this mission compared to the Mars radars mentioned above, is that the target is a finite mass of dirty ice in free space, rather than a sheet of dirty ice draped on a planet surface. The depth of penetration (kilometers), attainable resolution (decameters), and the target materials, are more or less the same. This means that the science story is robust, and the radar implementation is robust. The target is comet 10P/Tempel 2, discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1873 and observed on most apparitions since. It has been extensively studied, in part because of interest as a CRAF target in the mid-1980s, and much is known about it. Tempel 2 is one of the largest known comet nuclei, 16×8×8 km (about the same size as Halley) [1] and has rotation period 8.9 hours [3,5,6,7,9]. The spin state is evolving with time, spinning up by ˜10 sec per perihelion pass [5,7]. The comet is active, but not exceedingly so, especially given its size. The water production is measured at ˜ 4 × 1028 mol/sec at its peak [2], a factor of 25 lower than comet Halley, and it is active over only ˜2% of its surface. The dust environment is well known, producing a factor of ˜100 less dust than Halley. Comet References: [1] A'Hearn et al., ApJ 347, 1155, 1989 [2] Feldman and Festou, ACM 1991, p

  20. Exterior view, looking southeast OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view, looking southeast - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Receiver Building, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  1. Exterior view, looking west OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view, looking west - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Receiver Building, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  2. Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, October 8, 1943 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  3. Analysis of Debris Flow Disaster due to Heavy Rain by X-Band MP Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

    2016-06-01

    On August 20 of 2014, Hiroshima City (Japan) was struck by local heavy rain from an autumnal rain front. The resultant debris flow disaster claimed 75 victims and destroyed many buildings. From 1:30 am to 4:30 am on August 20, the accumulated rainfall in Hiroshima City exceeded 200 mm. Serious damage occurred in the Asakita and Asaminami wards of Hiroshima City. As a disaster prevention measure, local heavy rain (localized torrential rains) is usually observed by the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and by the C-band radar operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan, with spatial resolutions of 2.5 km and 1 km, respectively. The new X-band MP radar system enables more detailed rainfall observations than the C-band radar. In fact, this radar can observe local rainfall throughout Japan in near-real time over a minimum mesh size of 250 m. A fine-scale accumulated rainfall monitoring system is crucial for disaster prevention, and potential disasters can be alerted by the hazard levels of the accumulated rainfall.

  4. Numerical simulation of imaging laser radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shaokun; Lu, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang

    2008-03-01

    Rational and effective design of imaging laser radar systems is the key of imaging laser radar system research. Design must fully consider the interrelationship between various parameters. According to the parameters, choose suitable laser, detector and other components. To use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation is an effective imaging laser radar system design methods. This paper based on the distance equation, using the detection statistical methods, from the laser radar range coverage, detection probability, false-alarm rate, SNR to build the laser radar system mathematical models. In the process of setting up the mathematical models to fully consider the laser, atmosphere, detector and other factors on the performance that is to make the models be able to respond accurately the real situation. Based on this using C# and Matlab designed a simulation software.

  5. Air-to-air radar flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Randall E.

    1988-06-01

    This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series describes flight test techniques, flight test instrumentation, ground simulation, data reduction and analysis methods used to determine the performance characteristics of a modern air-to-air (a/a) radar system. Following a general coverage of specification requirements, test plans, support requirements, development and operational testing, and management information systems, the report goes into more detailed flight test techniques covering a/a radar capabilities of: detection, manual acquisition, automatic acquisition, tracking a single target, and detection and tracking of multiple targets. There follows a section on additional flight test considerations such as electromagnetic compatibility, electronic countermeasures, displays and controls, degraded and backup modes, radome effects, environmental considerations, and use of testbeds. Other sections cover ground simulation, flight test instrumentation, and data reduction and analysis. The final sections deal with reporting and a discussion of considerations for the future and how they may affect radar flight testing.

  6. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  7. The design and evaluation of a 5.8 ghz laptop-based radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Kevin Chi-Ming

    This project involves design and analysis of a 5.8 GHz laptop-based radar system. The radar system measures Doppler, ranging and forming Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images utilizing Matlab software provided from MIT Open Courseware and performs data acquisition and signal processing. The main purpose of this work is to bring new perspective to the existing radar project by increasing the ISM band frequency from 2.4 GHz to 5.8 GHz and to carry out a series of experiments on the implementation of the radar kit. Demonstrating the radar at higher operating frequency is capable of providing accurate data results in Doppler, ranging and SAR images.

  8. Multiband radar for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahim, Raghbir S.; Foshee, James; Chang, Kai

    2004-09-01

    Radar systems, which can operate in a variety of frequency bands, could provide significant flexibility in the operation of future Battle-space Management and Air Defense Systems (BMADS). Phased array antennas, which support high pulse rates and power, are well suited for surveillance, tracking and identifying the targets. These phased array antennas with the multiplicity of elements in phased array could provide accurate beam pointing, very rapid changes in beam location, and multiple beams, including algorithms for null steering for unwanted signals. No single radar band possesses characteristics that provide optimum performance. For example, L and S-bands are typically considered the best frequency ranges for acquisition and X-band is best for tracking. For many of the current phased array antennas the circuit components are narrow-band and therefore are not suitable for multi-band radar design. In addition, the cost, size, power dissipation, the weight, and, in general, the complexity has limited the development of multi-band phased array antenna systems. The system bandwidth of antenna array employing high loss phase shifters for beam steering also becomes limited due to the dispersion loss from the beam steering. As a result phased array radar design can result in a very large, complex, expensive, narrow band and less efficient system. This paper describes an alternative design approach in the design of wide-band phased array radar system based on multi-octave band antenna elements; and wide-band low loss phase shifters, switching circuits and T/R modules.

  9. Airborne laser scan data: a valuable tool with which to infer weather radar partial beam blockage in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2016-10-01

    High-spatial-resolution weather radar observations are of primary relevance for hydrological applications in urban areas. However, when weather radars are located within metropolitan areas, partial beam blockages and clutter by buildings can seriously affect the observations. Standard simulations with simple beam propagation models and digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually not able to evaluate buildings' contribution to partial beam blockages. In recent years airborne laser scanners (ALSs) have evolved to the state-of-the-art technique for topographic data acquisition. Providing small footprint diameters (10-30 cm), ALS data allow accurate reconstruction of buildings and forest canopy heights. Analyzing the three weather C-band radars located in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland, the present study investigates the benefits of using ALS data for quantitative estimations of partial beam blockages. The results obtained applying beam standard propagation models are compared with stratiform 24 h rainfall accumulation to evaluate the effects of partial beam blockages due to constructions and trees. To provide a physical interpretation of the results, the detailed analysis of beam occultations is achieved by open spatial data sets and open-source geographic information systems.

  10. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  11. View of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation, showing Fire Control Stations (Buildings 621 and 622) and concrete stairway (top left) camera facing southwest - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  12. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  13. Building detection in SAR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, Ryan Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Current techniques for building detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery can be computationally expensive and/or enforce stringent requirements for data acquisition. I present two techniques that are effective and efficient at determining an approximate building location. This approximate location can be used to extract a portion of the SAR image to then perform a more robust detection. The proposed techniques assume that for the desired image, bright lines and shadows, SAR artifact effects, are approximately labeled. These labels are enhanced and utilized to locate buildings, only if the related bright lines and shadows can be grouped. In order to find which of the bright lines and shadows are related, all of the bright lines are connected to all of the shadows. This allows the problem to be solved from a connected graph viewpoint, where the nodes are the bright lines and shadows and the arcs are the connections between bright lines and shadows. For the first technique, constraints based on angle of depression and the relationship between connected bright lines and shadows are applied to remove unrelated arcs. The second technique calculates weights for the connections and then performs a series of increasingly relaxed hard and soft thresholds. This results in groups of various levels on their validity. Once the related bright lines and shadows are grouped, their locations are combined to provide an approximate building location. Experimental results demonstrate the outcome of the two techniques. The two techniques are compared and discussed.

  14. 50. View of waveguides beginning to move toward two radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. View of waveguides beginning to move toward two radar scanner switches (two per radar scanner building) by vertical bends; also tuning devices are located here. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  15. X-Band Radar for Studies of Tropical Storms from High Altitude UAV Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Shannon; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Bradley, Damon

    2007-01-01

    modified from a marine radar transceiver. It is capable of measuring vertical reflectivity and velocity profile while being a lower-cost, smaller size, and lighter weight version of the NASA ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), which has flown during many NASA field campaigns and has provided valuable scientific information on hurricanes and weather phenomena. Unfortunately, EDOP is too large and heavy for most UAV platforms, but the experience gained with this instrument provided us with the heritage to build a new low-cost, light-weight, smaller system that will be capable of flying on UAVs. The scanning subsystem uses a TWT transmitter and provides measurements of 3D reflectivity/wind fields in-clouds. Conical scanning of the radar beam at a 35 deg. incidence angle will also provide information of surface wind speed and direction derived from the surface return over a single 360 deg. sweep. URAD data system will be Linux based with the capability of autonomous operation. It will utilize cutting edge digital receiver and FPGA technologies to carry out the data acquisition and processing tasks. High speed navigation data from the aircraft will also be captured and saved along with radar data for 3D measurement field reconstruction and aircraft motion correction. There is a tremendous potential for UAVs to carry down-looking weather radars for measurements of reflectivity, horizontal and vertical winds from tropical storms. With operation from HUAV platforms, the dual beam X-band radar under development promises to provide greatly needed information for tropical storm research.

  16. Investigating nearby exoplanets via interstellar radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Louis K.

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar radar is a potential intermediate step between passive observation of exoplanets and interstellar exploratory missions. Compared with passive observation, it has the traditional advantages of radar astronomy. It can measure surface characteristics, determine spin rates and axes, provide extremely accurate ranges, construct maps of planets, distinguish liquid from solid surfaces, find rings and moons, and penetrate clouds. It can do this even for planets close to the parent star. Compared with interstellar travel or probes, it also offers significant advantages. The technology required to build such a radar already exists, radar can return results within a human lifetime, and a single facility can investigate thousands of planetary systems. The cost, although too high for current implementation, is within the reach of Earth's economy.

  17. Doppler radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) a summary of radar flight data collected; (2) a video of combined aft cockpit, nose camera, and radar hazard displays; (3) a comparison of airborne radar F-factor measurements with in situ and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) F-factors for some sample events; and (4) a summary of wind shear detection performance.

  18. Radar measurement instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, P.

    1983-02-01

    The radar techniques used for Earth observation are reviewed. Range, direction and speed measuring techniques, and the principles of scatterometers, side-looking radar, altimeters and SAR are discussed. The ERS-1 radar package including the active microwave instrumentation and the radar altimeter are described. The analysis of the calibration problems leads to the conclusion that only the test of the system loop as a whole, besides the individual part tests, can provide a calibration in the absolute sense.

  19. Rain-Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, K. E.; Li, F. K.; Wilson, W. J.; Rosing, D.

    1988-01-01

    Orbiting radar system measures rates of rainfall from 0.5 to 60 mm/h. Radar waves scattered and absorbed by rainfall to extents depending on wavelength, polarization, rate of rainfall, and distribution of sizes and shapes of raindrops. Backscattered radar signal as function of length of path through rain used to infer detailed information about rain. Accumulated radar return signals processed into global maps of monthly average rainfall for use in climatological studies.

  20. The Provence ST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crochet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Since the Alpex Campaign, when 3 Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar operated in Camarque as a cooperative effort of the Aeronomy Laboratory of NOAA, CO, and LSEET from Toulon, a 50 MHz Very High Frequency (VHF) ST radar was developed, improved, and tested. The operating characteristics, main objectives, preliminary results, and future experiment costs of the VHF ST radar are discussed.

  1. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  2. Controlling radar signature

    SciTech Connect

    Foulke, K.W. )

    1992-08-01

    Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

  3. 48 CFR 907.105 - Contents of written acquisition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition plans. (b)(16) Environmental and energy conservation objectives. Incorporate sustainable building considerations including building location and regional planning considerations into planning for new...

  4. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

    1985-06-01

    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Cloud and Precipitation Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

    Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

  6. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  7. Multidimensional radar picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waz, Mariusz

    2010-05-01

    In marine navigation systems, the three-dimensional (3D) visualization is often and often used. Echosonders and sonars working in hydroacustic systems can present pictures in three dimensions. Currently, vector maps also offer 3D presentation. This presentation is used in aviation and underwater navigation. In the nearest future three-dimensional presentation may be obligatory presentation in displays of navigation systems. A part of these systems work with radar and communicates with it transmitting data in a digital form. 3D presentation of radar picture require a new technology to develop. In the first step it is necessary to compile digital form of radar signal. The modern navigation radar do not present data in three-dimensional form. Progress in technology of digital signal processing make it possible to create multidimensional radar pictures. For instance, the RSC (Radar Scan Converter) - digital radar picture recording and transforming tool can be used to create new picture online. Using RSC and techniques of modern computer graphics multidimensional radar pictures can be generated. The radar pictures mentioned should be readable for ECDIS. The paper presents a method for generating multidimensional radar picture from original signal coming from radar receiver.

  8. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific aims, theoretical principles, techniques and instrumentation, and future potential of radar observations of solar-system objects are discussed in a general overview. Topics examined include the history of radar technology, echo detectability, the Arecibo and Goldstone radar observatories, echo time delay and Doppler shift, radar waveforms, albedo and polarization ratio, measurement of dynamical properties, and the dispersion of echo power. Consideration is given to angular scattering laws; the radar signatures of the moon and inner planets, Mars, and asteroids; topographic relief; delay-Doppler radar maps and their physical interpretation; and radar observations of the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter, comets, and the rings of Saturn. Diagrams, drawings, photographs, and sample maps and images are provided.

  9. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  10. Covert situational awareness with handheld ultrawideband short-pulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mark A.; Nag, Soumya; Payment, Tim

    2001-08-01

    Law enforcement and emergency services all face the difficult task of determining the locations of people within a building. A handheld radar able to detect motion through walls and other obstructions has been developed to fill this need. This paper describes the attributes and difficulties of the radar design and includes test results of the radar's performance. This discussion begins by summarizing key user requirements and the electromagnetic losses of typical building materials. Ultra-wideband (UWB) short pulse radars are well suited for a handheld sensor primarily because of their inherit time isolation in high clutter environments and their capability to achieve high resolution at low spectral center frequencies. There are also constraints that complicate the system design. Using a technique referred to as time-modulation allows the radars to reject range ambiguities and enhances electromagnetic compatibility with similar radars and ambient systems. An outline of the specifications of the radar developed and a process diagram on how it generates a motion map showing range and direction of the people moving within structures is included. Images are then presented to illustrate its performance. The images include adults, child, and a dog. The test results also include data showing the radar's performance through a variety of building materials.

  11. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  12. Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C. (Editor); Cimino, J. B. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The SIR-A experiment was conducted in order to acquire radar data over a variety of regions to further understanding of the radar signatures of various geologic features. The capability of the Shuttle as a scientific platform for observation of the Earth's resources was assessed. The SIR-A sensor operated nominally and the full data acquisition capacity of the optical recorder was used.

  13. Acoustic micro-Doppler radar for human gait imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaonian; Pouliquen, Philippe O; Waxman, Allen; Andreou, Andreas G

    2007-03-01

    A portable acoustic micro-Doppler radar system for the acquisition of human gait signatures in indoor and outdoor environments is reported. Signals from an accelerometer attached to the leg support the identification of the components in the measured micro-Doppler signature. The acoustic micro-Doppler system described in this paper is simpler and offers advantages over the widely used electromagnetic wave micro-Doppler radars.

  14. General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking northeast - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  15. General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking southwest - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. KU-Band rendezvous radar performance computer simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The preparation of a real time computer simulation model of the KU band rendezvous radar to be integrated into the shuttle mission simulator (SMS), the shuttle engineering simulator (SES), and the shuttle avionics integration laboratory (SAIL) simulator is described. To meet crew training requirements a radar tracking performance model, and a target modeling method were developed. The parent simulation/radar simulation interface requirements, and the method selected to model target scattering properties, including an application of this method to the SPAS spacecraft are described. The radar search and acquisition mode performance model and the radar track mode signal processor model are examined and analyzed. The angle, angle rate, range, and range rate tracking loops are also discussed.

  17. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  18. Ku-Band rendezvous radar performance computer simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnusson, H. G.; Goff, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    All work performed on the Ku-band rendezvous radar performance computer simulation model program since the release of the preliminary final report is summarized. Developments on the program fall into three distinct categories: (1) modifications to the existing Ku-band radar tracking performance computer model; (2) the addition of a highly accurate, nonrealtime search and acquisition performance computer model to the total software package developed on this program; and (3) development of radar cross section (RCS) computation models for three additional satellites. All changes in the tracking model involved improvements in the automatic gain control (AGC) and the radar signal strength (RSS) computer models. Although the search and acquisition computer models were developed under the auspices of the Hughes Aircraft Company Ku-Band Integrated Radar and Communications Subsystem program office, they have been supplied to NASA as part of the Ku-band radar performance comuter model package. Their purpose is to predict Ku-band acquisition performance for specific satellite targets on specific missions. The RCS models were developed for three satellites: the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft, the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft, and the Space Telescopes.

  19. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioğlu, S.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Akyol, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  20. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  1. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  2. Detail view of northwest side of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of northwest side of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation, showing portion of concrete gutter drainage system and asphalt floor tiles, camera facing north - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  3. View looking down on Signcal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking down on Signcal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation from ridge, camera facing south - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  4. 25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. Activities of the Deep Space Network and its associated Ground Communications Facility in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations are reported in space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy.

  8. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by the JPL Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. Topics covered include: DSN advanced systems (tracking and ground-based navigation; communications, spacecraft-ground; and station control and system technology) and DSN systems implementation (capabilities for existing projects; capabilities for new projects; TDA program management and analysis; and Goldstone solar system radar).

  9. Radar cross calibration investigation TAMU radar polarimeter calibration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, A. J.; Newton, R. W.; Bong, S.; Kronke, C.; Warren, G. L.; Carey, D.

    1982-01-01

    A short pulse, 20 MHz bandwidth, three frequency radar polarimeter system (RPS) operates at center frequencies of 10.003 GHz, 4.75 GHz, and 1.6 GHz and utilizes dual polarized transmit and receive antennas for each frequency. The basic lay-out of the RPS is different from other truck mounted systems in that it uses a pulse compression IF section common to all three RF heads. Separate transmit and receive antennas are used to improve the cross-polarization isolation at each particular frequency. The receive is a digitally controlled gain modulated subsystem and is interfaced directly with a microprocesser computer for control and data manipulation. Antenna focusing distance, focusing each antenna pair, rf head stability, and polarization characteristics of RPS antennas are discussed. Platform and data acquisition procedures are described.

  10. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  11. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  12. Decoders for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Decoding techniques and equipment used by MST radars are described and some recommendations for new systems are presented. Decoding can be done either by software in special-purpose (array processors, etc.) or general-purpose computers or in specially designed digital decoders. Both software and hardware decoders are discussed and the special case of decoding for bistatic radars is examined.

  13. Determination of radar MTF

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  14. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  15. 30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  17. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  18. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from approach along Spencer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from approach along Spencer Paul Road, looking northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  19. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking east - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  20. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  1. Modeling synthetic radar image from a digital terrain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Philippe; Jaupi, Luan; Ghorbanzadeh, Dariush; Rudant, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose to simulate SAR radar images that can be acquired by aircraft or satellite. This corresponds to a real problematic, in fact, an airborne radar data acquisition campaign, was conducted in the south east of France. We want to estimate the geometric deformations that a digital terrain model can be subjected. By extrapolation, this construction should also allow to understand the image distortion if a plane is replaced by a satellite. This manipulation allow to judge the relevance of a space mission to quantify geological and geomorphological data. The radar wave is an electromagnetic wave, they have the advantage of overcoming atmospheric conditions since more wavelength is large is better crossing the cloud layer. Therefore imaging radar provides continuous monitoring.

  2. Radar tower frequency control and earthquake response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zeyu; Li, Yuhe; Wang, Fuming; Wang, Dongwei

    2010-04-01

    For the sake of avoiding the impact of surrounding buildings on the radar, radar tower is usually high, generally up to 100 meters. As the radar performance reasons, the required fundamental frequency of radar tower should not be less than 1Hz. For such a tall building, how to control the frequency of radar tower is an issue worth studying. Through a lot of calculations and analyses, paper reaches a number of laws to increase frequency: 1) Lowering center of gravity of the structure; 2) Setting leaning bracing; 3) Raising the thickness or number of shear walls. In the above structural frequencies adjustment methods, setting leaning bracing and reducing the top mass of the structure are the most obvious effects of all. At the same time, paper also discusses on the seismic response of radar tower. Analyses used for earthquake are response spectrum method, time history analysis method and random vibration analysis. Three methods of calculation results show: radar tower performance meets China's seismic code to regulate specifications of the story drift limits.

  3. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  5. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the spiral scan was performed for antenna sizes ranging from 20 inches to 36 inches in diameter and for search angles characteristic of both the radar and the communication acquisition modes. The power budgets for passive target radar detection were calculated for antenna diameters ranging from 20 to 36 inches. Dwell times commensurate with spiral scan were used for these budget calculations. The signal design for the candidate pulse Doppler system is summarized. Ground return analysis carried out for the passive target radar mode is examined, and the details are presented. A concluding description of the proposed candidate radar/communication system configuration is given.

  6. Three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and systems for near-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Jones, A. Mark; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2016-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed three-dimensional holographic (synthetic aperture) radar imaging techniques and systems for a wide variety of near-field applications. These applications include radar crosssection (RCS) imaging, personnel screening, standoff concealed weapon detection, concealed threat detection, throughbarrier imaging, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Sequentially-switched linear arrays are used for many of these systems to enable high-speed data acquisition and 3-D imaging. In this paper, the techniques and systems will be described along with imaging results that demonstrate the utility of near-field 3-D radar imaging for these compelling applications.

  7. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  8. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  9. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    PubMed

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate.

  10. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    PubMed

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate. PMID:27578058

  11. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 6. Building an intelligent assistant: The acquisition, integration, and maintenance of complex distributed tasks. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Lesser, V.R.; Croft, W.B.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge base maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge-based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is the development of intelligent interfaces to support cooperating users in their interactions with a computer.

  12. Radar Technology Development at NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar at JPL and worldwide is enjoying a period of unprecedented development. JPL's science-driven program focuses on exploiting commercially available components to build new technologies to meet NASA's science goals. Investments in onboard-processing, advanced digital systems, and efficient high-power devices, point to a new generation of high-performance scientific SAR systems in the US. Partnerships are a key strategy for US missions in the coming decade

  13. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Office. In the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), the TDA Progress Report reports on implementation and operations for searching the microwave spectrum. In solar system radar, it reports on the uses of the Goldstone Solar System Radar for scientific exploration of the planets, their rings and satellites, asteroids, and comets. In radio astronomy, the areas of support include spectroscopy, very long baseline interferometry, and astrometry. These three programs are performed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) with the Office of Space Operations for funding DSN operational support.

  14. Aircraft radar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, Helmut E.

    1987-04-01

    Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

  15. Laser Radar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Laser and radar instruments aboard NASA aircraft provide measurements of the snow and ice surface and down to the bedrock under the ice. Lasers, with a shorter wavelength, measure the surface eleva...

  16. Multispectral imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  17. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  18. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  19. Phased-array radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  20. Radar Detection of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, J.

    2003-04-01

    As primordial building material of complexes like our own solar system, dust is centrally important in the evolution of such planetary systems. Circumstellar dust can be sensed associated with Young Stellar Objects, IR excess stars and forms the ejecta of red giants, carbon-rich stars and supernovae. Interstellar dust can be cumulatively sensed over astronomically long sight-lines by the extinction, scattering and polarisation of starlight. The direct detection of interstellar dust (ISD) particles flowing into the solar system is important because such observations can directly probe the local cloud interstellar dust environment and can sense discrete stellar sources. The Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR) is a facility designed to measure the trajectories of dust impacting the Earth's atmosphere: the continuously operating radar is able to archive a large (˜ 10^6) data-base of dust trajectories and so is able to map the inflow directions of interstellar material into the solar system. Such Earth-based mapping of ISD dynamics complements the in-situ impact detections by space missions such as Ulysses and Stardust.

  1. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC).

  2. On wave radar measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

  3. Space Radar Image of Boston, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding Boston, Mass., shows how a spaceborne radar system distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. The bright white area at the right center of the image is downtown Boston. The wide river below and to the left of the city is the Charles River in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood. The dark green patch to the right of the Back Bay is Boston Common. A bridge across the north end of Back Bay connects the cities of Boston and Cambridge. The light green areas that dominate most of the image are the suburban communities surrounding Boston. The many ponds that dot the region appear as dark irregular spots. Many densely populated urban areas show up as red in the image due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. North is toward the upper left. The image was acquired on October 9, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This area is centered at 42.4 degrees north latitude, 71.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 37 km by 18 km (23 miles by 11 miles). Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a cooperative mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  4. Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, showing conditions before construction, May 28, 1943, this drawing shows the Bonita Ridge access road retaining wall and general conditions at Bonita Ridge before the construction of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  5. Intercontinental Bistatic Radar Test Observation of Asteroid 1998 WT24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righini, S.; Poppi, S.; Montebugnoli, S.; DiMartino, M.; Saba, L.; Delbo, M.; Ostro, S.; Monari, J.; Poloni, M.; Orlati, A.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first intercontinental planetary radar test performed in Italy observing the near Earth asteroid (NEA) 33342 (1998 WT24) in December 2001 by means of the bistatic configurations Goldstone (California, USA)-Medicina (Italy) and Evpatoria (Ukraine)-Medicina. The experiment goal was to characterize the system for realtime radar follow-up observations of NEAs and artificial orbiting debris, in the framework of a feasibility study which aims at using the Sardinia Radio Telescope, at present under construction, also as a planetary radar facility. We report the preliminary results of the radar observations carried out by the IRA-CNR (Instituto di Radioastronomia - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) and the OATo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino) groups, aimed at exploring the scientific potentials of a new space radar program, using the existing facilities in Italy. The planetary radar technique is uniquely capable of investigating geometry and surface properties of various solar system objects, demonstrating advantages over the optical methods in its high spatial resolution and ability to obtain three-dimensional images. A single radar detection allows to obtain extremely accurate orbital elements, improving the instantaneous positional uncertainties by orders of magnitude with respect to an optically determined orbit. Radar is a powerful means to spatially resolve NEAs by measuring the distribution of the echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) with extreme precision in each coordinate, as it provides detailed information about the target physical properties like size, shape, rotation, near-surface bulk density and roughness and internal density distribution. The Medicina 32m antenna had been successfully used for the first time as the receiving part of a bistatic configuration during a test experiment (September 2001) held to check the capabilities of the entire data acquisition system. This test was possible

  6. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  7. Effective GPR Data Acquisition and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    We have demonstrated that dense GPR data acquisition typically antenna step increment less than 1/10 wave length can provide clear 3-dimeantiona subsurface images, and we created 3DGPR images. Now we are interested in developing GPR survey methodologies which required less data acquisition time. In order to speed up the data acquisition, we are studying efficient antenna positioning for GPR survey and 3-D imaging algorithm. For example, we have developed a dual sensor "ALIS", which combines GPR with metal detector (Electromagnetic Induction sensor) for humanitarian demining, which acquires GPR data by hand scanning. ALIS is a pulse radar system, which has a frequency range 0.5-3GHz.The sensor position tracking system has accuracy about a few cm, and the data spacing is typically more than a few cm, but it can visualize the mines, which has a diameter about 8cm. 2 systems of ALIS have been deployed by Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) in mine fields in Cambodia since 2009 and have detected more than 80 buried land mines. We are now developing signal processing for an array type GPR "Yakumo". Yakumo is a SFCW radar system which is a multi-static radar, consisted of 8 transmitter antennas and 8 receiver antennas. We have demonstrated that the multi-static data acquisition is not only effective in data acquisition, but at the same time, it can increase the quality of GPR images. Archaeological survey by Yakumo in large areas, which are more than 100m by 100m have been conducted, for promoting recovery from Tsunami attacked East Japan in March 2011. With a conventional GPR system, we are developing an interpolation method of radar signals, and demonstrated that it can increase the quality of the radar images, without increasing the data acquisition points. When we acquire one dimensional GPR profile along a survey line, we can acquire relatively high density data sets. However, when we need to relocate the data sets along a "virtual" survey line, for example a

  8. The "Radar-Progress" active space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhinov, Vitaly; Mikhalev, Alexander; Potekhin, Alexander; Alsatkin, Sergey; Podlesnyi, Alexey; Beletsky, Alexandr; Klunko, Evgeny; Tverdokhlebova, Ekaterina; Timofeeva, Nataliya; Lebedev, Valentin; Kushnarev, Dmitrii; Kurshakov, Mikhail; Manzheley, Andrey

    Central Research Institute of Machine Building and Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences have carried out the "Radar-Progress" active space experiment since 2006. After main mission, some of the “Progress” cargo vehicles have been for the experiment. The “Progress” starts orbital maneuvering subsystem engines during the flyby over Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar at 340 - 410 km altitude. Engines operate for 5 - 11 s. Engines exhaust products are a source of ionosphere disturbances. The flow directions and amount of injected exhaust products varied from flight to flight. The flows directed to Irkutsk Radar are almost parallel to the geomagnetic field lines. The following measurements have been performed: - radar characteristics; - height profiles of electron density; - spatial-temporal structure of ionosphere disturbances; - intensity of nightglow emissions in several spectral lines; - onboard VHF transmitter signal parameters; - brightness of the “Progress” in optical ranges; - geomagnetic field variations. These results were obtained with unique research facilities of Center for collective using "Angara". The study has been supported by the grant 13-05-00456-a and 13-02-00957-a of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  9. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes

  10. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN). Also included is standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), 'The TDA Progress Report' reports on implementation and operations for searching the microwave spectrum. In solar system radar, it reports on the uses of the Goldstone Solar System Radar for scientific exploration of the planets, their rings and satellites, asteroids, and comets. In radio astronomy, the areas of support include spectroscopy, very long baseline interferometry, and astrometry.

  11. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This quarterly publiction provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL Telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD), which now includes the former communications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Office. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The Orbital Debris Radar Program, funded by the Office of Space Systems Development, makes use of the planetary radar capability when the antennas are configured at science instruments making direct observations of planets, their satellites, and asteroids of our solar system.

  12. Digital Elevation Models of Greenland based on combined radar and laser altimetry as well as high-resolution stereoscopic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Smith, B. E.; Sandberg Sorensen, L.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Simonsen, S. B.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    A number of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of Greenland exist, each of which are applicable for different purposes. This study presents two such DEMs: One developed by merging contemporary radar and laser altimeter data, and one derived from high-resolution stereoscopic imagery. All products are made freely available. The former DEM covers the entire Greenland. It is specific to the year 2010, providing it with an advantage over previous models suffering from either a reduced spatial/ temporal data coverage or errors from surface elevation changes (SEC) occurring during data acquisition. Radar data are acquired with Envisat and CryoSat-2, and laser data with the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite, the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor, and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Correcting radar data for errors from slope effects and surface penetration of the echoes, and merging these with laser data, yields a DEM capable of resolving both surface depressions as well as topographic features at higher altitudes. The spatial resolution is 2 x 2 km, making the DEM ideal for application in surface mass balance studies, SEC detection from radar altimetry, or for correcting such data for slope-induced errors. The other DEM is developed in a pilot study building the expertise to map all ice-free parts of Greenland. The work combines WorldView-2 and -3 as well as GeoEye1 imagery from 2014 and 2015 over the Disko, Narsaq, Tassilaq, and Zackenberg regions. The novelty of the work is the determination of the product specifications after elaborate discussions with interested parties from government institutions, the tourist industry, etc. Thus, a 10 m DEM, 1.5 m orthophotos, and vector maps are produced. This opens to the possibility of using orthophotos with up-to-date contour lines or for deriving updated coastlines to aid, e.g., emergency management. This allows for a product development directly in line with the needs of parties with specific interests in Greenland.

  13. User guide to the Magellan synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.; Mcconnell, Shannon L.; Leff, Craig E.; Austin, Richard S.; Beratan, Kathi K.; Rokey, Mark J.

    1995-01-01

    The Magellan radar-mapping mission collected a large amount of science and engineering data. Now available to the general scientific community, this data set can be overwhelming to someone who is unfamiliar with the mission. This user guide outlines the mission operations and data set so that someone working with the data can understand the mapping and data-processing techniques used in the mission. Radar-mapping parameters as well as data acquisition issues are discussed. In addition, this user guide provides information on how the data set is organized and where specific elements of the set can be located.

  14. Fiber optics and opto-electronics for radar and electronic warfare applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J. J.

    1987-02-01

    Fiber optics and integrated optic circuits have various applications for radar and electronic warfare systems. Examples such as phased array, radar netting, deceptive jammer, and maximum entropy adaptive filter are presented in this paper. Some of the fiber optic and opto-electronic functional devices and building blocks for signal/data processing are also described.

  15. Informational Analysis for Compressive Sampling in Radar Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxiong; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS) works on the assumption of the sparsity or compressibility of the underlying signal, relies on the trans-informational capability of the measurement matrix employed and the resultant measurements, operates with optimization-based algorithms for signal reconstruction and is thus able to complete data compression, while acquiring data, leading to sub-Nyquist sampling strategies that promote efficiency in data acquisition, while ensuring certain accuracy criteria. Information theory provides a framework complementary to classic CS theory for analyzing information mechanisms and for determining the necessary number of measurements in a CS environment, such as CS-radar, a radar sensor conceptualized or designed with CS principles and techniques. Despite increasing awareness of information-theoretic perspectives on CS-radar, reported research has been rare. This paper seeks to bridge the gap in the interdisciplinary area of CS, radar and information theory by analyzing information flows in CS-radar from sparse scenes to measurements and determining sub-Nyquist sampling rates necessary for scene reconstruction within certain distortion thresholds, given differing scene sparsity and average per-sample signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Simulated studies were performed to complement and validate the information-theoretic analysis. The combined strategy proposed in this paper is valuable for information-theoretic orientated CS-radar system analysis and performance evaluation. PMID:25811226

  16. Informational analysis for compressive sampling in radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxiong; Yang, Ke

    2015-03-24

    Compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS) works on the assumption of the sparsity or compressibility of the underlying signal, relies on the trans-informational capability of the measurement matrix employed and the resultant measurements, operates with optimization-based algorithms for signal reconstruction and is thus able to complete data compression, while acquiring data, leading to sub-Nyquist sampling strategies that promote efficiency in data acquisition, while ensuring certain accuracy criteria. Information theory provides a framework complementary to classic CS theory for analyzing information mechanisms and for determining the necessary number of measurements in a CS environment, such as CS-radar, a radar sensor conceptualized or designed with CS principles and techniques. Despite increasing awareness of information-theoretic perspectives on CS-radar, reported research has been rare. This paper seeks to bridge the gap in the interdisciplinary area of CS, radar and information theory by analyzing information flows in CS-radar from sparse scenes to measurements and determining sub-Nyquist sampling rates necessary for scene reconstruction within certain distortion thresholds, given differing scene sparsity and average per-sample signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Simulated studies were performed to complement and validate the information-theoretic analysis. The combined strategy proposed in this paper is valuable for information-theoretic orientated CS-radar system analysis and performance evaluation.

  17. HYPERCP data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Luebke, W.R.; Chakravorty, A.

    1997-12-31

    For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data axe acquired from the front-end digitization systems at {approx} 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of {approx} 1 {mu}s per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with {approx_lt}30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates.

  18. Phase modulating the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

  19. Characteristics of Sunset radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Located in a narrow canyon 15 km west of Boulder, Colorado, the Sunset pulsed Doppler radar was the first radar designed and constructed specifically as a VHF ST radar. The antenna system is a phased array of coaxial-colinear dopoles with computer-controlled phase shifters for each line of dipoles. It operates at a frequency of 40.475 MHz and a wavelength of 7.41M. Peak transmitter power is 100 kW. Aperture efficiency is 0.58 and resistive loss is 0.30 for its 3600 sq m area. The practical steering rate is 1 record/minute/position to any arbitrary antenna beam position. The first clear-air turbulence echoes and wind velocity measurements were obtained in 1974. Significant accomplishments are listed.

  20. Mercury radar speckle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holin, Igor V.

    2010-06-01

    Current data reveal that Mercury is a dynamic system with a core which has not yet solidified completely and is at least partially decoupled from the mantle. Radar speckle displacement experiments have demonstrated that the accuracy in spin-dynamics determination for Earth-like planets can approach 10 -5. The extended analysis of space-time correlation properties of radar echoes shows that the behavior of speckles does not prevent estimation of Mercury's instantaneous spin-vector components to accuracy of a few parts in 10 7. This limit can be reached with more powerful radar facilities and leads to constraining the interior in more detail from effects of spin dynamics, e.g., from observation of the core-mantle interplay through high precision monitoring of the 88-day spin-variation of Mercury's crust.

  1. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  2. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  3. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other agencies through NASA.

  4. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA.

  5. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other agencies through NASA.

  6. Imaging Radar Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Held, Daniel N.; Brown, Walter E.

    1987-01-01

    Radar measures full polarization tensor of each element in scene in one sweep. New system comprises dual-polarized antenna, single transmitter, and four-channel receiver and digital recorder installed in aircraft, plus digital processor on ground. Produces radar-backscatter images corresponding to 10- by 10-km regions on ground. Signals recorded from orthogonal linearly polarized antennas combined in computer after flight to synthesize any desired combination of transmitted and received polarizations. Data recorded on single flight processed to provide multiple images.

  7. Microwave radar oceanographic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) technique was developed and demonstrated for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from air and space platforms. The measurement technique was well demonstrated with data collected in a number of flight experiments involving wave spectral comparisons with wave buoys and the Surface Contour Radar (SCR). Recent missions include the SIR-B underflight experiment (1984), FASINEX (1986), and LEWEX (1987). ROWS related activity is presently concentrating on using the aircraft instrument for wave-processes investigations and obtaining the necessary support (consensus) for a satellite instrument development program. Prospective platforms include EOS and the Canadian RADARSAT.

  8. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  9. Survey of radar ADT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunk, G. V.

    1983-07-01

    The most recent advances in automatic detection and tracking are surveyed. The discussion deals with various noncoherent integrators that provide target enhancement, thresholding techniques for reducing false alarms and target suppression, and algorithms for estimating target position and resolving targets. Attention is also given to track-while-scan systems, and the entire tracking system is surveyed. This is followed by a discussion of the various components of the system, such as the tracking filter, maneuver-following logic, track initiation, and correlation logic. The survey concludes with a discussion of radar netting. It is emphasized that the automatic detector should be considered an integral part of the radar system.

  10. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  11. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  12. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  13. Nonlinear synthetic aperture radar imaging using a harmonic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Kyle A.; Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Nguyen, Lam H.; Martone, Anthony F.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of linear and nonlinear targets. Data are collected using a linear/nonlinear step frequency radar. We show that it is indeed possible to produce SAR images using a nonlinear radar. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlinear radar is able to reduce linear clutter by at least 80 dB compared to a linear radar. The nonlinear SAR images also show the system's ability to detect small electronic devices in the presence of large linear clutter. The system presented here has the ability to completely ignore a 20-inch trihedral corner reflector while detecting a RF mixer with a dipole antenna attached.

  14. UAV-based Radar Sounding of Antarctic Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschen, Carl; Yan, Jie-Bang; Mahmood, Ali; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Hale, Rick; Camps-Raga, Bruno; Metz, Lynsey; Wang, Zongbo; Paden, John; Bowman, Alec; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2014-05-01

    We developed a compact radar for use on a small UAV to conduct measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. It operates at center frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz and 4 MHz, respectively. The radar weighs about 2 kgs and is housed in a box with dimensions of 20.3 cm x 15.2 cm x 13.2 cm. It transmits a signal power of 100 W at a pulse repletion frequency of 10 kHz and requires average power of about 20 W. The antennas for operating the radar are integrated into the wings and airframe of a small UAV with a wingspan of 5.3 m. We selected the frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz based on previous successful soundings of temperate ice in Alaska with a 12.5 MHz impulse radar [Arcone, 2002] and temperate glaciers in Patagonia with a 30 MHz monocycle radar [Blindow et al., 2012]. We developed the radar-equipped UAV to perform surveys over a 2-D grid, which allows us to synthesize a large two-dimensional aperture and obtain fine resolution in both the along- and cross-track directions. Low-frequency, high-sensitivity radars with 2-D aperture synthesis capability are needed to overcome the surface and volume scatter that masks weak echoes from the ice-bed interface of fast-flowing glaciers. We collected data with the radar-equipped UAV on sub-glacial ice near Lake Whillans at both 14 and 35 MHz. We acquired data to evaluate the concept of 2-D aperture synthesis and successfully demonstrated the first successful sounding of ice with a radar on an UAV. We are planning to build multiple radar-equipped UAVs for collecting fine-resolution data near the grounding lines of fast-flowing glaciers. In this presentation we will provide a brief overview of the radar and UAV, as well as present results obtained at both 14 and 35 MHz. Arcone, S. 2002. Airborne-radar stratigraphy and electrical structure of temperate firn: Bagley Ice Field, Alaska, U.S.A. Journal of Glaciology, 48, 317-334. Blindow, N., C. Salat, and G. Casassa. 2012. Airborne GPR sounding of

  15. Air Shower Detection by Bistatic Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Ikeda, D.; Kunwar, S.; Lundquist, J. P.; Kravchenko, I.; Myers, I.; Nakamura, T.; Sagawa, H.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.; Terasawa, T.; Thomson, G. B.

    2011-09-01

    Progress in the field of high-energy cosmic rays is currently limited by the rarity of the most interesting rays striking the Earth. Indeed, the continuation of the field beyond the current generation of observatories may become financially and practically impossible if new ways are not found to achieve remote coverage over large portions of the Earth's surface. We describe the development of an observatory based on such a new technique: the remote sensing via bistatic radar technology of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We build on pilot studies performed by MARIACHI which have demonstrated that air shower radar echoes are detectable, the opportunity afforded by the location of the Northern Hemisphere's largest ``conventional'' cosmic ray observatory (The Telescope Array) in radio-quiet western Utah, and the donation of analog television transmission equipment to this effort by a local television station.

  16. Space Radar Image of Sacramento, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a spaceborne radar image of the city of Sacramento, the capital of California. Urban areas appear pink and the surrounding agricultural areas are green and blue. The Sacramento River is the curving dark line running from the left side of the image (northwest) to the bottom right. The American River is the dark curving line in the center. Sacramento is built at the junction of these two rivers and the state Capitol building is in the bright pink-white area southeast of the junction. The straighter dark line (lower center) is the Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel which allows ship access from San Francisco. The black areas in the center are the runways of the Sacramento Executive airport. The city of Davis, California is seen as a pink area in lower left. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 27.0 kilometers by 38.4 kilometers (17 miles by 24 miles) and is centered at 38.6 degrees North latitude, 125.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  17. Space radar image of New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the area surrounding the city of New Orleans, Louisiana in the southeastern United States demonstrates the ability of multi-frequency imaging radar to distinguish different types of land cover. The dark area in the center is Lake Pontchartrain. The thin line running across the lake is a causeway connecting New Orleans to the city of Mandeville. Lake Borgne is the dark area in the lower right of the image. The Mississippi River appears as a dark, wavy line in the lower left. The white dots on the Mississippi are ships. The French Quarter is the brownish square near the left center of the image. Lakefront Airport, a field used mostly for general aviation, is the bright spot near the center, jutting out into Lake Pontchartrain. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) during orbit 39 of space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The area is located at 30.10 degrees north latitude and 89.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) by 50 kilometers (30 miles). The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received); blue represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received). The green areas are primarily vegetation consisting of swamp land and swamp forest (bayou) growing on sandy soil, while the pink areas are associated with reflections from buildings in urban and suburban areas. Different tones and colors in the vegetation areas will be studied by scientists to see how effective imaging radar data is in discriminating between different types of wetlands. Accurate maps of coastal wetland areas are important to ecologists studying wild fowl and the coastal environment.

  18. Capabilities and limitations of the Jicamarca radar as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Farley, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Jicamarca radar (Long. 76.52W, Lat. 11.56S), located at 20 km from Lima at approximately 500 meters over sea level, is surrounded by mountains which provide a good shield from man-made interference. The radio horizon goes from a few hundred meters, across the dry valley where it is located, to 15 km, along the valley in the direction of the continental divide. This limits the clutter to 15 km, except for one high peak at 21 km. It is the most equatorial of all existing MST radars. Its proximity to the Andes, makes its location unique for the study of lee waves and orographic-induced turbulence. Vertical as well as horizontal projections of MST velocities are obtained by simultaneously pointing with different sections of the antenna into three or four different directions. The transmitters, receivers, and systems for data acquisition, processing, and control are included.

  19. Ground settlement monitoring from temporarily persistent scatterers between two SAR acquisitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lei, Z.; Xiaoli, D.; Guangcai, F.; Zhong, L.

    2009-01-01

    We present an improved differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) analysis method that measures motions of scatterers whose phases are stable between two SAR acquisitions. Such scatterers are referred to as temporarily persistent scatterers (TPS) for simplicity. Unlike the persistent scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) method that relies on a time-series of interferograms, the new algorithm needs only one interferogram. TPS are identified based on pixel offsets between two SAR images, and are specially coregistered based on their estimated offsets instead of a global polynomial for the whole image. Phase unwrapping is carried out based on an algorithm for sparse data points. The method is successfully applied to measure the settlement in the Hong Kong Airport area. The buildings surrounded by vegetation were successfully selected as TPS and the tiny deformation signal over the area was detected. ??2009 IEEE.

  20. 18. RADAR BED/SLAB AND ROOF OPENING FOR BEAM, WITH MIRROR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. RADAR BED/SLAB AND ROOF OPENING FOR BEAM, WITH MIRROR ABOVE, ROOM 3001, PENTHOUSE. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Assembly & Manufacturing Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Oblique view to south OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to south - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  2. FPGA Sequencer for Radar Altimeter Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkun, Andrew C.; Pollard, Brian D.; Chen, Curtis W.

    2011-01-01

    A sequencer for a radar altimeter provides accurate attitude information for a reliable soft landing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). This is a field-programmable- gate-array (FPGA)-only implementation. A table loaded externally into the FPGA controls timing, processing, and decision structures. Radar is memory-less and does not use previous acquisitions to assist in the current acquisition. All cycles complete in exactly 50 milliseconds, regardless of range or whether a target was found. A RAM (random access memory) within the FPGA holds instructions for up to 15 sets. For each set, timing is run, echoes are processed, and a comparison is made. If a target is seen, more detailed processing is run on that set. If no target is seen, the next set is tried. When all sets have been run, the FPGA terminates and waits for the next 50-millisecond event. This setup simplifies testing and improves reliability. A single vertex chip does the work of an entire assembly. Output products require minor processing to become range and velocity. This technology is the heart of the Terminal Descent Sensor, which is an integral part of the Entry Decent and Landing system for MSL. In addition, it is a strong candidate for manned landings on Mars or the Moon.

  3. Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

  4. Space Radar Image of Los Angeles, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of Los Angeles, California, taken on October 2, 1994. Visible in the image are Long Beach Harbor at the bottom right (south corner of the image), Los Angeles International Airport at the bottom center, with Santa Monica just to the left of it and the Hollywood Hills to the left of Santa Monica. Also visible in the image are the freeway systems of Los Angeles, which appear as dark lines. The San Gabriel Mountains (center top) and the communities of San Fernando Valley, Simi Valley and Palmdale can be seen on the left-hand side. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 24th orbit. The image is centered at 34 degrees north latitude, 118 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers by 52 kilometers (62 miles by 32 miles). This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do freeways and other flat surfaces such as the airport runways. Mountains in the image are dark grey, with brighter patches on the mountain slopes, which face in the direction of the radar illumination (from the top of the image). Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of Los Angeles, appear as lighter grey. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as downtown Los Angeles, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Scientists hope to use radar image data from SIR-C/X-SAR to map fire scars in areas prone to brush fires, such as Los Angeles. In this image, the Altadena fire area is visible in the top center of the image as a patch of mountainous terrain which is slightly darker than the nearby mountains. Using all the radar frequency and polarization images provided by SIR

  5. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  6. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  7. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  8. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  9. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  10. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  11. Radar environment simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utteridge, E. J.

    A radar environment simulator (RES) is described which combines a high degree of signal realism with flexible real-time control. The RES features interactive simulation of IF and RF, aircraft echo simulation, active jamming (including simultaneous jamming, passive jamming, and simulator control. The general design and principal components of the RES are briefly described, and its detailed performance characteristics are presented.

  12. Integration of WERA Ocean Radar into Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzvonkovskaya, Anna; Helzel, Thomas; Kniephoff, Matthias; Petersen, Leif; Weber, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    by the WERA radars to TEWS. The radar measurements can be used to confirm a pre-warning and raise a tsunami alert. The output data of WERA processing software can be easily integrated into existing TEWS due to flexible data format, fast update rate and quality control of measurements. The archived radar data can be used for further hazard analysis and research purposes. The newly launched Tsunami Warning Center in Oman is one of the most sophisticated tsunami warning system world-wide applying a mix of well proven state-of-the-art subsystems. It allows the acquisition of data from many different sensor systems including seismic stations, GNSS, tide gauges, and WERA ocean radars in one acquisition system providing access to all sensor data via a common interface. The TEWS in Oman also integrates measurements of a modern network of HF ocean radars to verify tsunami simulations, which give additional scenario quality information and confirmation to the decision support.

  13. Development of land based radar polarimeter processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.

  14. Radar Observations of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    2003-05-01

    During the past 25 years, radar investigations have provided otherwise unavailable information about the physical and dynamical properties of more than 200 asteroids. Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency provide two-dimensional images with spatial resolution as fine as a decameter. Sequences of delay-Doppler images can be used to produce geologically detailed three-dimensional models, to define the rotation state precisely, to constrain the internal density distribution, and to estimate the trajectory of the object's center of mass. Radar wavelengths (4 to 13 cm) and the observer's control of transmitted and received polarizations make the observations sensitive to near-surface bulk density and macroscopic structure. Since delay-Doppler positional measurements are orthogonal to optical angle measurements and typically have much finer fractional precision, they are powerful for refining orbits and prediction ephemerides. Radar astrometry can add decades or centuries to the interval over which an asteroid's close Earth approaches can accurately be predicted and can significantly refine collision probability estimates based on optical astrometry alone. In the highly unlikely case that a small body is on course for an Earth collision in this century, radar reconnaissance would almost immediately distinguish between an impact trajectory and a near miss and would dramatically reduce the difficulty and cost of any effort to prevent the collision. The sizes and rotation periods of radar-detected asteroids span more than four orders of magnitude. These observations have revealed both stony and metallic objects, elongated and nonconvex shapes as well as nearly featureless spheroids, small-scale morphology ranging from smoother than the lunar regolith to rougher than the rockiest terrain on Mars, craters and diverse linear structures, non-principal-axis spin states, contact binaries, and binary systems.

  15. Improving the Applicability of Tomographic GPR for Crosshole Site Characterization Through Data Acquisition Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaxman, A. O.; Hou, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Tomographic ground penetrating radar (GPR) traveltime data has been widely used for hydrologic parameter estimation in the shallow subsurface. However, hydrogeological information extracted from tomographic GPR data is subject to great uncertainty because of the nonlinear and non-unique relationships between hydrogeological and geophysical attributes, and the spatial heterogeneity of these attributes. Such uncertainty relies heavily on the data acquisition parameters. Good data acquisition can make the hydrogeological parameter estimation problems less ill-posed. However, few efforts have been made to evaluate the impacts of different data acquisition parameters (soil type, borehole geometry, antenna locations and spacing, soil saturation conditions, etc.) on the borehole radar responses. The inaccuracy of geophysical forward models also increases the level of uncertainty in parameter estimation. Here we adopt a finite-difference method that solves the Eikonal equation to obtain accurate radar travel times, by taking all possible wave paths into account through a local traveltime computation algorithm. In this study, we treat the data acquisition parameters as random variables which are characterized by their probabilistic density distributions. Through stochastic sampling approach, we generate multiple fields with different data acquisition parameters; then the eikonal solver method is used to compute the corresponding GPR responses; and finally, we use a Bayesian inverse approach to estimate hydrogeological parameters for different field conditions. In this way, the impact of data acquisition parameters on the applicability of the borehole radar data can be systematically evaluated. Therefore, this study provides useful information on borehole radar data acquisition design.

  16. Data acquisition system for operational earth observation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerwester, J. M.; Alexander, D.; Arno, R. D.; Edsinger, L. E.; Norman, S. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The data acquisition system capabilities expected to be available in the 1980 time period as part of operational Earth observation missions are identified. By data acquisition system is meant the sensor platform (spacecraft or aircraft), the sensors themselves and the communication system. Future capabilities and support requirements are projected for the following sensors: film camera, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner, infrared scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave scanner, microwave radiometer, coherent side-looking radar, and scatterometer.

  17. SSC/BCD data acquisition system proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Swoboda, C.

    1989-04-01

    The proposed new data acquisition system architecture takes event fragments off a detector over fiber optics and to a parallel event building switch. The parallel event building switch concept, taken from the telephone communications industry, along with expected technology improvements in fiber-optic data transmission speeds over the next few years, should allow data acquisition system rates to increase dramatically and exceed those rates needed for the SSC. This report briefly describes the switch architecture and fiber optics for a SSC data acquisition system.

  18. 23. View of junction of passageway link with radar transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of junction of passageway link with radar transmitter building 102 (view looking south) showing main personnel entrance door. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. The role of space borne imaging radars in environmental monitoring: Some shuttle imaging radar results in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M.; Vermillion, C.

    1986-01-01

    The synoptic view afforded by orbiting Earth sensors can be extremely valuable for resource evaluation, environmental monitoring and development planning. For many regions of the world, however, cloud cover has prevented the acquisition of remotely sensed data during the most environmentally stressful periods of the year. This paper discusses how synthetic aperture imaging radar can be used to provide valuable data about the condition of the Earth's surface during periods of bad weather. Examples are given of applications using data from the Shuttle Imaging Radars (SIR) A and B for agriculture land use and crop condition assessment, monsoon flood boundary and flood damage assessment, water resource monitoring and terrain modeling, coastal forest mapping and vegetation penetration, and coastal development monitoring. Recent SIR-B results in Bangladesh are emphasized, radar system basics are reviewed and future SAR systems discussed.

  20. The role of space borne imaging radars in environmental monitoring: Some shuttle imaging radar results in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Vermillion, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    The synoptic view afforded by orbiting Earth sensors can be extremely valuable for resource evaluation, environmental monitoring and development planning. For many regions of the world, however, cloud cover has prevented the acquisition of remotely sensed data during the most environmentally stressful periods of the year. How synthetic aperture imaging radar can be used to provide valuable data about the condition of the Earth's surface during periods of bad weather is discussed. Examples are given of applications using data from the Shuttle Imaging Radars (SIR) A and B for agricultural land use and crop condition assessment, monsoon flood boundary and flood damage assessment, water resource monitoring and terrain modeling, coastal forest mapping and vegetation penetration, and coastal development monitoring. Recent SIR-B results in Bangladesh are emphasized, radar system basics are reviewed and future SAR systems are discussed.

  1. 1. Northeast face of missile site control building, commonly known ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northeast face of missile site control building, commonly known as the missile site radar building, showing open blast door #BD2. This emergency escape, at stair no. 12, is NEMP/RFI-shielded and 16" thick. The large circle in the center is the radar face, also known as the antennae array aperture. The small circle to the right of the radar face is the "Q" channel. The antennae atop the turret provided lightning protection for the building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. Close-range radar rainfall estimation and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Beek, C. Z.; Leijnse, H.; Hazenberg, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) using ground-based weather radar is affected by many sources of error. The most important of these are (1) radar calibration, (2) ground clutter, (3) wet-radome attenuation, (4) rain-induced attenuation, (5) vertical variability in rain drop size distribution (DSD), (6) non-uniform beam filling and (7) variations in DSD. This study presents an attempt to separate and quantify these sources of error in flat terrain very close to the radar (1-2 km), where (4), (5) and (6) only play a minor role. Other important errors exist, like beam blockage, WLAN interferences and hail contamination and are briefly mentioned, but not considered in the analysis. A 3-day rainfall event (25-27 August 2010) that produced more than 50 mm of precipitation in De Bilt, the Netherlands, is analyzed using radar, rain gauge and disdrometer data. Without any correction, it is found that the radar severely underestimates the total rain amount (by more than 50 %). The calibration of the radar receiver is operationally monitored by analyzing the received power from the sun. This turns out to cause a 1 dB underestimation. The operational clutter filter applied by KNMI is found to incorrectly identify precipitation as clutter, especially at near-zero Doppler velocities. An alternative simple clutter removal scheme using a clear sky clutter map improves the rainfall estimation slightly. To investigate the effect of wet-radome attenuation, stable returns from buildings close to the radar are analyzed. It is shown that this may have caused an underestimation of up to 4 dB. Finally, a disdrometer is used to derive event and intra-event specific Z-R relations due to variations in the observed DSDs. Such variations may result in errors when applying the operational Marshall-Palmer Z-R relation. Correcting for all of these effects has a large positive impact on the radar-derived precipitation estimates and yields a good match between radar QPE and gauge

  3. Real-time radar data fusion and registration systems for single integrated air picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Andrew L.; Niu, Ruixin; Kasperovich, Irina; Varshney, Pramod K.; Carroll, Clifford E.

    2006-05-01

    Real-time fusion of data collected from a variety of radars that acquire information from multiple perspectives and/or different frequencies, is being shown to provide a more accurate picture of the adversary threat cloud than any single radar or group of radars operating independently. This paper describes a cooperative multi-sensor approach in which multiple radars operate together in a non-interference limited manner, and where decision algorithms are applied to optimize the acquisition, tracking, and discrimination of moving targets with low false alarm rate. The approach is twofold: (i) measure and process radar returns in a shared manner for target feature extraction by exploiting frequency and spatial diversity; and (ii) employ feature-aided track/fusion algorithms to detect, discriminate, and track real targets from the adversary noise cloud. The results of computer simulations are provided that demonstrate the advantages of this approach.

  4. High-resolution rainfall estimation for Helsinki urban area using Helsinki radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Laura; Nordling, Kalle; Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2014-05-01

    High resolution precipitation data is a crucial factor for hydrological applications in urban areas. Small fluctuations in precipitation fields are of great importance considering the fast response of urban catchments due to the dominance of impervious surfaces. High resolution precipitation observations are needed in order to characterize these fluctuations. Weather radar provides high spatial resolution precipitation estimations. However, the quality of its observations in an urban environment is significantly degraded, among other things, by ground clutter and beam-blockage. A solution for this problem is to use a radar network, where the data gaps of one radar will be filled by using observations from the others. Very few cities have dedicated weather radar networks. In some cities, like Helsinki, there are several weather radars covering the metropolitan area, but they are operated by different organizations. In this study, we show how such systems can be used to build a network and what is the advantage of using radarnetworks for estimating precipitation in urban catchments. The urban Helsinki area is covered by observations from three individual-purpose C-band weather radars (Helsinki University's Kumpula (KUM), Vaisala Oy's Kerava (KER) and Finnish Meteorological Institute's Vantaa (VAN)). We used the data from these radars to form a network and we design a similar task which runs at the same time in each radar couple of times per day. Nonetheless, it is challenging to make them observe at the same area at exactly the same time, which could lead to fast changing, short precipitation events being missed. Hence, synchronization and temporal resolution are the main concerns when building a network. Consequently, to decrease the impact of these restrictions in the Helsinki radar network we propose the use of the optic flow interpolation algorithm to retrieve information in between two radar observations and use the retrieved dataset from the three radars to

  5. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  6. Within compound, looking southeast, Satellite Communications Terminal Building (Building 5771) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southeast, Satellite Communications Terminal Building (Building 5771) to left, Gate House (Building 5764) to right of center - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  7. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  8. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  9. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S.

    2004-05-01

    Radar investigations have provided otherwise unavailable information about the physical and dynamical properties of about 230 asteroids. Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) provide two-dimensional images with spatial resolution as fine as a decameter. Sequences of delay-Doppler images can be used to produce geologically detailed three-dimensional models, to define the rotation state precisely, to constrain the internal density distribution, and to estimate the trajectory of the object's center of mass. Radar wavelengths (4 to 13 cm) and the observer's control of transmitted and received polarizations make the observations sensitive to near-surface bulk density and macroscopic structure. Since delay-Doppler measurements are orthogonal to optical angle measurements and typically have much finer fractional precision, they are powerful for refining orbits and prediction ephemerides. Such astrometric measurements can add decades or centuries to the interval over which an asteroid's close Earth approaches can accurately be predicted and can significantly refine collision probability estimates based on optical astrometry alone. In the highly unlikely case that a small body is on course for an Earth collision in this century, radar reconnaissance would almost immediately distinguish between an impact trajectory and a near miss and would dramatically reduce the difficulty and cost of any effort to prevent the collision. The sizes and rotation periods of radar-detected asteroids span more than four orders of magnitude. The observations have revealed both stony and metallic objects, elongated and nonconvex shapes as well as nearly featureless spheroids, small-scale morphology ranging from smoother than the lunar regolith to rougher than the rockiest terrain on Mars, craters and diverse linear structures, non-principal-axis spin states, contact binaries, and binary systems.

  10. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1991-01-01

    Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radar astronomers made use of the Very Large Array (VLA) at Socorro, NM, during February 1990, to receive radio echoes from the planet Venus. The transmitter was the 70 meter antenna at the Goldstone complex northwest of Barstow, CA. These observations contain new information about the roughness of Venus at cm to decimeter scales and are complementary to information being obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Asteroid observations are also discussed.

  11. Design of radar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, M. A.

    This handbook treats the design and analysis of of pulsed radar receivers, with emphasis on elements (especially IC elements) that implement optimal and suboptimal algorithms. The design methodology is developed from the viewpoint of statistical communications theory. Particular consideration is given to the synthesis of single-channel and multichannel detectors, the design of analog and digital signal-processing devices, and the analysis of IF amplifiers.

  12. Shuttle imaging radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Brown, W.E.; Cimino, J.B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D.L.; Ford, J.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

    1982-01-01

    The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  13. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  14. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part I. Operational Sampling Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Jo, Ieng; Johnson, Karen

    2013-12-03

    Probing clouds in three-dimensions has never been done with scanning millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars in a continuous operating environment. The acquisition of scanning cloud radars by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and research institutions around the world generate the need for developing operational scan strategies for cloud radars. Here, the first generation of sampling strategies for the Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) is discussed. These scan strategies are designed to address the scientific objectives of the ARM program, however, they introduce an initial framework for operational scanning cloud radars. While the weather community uses scan strategies that are based on a sequence of scans at constant elevations, the SACRs scan strategies are based on a sequence of scans at constant azimuth. This is attributed to the cloud properties that are vastly different for rain and snow shafts that are the primary target of precipitation radars. A “cloud surveillance” scan strategy is introduced (HS-RHI) based on a sequence of horizon-to-horizon Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans that sample the hemispherical sky (HS). The HS-RHI scan strategy is repeated every 30 min to provide a static view of the cloud conditions around the SACR location. Between HS-RHI scan strategies other scan strategies are introduced depending on the cloud conditions. The SACRs are pointing vertically in the case of measurable precipitation at the ground. The radar reflectivities are corrected for water vapor attenuation and non-meteorological detection are removed. A hydrometeor detection mask is introduced based on the difference of cloud and noise statistics is discussed.

  15. Augmented reality using ultra-wideband radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Koenig, Francois; Sherbondy, Kelly

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has been investigating the utility of ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology for detecting concealed targets in various applications. We have designed and built a vehicle-based, low-frequency UWB SAR radar for proof-of-concept demonstration in detecting obstacles for autonomous navigation, detecting concealed targets (mines, etc.), and mapping internal building structures to locate enemy activity. Although the low-frequency UWB radar technology offers valuable information to complement other technologies due to its penetration capability, it is very difficult to comprehend the radar imagery and correlate the detection list from the radar with the objects in the real world. Using augmented reality (AR) technology, we can superimpose the information from the radar onto the video image of the real world in real-time. Using this, Soldiers would view the environment and the superimposed graphics (SAR imagery, detection locations, digital map, etc.) via a standard display or a head-mounted display. The superimposed information would be constantly changed and adjusted for every perspective and movement of the user. ARL has been collaborating with ITT Industries to implement an AR system that integrates the video data captured from the real world and the information from the UWB radar. ARL conducted an experiment and demonstrated the real-time geo-registration of the two independent data streams. The integration of the AR sub-system into the radar system is underway. This paper presents the integration of the AR and SAR systems. It shows results that include the real-time embedding of the SAR imagery and other information into the video data stream.

  16. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  17. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  18. The study of single station inverting the sea surface current by HF ground wave radar based on adjoint assimilation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuzong; Yang, Hua; Xue, Wenhu; Wang, Xingchi

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces the assimilation technology in an ocean dynamics model and discusses the feasibility of inverting the sea surface current in the detection zone by assimilating the sea current radial velocity detected by single station HF ground wave radar in ocean dynamics model. Based on the adjoint assimilation and POM model, the paper successfully inverts the sea surface current through single station HF ground wave radar in the Zhoushan sea area. The single station HF radar inversion results are also compared with the bistatic HF radar composite results and the fixed point measured results by Annderaa current meter. The error analysis shows that acquisition of flow velocity and flow direction data from the single station HF radar based on adjoint assimilation and POM model is viable and the data obtained have a high correlation and consistency with the flow field observed by HF radar.

  19. The Telescope Array RADAR (TARA) Project and the Search for the Radar Signature of Cosmic Ray Induced Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohira, Steven; TARA Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The TARA (Telescope Array Radar) cosmic ray detector has been in operation since May 2013. It is the most ambitious effort to date to test an idea that originated in the 1940's: that ionization produced by cosmic ray extensive air showers should reflect electromagnetic radiation. The observation of this effect would open the possibility that remote-sensing radar technology could be used to detect and reconstruct extensive air showers, thus increasing the aperture available for the study of the highest-energy cosmic rays. TARA employs a bi-static radar configuration, consisting of a 25 kW, 5 MW ERP transmitter at 54.1 MHz broadcasting across the Telescope Array surface detector. 40 km distant, a set of log-periodic receiver antennas are read out by two independent data acquisition systems employing different techniques to select signals of the form expected for radar targets moving at close to the speed of light. In this talk, we describe the TARA detector and present the first quantitative limits on the radar cross-section of extensive air showers.

  20. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The image is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying radar remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of

  1. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  2. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  3. Space Radar Image of Canberra, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne radar image. Images like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the image. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the image is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.

  4. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image of San Francisco, California shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the image are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The image is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  5. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  6. Radar data processing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

  7. DSPS in data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-12-31

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance.

  8. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  9. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  10. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  11. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  12. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondéjar, Albert; Benveniste, Jérôme; Naeije, Marc; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  13. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolà, Roger; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  14. Interferometric radar imaging using the AN/APG-76 radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James D.; Holt, Hugh D., Jr.; Maney, Harold D., Jr.; Orwig, Lawrence P.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes recent performance-enhancing modifications made to the AN/APG-76 radar. An interferometric radar equipped with a four-channel receiver and a seven-channel interferometric antenna, the AN/APG-76 has been used to demonstrate novel interferometric imaging concepts. Originally built as a tactical radar with air-to- air modes, SAR, and three-channel DPCA-like MTI modes, the modified radar's capabilities include: real-time autofocused imaging at 3- and 1-foot resolutions, elevation interferometric SAR (both single and repeat pass), polarimetric imaging, precision tracking by means of a tightly-coupled GPS-aided INS system, and moving target imaging using the inherent clutter-cancellation capabilities of the radar. The re-programmability of the on-board processor allows new real-time modes to be implemented, and high-speed data recording allows off-line analysis of data.

  15. A Novel Method for Speech Acquisition and Enhancement by 94 GHz Millimeter-Wave Sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuming; Li, Sheng; Li, Chuantao; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Xue, Huijun; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-12-31

    In order to improve the speech acquisition ability of a non-contact method, a 94 GHz millimeter wave (MMW) radar sensor was employed to detect speech signals. This novel non-contact speech acquisition method was shown to have high directional sensitivity, and to be immune to strong acoustical disturbance. However, MMW radar speech is often degraded by combined sources of noise, which mainly include harmonic, electrical circuit and channel noise. In this paper, an algorithm combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and mutual information entropy (MIE) was proposed for enhancing the perceptibility and intelligibility of radar speech. Firstly, the radar speech signal was adaptively decomposed into oscillatory components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD. Secondly, MIE was used to determine the number of reconstructive components, and then an adaptive threshold was employed to remove the noise from the radar speech. The experimental results show that human speech can be effectively acquired by a 94 GHz MMW radar sensor when the detection distance is 20 m. Moreover, the noise of the radar speech is greatly suppressed and the speech sounds become more pleasant to human listeners after being enhanced by the proposed algorithm, suggesting that this novel speech acquisition and enhancement method will provide a promising alternative for various applications associated with speech detection.

  16. A Novel Method for Speech Acquisition and Enhancement by 94 GHz Millimeter-Wave Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fuming; Li, Sheng; Li, Chuantao; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Xue, Huijun; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the speech acquisition ability of a non-contact method, a 94 GHz millimeter wave (MMW) radar sensor was employed to detect speech signals. This novel non-contact speech acquisition method was shown to have high directional sensitivity, and to be immune to strong acoustical disturbance. However, MMW radar speech is often degraded by combined sources of noise, which mainly include harmonic, electrical circuit and channel noise. In this paper, an algorithm combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and mutual information entropy (MIE) was proposed for enhancing the perceptibility and intelligibility of radar speech. Firstly, the radar speech signal was adaptively decomposed into oscillatory components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD. Secondly, MIE was used to determine the number of reconstructive components, and then an adaptive threshold was employed to remove the noise from the radar speech. The experimental results show that human speech can be effectively acquired by a 94 GHz MMW radar sensor when the detection distance is 20 m. Moreover, the noise of the radar speech is greatly suppressed and the speech sounds become more pleasant to human listeners after being enhanced by the proposed algorithm, suggesting that this novel speech acquisition and enhancement method will provide a promising alternative for various applications associated with speech detection. PMID:26729126

  17. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  18. Compressed Sensing in On-Grid MIMO Radar.

    PubMed

    Minner, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of targets is a significant problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Recent advances of Compressive Sensing offer a means of efficiently accomplishing this task. The sparsity constraints needed to apply the techniques of Compressive Sensing to problems in radar systems have led to discretizations of the target scene in various domains, such as azimuth, time delay, and Doppler. Building upon recent work, we investigate the feasibility of on-grid Compressive Sensing-based MIMO radar via a threefold azimuth-delay-Doppler discretization for target detection and parameter estimation. We utilize a colocated random sensor array and transmit distinct linear chirps to a small scene with few, slowly moving targets. Relying upon standard far-field and narrowband assumptions, we analyze the efficacy of various recovery algorithms in determining the parameters of the scene through numerical simulations, with particular focus on the ℓ 1-squared Nonnegative Regularization method. PMID:27280124

  19. Compressed Sensing in On-Grid MIMO Radar.

    PubMed

    Minner, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of targets is a significant problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Recent advances of Compressive Sensing offer a means of efficiently accomplishing this task. The sparsity constraints needed to apply the techniques of Compressive Sensing to problems in radar systems have led to discretizations of the target scene in various domains, such as azimuth, time delay, and Doppler. Building upon recent work, we investigate the feasibility of on-grid Compressive Sensing-based MIMO radar via a threefold azimuth-delay-Doppler discretization for target detection and parameter estimation. We utilize a colocated random sensor array and transmit distinct linear chirps to a small scene with few, slowly moving targets. Relying upon standard far-field and narrowband assumptions, we analyze the efficacy of various recovery algorithms in determining the parameters of the scene through numerical simulations, with particular focus on the ℓ 1-squared Nonnegative Regularization method.

  20. Compressed Sensing in On-Grid MIMO Radar

    PubMed Central

    Minner, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of targets is a significant problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Recent advances of Compressive Sensing offer a means of efficiently accomplishing this task. The sparsity constraints needed to apply the techniques of Compressive Sensing to problems in radar systems have led to discretizations of the target scene in various domains, such as azimuth, time delay, and Doppler. Building upon recent work, we investigate the feasibility of on-grid Compressive Sensing-based MIMO radar via a threefold azimuth-delay-Doppler discretization for target detection and parameter estimation. We utilize a colocated random sensor array and transmit distinct linear chirps to a small scene with few, slowly moving targets. Relying upon standard far-field and narrowband assumptions, we analyze the efficacy of various recovery algorithms in determining the parameters of the scene through numerical simulations, with particular focus on the ℓ1-squared Nonnegative Regularization method. PMID:27280124

  1. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  2. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  3. GeoSAR: A Radar Terrain Mapping System for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas; vanZyl, Jakob; Hensley, Scott; Reis, James; Munjy, Riadh; Burton, John; Yoha, Robert

    2000-01-01

    GeoSAR Geographic Synthetic Aperture Radar) is a new 3 year effort to build a unique, dual-frequency, airborne Interferometric SAR for mapping of terrain. This is being pursued via a Consortium of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., and the California Department of Conservation. The airborne portion of this system will operate on a Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft outfitted with P- and X-band Interferometric SARs. The ground portions of this system will be a suite of Flight Planning Software, an IFSAR Processor and a Radar-GIS Workstation. The airborne P-band and X-band radars will be constructed by JPL with the goal of obtaining foliage penetration at the longer P-band wavelengths. The P-band and X-band radar will operate at frequencies of 350 Mhz and 9.71 Ghz with bandwidths of either 80 or 160 Mhz. The airborne radars will be complemented with airborne laser system for measuring antenna positions. Aircraft flight lines and radar operating instructions will be computed with the Flight Planning Software The ground processing will be a two-step step process. First, the raw radar data will be processed into radar images and interferometer derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Second, these radar images and DEMs will be processed with a Radar GIS Workstation which performs processes such as Projection Transformations, Registration, Geometric Adjustment, Mosaicking, Merging and Database Management. JPL will construct the IFSAR Processor and Calgis, Inc. will construct the Radar GIS Workstation. The GeoSAR Project was underway in November 1996 with a goal of having the radars and laser systems fully integrated onto the Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft in early 1999. Then, Engineering Checkout and Calibration-Characterization Flights will be conducted through November 1999. The system will be completed at the end of 1999 and ready for routine operations in the year 2000.

  4. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) in the following areas: space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy. This document also reports on the activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC). The TDA Office also performs work funded by another NASA program office through and with the cooperation of OSC. This is the Orbital Debris Radar Program with the Office of Space Systems Development.

  5. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are published in the TDA Progress Report. In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), the TDA Progress Report reports on implementation and operations for searching the microwave spectrum. In solar system radar, it reports on the uses of the Goldstone Solar System Radar for scientific exploration of the planets, their rings and satellites, asteroids, and comets. In radio astronomy, the areas of support include spectroscopy, very long baseline interferometry, and astrometry. These three programs are performed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), with the Office of Space Operations funding DSN operational support.

  6. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Archival reports are given on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA), including space communications, radio navigation, radio science, ground-based radio and radar astronomy, and the Deep Space Network (DSN) and its associated Ground Communications Facility (GCF) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included is TDA-funded activity at JPL on data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), implementation and operations for searching the microwave spectrum are reported. Use of the Goldstone Solar System Radar for scientific exploration of the planets, their rings and satellites, asteroids, and comets are discussed.

  7. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations. Also included is standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Operations (OSO). The TDA Office also performs work funded by two other NASA program offices through and with the cooperation of the OSO. These are the Orbital Debris Radar Program and 21st Century Communication Studies.

  8. Equatorial MST radars: Further consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagos, P.

    1983-01-01

    The results presented give additional support to the need of equatorial MST radars in order to obtain more information on the nature of equatorial waves in the MST region. Radar deduced winds such as obtained at Jicamarca for periods of months indicate that with these data the full range of equatorial waves, with time scales of seconds to years, can be studied.

  9. Space Radar Image of Mississippi Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the Mississippi River Delta where the river enters into the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana. This multi-frequency image demonstrates the capability of the radar to distinguish different types of wetlands surfaces in river deltas. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1995. The image is centered on latitude 29.3 degrees North latitude and 89.28 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 63 kilometers by 43 kilometers (39 miles by 26 miles). North is towards the upper right of the image. As the river enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid-continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this image is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil and the numerous bright spots along the outside of the delta are drilling platforms. Most of the land in the image consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad red stripe running northwest to southeast down the left side of the image. The bright spots within the channel are ships. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  10. Radar image registration and rectification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Two techniques for radar image registration and rectification are presented. In the registration method, a general 2-D polynomial transform is defined to accomplish the geometric mapping from one image into the other. The degree and coefficients of the polynomial are obtained using an a priori found tiepoint data set. In the second part of the paper, a rectification procedure is developed that models the distortion present in the radar image in terms of the radar sensor's platform parameters and the topographic variations of the imaged scene. This model, the ephemeris data and the digital topographic data are then used in rectifying the radar image. The two techniques are then used in registering and rectifying two examples of radar imagery. Each method is discussed as to its benefits, shortcomings and registration accuracy.

  11. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD), which now includes the former Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Office. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC). TMOD also performs work funded by other NASA program offices through and with the cooperation of OSC. The first of these is the Orbital Debris Radar Program funded by the Office of Space Systems Development. It exists at Goldstone only and makes use of the planetary radar capability when the antennas are configured as science instruments making direct observations of the planets, their satellites, and asteroids of our solar system. The Office of Space Sciences funds the data reduction and science analyses of data obtained by the Goldstone Solar System Radar. The antennas at all three complexes are also configured for radio astronomy research and, as such, conduct experiments funded by the National Science Foundation in the U.S. and other agencies at the overseas complexes. These experiments are either in microwave spectroscopy or very long baseline interferometry. Finally, tasks funded under the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the Caltech President's Fund that involve TMOD are included. This and each succeeding issue of 'The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report' will present material in some, but not necessarily all, of the aforementioned programs.

  12. Close-range radar rainfall estimation and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Beek, C. Z.; Leijnse, H.; Hazenberg, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-04-01

    It is well-known that quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is affected by many sources of error. The most important of these are 1) radar calibration, 2) wet radome attenuation, 3) rain attenuation, 4) vertical profile of reflectivity, 5) variations in drop size distribution, and 6) sampling effects. The study presented here is an attempt to separate and quantify these sources of error. For this purpose, QPE is performed very close to the radar (~1-2 km) so that 3), 4), and 6) will only play a minor role. Error source 5) can be corrected for because of the availability of two disdrometers (instruments that measure the drop size distribution). A 3-day rainfall event (25-27 August 2010) that produced more than 50 mm in De Bilt, The Netherlands is analyzed. Radar, rain gauge, and disdrometer data from De Bilt are used for this. It is clear from the analyses that without any corrections, the radar severely underestimates the total rain amount (only 25 mm). To investigate the effect of wet radome attenuation, stable returns from buildings close to the radar are analyzed. It is shown that this may have caused an underestimation up to ~4 dB. The calibration of the radar is checked by looking at received power from the sun. This turns out to cause another 1 dB of underestimation. The effect of variability of drop size distributions is shown to cause further underestimation. Correcting for all of these effects yields a good match between radar QPE and gauge measurements.

  13. Wearable system-on-a-chip UWB radar for contact-less cardiopulmonary monitoring: present status.

    PubMed

    Zito, D; Pepe, D; Mincica, M; Zito, F; De Rossi, D; Lanata, A; Scilingo, E P; Tognetti, A

    2008-01-01

    The present status of the project aimed at the realization of an innovative wearable system-on-chip UWB radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is presented. The overall system consists of a wearable wireless interface including a fully integrated UWB radar for the detection of the heart beat and breath rates, and a IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee low-power radio interface. The principle of operation of the UWB radar for the monitoring of the heart wall is summarized. With respect to the prior art, this paper reports the results of the experimental characterization of the intra-body channel loss, which has been carried out successfully in order to validate the theoretical model employed for the radar system analysis. Moreover, the main building blocks of the radar have been manufactured in 90 nm CMOS technology by ST-Microelectronics and the relevant performance are resulted in excellent agreement with those expected by post-layout simulations. PMID:19163907

  14. Wearable system-on-a-chip UWB radar for contact-less cardiopulmonary monitoring: present status.

    PubMed

    Zito, D; Pepe, D; Mincica, M; Zito, F; De Rossi, D; Lanata, A; Scilingo, E P; Tognetti, A

    2008-01-01

    The present status of the project aimed at the realization of an innovative wearable system-on-chip UWB radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is presented. The overall system consists of a wearable wireless interface including a fully integrated UWB radar for the detection of the heart beat and breath rates, and a IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee low-power radio interface. The principle of operation of the UWB radar for the monitoring of the heart wall is summarized. With respect to the prior art, this paper reports the results of the experimental characterization of the intra-body channel loss, which has been carried out successfully in order to validate the theoretical model employed for the radar system analysis. Moreover, the main building blocks of the radar have been manufactured in 90 nm CMOS technology by ST-Microelectronics and the relevant performance are resulted in excellent agreement with those expected by post-layout simulations.

  15. Avalanche Debris Detection Using Satellite- and Drone Based Radar and Optical Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerstorfer, M.; Malnes, E.; Vickers, H.; Solbø, S. A.; Tøllefsen, A.

    2014-12-01

    The mountainous fjord landscape in the county of Troms, around its capital Tromsø in Northern Norway is prone to high avalanche activity during the snow season. Large avalanches pose a hazard to infrastructure, such as buildings and roads, located between the steep mountainsides and the fjords. A prolonged cold spell during January and February 2014 was followed by rapid new-snow loading during March 2014, inducing a significant avalanche cycle with many spontaneous, size D4 avalanches that affected major transport veins. During and shortly after the avalanche cycle of March 2014, we obtained 11 Radarsat-2 Ultrafine mode scenes, chosen according to reported avalanche activity. We further collected four Radarsat-2 ScanSAR mode scenes and two Landsat-8 scenes covering the entire county of Troms. For one particular avalanche, we obtained a drone-based orthophoto, from which a DEM of the avalanche debris surface was derived, using structure-from-motion photogrammetry. This enabled us to calculate the debris volume accurately. We detected avalanche debris in the radar images visually, by applying two detection algorithms that make use of the increased backscatter in avalanche debris. This backscatter increase is a product of increased snow water equivalent and surface roughness, roughly of the order of 3 dB. In addition, we applied a multi-temporal approach by repeatedly detecting avalanche debris at different acquisition times, as well as a multi-sensor approach, covering similar areas with different sensors. This multi-temporal and multi-sensor approach enabled us to map the spatial extent and magnitude of the March 2014 avalanche cycle in the county Troms. With ESA's Sentinel-1 satellite, providing high-resolution, large swath radar images with a short repeat cycle, a complete avalanche record for a forecasting region could become feasible. In this first test season, we detected more than 550 avalanches that were released during a one-month period over an area of

  16. Localization and mapping using only a rotating FMCW radar sensor.

    PubMed

    Vivet, Damien; Checchin, Paul; Chapuis, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Rotating radar sensors are perception systems rarely used in mobile robotics. This paper is concerned with the use of a mobile ground-based panoramic radar sensor which is able to deliver both distance and velocity of multiple targets in its surrounding. The consequence of using such a sensor in high speed robotics is the appearance of both geometric and Doppler velocity distortions in the collected data. These effects are, in the majority of studies, ignored or considered as noise and then corrected based on proprioceptive sensors or localization systems. Our purpose is to study and use data distortion and Doppler effect as sources of information in order to estimate the vehicle's displacement. The linear and angular velocities of the mobile robot are estimated by analyzing the distortion of the measurements provided by the panoramic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, called IMPALA. Without the use of any proprioceptive sensor, these estimates are then used to build the trajectory of the vehicle and the radar map of outdoor environments. In this paper, radar-only localization and mapping results are presented for a ground vehicle moving at high speed. PMID:23567523

  17. Localization and mapping using only a rotating FMCW radar sensor.

    PubMed

    Vivet, Damien; Checchin, Paul; Chapuis, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Rotating radar sensors are perception systems rarely used in mobile robotics. This paper is concerned with the use of a mobile ground-based panoramic radar sensor which is able to deliver both distance and velocity of multiple targets in its surrounding. The consequence of using such a sensor in high speed robotics is the appearance of both geometric and Doppler velocity distortions in the collected data. These effects are, in the majority of studies, ignored or considered as noise and then corrected based on proprioceptive sensors or localization systems. Our purpose is to study and use data distortion and Doppler effect as sources of information in order to estimate the vehicle's displacement. The linear and angular velocities of the mobile robot are estimated by analyzing the distortion of the measurements provided by the panoramic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, called IMPALA. Without the use of any proprioceptive sensor, these estimates are then used to build the trajectory of the vehicle and the radar map of outdoor environments. In this paper, radar-only localization and mapping results are presented for a ground vehicle moving at high speed.

  18. Localization and Mapping Using Only a Rotating FMCW Radar Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Vivet, Damien; Checchin, Paul; Chapuis, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Rotating radar sensors are perception systems rarely used in mobile robotics. This paper is concerned with the use of a mobile ground-based panoramic radar sensor which is able to deliver both distance and velocity of multiple targets in its surrounding. The consequence of using such a sensor in high speed robotics is the appearance of both geometric and Doppler velocity distortions in the collected data. These effects are, in the majority of studies, ignored or considered as noise and then corrected based on proprioceptive sensors or localization systems. Our purpose is to study and use data distortion and Doppler effect as sources of information in order to estimate the vehicle's displacement. The linear and angular velocities of the mobile robot are estimated by analyzing the distortion of the measurements provided by the panoramic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, called IMPALA. Without the use of any proprioceptive sensor, these estimates are then used to build the trajectory of the vehicle and the radar map of outdoor environments. In this paper, radar-only localization and mapping results are presented for a ground vehicle moving at high speed. PMID:23567523

  19. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  20. Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) to left, Microwave Tower (associated with Building 5769) and Civil Engineering Storage Building (Building 5766) to left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  1. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  2. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  3. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  4. A data acquisition architecture for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, R.

    1990-01-01

    An SSC data acquisition architecture applicable to high-p{sub T} detectors is described. The architecture is based upon a small set of design principles that were chosen to simplify communication between data acquisition elements while providing the required level of flexibility and performance. The architecture features an integrated system for data collection, event building, and communication with a large processing farm. The interface to the front end electronics system is also discussed. A set of design parameters is given for a data acquisition system that should meet the needs of high-p{sub T} detectors at the SSC.

  5. Comprehensive soil surface characterisation by RADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Beiske, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    The characteristics of the soil's surface have been revealed to be extremely relevant for soil surface processes. Texture, aggregates and roughness are interdependent across scales and have a strong influence on infiltration, runoff generation, water flow velocity as well as on particle detachment and transport. They also have shown to be relevant for splash detachment and initialisation of concentrated flow. But these soil surface characteristics are also highly variable during erosive events, and thus, their impact on the processes mentioned above may change. Therefore it is necessary to develop methods for a comprehensive and quantitative characterisation of the soils' surface across scales. Here, we present a first approach using a frequency modulated polarimetric radar to characterise different surfaces (from flat to rough in a scale of cm to dm size of the roughness elements) and of different materials (steel plates as strong reflector, sand [0.5-1 mm], fine [2-4 mm] and coarse [15-30 mm] rock fragments. The radar is a prototype built by IMST GmbH (Kamp-Lintfort, Germany), emitting on the 24 GHz band, allowing for a frequency modulation between 500 and 2500 MHz with variable ramp times. The emission is on a circular clockwise polarisation, whilst it is able to receive both, clockwise and counter-clockwise polarisations. We tested also the dependency of the reflected signals on imaging position and angle, as well as on the different emission parameters, such as amplitude modulation and ramp time. The results show that the angle of acquisition influences clearly the received signal intensity (in both polarisation directions). This implies the need to develop topographical corrections for further applications. In addition we could observe a significant influence of the device position on the results, which implies, on one hand, a high sensitivity relating to the soil's surface, but on the other hand it leads to a high level of uncertainty. The reflection

  6. Nonlinearity correction and dispersion analysis in FMCW laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hao; Liu, Bingguo; Liu, Guodong; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Yu, Yahui; Gan, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave laser radar is one of the most important ways to measure the large-size targets , combining the advantages of laser with conventional FMCW radar. Dispersion compensation and non-linear calibration are two key aspects in FMCW laser radar measurement. The paper studies the method of frequency-sampling to correct the Nonlinearity and analyzes the importance of dispersion compensation. We set up experimental verification platform, choose 1550nm band continuously tunable external cavity infrared laser as the light source, use all-fiber optical device structures, choose balanced detectors as photoelectric conversion, and finally acquire data with high speed PCI-E data acquisition card, write a measurement software with Labview. We measured the gage block 1 meter away. The experiment results show that the frequency sampling method correct the Nonlinearity well and there is a significant impact on the accuracy because of the fiber dispersion, dispersion must be compensated to obtain high accuracy. The experiment lays the foundation for further research on FMCW Laser radar.

  7. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A compilation is presented of articles on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground based radio and radar astronomy, activities of the Deep Space Network are reported in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations. Also included is standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), implementation and operations are reported for searching the microwave spectrum.

  8. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD), which now includes the former Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Office. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DS) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC).

  9. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD), which now includes the former Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) Office. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC).

  10. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The papers included in this document cover satellite tracking and ground-based navigation, spacecraft-ground communications, and optical communication systems for the Deep Space Network.

  11. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on the activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations. Also included is standards activity at JPL for space data, information systems, and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA.

  12. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are given. Space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and its associated Ground Communications Facility (GCF) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations are reported. Also included is TDA-funded activity at JPL on data and information systems and reimbursable Deep Space Network (DSN) work performed for other space agencies through NASA.

  13. Large phased-array radars

    SciTech Connect

    Brookner, D.E.

    1988-12-15

    Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

  14. A Bistatic Parasitical Radar (BIPAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Philipp; Braun, Hans Martin

    1989-01-01

    After decades of remote sensing from aircraft and satellites with cameras and other optical sensors, earth observation by imaging radars becomes more and more suitable because of their night and day and all weather operations capability and their information content being complementary to those of optical sensors. The major problem with microwave sensors (radars) is that there are not enough of them presently in operation and therefore not enough data available for effective radar signature research for civil applications. It is shown that airborne bistatic real aperture radar receivers can be operated with spaceborne transmitters of opportunity. Famous candidates for those systems are high power communications or direct TV satellites illuminating the earth surface with a power denisty of more than 10(-12) Watt/sq meter. The high sophisticated status of signal processing technology today allows the realization of receivers correlating the received direct path signal from a communications satellite with its avoidable reflection on the ground. Coherent integration can improve the signal to noise ratio up to values where the radiometric resolution can satisfy users needs. The development of such parasitic radar receivers could even provide a cost effective way to open up new frequency bands for radar signature research. Advantages of these quiet systems for the purpose of classical radar reconnaissance are evident.

  15. Interception of LPI radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  16. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  17. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  18. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  19. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  20. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Search Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  1. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  2. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  3. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  4. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  5. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  6. A noncontact FMCW radar sensor for displacement measurement in structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Cunlong; Chen, Weimin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Rong; Xu, Hengyi; Qi, Yi

    2015-03-26

    This paper investigates the Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor for multi-target displacement measurement in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The principle of three-dimensional (3-D) displacement measurement of civil infrastructures is analyzed. The requirements of high-accuracy displacement and multi-target identification for the measuring sensors are discussed. The fundamental measuring principle of FMCW radar is presented with rigorous mathematical formulas, and further the multiple-target displacement measurement is analyzed and simulated. In addition, a FMCW radar prototype is designed and fabricated based on an off-the-shelf radar frontend and data acquisition (DAQ) card, and the displacement error induced by phase asynchronism is analyzed. The conducted outdoor experiments verify the feasibility of this sensing method applied to multi-target displacement measurement, and experimental results show that three targets located at different distances can be distinguished simultaneously with millimeter level accuracy.

  7. A noncontact FMCW radar sensor for displacement measurement in structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Cunlong; Chen, Weimin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Rong; Xu, Hengyi; Qi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor for multi-target displacement measurement in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The principle of three-dimensional (3-D) displacement measurement of civil infrastructures is analyzed. The requirements of high-accuracy displacement and multi-target identification for the measuring sensors are discussed. The fundamental measuring principle of FMCW radar is presented with rigorous mathematical formulas, and further the multiple-target displacement measurement is analyzed and simulated. In addition, a FMCW radar prototype is designed and fabricated based on an off-the-shelf radar frontend and data acquisition (DAQ) card, and the displacement error induced by phase asynchronism is analyzed. The conducted outdoor experiments verify the feasibility of this sensing method applied to multi-target displacement measurement, and experimental results show that three targets located at different distances can be distinguished simultaneously with millimeter level accuracy. PMID:25822139

  8. A Noncontact FMCW Radar Sensor for Displacement Measurement in Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cunlong; Chen, Weimin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Rong; Xu, Hengyi; Qi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor for multi-target displacement measurement in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The principle of three-dimensional (3-D) displacement measurement of civil infrastructures is analyzed. The requirements of high-accuracy displacement and multi-target identification for the measuring sensors are discussed. The fundamental measuring principle of FMCW radar is presented with rigorous mathematical formulas, and further the multiple-target displacement measurement is analyzed and simulated. In addition, a FMCW radar prototype is designed and fabricated based on an off-the-shelf radar frontend and data acquisition (DAQ) card, and the displacement error induced by phase asynchronism is analyzed. The conducted outdoor experiments verify the feasibility of this sensing method applied to multi-target displacement measurement, and experimental results show that three targets located at different distances can be distinguished simultaneously with millimeter level accuracy. PMID:25822139

  9. Radar backscatter modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Kozak, R. C.; Gurule, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The terrain analysis software package was restructured and documentation was added. A program was written to test Johnson Space Center's four band scatterometer data for spurious signals data. A catalog of terrain roughness statistics and calibrated four frequency multipolarization scatterometer data is being published to support the maintenance of Death Valley as a radar backscatter calibration test site for all future airborne and spacecraft missions. Test pits were dug through sand covered terrains in the Eastern Sahara to define the depth and character of subsurface interfaces responsible for either backscatter or specular response in SIR-A imagery. Blocky sandstone bedrock surfaces at about 1 m depth were responsible for the brightest SIR-A returns. Irregular very dense CaCO3 cemented sand interfaces were responsible for intermediate grey tones. Ancient river valleys had the weakest response. Reexamination of SEASAT l-band imagery of U.S. deserts continues.

  10. Radar altimeter calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. R.

    1983-02-01

    The operating principles and design of a radar altimeter representative of those proposed of ERS-1 are described and geophysical influences on the measurements are discussed. General aspects of calibration are examined, and the critical areas of time and frequency resolution pointed out. A method of internal calibration of delay and backscatter coefficient, by rerouting the tramsitter signal, is described. External prelaunch calibration can be carried out by airborne trials, or using a return signal simulator. It is established that airborne calibration requires high altitudes and high speeds, and is likely to be difficult and expensive. The design of a return signal simulator is shown to be very difficult. No feasible design is identified.

  11. Ganymede: observations by radar.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R M; Morris, G A

    1975-06-20

    Radar cross-section measurements indicate that Ganymede scatters to Earth 12 percent of the power expected from a conducting sphere of the same size and distance. This compares with 8 percent for Mars, 12 percent for Venus, 6 percent for Mercury, and about 8 percent for the asteroid Toro. Furthermore, Ganymede is considerably rougher (to the scale of the wavelength used, 12.6 centimeters) than Mars, Venus, or Mercury. Roughness is made evident in this experiment by the presence of echoes away from the center of the disk. A perfectly smooth target would reflect only a glint from the center, whereas a very rough target would reflect power from over the entire disk.

  12. The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.G.; Davis, M.

    1996-11-01

    GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

  13. Development of NASA's Next Generation L-Band Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Ranson, K. Jon; Marrero, Victor; Yeary, Mark

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Next generation Digital Beamforming SAR (DBSAR-2) is a state-of-the-art airborne L-band radar developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The instrument builds upon the advanced architectures in NASA's DBSAR-1 and EcoSAR instruments. The new instrument employs a 16-channel radar architecture characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instrument has been design to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. The instrument was recently completed, and tested and calibrated in a anechoic chamber.

  14. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C.L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, ??, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same- sense polarization enhancement around ?? = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  15. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment.

    PubMed

    Nozette, S; Lichtenberg, C L; Spudis, P; Bonner, R; Ort, W; Malaret, E; Robinson, M; Shoemaker, E M

    1996-11-29

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  16. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  17. Radar scattering of linear dunes and mega-yardangs: Application to Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillou, Philippe; Seignovert, Benoît; Radebaugh, Jani; Wall, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Cassini RADAR T8 acquisitions over the Belet Sand Sea on Titan, and show that the linear dunes encountered there are likely to be of both Egyptian and Namibian type. We also show that the radar-bright linear features observed in Cassini RADAR T64 and T83 acquisitions are very likely to be mega-yardangs, possible remnants of ancient lake basins at mid-latitude, formed when Titan's climate was different.

  18. Radar detection of moving objects around corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sume, A.; Gustafsson, M.; Jänis, A.; Nilsson, S.; Rahm, J.; Örbom, A.

    2009-05-01

    Detection of moving objects around corners, with no direct line-of-sight to the objects, is demonstrated in experiments using a coherent test-range radar. A setting was built up on the test-range ground consisting of two perpendicular wall sections forming a corner, with an opposite wall, intended to mimic a street scenario on a reduced scale. Two different wall materials were used, viz. light concrete and metallic walls. The latter choice served as reference, with elimination of transmission through the walls, e.g. facilitating comparison with theoretical calculations. Standard radar reflectors were used as one kind of target objects, in horizontal, circular movement, produced by a turntable. A human formed a second target, both walking and at standstill with micro-Doppler movements of body parts. The radar signal was produced by frequency stepping of a gated CW (Continuous Wave) waveform over a bandwidth of 2 or 4 GHz, between 8.5 and 12.5 GHz. Standard Doppler signal processing has been applied, consisting of a double FFT. The first of these produced "range profiles", on which the second FFT was applied for specific range gates, which resulted in Doppler frequency spectra, used for the detection. The reference reflectors as well as the human could be detected in this scenario. The target detections were achieved both in the wave component having undergone specular reflection in the opposite wall (strongest) as well as the diffracted component around the corner. Time-frequency analysis using Short Time Fourier Transform technique brought out micro-Doppler components in the signature of a walking human. These experiments have been complemented with theoretical field calculations and separate reflection measurements of common building materials.

  19. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  20. Exterior with Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior with Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background left, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  1. radR: an open-source platform for acquiring and analysing data on biological targets observed by surveillance radar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Radar has been used for decades to study movement of insects, birds and bats. In spite of this, there are few readily available software tools for the acquisition, storage and processing of such data. Program radR was developed to solve this problem. Results Program radR is an open source software tool for the acquisition, storage and analysis of data from marine radars operating in surveillance mode. radR takes time series data with a two-dimensional spatial component as input from some source (typically a radar digitizing card) and extracts and retains information of biological relevance (i.e. moving targets). Low-level data processing is implemented in "C" code, but user-defined functions written in the "R" statistical programming language can be called at pre-defined steps in the calculations. Output data formats are designed to allow for future inclusion of additional data items without requiring change to C code. Two brands of radar digitizing card are currently supported as data sources. We also provide an overview of the basic considerations of setting up and running a biological radar study. Conclusions Program radR provides a convenient, open source platform for the acquisition and analysis of radar data of biological targets. PMID:20977735

  2. NASA Radar Images Asteroid Toutatis

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System Radar on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it o...

  3. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  4. Radar Meteor Observations in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elford, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    During the last decade extensive meteor studies have been carried out in Australia using radio systems operating at frequencies between 2 and 30 MHz. Part of this program has been a deliberate effort to detect meteors above the "echo ceiling" of about 105 km associated with radars operating above 30 MHz. In fact the echo ceiling has been raised to 140 km with a dramatic increase in meteor flux [1]. The other aspect of these studies has been the use a low frequency (6-30MHz) surveillance radar to detect and record meteors over the horizon, using backscatter via ionospheric F-region. The power of the radar is such that the micrometeoroid limit is being approached [2]. The surveillance radar has confirmed the new estimates of meteor flux and extended to a mass limit of 0.2 microgram.

  5. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  6. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  7. A 94-GHz Millimeter-Wave Sensor for Speech Signal Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Tian, Ying; Lu, Guohua; Zhang, Yang; Lv, Hao; Yu, Xiao; Xue, Huijun; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jianqi; Jing, Xijing

    2013-01-01

    High frequency millimeter-wave (MMW) radar-like sensors enable the detection of speech signals. This novel non-acoustic speech detection method has some special advantages not offered by traditional microphones, such as preventing strong-acoustic interference, high directional sensitivity with penetration, and long detection distance. A 94-GHz MMW radar sensor was employed in this study to test its speech acquisition ability. A 34-GHz zero intermediate frequency radar, a 34-GHz superheterodyne radar, and a microphone were also used for comparison purposes. A short-time phase-spectrum-compensation algorithm was used to enhance the detected speech. The results reveal that the 94-GHz radar sensor showed the highest sensitivity and obtained the highest speech quality subjective measurement score. This result suggests that the MMW radar sensor has better performance than a traditional microphone in terms of speech detection for detection distances longer than 1 m. As a substitute for the traditional speech acquisition method, this novel speech acquisition method demonstrates a large potential for many speech related applications. PMID:24284764

  8. A 94-GHz millimeter-wave sensor for speech signal acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Tian, Ying; Lu, Guohua; Zhang, Yang; Lv, Hao; Yu, Xiao; Xue, Huijun; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jianqi; Jing, Xijing

    2013-01-01

    High frequency millimeter-wave (MMW) radar-like sensors enable the detection of speech signals. This novel non-acoustic speech detection method has some special advantages not offered by traditional microphones, such as preventing strong-acoustic interference, high directional sensitivity with penetration, and long detection distance. A 94-GHz MMW radar sensor was employed in this study to test its speech acquisition ability. A 34-GHz zero intermediate frequency radar, a 34-GHz superheterodyne radar, and a microphone were also used for comparison purposes. A short-time phase-spectrum-compensation algorithm was used to enhance the detected speech. The results reveal that the 94-GHz radar sensor showed the highest sensitivity and obtained the highest speech quality subjective measurement score. This result suggests that the MMW radar sensor has better performance than a traditional microphone in terms of speech detection for detection distances longer than 1 m. As a substitute for the traditional speech acquisition method, this novel speech acquisition method demonstrates a large potential for many speech related applications.

  9. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  10. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  11. Superresolution and Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    DICKEY,FRED M.; ROMERO,LOUIS; DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2001-05-01

    Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. The application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar is investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. A criterion for judging superresolution processing of an image is presented.

  12. Supervisory control and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Gaushell, D.J.; Darlington, H.T.

    1987-12-01

    The acquisition of data, the processing of those data for use by the operator, and operator control of remote devices are the fundamental building blocks upon which all modern utility control systems are based. The systems to accomplish these functions are known as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. This paper provides an overview of the functions of SCADA and the fundamentals of operation of SCADA systems, including a brief description on the key man-machine interface. Several of the key issues and problems in modern SCADA systems, i.e., message standards, system performance testing, and system obsolescence are discussed. The paper concludes with the current trends toward distributed processing, improved man-machine interface, standard systems, smarter RTUs, and standard software. The authors' view of the future, using interchangeable system parts, is provided.

  13. The First Italian Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbo, M.; di Martino, M.; Saba, L.; Montebugnoli, S.; Righini, S.; Poppi, S.; Orlati, A.; Ostro, S.; Cevolani, G.

    Radar is a uniquely powerful source of information about physical properties and orbits of solar system bodies, such as sizes, shapes, albedos, surface textures and bulk features. We discuss a project which aims at using the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) as radar system for physical studies of planetary targets, and in particular of near-Earth Aster- oids (NEAs). Within the feasibility study of this project, we discuss the results of the first italian radar experiment, which has been performed in bistatic mode with the joint collabo- ration Goldstone (California)-Medicina (Bologna). We have successfully observed the NEA 1998 WT24 on December 2001. Besides the physical study of 1998 WT24, the goals of this project were to test the existing technical facilities and capabilities for crucial radar follow-up observations of near- Earth Asteroids and thus to transfer the acquired skills to SRT radar project. The case and future prospects for an SRT based planetary radar project in Europe is reviewed.

  14. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows: Radar QPE (Kwon et al.; Hall et al.; Chen and Chandrasekar; Seo and Krajewski; Sandford).

  15. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  16. Feature analysis for indoor radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufler, Travis D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyzes the spectral features from human beings and indoor clutter for building and tuning Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers for the purpose of classifying stationary human targets. The spectral characteristics were obtained through simulations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) techniques where the radar cross section (RCS) of humans and indoor clutter objects were captured over a wide range of frequencies, polarizations, aspect angles, and materials. Additionally, experimental data was obtained using a vector network analyzer. Two different feature sets for class discrimination are used from the acquired target and clutter RCS spectral data sets. The first feature vectors consist of the raw spectral characteristics, while the second set of feature vectors are statistical features extracted over a set frequency interval. Utilizing variables of frequency and polarization, a SVM classifier can be trained to classify unknown targets as a human or clutter. Classification accuracy over 80% can be effectively achieved given appropriate features.

  17. Multiparameter radar analysis using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Ben Bella Sayed

    Multiparameter radars have been used in the interpretation of many meteorological phenomena. Rainfall estimates can be obtained from multiparameter radar measurements. Studying and analyzing spatial variability of different rainfall algorithms, namely R(ZH), the algorithm based on reflectivity, R(ZH, ZDR), the algorithm based on reflectivity and differential reflectivity, R(KDP), the algorithm based on specific differential phase, and R(KDP, Z DR), the algorithm based on specific differential phase and differential reflectivity, are important for radar applications. The data used in this research were collected using CSU-CHILL, CP-2, and S-POL radars. In this research multiple objectives are addressed using wavelet analysis namely, (1)space time variability of various rainfall algorithms, (2)separation of convective and stratiform storms based on reflectivity measurements, (3)and detection of features such as bright bands. The bright band is a multiscale edge detection problem. In this research, the technique of multiscale edge detection is applied on the radar data collected using CP-2 radar on August 23, 1991 to detect the melting layer. In the analysis of space/time variability of rainfall algorithms, wavelet variance introduces an idea about the statistics of the radar field. In addition, multiresolution analysis of different rainfall estimates based on four algorithms, namely R(ZH), R( ZH, ZDR), R(K DP), and R(KDP, Z DR), are analyzed. The flood data of July 29, 1997 collected by CSU-CHILL radar were used for this analysis. Another set of S-POL radar data collected on May 2, 1997 at Wichita, Kansas were used as well. At each level of approximation, the detail and the approximation components are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the rainfall algorithms can be judged. From this analysis, an important result was obtained. The Z-R algorithms that are widely used do not show the full spatial variability of rainfall. In addition another intuitively obvious result

  18. MST radar data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    One atmospheric variable which can be deduced from stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar data other than wind speed and direction is C sub n sup 2, related to the eddy dissipation rate. The computation of C sub n sup 2 makes use of the transmitted power (average, or peak plus duty cycle), the range of the echoes, and the returned power. The returned power can be calibrated only if a noise source of known strength is imposed; e.g., in the absence of absolute calibration, one can compare the diurnal noise signal with the galactic sky temperature. Thus to compute C sub n sup 2 one needs the transmitter power, the returned signal as a function of height, and the returned noise at an altitude so high that it is not contaminated by any signal. Now C sub n sup 2 relates with the amount of energy within the inertial subrange, and for many research studies it may be desirable to relate this with background flow as well as shears or irregularities on the size of the sample volume. The latter are quantified by the spectral width.

  19. Optical synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Zach, Shlomo; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-06-01

    A method is proposed for increasing the resolution of an object and overcoming the diffraction limit of an optical system installed on top of a moving imaging system, such as an airborne platform or satellite. The resolution improvement is obtained via a two-step process. First, three low resolution differently defocused images are captured and the optical phase is retrieved using an improved iterative Gershberg-Saxton based algorithm. The phase retrieval allows numerical back propagation of the field to the aperture plane. Second, the imaging system is shifted and the first step is repeated. The obtained optical fields at the aperture plane are combined and a synthetically increased lens aperture is generated along the direction of movement, yielding higher imaging resolution. The method resembles a well-known approach from the microwave regime called the synthetic aperture radar in which the antenna size is synthetically increased along the platform propagation direction. The proposed method is demonstrated via Matlab simulation as well as through laboratory experiment.

  20. Radar reflectivity of titan.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Grossman, A W; Butler, B J; Slade, M A

    1990-05-25

    The present understanding of the atmosphere and surface conditions on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, including the stability of methane, and an application of thermodynamics leads to a strong prediction of liquid hydrocarbons in an ethane-methane mixture on the surface. Such a surface would have nearly unique microwave reflection properties due to the low dielectric constant. Attempts were made to obtain reflections at a wavelength of 3.5 centimeters by means of a 70-meter antenna in California as the transmitter and the Very Large Array in New Mexico as the receiving instrument. Statistically significant echoes were obtained that show Titan is not covered with a deep, global ocean of ethane, as previously thought. The experiment yielded radar cross sections normalized by the Titan disk of 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.78 +/- 0.15, and 0.25 +/- 0.15 on three consecutive nights during which the sub-Earth longitude on Titan moved 50 degrees. The result for the combined data for the entire experiment is 0.35 +/- 0.08. The cross sections are very high, most consistent with those of the Galilean satellites; no evidence of the putative liquid ethane was seen in the reflection data. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 meters would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the detection limit of the experiment. The measured emissivity at similar wavelengths of about 0.9 is somewhat inconsistent with the high reflectivity.

  1. Interior, looking northwest Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Civil Engineering Storage Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  2. Exterior, looking west Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Civil Engineering Storage Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  3. Interior, looking northeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Microwave Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  4. The Reading Venture: Accelerating Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sifontes, Aida I.; Baez, Dodie

    This presentation describes how to use reading to improve second language acquisition. Part 1, "Building Awareness of Reading Habits and Attitudes," has students report their habits and attitudes about reading in English and their native language and recognize the importance of reading for improving English skills. Part 2, "Choosing a Book," has…

  5. Modeling the Distinct Phases of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from…

  6. Data acquisition for FNAL E665

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.; Green, M.C.; Kaufman, S.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Bartlett, J.F.; Melanson, H.L.; Petravick, D.; Michael, D.G.; McLeod, D.; Vidal, M.

    1989-01-01

    The data acquisition system for FNAL E665, an experiment to study deep inelastic muon scattering from nucleons and nuclei, is described. The system is built with the FNAL VAXONLINE and RSX DA building blocks. The structure, capabilities and limitations for data flow, control and monitoring are discussed. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Radar Altimetry for Inland Water: Current and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; da Silva, Joecila Santos; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-12-01

    Apart from oceans and ice-sheets, radar altimeters are shown by a plethora of works to be of considerable interest in monitoring inland water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands and floodplains. More than a decade of research on the application in the field of continental hydrology has demonstrated the advantages of providing global coverage, regular temporal sampling and short delivery delays, especially via the acquisition of numerous useful measurements over ungauged areas. With the aim to investigate the benefits that can be achieved by Sentinel-3 mission, two applications are here shown for selected pilot rivers and the results on discharge estimation are analyzed and discussed in terms of performance measures.

  8. Stereo radar: reconstructing 3D data from 2D radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerwitz, Sven; Döhler, Hans-Ullrich; Peinecke, Niklas; Korn, Bernd

    2008-04-01

    To improve the situation awareness of an aircrew during poor visibility, different approaches emerged during the past couple of years. Enhanced vision systems (EVS - based upon sensor images) are one of those. They improve situation awareness of the crew, but at the same time introduce certain operational deficits. EVS present sensor data which might be difficult to interpret especially if the sensor used is a radar sensor. In particular an unresolved problem of fast scanning forward looking radar systems in the millimeter waveband is the inability to measure the elevation of a target. In order to circumvent this problem effort was made to reconstruct the missing elevation from a series of images. This could be described as a "Stereo radar"-attempt and is similar to the reconstruction using photography (angle-angle images) from different viewpoints to rebuilt the depth information. Two radar images (range-angle images) with different bank angles can be used to reconstruct the elevation of targets. This paper presents the fundamental idea and the methods of the reconstruction. Furthermore, experiences with real data from EADS's "HiVision" MMCW radar are discussed. Two different approaches are investigated: First, a fusion of images with variable bank angles is calculated for different elevation layers and picture processing reveals identical objects in these layers. Those objects are compared regarding contrast and dimension to extract their elevation. The second approach compares short fusion pairs of two different flights with different nearly constant bank angles. Accumulating those pairs with different offsets delivers the exact elevation.

  9. C-Band Radar Imagery, Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area in Texas is shown on this image collected by the C-band radar of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this radar image, smooth areas, such as lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark. Rougher features, such as buildings and trees, appear bright. Downtown Dallas is the bright area at the center of the image, alongside the dark linear floodway of the Trinity River. Dark linear runways of two airports are also seen: Love Field near downtown Dallas in the image center, and Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in the upper left corner. The semi-circular terminal buildings of the international airport can also be seen in the area between the runways. Several large lakes, including Lake Ray Hubbard (upper right) and Joe Pool Lake (lower left) are also seen. Images like these, along with the SRTM topographic data, will be used by urban planners to study and monitor land use, and update maps and geographic information systems for the area. This image represents just 4 seconds of data collection time by the SRTM instrument. The overall diagonal linear pattern is a data processing artifact due to the quick turn-around browse nature of this image. These artifacts will be removed with further data processing.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  10. Improving Radar Snowfall Measurements Using a Video Disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. J.; Kucera, P. A.

    2005-05-01

    A video disdrometer has been recently developed at NASA/Wallops Flight Facility in an effort to improve surface precipitation measurements. The recent upgrade of the UND C-band weather radar to dual-polarimetric capabilities along with the development of the UND Glacial Ridge intensive atmospheric observation site has presented a valuable opportunity to attempt to improve radar estimates of snowfall. The video disdrometer, referred to as the Rain Imaging System (RIS), has been deployed at the Glacial Ridge site for most of the 2004-2005 winter season to measure size distributions, precipitation rate, and density estimates of snowfall. The RIS uses CCD grayscale video camera with a zoom lens to observe hydrometers in a sample volume located 2 meters from end of the lens and approximately 1.5 meters away from an independent light source. The design of the RIS may eliminate sampling errors from wind flow around the instrument. The RIS has proven its ability to operate continuously in the adverse conditions often observed in the Northern Plains. The RIS is able to provide crystal habit information, variability of particle size distributions for the lifecycle of the storm, snowfall rates, and estimates of snow density. This information, in conjunction with hand measurements of density and crystal habit, will be used to build a database for comparisons with polarimetric data from the UND radar. This database will serve as the basis for improving snowfall estimates using polarimetric radar observations. Preliminary results from several case studies will be presented.

  11. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  12. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  13. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  14. Micro pulse laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  15. Nearshore Processes, Currents and Directional Wave Spectra Monitoring Using Coherent and Non-coherent Imaging Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trizna, D.; Hathaway, K.

    2007-05-01

    Two new radar systems have been developed for real-time measurement of near-shore processes, and results are presented for measurements of ocean wave spectra, near-shore sand bar structure, and ocean currents. The first is a non-coherent radar based on a modified version of the Sitex radar family, with a data acquisition system designed around an ISR digital receiver card. The card operates in a PC computer with inputs from a Sitex radar modified for extraction of analogue signals for digitization. Using a 9' antenna and 25 kW transmit power system, data were collected during 2007 at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC during winter and spring of 2007. The directional wave spectrum measurements made are based on using a sequence of 64 to 640 antenna rotations to form a snapshot series of radar images of propagating waves. A square window is extracted from each image, typically 64 x 64 pixels at 3-m resolution. Then ten sets of 64 windows are submitted to a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform process to generate radar image spectra in the frequency-wavenumber space. The relation between the radar image spectral intensity and wave spectral intensity derived from the FRF pressure gauge array was used for a test set of data, in order to establish a modulation transfer function (MTF) for each frequency component. For 640 rotations, 10 of such spectra are averaged for improved statistics. The wave spectrum so generated was compared for extended data sets beyond those used to establish the MTF, and those results are presented here. Some differences between the radar and pressure sensor data that are observed are found to be due to the influence of the wind field, as the radar echo image weakens for light winds. A model is developed to account for such an effect to improve the radar estimate of the directional wave spectrum. The radar ocean wave imagery is severely influenced only by extremely heavy rain-fall rates, so that

  16. Maritime microwave radar and electro-optical data fusion for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seastrand, Mark J.

    2004-09-01

    US Customs is responsible for monitoring all incoming air and maritime traffic, including the island of Puerto Rico as a US territory. Puerto Rico offers potentially obscure points of entry to drug smugglers. This environment sets forth a formula for an illegal drug trade - based relatively near the continental US. The US Customs Caribbean Air and Marine Operations Center (CAMOC), located in Puntas Salinas, has the charter to monitor maritime and Air Traffic Control (ATC) radars. The CAMOC monitors ATC radars and advises the Air and Marine Branch of US Customs of suspicious air activity. In turn, the US Coast Guard and/or US Customs will launch air and sea assets as necessary. The addition of a coastal radar and camera system provides US Customs a maritime monitoring capability for the northwestern end of Puerto Rico (Figure 1). Command and Control of the radar and camera is executed at the CAMOC, located 75 miles away. The Maritime Microwave Surveillance Radar performs search, primary target acquisition and target tracking while the Midwave Infrared (MWIR) camera performs target identification. This wide area surveillance, using a combination of radar and MWIR camera, offers the CAMOC a cost and manpower effective approach to monitor, track and identify maritime targets.

  17. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Zumstein, James E.; Chang, John T.; Leach, Jr.. Richard R.

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  18. Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  19. MST radar data-base management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  20. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... onboard radar-equipped vessels of 300 GRT or over must hold an endorsement as radar observer. (c) Each... service as master or mate onboard an uninspected towing vessel of 8 meters (26 feet) or more in...

  1. Progress in existing and planned MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    Radar systems are described which use two different wind measuring techniques: the partial-reflection drift technique and the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) or Doppler beam-swing radar technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  2. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described.

  3. Eliminating Clutter in Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1979-01-01

    Diffusion technique reduces clutter noise in coherent SAR (synthetic-aperature radar) image signal without degrading its resolution. Technique makes radar-mapped terrain features more obvious.It also has potential application in holographic microscopy.

  4. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  5. Titan: 13 cm Arecibo Radar Observations and Comparisons with Cassini Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Black, G. J.; Carter, L. M.; Nolan, M.

    2008-03-01

    Arecibo 13 cm radar observations planned for February 2008 will have sub-Earth locations in the T8 and T13 Cassini radar swaths allowing the first detailed comparison of 13 cm normal incident radar properties with terrain types from the Cassini radar imagery.

  6. Synthetic aperture radar target simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Held, D. N.; Goldstein, R. M.; Bickler, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simulator for simulating the radar return, or echo, from a target seen by a SAR antenna mounted on a platform moving with respect to the target is described. It includes a first-in first-out memory which has digital information clocked in at a rate related to the frequency of a transmitted radar signal and digital information clocked out with a fixed delay defining range between the SAR and the simulated target, and at a rate related to the frequency of the return signal. An RF input signal having a frequency similar to that utilized by a synthetic aperture array radar is mixed with a local oscillator signal to provide a first baseband signal having a frequency considerably lower than that of the RF input signal.

  7. GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, John Alfred

    2011-04-01

    Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

  8. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  9. SMAP RADAR Processing and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission uses L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This presentation will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation. To obtain the desired high spatial resolution the level 1 radar ground processor employs synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging techniques. Part of the challenge of the SMAP data processing comes from doing SAR imaging on a conically scanned system with rapidly varying squint angles. The radar echo energy will be divided into range/Doppler bins using time domain processing algorithms that can easily follow the varying squint angle. For SMAP, projected range resolution is about 250 meters, while azimuth resolution varies from 400 meters to 1.2 km. Radiometric calibration of the SMAP radar means measuring, characterizing, and where necessary correcting the gain and noise contributions from every part of the system from the antenna radiation pattern all the way to the ground processing algorithms. The SMAP antenna pattern will be computed using an accurate antenna model, and then validated post-launch using homogeneous external targets such as the Amazon rain forest to look for uncorrected gain variation. Noise subtraction is applied after image processing using measurements from a noise only channel. Variations of the internal electronics are tracked by a loopback measurement which will capture most of the time and temperature variations of the transmit power and receiver gain. Long-term variations of system performance due to component aging will be tracked and corrected using stable external reference

  10. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  11. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  12. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  13. Portable receiver for radar detection

    DOEpatents

    Lopes, Christopher D.; Kotter, Dale K.

    2008-10-14

    Various embodiments are described relating to a portable antenna-equipped device for multi-band radar detection. The detection device includes a plurality of antennas on a flexible substrate, a detection-and-control circuit, an indicator and a power source. The antenna may include one or more planar lithographic antennas that may be fabricated on a thin-film substrate. Each antenna may be tuned to a different selection frequency or band. The antennas may include a bolometer for radar detection. Each antenna may include a frequency selective surface for tuning to the selection frequency.

  14. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at the ARM sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Shupe, M.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Miller, M. A.; Verlinde, H.; Luke, E. P.; Johnson, K. L.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Lamer, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program upgraded its fixed and mobile facilities with the acquisition of state-of-the-art scanning, dual-wavelength, polarimetric, Doppler cloud radars. The scanning ARM cloud radars (SACR's) are the most expensive and significant radar systems at all ARM sites and eight SACR systems will be operational at ARM sites by the end of 2013. The SACR's are the primary instruments for the detection of 3D cloud properties (boundaries, volume cloud fractional coverage, liquid water content, dynamics, etc.) beyond the soda-straw (profiling) limited view. Having scanning capabilities with two frequencies and polarization allows more accurate probing of a variety of cloud systems (e.g., drizzle and shallow, warm rain), better correction for attenuation, use of attenuation for liquid water content retrievals, and polarimetric and dual-wavelength ratio characterization of non-spherical particles for improved ice crystal habit identification. Examples of SACR observations from four ARM sites are presented here: the fixed sites at Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA), and the mobile facility deployments at Graciosa Island, Azores and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The 3D cloud structure is investigated both at the macro-scale (20-50 km) and cloud-scale (100-500 m). Doppler velocity measurements are corrected for velocity folding and are used either to describe the in-cloud horizontal wind profile or the 3D vertical air motions.

  15. Application of radar remote sensing in landslide geohazard risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Dongjian; He, Zhengwei; Hu, Deyong

    2011-10-01

    It is the difficulties to radar image interpretation, present remote sensing investigation and assessment of geohazard is mainly dependent on the high-resolution optical images, resulting in limited ability to extract surface information. The main advantage of radar is that it provides superior penetration capability under any type of weather condition, and can be used in the day or night time, rich image information and so on for the risk assessment of landslide, especially in geohazard emergency; optical image cannot match this advantage. The use of the "5.12" earthquake-induced landslide hazard for the research prototype, elaborate unique advantages and technical support role of remote sensing technology in landslide investigation and risk assessment, from the basic terrain data acquisition, disaster background analysis, interpretation of landslide hazard, monitoring, mapping, etc. Use of airborne and satellite radar remote sensing and Multi-source data to composite analysis of hazard information, indicates that the better interpretation effect by field investigation. The research results of this paper have great reference value to emergency disaster prevention and reduction of occurred frequent and dangerous geohazard.

  16. New very high resolution radar studies of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Campbell, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    As part of an effort to further understand the geologic utility of radar studies of the terrestrial planets, investigators at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics are collaborating with NEROC Haystack Observatory, MIT and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the analysis of existing 3.8 and 70 cm radar images of the Moon, and in the acquisition of new data for selected lunar targets. The intent is to obtain multi-polarization radar images at resolutions approaching 75 meters (3.8 cm wavelength) and 400 meters (70 cm wavelength) for the Apollo landing sites (thereby exploiting available ground truth) or regions covered by the metric camera and geochemical experiments onboard the command modules of Apollos 15, 16 and 17. These data were collected in both like- and cross-polarizations, and, in the case of the 70 cm data, permit the phase records to be used to assess the scattering properties of the surface. The distribution of surface units on the Moon that show a mismatch between the surface implied by like- and cross-polarized scattering data is being analyzed, based on the scattering models of Evans and Hagfors.

  17. Measurement of momentum flux using two meteor radars in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Shinbori, Atsuki; Riggin, Dennis M.; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2016-03-01

    Two nearly identical meteor radars were operated at Koto Tabang (0.20° S, 100.32° E), West Sumatra, and Biak (1.17° S, 136.10° E), West Papua, in Indonesia, separated by approximately 4000 km in longitude on the Equator. The zonal and meridional momentum flux, u'w' and v'w', where u, v, and w are the eastward, northward, and vertical wind velocity components, respectively, were estimated at 86 to 94 km altitudes using the meteor radar data by applying a method proposed by Hocking (2005). The observed u'w' at the two sites agreed reasonably well at 86, 90, and 94 km during the observation periods when the data acquisition rate was sufficiently large enough. Variations in v'w' were consistent between 86, 90, and 94 km altitudes at both sites. The climatological variation in the monthly averaged u'w' and v'w' was investigated using the long-term radar data at Koto Tabang from November 2002 to November 2013. The seasonal variations in u'w' and v'w' showed a repeatable semiannual and annual cycles, respectively. u'w' showed eastward values in February-April and July-September and v'w' was northward in June to August at 90-94 km, both of which were generally anti-phase with the mean zonal and meridional winds, having the same periodicity. Our results suggest the usefulness of the Hocking method.

  18. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, B.; Hromadka, T.V.; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for “ground-truthing” of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference. PMID:26649276

  19. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (b) If...

  20. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  1. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse....

  2. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold...

  3. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface...

  4. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  5. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  6. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface...

  7. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  8. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold...

  9. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  10. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies...

  11. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  12. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse....

  13. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on...

  14. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse....

  15. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on...

  16. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on...

  17. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  18. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold...

  19. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on...

  20. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse....

  1. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  2. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold...

  3. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies...

  4. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies...

  5. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  6. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface...

  7. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on...

  8. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies...

  9. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface...

  10. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  11. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface...

  12. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse....

  13. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, B; Hromadka, T V; Perez, R

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for "ground-truthing" of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference. PMID:26649276

  14. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, B; Hromadka, T V; Perez, R

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for "ground-truthing" of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference.

  15. Recent advances in radar applications to agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A.

    1970-01-01

    A series of remote radar sensing studies are summarized. These efforts comprise geoscience interpretations of such complex phenomena as those manifested in agricultural patterns. Considered are basic remote sensing needs in agriculture and the design and implementation of radar keys in the active microwave region as well as fine resolution radar imagery techniques for agriculture determinations and soil mapping.

  16. Jet stream related observations by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

  17. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  18. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    This grant provides for some investigations related to weather radar measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand. Quality data are needed from those systems to support TRMM and other scientific investigations. Activities carried out during a trip to the radar facilities at Phuket are described.

  19. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  20. Tracking radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

  1. Building 2D wide-area site models from single- and multipass single-polarization SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttikkad, Shyam; Chellappa, Rama; Novak, Leslie M.

    1996-06-01

    Wide area site models are useful for delineating regions of interest and assisting in tasks like monitoring and change detection. They are also useful in registering a newly acquired image to an existing one of the same site, or to a map. This paper presents an algorithm for building a 2D wide area site model from high resolution, single polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. A three stage algorithm, involving detection of bright pixels, statistical segmentation of the data into homogeneous regions, and labeling/validation of segmentation results, is used for this task. Constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors are used for detecting bright pixels. Under assumptions of a suitable model for the statistical distribution of single polarization intensity or complex data, maximum likelihood labeling is used for initial segmentation. Knowledge of the acquisition parameters and other geometric cues are used to refine the initial segmentation and to extract man-made objects like buildings, and their shadows, as well as roads, from these images. When data from multiple passes of the same site is available, site models yield feature points which can be used to register the different images. In case complete information regarding the radar location, heading, and depression angle are available, the multiple views can be registered prior to site model construction, leading to improved performance. Site models are also useful for SAR data compression, where possible targets, man-made objects, and their neighborhoods are compressed losslessly and the background regions are compressed using lossy schemes.

  2. 5. View toward west, east face ("B" wall) of perimeter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View toward west, east face ("B" wall) of perimeter acquisition radar building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  4. Electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar responses to complex targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonis

    2014-05-01

    defined through a constant real value, or else its frequency-dispersion properties can be taken into account by incorporating into the model Debye approximations. The electromagnetic source can be represented as a simple line of current (in the case of two-dimensional models), a Hertzian dipole, a bow tie antenna, or else, the realistic description of a commercial antenna can be included in the model [2]. Preliminary results for some of the proposed cells are presented, obtained by using GprMax [3], a freeware tool which solves Maxwell's equations by using a second order in space and time Finite-Difference Time-Domain algorithm. B-Scans and A-Scans are calculated at 1.5 GHz, for the total electric field and for the field back-scattered by targets embedded in the cells. A detailed description of the structures, together with the relevant numerical results obtained to date, are available for the scientific community on the website of COST Action TU1208, www.GPRadar.eu. Research groups working on the development of electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering techniques, as well as on imaging methods, might test and compare the accuracy and applicability of their approaches on the proposed set of scenarios. The aim of this initiative is not that of identifying the best methods, but more properly to indicate the range of reliability of each approach, highlighting its advantages and drawbacks. In the future, the realisation of the proposed concrete cells and the acquisition of GPR experimental data would allow a very effective benchmark for forward and inverse scattering methods. References [1] R. Yelf, A. Ward, "Nine steps to concrete wisdom." Proc. 13th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Lecce, Italy, 21-25 June 2010, pp. 1-8. [2] C. Warren, A. Giannopoulos, "Creating FDTD models of commercial GPR antennas using Taguchi's optimisation method." Geophysics (2011), 76, article ID G37. [3] A. Giannopoulos, "Modelling ground penetrating radar by GPRMAX

  5. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  6. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  7. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  8. Radar volcano monitoring system in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arason, Þórður; Yeo, Richard F.; Sigurðsson, Geirfinnur S.; Pálmason, Bolli; von Löwis, Sibylle; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór

    2013-04-01

    Weather radars are valuable instruments in monitoring explosive volcanic eruptions. Temporal variations in the eruption strength can be monitored as well as variations in plume and ash dispersal. Strength of the reflected radar signal of a volcanic plume is related to water content and droplet sizes as well as type, shape, amount and the grain size distribution of ash. The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) owns and operates three radars and one more is planned for this radar volcano monitoring system. A fixed position 250 kW C-band weather radar was installed in 1991 in SW-Iceland close to Keflavík International Airport, and upgraded to a doppler radar in 2010. In cooperation with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), IMO has recently invested in two mobile X-band radars and one fixed position C-band radar. The fixed position 250 kW doppler C-band weather radar was installed in April 2012 at Fljótsdalsheiði, E-Iceland, and in June 2012 IMO received a mobile 65 kW dual-polarization doppler X-band radar. Early in 2013 IMO will acquire another mobile radar of the same type. Explosive volcanic eruptions in Iceland during the past 22 years were monitored by the Keflavík radar: Hekla 1991, Gjálp 1996, Grímsvötn 1998, Hekla 2000, Grímsvötn 2004, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. Additionally, the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption was mointored by a mobile X-band radar on loan from the Italian Civil Protection Authorities. Detailed technical information is presented on the four radars with examples of the information acquired during previous eruptions. This expanded network of radars is expected to give valuable information on future volcanic eruptions in Iceland.

  9. Sensing through the wall imaging using the Army Research Lab ultra-wideband synchronous impulse reconstruction (UWB SIRE) radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Ressler, Marc; Sichina, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a mission and customer funded exploratory program, has developed a new low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar is capable of penetrating enclosed areas (buildings) and generating SAR imagery. This supports the U.S. Army's need for intelligence on the configuration, content, and human presence inside these enclosed areas. The radar system is mounted on a ground based vehicle traveling along the road and is configured with an array of antennas pointing toward the enclosed areas of interest. This paper will describe an experiment conducted recently at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. In this paper we briefly describe the UWB SIRE radar and the test setup in the experiment. We will also describe the signal processing and the image techniques used to produce the SAR imagery. Finally, we will present SAR imagery of the building and its internal structure from different viewing directions.

  10. Radar Cuts Subsoil Survey Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R.; Glaccum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Soil features located with minimum time and labor. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system supplements manual and mechanical methods in performing subsurface soil survey. Mobile system obtains graphic profile of soil discontinuities and interfaces as function of depth. One or two test borings necessary to substantiate soil profile. GPR proves useful as reconnaissance tool.

  11. Radar monitoring of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinard, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Radar is currently used for detecting and monitoring oil slicks on the sea surface. The four-frequency radar system is used to acquire synthetic aperature imagery of the sea surface on which the oil slicks appear as a nonreflecting area on the surface surrounded by the usual sea return. The value of this technique was demonstrated, when the four-frequency radar system was used to image the oil spill of tanker which has wrecked. Imagery was acquired on both linear polarization (horizontal, vertical) for frequencies of 428, 1228, and 8910 megahertz. Vertical returns strongly indicated the presence of oil while horizontal returns failed to detect the slicks. Such a result is characteristic of the return from the sea and cannot presently be interpreted as characteristics of oil spills. Because an airborne imaging radar is capable of providing a wide-swath coverage under almost all weather conditions, it offers promise in the development of a pollution-monitoring system that can provide a coastal watch for oil slicks.

  12. SMAP Radar Processing and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is part of the NASA space-based Earth observation program, and consists of an L-band radar and radiometer scheduled for launch into sun synchronous orbit in late 2014. A joint effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the SMAP mission draws heavily on the design and risk reduction heritage of the Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission [1], [2]. The SMAP science and applications objectives are to: 1) understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, 2) estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface, 3) quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes, 4) enhance weather and climate forecast skill, and 5) develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capability. To meet these science objectives, SMAP ground processing will combine the attributes of the radar and radiometer observations (in terms of their spatial resolution and sensitivity to soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation) to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB (1 sigma) at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This paper will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation.

  13. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  14. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  15. Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  16. Space radar image of Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the Washington, D.C. area demonstrates the capability of imaging radar as a useful tool for urban planners and managers to map and monitor land use patterns. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 150th orbit on April 18, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The Potomac River enters the scene at the top of the image, widens near the center of the image, then runs south and west off the left side of the image. Downtown Washington appears near the center, just to the right of the point where the river widens. The image shows an area 50.3 kilometers by 45.0 kilometers (31.2 miles by 27.9 miles) that is centered at 38.9 degrees north latitude and 77.1 degrees west longitude. The radar illumination is from the left side of the image. The image shows a single channel of SIR-C radar data: L-band, horizontally transmitted and received. State and city boundaries are also visible in the image. Virginia is to the left (southwest) of the Potomac River. Maryland and the District of Columbia are to the right (northeast). The avenues that form the boundary between Maryland and the District of Columbia appear as bright lines because the radar strikes the walls of buildings along the avenues at a perpendicular angle. The dark strip near the center of the image is the National Mall, and the Ellipse and White House grounds can be seen as an adjacent dark patch. The Capital Beltway highway appears as a thin black strip encircling the city. The large dark rectangle near the bottom of the image is Andrews Air Force Base, home of the presidential plane Air Force One. Dark patches to the right of the image represent some of the few remaining agricultural areas in this rapidly expanding metropolitan area.

  17. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques, which involves some investigations related to measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand, is reported. A major part of the activity was devoted to instruction and discussion with Thai radar engineers, technicians, and meteorologists concerning the basic principles of radar meteorology and applications to specific problems, including measurement of rainfall and detection of wind shear/microburst hazards. Weather radar calibration techniques were also considered during this project. Most of the activity took place during two visits to Thailand, in December 1990 and February 1992.

  18. Wideband, phase coded millimeter wave instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keicher, W. E.; Zieman, H. E.

    1982-10-01

    A wideband, biphase coded, CW millimeter wave instrumentation radar has been constructed to obtain both unresolved and resolved radar cross section data of tactical vehicles and naval vessels. The radar operates at 95.6 GHz with a selectable pseudo-noise code waveform which allows a variable range resolution and range ambiguity. The radar azimuth-elevation scanner is controlled by a microprocessor. Various scan patterns (e.g., raster) are stored in erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM). A 'sliding code' signal correlation is used to obtain processing gain as well as bandwidth compression in order to simplify signal recording and digitizing. Radar performance is also described.

  19. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  20. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  1. Planetary Radar with the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alyson; Ford, John M.; Watts, Galen

    2014-11-01

    The large aperture and sensitive receivers of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) make it an attractive receiving station for bistatic radar experiments. Consequently, it has been used as a receive station for radar observations since its commissioning in 2001. The GBT is equipped with receivers for all common planetary radar transmitters at P, S, and X band, as well as for future radars at up to 86 GHz. We describe the technical capabilities of the GBT and its instrumentation in terms of its tracking and RF performance, the available radar backends, and select science results obtained through the use of the GBT.

  2. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  3. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes

  4. Planetary Radars Operating Centre PROC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.; Flamini, E.; Seu, R.; Alberti, G.

    2007-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) plays an important role in Italy. Numerous scientific international space programs are currently carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry), provided by ASI either as contribution to ESA programs either within a NASA/ASI joint venture framework, are now operating: MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation three Italian dedicated operational centers have been realized, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD ( Processing Altimetry Data). Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution. Although they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). PROC is conceived in order to include the three operational centers, namely SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD, either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view. The Planetary Radar Processing Center shall be conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs. Therefore, scalability, easy use and management shall be the design drivers. The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. Furthermore, in the frame of

  5. Monitoring by holographic radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to

  6. A radar-enabled collaborative sensor network integrating COTS technology for surveillance and tracking.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R; Demirer, R Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  7. Millstone hill radar studies of plasma waves and turbulence. Annual report, November 1992-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C.

    1994-03-15

    The Millstone Hill UHF radar was used as a diagnostic tool for investigating plasma waves and turbulence. During the 15-month interval covered by the first year of this award, experiments were performed using an alternating-code technique in order to assess this capability for use as a plasma diagnostic. Experiments at fixed antenna position and with real-time interaction investigated phenomena near perpendicular flow angle when looking very close to perpendicular magnetic aspect angle conditions. Analysis of prior data showed that when flow angle is varied through per while holding 0 degree aspect angle, an abrupt change in sign of the line of sight phase velocity is observed. Preparations were continued for bistatic coherent backscatter experiments in FY'94 using the MIDAS-C data acquisition system developed at Millstone Hill for use as a bistatic receiver in Canada. Ionosphere, Radar, Radar clutter, Plasmas.

  8. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W. H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-12-01

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest "conventional" cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  9. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry to Measure Earth's Surface Topography and Its Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürgmann, Roland; Rosen, Paul A.; Fielding, Eric J.

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) from Earth-orbiting spacecraft provides a new tool to map global topography and deformation of the Earth's surface. Radar images taken from slightly different viewing directions allow the construction of digital elevation models of meter-scale accuracy. These data sets aid in the analysis and interpretation of tectonic and volcanic landscapes. If the Earth's surface deformed between two radar image acquisitions, a map of the surface displacement with tens-of-meters resolution and subcentimeter accuracy can be constructed. This review gives a basic overview of InSAR for Earth scientists and presents a selection of geologic applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities of InSAR for mapping the topography and deformation of the Earth.

  10. A radar-enabled collaborative sensor network integrating COTS technology for surveillance and tracking.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R; Demirer, R Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios. PMID:22438713

  11. A Radar-Enabled Collaborative Sensor Network Integrating COTS Technology for Surveillance and Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R.; Demirer, R. Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios. PMID:22438713

  12. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE PAGES

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; et al

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe themore » design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.« less

  13. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  14. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome

    J. Benveniste (1), V. Rosmorduc (2) S. Niemeijer (3), N. Picot (4) (1) European Space Agency (2) CLS, France, (3) STCorp, NL (4) CNES, France (www.altimetry.info) The field of satellite radar altimetry has matured to a point where it is now time to encourage a multimission approach (between various altimetry systems) and conceive an "all-altimeter" toolbox and tutorial. Such an integrated approach and view is vital not only for assessing the current status of what offers altimeter products but also to show the system and consistency with the past. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) is a collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data for altimetry users, experienced as well as beginners, and particularly the users of the upcoming CryoSat mission. It is able . to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 and 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason-1, Envisat, and the future Cryosat missions, . to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, . and to visualise the results. A version 2 is being developed with additional visualisation features such as waveform viewing. Also, a release for the MacOS is planned. As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data and additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data BRAT is being developed under contract with ESA and CNES. It is available at http://www.altimetry.info

  15. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox & Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmorduc, Vinca; Benveniste, Jerome; Breebaart, Leo; Bronner, Emilie; Dinardo, Salvatore; Earith, Didier; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Niejmeier, Sander; Picot, Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data, including the last mission launched, CryoSat. It has been available from April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. Nearly 1200 people downloaded it (as of end of June 2010), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them. Users' feedbacks, developments in altimetry, and practice, showed that new interesting features could be added. Some have been added and/or improved in version 2. Others are ongoing, some are in discussion. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason- 1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat and also the future Saral and Sentinel 3 missions, - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool both, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data, additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. BRAT is developed under contract with ESA and CNES. It is available at http://www.altimetry.info and http://earth.esa.int/brat/

  16. Data acquisition and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    1989-10-01

    Fundamental methods of signal processing used in normal mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radar observations are described. Complex time series of received signals obtained in each range gate are converted into Doppler spectra, from which the mean Doppler shift, spectral width and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are estimated. These spectral parameters are further utilized to study characteristics of scatterers and atmospheric motions.

  17. Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

  18. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  19. Methods for FMCW radar map georeferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaud, Marion; Rouveure, Raphaël; Faure, Patrice; Monod, Marie-Odile

    2013-10-01

    In a context of mobile environment mapping, a vehicle-based radar system, K2Pi, has been developed. A mapping of the environment is carried out from the radar datasets. Given the specificities of radar maps, the main problem at this stage is to find a method to georeference these maps. This article proposes three radar map georeferencing methods. The first method is a typical manual selection of a set of control point pairs. The second method consists of matching the relative trajectory computed by a specific radar algorithm with a trajectory recorded from absolute DGPS recording. Finally, the third method, inspired by the image-to-image approach, is based on Fourier-Mellin transform which automatically registers the radar map with respect to a georeferenced aerial photograph. Successfully tested on radar datasets, this method could be applied to many other types of data.

  20. Texture-based seismic damage assessment on radar data: a preliminary comparison between COSMO/SkyMed and TerraSAR-X datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, Mostapha; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on remote sensing technology as a disaster monitoring tool. It emphasizes on Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) applications to extract geo-information relevant to damage assessment on the block level from single post disaster imagery. The procedure undertaken was previously developed by our group, based on discovered correlations between texture measures on radar images and the extent of seismic damage in any given urban block. Ground truthing was based on a "Damaged Area Ratio" (DAR) damage indicator, computed as the area ratio of the damaged buildings to the block area. The damaged buildings were detected using data from high-resolution airborne sensors, thus only high levels of damage, mainly with ceiling partial or complete collapse, were considered due to the limitation of the space borne technology in detecting slight to moderate damages as well as the sandwich damages. The urban areas in the studied cities were allocated into a number of blocks, where DAR was calculated for each block. After that, damage categorization was applied using thresholds on the DAR values of the selected blocks. This work continues the investigation on the linear correlation between the textural features and the calculated damage indicator DAR. For that purpose, data acquisitions were analysed from two different SAR satellite sensors, TerraSAR-X and COSMO/Sky-Med. As test cases, damages from two earthquakes were analysed with different geometric resolutions: L'Aquila 2009 using High Resolution Spotlight images and Haiti 2010 using Strip Map images. The data were analysed with similar techniques for the sake of an objective comparison on the variations on the linear correlations. The funding and support of the Italian Department of Civil Protection through the "Progetto Esecutivo 2012-13", as well as the support from the German Aerospace Agency through the LAN 1240 project are gratefully acknowledged.