Science.gov

Sample records for acquisition real time

  1. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non-time

  2. Monitoring and Acquisition Real-time System (MARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Corbin

    2013-01-01

    MARS is a graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB and Java, allowing the user to configure and control the Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real-Time Acquisition and Analysis (SPARTAA) data acquisition system. SPARTAA not only acquires data, but also allows for complex algorithms to be applied to the acquired data in real time. The MARS client allows the user to set up and configure all settings regarding the data channels attached to the system, as well as have complete control over starting and stopping data acquisition. It provides a unique "Test" programming environment, allowing the user to create tests consisting of a series of alarms, each of which contains any number of data channels. Each alarm is configured with a particular algorithm, determining the type of processing that will be applied on each data channel and tested against a defined threshold. Tests can be uploaded to SPARTAA, thereby teaching it how to process the data. The uniqueness of MARS is in its capability to be adaptable easily to many test configurations. MARS sends and receives protocols via TCP/IP, which allows for quick integration into almost any test environment. The use of MATLAB and Java as the programming languages allows for developers to integrate the software across multiple operating platforms.

  3. Real-Time Protein Crystallization Image Acquisition and Classification System.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, Madhav; Pusey, Marc L; Aygun, Ramazan S

    2013-07-03

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a stand-alone real-time system for protein crystallization image acquisition and classification with a goal to assist crystallographers in scoring crystallization trials. In-house assembled fluorescence microscopy system is built for image acquisition. The images are classified into three categories as non-crystals, likely leads, and crystals. Image classification consists of two main steps - image feature extraction and application of classification based on multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks. Our feature extraction involves applying multiple thresholding techniques, identifying high intensity regions (blobs), and generating intensity and blob features to obtain a 45-dimensional feature vector per image. To reduce the risk of missing crystals, we introduce a max-class ensemble classifier which applies multiple classifiers and chooses the highest score (or class). We performed our experiments on 2250 images consisting 67% non-crystal, 18% likely leads, and 15% clear crystal images and tested our results using 10-fold cross validation. Our results demonstrate that the method is very efficient (< 3 seconds to process and classify an image) and has comparatively high accuracy. Our system only misses 1.2% of the crystals (classified as non-crystals) most likely due to low illumination or out of focus image capture and has an overall accuracy of 88%.

  4. Quantification of Artifact Reduction With Real-Time Cine Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Acquisition Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Ulrich W.; Keall, Paul J.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the magnitude and frequency of artifacts in simulated four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images using three real-time acquisition methods- direction-dependent displacement acquisition, simultaneous displacement and phase acquisition, and simultaneous displacement and velocity acquisition- and to compare these methods with commonly used retrospective phase sorting. Methods and Materials: Image acquisition for the four 4D CT methods was simulated with different displacement and velocity tolerances for spheres with radii of 0.5 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2.5 cm, using 58 patient-measured tumors and respiratory motion traces. The magnitude and frequency of artifacts, CT doses, and acquisition times were computed for each method. Results: The mean artifact magnitude was 50% smaller for the three real-time methods than for retrospective phase sorting. The dose was {approx}50% lower, but the acquisition time was 20% to 100% longer for the real-time methods than for retrospective phase sorting. Conclusions: Real-time acquisition methods can reduce the frequency and magnitude of artifacts in 4D CT images, as well as the imaging dose, but they increase the image acquisition time. The results suggest that direction-dependent displacement acquisition is the preferred real-time 4D CT acquisition method, because on average, the lowest dose is delivered to the patient and the acquisition time is the shortest for the resulting number and magnitude of artifacts.

  5. MODIS Vegetation Indices time series improvement considering real acquisition dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, S.; Borgogno Mondino, E.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite Vegetation Indices (VI) time series images are widely used for the characterization phenology, which requires a high temporal accuracy of the satellite data. The present work is based on the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD13Q1 product - Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 250m, which is generated through a maximum value compositing process that reduces the number of cloudy pixels and excludes, when possible, off-nadir ones. Because of its 16-days compositing period, the distance between two adjacent-in-time values within each pixel NDVI time series can range from 1 to 32 days, thus not acceptable for phenologic studies. Moreover, most of the available smoothing algorithms, which are widely used for phenology characterization, assume that data points are equidistant in time and contemporary over the image. The objective of this work was to assess temporal features of NDVI time series over a test area, composed by Castanea sativa (chestnut) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) pure pixels within the Piemonte region in Northwestern Italy. Firstly, NDVI, Pixel Reliability (PR) and Composite Day of the Year (CDOY) data ranging from 2000 to 2011 were extracted from MOD13Q1 and corresponding time series were generated (in further computations, 2000 was not considered since it is not complete because acquisition began in February and calibration is unreliable until October). Analysis of CDOY time series (containing the actual reference date of each NDVI value) over the selected study areas showed NDVI values to be prevalently generated from data acquired at the centre of each 16-days period (the 9th day), at least constantly along the year. This leads to consider each original NDVI value nominally placed to the centre of its 16-days reference period. Then, a new NDVI time series was generated: a) moving each NDVI value to its actual "acquisition" date, b) interpolating the obtained temporary time series through SPLINE functions, c) sampling such

  6. Real-Time Acquisition and Display of Data and Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachnak, Rafic; Chakinarapu, Ramya; Garcia, Mario; Kar, Dulal; Nguyen, Tien

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype that takes in an analog National Television System Committee (NTSC) video signal generated by a video camera and data acquired by a microcontroller and display them in real-time on a digital panel. An 8051 microcontroller is used to acquire power dissipation by the display panel, room temperature, and camera zoom level. The paper describes the major hardware components and shows how they are interfaced into a functional prototype. Test data results are presented and discussed.

  7. Real-time detection and data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiber, J. H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline which has potential for online use is described and basic principles of the contour detector are presented in detail. It is concluded that the data acquisition system for real time, online detection of left ventricular outlines has many advantages over presently used manual or semi-automatic procedures in a clinical investigative environment.

  8. Holographic data acquisition and display in real and quasi-real time: friendly for industrial inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery; Lau, Bernhard

    1996-09-01

    Quick, reliable and inexpensive testing of products and components is needed in industry more often than not. Holography due to its intrinsic limitations and reasonably high costs yet is a method which is used comparatively rarely for industrial optical inspections. In the Laboratory of Technical Optics, Laser Technologies and Optoelectronics we produce holograms and interferograms on silver halide media in extremely unpromising conditions intentionally introduced to fit industrial ones. The main features of our processes are: (1) high speed of the whole process of data acquisition, storage and final presentation; (2) possibility to perform all these operations in strong daylight corresponding to industrial illumination levels or even exceeding recommended levels of illumination of industrial working places; (3) possibility to avoid any dark rooms; (4) high diffraction efficiency of holograms measured at the wavelength of recording, i.e. any wavelength shifts of holographic reconstruction are avoided for any types of holograms including reflection ones usually suffering from such shifts; (5) low costs due to low labor and equipment costs; and (6) easiness of performing quick checks in industrial environment. In our experiments we investigated various optical setups for recording holograms, double exposure and real time interferograms, in situ among them, and different types of holographic optical elements. We used different types of lasers: helium-neon (633 nm), argon (488 nm), semiconductor (675 and 685 nm), ruby (693 nm). Various silver halide media were used: Agfa Gevaert 8 E 75 HD films and plates, Russian PFG-03 and PFG-03 C (color).

  9. Real-Time Flight Test PCM Data Acquisition Monitor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    with the use of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)/ Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) techniques. A TDM/PCM signal is a serial digital data stream. It consists...of a sequence of frames. Each frame in turn is composed of a specified number of digitized samples of data called data words, each a specified number...lines is at ground potential and the other is either at a higher positive voltage representing a digital "l", or grounded represented a digital Ŕ". By

  10. Software processing for the real time data acquisition system (RDAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucher, T. N.; Hutchinson, M. P.

    The design centers on a powerful telemetry front end designed to synchronize with incoming information and to preprocess this information. Preprocessing involves functions such as limit checking, slope checking, data compression, data tagging, and engineering unit conversion that are generally common to all customers. The front end can not only be configured to a particular customer's needs; it also provides a basis for a building block style of increasing functional capability in data preprocessing. Whereas the front-end capabilities center on data preprocessing, a major key to this successful architecture is the formulation of data outputs by the front end for input to the host computer, to an array processor, and to a 300-megabyte disk for time history purposes. By using the front end to handle these data formatting and routing functions, the host computer of the system has available at any instant the information necessary for conducting specialized operations for the particular needs of the customer.

  11. Revise and resubmit: How real-time parsing limitations influence grammar acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Pozzan, Lucia; Trueswell, John C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from a three-day artificial language learning study on adults. The study examined whether sentence-parsing limitations, in particular, difficulties revising initial syntactic/semantic commitments during comprehension, shape learners’ ability to acquire a language. Findings show that both comprehension and production of morphology pertaining to sentence argument structure are delayed when this morphology consistently appears at the end, rather than at the beginning, of sentences in otherwise identical grammatical systems. This suggests that real-time processing constraints impact acquisition; morphological cues that tend to guide linguistic analyses are easier to learn than cues that revise these analyses. Parallel performance in production and comprehension indicates that parsing constraints affect grammatical acquisition, not just real-time commitments. Properties of the linguistic system (e.g., ordering of cues within a sentence) interact with the properties of the cognitive system (cognitive control and conflict-resolution abilities) and together affect language acquisition. PMID:26026607

  12. Revise and resubmit: how real-time parsing limitations influence grammar acquisition.

    PubMed

    Pozzan, Lucia; Trueswell, John C

    2015-08-01

    We present the results from a three-day artificial language learning study on adults. The study examined whether sentence-parsing limitations, in particular, difficulties revising initial syntactic/semantic commitments during comprehension, shape learners' ability to acquire a language. Findings show that both comprehension and production of morphology pertaining to sentence argument structure are delayed when this morphology consistently appears at the end, rather than at the beginning, of sentences in otherwise identical grammatical systems. This suggests that real-time processing constraints impact acquisition; morphological cues that tend to guide linguistic analyses are easier to learn than cues that revise these analyses. Parallel performance in production and comprehension indicates that parsing constraints affect grammatical acquisition, not just real-time commitments. Properties of the linguistic system (e.g., ordering of cues within a sentence) interact with the properties of the cognitive system (cognitive control and conflict-resolution abilities) and together affect language acquisition.

  13. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  14. A real-time data acquisition and elaboration system for instabilities control in the FTU tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, E.; Boncagni, L.; Galperti, C.; Marchetto, C.; Nowak, S.; Sozzi, C.; Apruzzese, G.; Bin, W.; Belli, F.; Botrugno, A.; Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; D‧Antona, G.; Davoudi, M.; Figini, L.; Ferrero, R.; Gabellieri, L.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, A.; Lazzaro, E.; Moro, A.; Mellera, V.; Minelli, D.; Panella, M.; Piergotti, V.; Platania, P.; Ramogida, G.; Rocchi, G.; Sibio, A.; Tilia, B.; Tudisco, O.

    2013-08-01

    A real-time data acquisition and elaboration system is being implemented to control the new ECH launcher recently installed at FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The system is aimed at controlling different kinds of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, in particular the deleterious 3/2 and 2/1 (neoclassical) tearing modes, (N)TM, and the saw teeth period in order to prevent the seeding of NTMs. The complete system is presented here together with preliminary offline and real-time tests. 2001 Elsevier Science.

  15. A real-time spectrum acquisition system design based on quantum dots-quantum well detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Guo, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the structure characteristics of quantum dots-quantum well photodetector with response wavelength range from 400 nm to 1000 nm. It has the characteristics of high sensitivity, low dark current and the high conductance gain. According to the properties of the quantum dots-quantum well photodetectors, we designed a new type of capacitive transimpedence amplifier (CTIA) readout circuit structure with the advantages of adjustable gain, wide bandwidth and high driving ability. We have implemented the chip packaging between CTIA-CDS structure readout circuit and quantum dots detector and tested the readout response characteristics. According to the timing signals requirements of our readout circuit, we designed a real-time spectral data acquisition system based on FPGA and ARM. Parallel processing mode of programmable devices makes the system has high sensitivity and high transmission rate. In addition, we realized blind pixel compensation and smoothing filter algorithm processing to the real time spectrum data by using C++. Through the fluorescence spectrum measurement of carbon quantum dots and the signal acquisition system and computer software system to realize the collection of the spectrum signal processing and analysis, we verified the excellent characteristics of detector. It meets the design requirements of quantum dot spectrum acquisition system with the characteristics of short integration time, real-time and portability.

  16. SNR enhancement of highly-accelerated real-time cardiac MRI acquisitions based on non-local means algorithm.

    PubMed

    Naegel, Benoît; Cernicanu, Alexandru; Hyacinthe, Jean-Noël; Tognolini, Maurizio; Vallée, Jean-Paul

    2009-08-01

    Real-time cardiac MRI appears as a promising technique to evaluate the mechanical function of the heart. However, ultra-fast MRI acquisitions come with an important signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty, which drastically reduces the image quality. Hence, a real-time denoising approach would be desirable for SNR amelioration. In the clinical context of cardiac dysfunction assessment, long acquisitions are required and for most patients the acquisition takes place with free breathing. Hence, it is necessary to compensate respiratory motion in real-time. In this article, a real-time and interactive method for sequential registration and denoising of real-time MR cardiac images is presented. The method has been experimented on 60 fast MRI acquisitions in five healthy volunteers and five patients. These experiments assessed the feasibility of the method in a real-time context.

  17. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  18. Hardware System for Real-Time EMG Signal Acquisition and Separation Processing during Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yin, Chieh; Chen, Yan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop a real-time electromyography (EMG) signal acquiring and processing device that can acquire signal during electrical stimulation. Since electrical stimulation output can affect EMG signal acquisition, to integrate the two elements into one system, EMG signal transmitting and processing method has to be modified. The whole system was designed in a user-friendly and flexible manner. For EMG signal processing, the system applied Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as the core to instantly process real-time hybrid EMG signal and output the isolated signal in a highly efficient way. The system used the power spectral density to evaluate the accuracy of signal processing, and the cross correlation showed that the delay of real-time processing was only 250 μs.

  19. Performance of Object-Oriented Real-Time Control and Acquisition Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The dead-time of the Object-oriented Real-time Control and Aqcuisition data acquisition software, orca, was quantitatively determined for a VME-based system utilizing a single, peak-sensing CAEN 785N analog-to-digital converter and two scaler modules. A single board computer in the VME crate controls rapid read-out of the modules and the data is then transferred via TCP/IP to the orca control program, running on MacOSX, where the data can be filtered based on desired criteria, saved in an open format, and displayed on-line in histograms. A graphical interface allows the system to be configured via ``drag and drop'' method. The performance tests were performed on orca and two other data acquisition systems used at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, coda and SpecTcl, to compare the systems' data collection capabilities and determine whether the new system is a worthy competitor of the existing systems.

  20. A high speed data acquisition and processing system for real time data analysis and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, J. R.

    1992-11-01

    A high speed data acquisition system which is closely coupled with a high speed digital processor is described. Data acquisition at a rate of 40 million 14 bit data values per second is possible simultaneously with data processing at a rate of 80 million floating point operations per second. This is achieved by coupling a commercially available VME format single board computer based on the Intel i860 microprocessor with a custom designed first-in, first-out memory circuit that transfers data at high speed to the processor board memory. Parallel processing to achieve increased computation speed is easily implemented because the data can be transferred simultaneously to multiple processor boards. Possible applications include high speed process control and real time data reduction. A specific example is described in which this hardware is used to implement a feedback control system for 18 parameters which uses 100 input signals and achieves a 100 μs cycle time.

  1. Laser airborne remote sensing real-time acquisition, processing, and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Brian T.; Pierson, Robert E.; Dropka, T. J.; Dowling, James A.; Lang, L. M.; Fox, Marsha J.

    1997-10-01

    The US Air Force Phillips Laboratory is evaluating the feasibility of long-standoff-range remote sensing of gaseous species present in trace amounts in the atmosphere. Extensive system integration in the laboratory and an airborne test are leading to remote sensing ground test and airborne missions within the next year. This paper describes the design, external interfaces. and initial performance of the Laser Airborne Remote Sensing acquisition, processing, and control system to be deployed on the Phillips Laboratory NC-135 research aircraft for differential absorption lidar system performance tests. The dual-CPU VME-based real-time computer system synchronizes experiment timing and pulsed CO2 laser operation up to 30 Hz while controlling optical subsystem components such as a laser grating, receiver gain, mirror alignment, and laser shutters. This real-time system acquires high rate detector signals from the outgoing and return laser pulses as well as a low rate health and status signals form the optical bench and the aircraft. Laser pulse and status data are processed and displayed in real time on one of four graphical user interfaces: one devoted to system control, one to remote mirror alignment, and two other interfaces for real-time data analysis and diagnostics. The dual-CPU and multi- layered software decouple time critical and non-critical tasks allowing great flexibility in flight-time display and processing.

  2. APNEA list mode data acquisition and real-time event processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, R.A.; Miller, P.; Bramblett, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    The LMSC Active Passive Neutron Examinations and Assay (APNEA) Data Logger is a VME-based data acquisition system using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware with the application-specific software. It receives TTL inputs from eighty-eight {sup 3}He detector tubes and eight timing signals. Two data sets are generated concurrently for each acquisition session: (1) List Mode recording of all detector and timing signals, timestamped to 3 microsecond resolution; (2) Event Accumulations generated in real-time by counting events into short (tens of microseconds) and long (seconds) time bins following repetitive triggers. List Mode data sets can be post-processed to: (1) determine the optimum time bins for TRU assay of waste drums, (2) analyze a given data set in several ways to match different assay requirements and conditions and (3) confirm assay results by examining details of the raw data. Data Logger events are processed and timestamped by an array of 15 TMS320C40 DSPs and delivered to an embedded controller (PowerPC604) for interim disk storage. Three acquisition modes, corresponding to different trigger sources are provided. A standard network interface to a remote host system (Windows NT or SunOS) provides for system control, status, and transfer of previously acquired data. 6 figs.

  3. Real time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, C.; Keis, F.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-11-01

    The usage of data from commercial microwave link (CML) networks for scientific purposes is becoming increasingly popular, in particular for rain rate estimation. However, data acquisition and availability is still a crucial problem and limits research possibilities. To overcome this issue, we have developed an open source data acquisition system based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It is able to record transmitted- and received signal levels of a large number of CMLs simultaneously with a temporal resolution of up to one second. We operate this system at Ericsson Germany, acquiring data from 450 CMLs with minutely real time transfer to our data base. Our data acquisition system is not limited to a particular CML hardware model or manufacturer, though. We demonstrate this by running the same system for CMLs of a different manufacturer, operated by an alpine skiing resort in Germany. There, the data acquisition is running simultaneously for four CMLs with a temporal resolution of one second. We present an overview of our system, describe the details of the necessary SNMP requests and show results from its operational application.

  4. Real-time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, Christian; Keis, Felix; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-03-01

    The usage of data from commercial microwave link (CML) networks for scientific purposes is becoming increasingly popular, in particular for rain rate estimation. However, data acquisition and availability is still a crucial problem and limits research possibilities. To overcome this issue, we have developed an open-source data acquisition system based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It is able to record transmitted and received signal levels of a large number of CMLs simultaneously with a temporal resolution of up to 1 s. We operate this system at Ericsson Germany, acquiring data from 450 CMLs with minutely real-time transfer to our database. Our data acquisition system is not limited to a particular CML hardware model or manufacturer, though. We demonstrate this by running the same system for CMLs of a different manufacturer, operated by an alpine ski resort in Germany. There, the data acquisition is running simultaneously for four CMLs with a temporal resolution of 1 s. We present an overview of our system, describe the details of the necessary SNMP requests and show results from its operational application.

  5. Real-time detection and data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiber, J. H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the design and capabilities of a computer-interfaced angiocardiographic automated border recognizer for real-time detection and data acquisition regarding the left ventricular outline. The contour detection is based on a thresholding technique that uses an analog comparator to compare the video signal with a constant reference level, which can be used satisfactorily only if the brightness level is roughly constant along a ventricular border. The use of dynamic reference level is described for achieving a marked improvement by having the reference level dynamically adjusted according to local brightness levels on a line-to-line basis. Also discussed are the features of the computer interface designed and implemented for the real-time on-line storage of the obtained border coordinates. Results to date indicate that the system provides an accurate left ventricular contour even in pictures with relatively low contrast. Application of the threshold detection technique to echocardiography is briefly discussed.

  6. The real-time display of interferometry data for Goldstone radar astronomy data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    A method for visualizing radar interferometry data in real time has been developed for the Goldstone radar astronomy ranging data-acquisition system. The presentation is similar in appearance to a vector field display or data-based grid. This form was selected to facilitate the recognition of characteristic patterns of local variation in the phase and magnitude of complex elements in a two-dimensional data array. The design emphasized efficiency under the demands of real-time processing and remote monitoring. The interferometry 'phase-magnitude' presentation, as it has come to be called, has been used to monitor radar interferometry experiments on three targets, beginning with the asteroid 4179 Toutatis, and continuing with Mars and Mercury.

  7. Development of a Real-Time, High-Speed Distribution Level Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of smart grids and the deployment of their enabling technologies, improved data acquisition will be needed at the distribution level to understand the full impact of these changes. With this in mind, NREL has developed a high-speed measurement and data collection network targeted specifically at the distribution level. This network is based around adaptable, rugged measurement devices designed for deployment at a variety of low and medium voltage locations below the sub-station. Each of these devices is capable of real-time data transmission via an Internet connection. Additionally, several analysis and visualization applications have been developed around the incoming data streams.

  8. Data acquisition and real-time control using spreadsheets: interfacing Excel with external hardware.

    PubMed

    Aliane, Nourdine

    2010-07-01

    Spreadsheets have become a popular computational tool and a powerful platform for performing engineering calculations. Moreover, spreadsheets include a macro language, which permits the inclusion of standard computer code in worksheets, and thereby enable developers to greatly extend spreadsheets' capabilities by designing specific add-ins. This paper describes how to use Excel spreadsheets in conjunction to Visual Basic for Application programming language to perform data acquisition and real-time control. Afterwards, the paper presents two Excel applications with interactive user interfaces developed for laboratory demonstrations and experiments in an introductory course in control.

  9. Real-time three-dimensional fingerprint acquisition via a new photometric stereo means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wuyuan; Song, Zhan; Chung, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    A real-time means for three-dimensional (3-D) fingerprint acquisition is presented. The system is configured with only one camera and some white light-emitting diode lamps. The reconstruction is performed based on the principle of photometric stereo. In the algorithm, a two-layer Hanrahan-Krueger model is proposed to represent the finger surface reflectance property instead of the traditional Lambert model. By the proposed lighting direction calibration and the nonuniform lighting correction methods, surface normal at each image point can be accurately estimated by solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Finally, a linear normal transformation is implemented for the enhancement of 3-D models. The experiments are implemented with real finger and palm prints, and the results are also compared with traditional means to show its feasibility and improvement in the reconstruction accuracy.

  10. Real-time data acquisition and telemetry based irrigation control system

    DOEpatents

    Slater, John M.; Svoboda, John M.

    2005-12-13

    A data acquisition and telemetry based control system for use in facilitating substantially real time management of an agricultural irrigation system. The soil moisture sensor includes a reader and a plurality of probes. The probes each include an electronic circuit having a moisture sensing capacitor in operative communication with the soil whose moisture is to be measured. Each probe also includes a receive/transmit antenna and the reader includes a transmit/receive antenna, so that as the reader passes near the probe, the reader transmits a digital excitation signal to the electronic circuit of the biodegradable probe via an inductive couple formed between the transmit/receive antenna of the reader and the receive/transmit coil of the probe. The electronic circuit uses an energy component of the excitation signal to generate a digital data signal which indicates the moisture content of the soil adjacent to the moisture sensing capacitor. The probe sends the data signal to the reader which then uses the data signal to develop a corresponding set of watering instructions which are then transmitted to a control module in communication with the irrigation system. The control module sends corresponding control signals to nozzles of the irrigation system causing the irrigation system to disperse water in a manner consistent with the moisture content data transmitted by the probes to the reader. Because the irrigation system moves continuously through the field to be irrigated, the moisture content data acquisition and resultant water dispersal by the irrigation system occur substantially in real time.

  11. SU-E-J-237: Real-Time 3D Anatomy Estimation From Undersampled MR Acquisitions

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzner, M; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Crijns, S; Senneville, B Denis de

    2015-06-15

    resolution. This can be employed to greatly reduce image acquisition times for interventional applications in real-time. This work was funded by the SoRTS consortium, which includes the industry partners Elekta, Philips and Technolution.

  12. Real time data acquisition of a countrywide commercial microwave link network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, Christian; Keis, Felix; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Research in recent years has shown that data from commercial microwave link networks can provide very valuable precipitation information. Since these networks comprise the backbone of the cell phone network, they provide countrywide coverage. However acquiring the necessary data from the network operators is still difficult. Data is usually made available for researchers with a large time delay and often at irregular basis. This of course hinders the exploitation of commercial microwave link data in operational applications like QPE forecasts running at national meteorological services. To overcome this, we have developed a custom software in joint cooperation with our industry partner Ericsson. The software is installed on a dedicated server at Ericsson and is capable of acquiring data from the countrywide microwave link network in Germany. In its current first operational testing phase, data from several hundred microwave links in southern Germany is recorded. All data is instantaneously sent to our server where it is stored and organized in an emerging database. Time resolution for the Ericsson data is one minute. The custom acquisition software, however, is capable of processing higher sampling rates. Additionally we acquire and manage 1 Hz data from four microwave links operated by the skiing resort in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. We will present the concept of the data acquisition and show details of the custom-built software. Additionally we will showcase the accessibility and basic processing of real time microwave link data via our database web frontend.

  13. Distributed real time data processing architecture for the TJ-II data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Lopez, S.; Machon, D.; Vega, J.; Sanchez, E.

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the performance of a new model of architecture that has been developed for the TJ-II data acquisition system in order to increase its real time data processing capabilities. The current model consists of several compact PCI extension for instrumentation (PXI) standard chassis, each one with various digitizers. In this architecture, the data processing capability is restricted to the PXI controller's own performance. The controller must share its CPU resources between the data processing and the data acquisition tasks. In the new model, distributed data processing architecture has been developed. The solution adds one or more processing cards to each PXI chassis. This way it is possible to plan how to distribute the data processing of all acquired signals among the processing cards and the available resources of the PXI controller. This model allows scalability of the system. More or less processing cards can be added based on the requirements of the system. The processing algorithms are implemented in LabVIEW (from National Instruments), providing efficiency and time-saving application development when compared with other efficient solutions.

  14. Real-time data acquisition system for monitoring patients in an intensive care unit (ICU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2003-04-01

    In Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient"s physiological variables such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, ventilation and brain activity are constantly monitored on-line, and medicine doses are given to ensure that these variables remain within desired limits. Such data are vital not only for on-line but also for off-line analyses and for medical staff training. Furthermore, in cases of deceased patients it is very important to retrieve these data in order to investigate the causes of deaths. This paper is introducing a design of a Real-Time Data Acquisition System for monitoring patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The proposed design is implemented on a standard personal computer (PC) and operating system without using any sophisticated hardware or interface devices.

  15. Real-time data acquisition system for the NASA Langley transonic dynamics tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, P. H.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware configuration of the Transonic Dynamics Wind Tunnel Data Acquisition System (DAS) which consists of an analog front end that can process up to 260 channels of data is presented. The DAS also has a multi-channel analog-to-digital subsystem that can process up to 50,000 samples of data per sec, and a digital computer with standard and nonstandard devices, with graphics capability. The software configuration of the DAS and complex hardware/software interfaces are described, which can provide automatic amplifier gain and offset adjustment for each data channel. Finally, a summary of specific DAS applications is given including the real-time processing of dynamic deflection data, unsteady pressure measurements, and flutter and buffet data.

  16. Real-time model-based vision system for object acquisition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Gennery, Donald B.; Bon, Bruce; Litwin, Todd

    1987-01-01

    A machine vision system is described which is designed to acquire and track polyhedral objects moving and rotating in space by means of two or more cameras, programmable image-processing hardware, and a general-purpose computer for high-level functions. The image-processing hardware is capable of performing a large variety of operations on images and on image-like arrays of data. Acquisition utilizes image locations and velocities of the features extracted by the image-processing hardware to determine the three-dimensional position, orientation, velocity, and angular velocity of the object. Tracking correlates edges detected in the current image with edge locations predicted from an internal model of the object and its motion, continually updating velocity information to predict where edges should appear in future frames. With some 10 frames processed per second, real-time tracking is possible.

  17. High-throughput data acquisition and processing for real-time x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelgesang, Matthias; Rota, Lorenzo; Ardila Perez, Luis E.; Caselle, Michele; Chilingaryan, Suren; Kopmann, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    With ever-increasing data rates due to stronger light sources and better detectors, X-ray imaging experiments conducted at synchrotron beamlines face bandwidth and processing limitations that inhibit efficient workflows and prevent real-time operations. We propose an experiment platform comprised of programmable hardware and optimized software to lift these limitations and make beamline setups future-proof. The hardware consists of an FPGA-based data acquisition system with custom logic for data pre-processing and a PCIe data connection for transmission of currently up to 6.6 GB/s. Moreover, the accompanying firmware supports pushing data directly into GPU memory using AMD's DirectGMA technology without crossing system memory first. The GPUs are used to pre-process projection data and reconstruct final volumetric data with OpenCL faster than possible with CPUs alone. Besides, more efficient use of resources this enables a real-time preview of a reconstruction for early quality assessment of both experiment setup and the investigated sample. The entire system is designed in a modular way and allows swapping all components, e.g. replacing our custom FPGA camera with a commercial system but keep reconstructing data with GPUs. Moreover, every component is accessible using a low-level C library or using a high-level Python interface in order to integrate these components in any legacy environment.

  18. Demonstrating Acquisition of Real-Time Thermal Data over Fires Utilizing UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Stoneburner, Jay; Sullivan, Donald V.; Brass, James A.; Buechel, Sally W.; Higgins, Robert G.; Hildum, Edward A.; Schoenung, Susan M.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. has been developing real-time data acquisition and information delivery systems employing uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) technology for disaster mitigation and assessment demonstrations. Working in conjunction with the US Forest Service, a disaster community agency responsible for wildfire management and mitigation, we developed a large-scale wildfire demonstration called the First Response Experiment (FIRE). During that experiment in late summer 2001, the participants demonstrated the melding of innovative technologies such as UAV platforms, real-time data processing, and data telemetry for quick analysis of a disaster event. The General Atomics ALTUS UAV, the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment System (AIRDAS) and Over-The-Horizon (OTH) satellite data telemetry equipment were employed over a controlled burn to test the feasibility of a disaster monitoring and mitigation platform for hazardous duty. The ALTUS UAV was employed to demonstrate the long duration, altitude, and payload capability of unmanned platforms for acquiring disaster related data. The ALTUS has an operational altitude to 45,000 feet (13,700 in), with a flight duration of twenty-four hours and a payload capacity of over 300 lbs. (148.5 kg). This allows the platform to operate under the conditions that would be necessary for monitoring and mitigating disaster events throughout the Unites States. The four channel AIRDAS data (calibrated thermal infrared digital imagery of the fire event) was sent from the ALTUS UAV via a satellite communications system (NERA transponder and INMARSAT satellite) to a data archive server and an image processing work station at NASA-Ames Research Center, 400 miles away.

  19. Software-Based Real-Time Acquisition and Processing of PET Detector Raw Data.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph W; Salomon, André; Gebhardt, Pierre; Weissler, Bjoern; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter M; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-02-01

    In modern positron emission tomography (PET) readout architectures, the position and energy estimation of scintillation events (singles) and the detection of coincident events (coincidences) are typically carried out on highly integrated, programmable printed circuit boards. The implementation of advanced singles and coincidence processing (SCP) algorithms for these architectures is often limited by the strict constraints of hardware-based data processing. In this paper, we present a software-based data acquisition and processing architecture (DAPA) that offers a high degree of flexibility for advanced SCP algorithms through relaxed real-time constraints and an easily extendible data processing framework. The DAPA is designed to acquire detector raw data from independent (but synchronized) detector modules and process the data for singles and coincidences in real-time using a center-of-gravity (COG)-based, a least-squares (LS)-based, or a maximum-likelihood (ML)-based crystal position and energy estimation approach (CPEEA). To test the DAPA, we adapted it to a preclinical PET detector that outputs detector raw data from 60 independent digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM)-based detector stacks and evaluated it with a [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-filled hot-rod phantom. The DAPA is highly reliable with less than 0.1% of all detector raw data lost or corrupted. For high validation thresholds (37.1 ± 12.8 photons per pixel) of the dSiPM detector tiles, the DAPA is real time capable up to 55 MBq for the COG-based CPEEA, up to 31 MBq for the LS-based CPEEA, and up to 28 MBq for the ML-based CPEEA. Compared to the COG-based CPEEA, the rods in the image reconstruction of the hot-rod phantom are only slightly better separable and less blurred for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA. While the coincidence time resolution (∼ 500 ps) and energy resolution (∼12.3%) are comparable for all three CPEEA, the system sensitivity is up to 2.5 × higher for the LS- and ML-based CPEEA.

  20. A LEGO Mindstorms NXT Approach for Teaching at Data Acquisition, Control Systems Engineering and Real-Time Systems Undergraduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Martin, A.; Fernandez-Madrigal, J. A.; Galindo, C.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.; Stockmans-Daou, C.; Blanco-Claraco, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    LEGO Mindstorms NXT robots are being increasingly used in undergraduate courses, mostly in robotics-related subjects. But other engineering topics, like the ones found in data acquisition, control and real-time subjects, also have difficult concepts that can be well understood only with good lab exercises. Such exercises require physical…

  1. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, A S; Jacobson, V

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc.

  2. Payload and Components Real-Time Automated Test System (PACRATS), Data Acquisition of Leak Rate and Pressure Data Test Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Maegan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is to provide the Mechanical Components Test Facility (MCTF) with the capability to obtain electronic leak test and proof pressure data, Payload and Components Real-time Automated Test System (PACRATS) data acquisition software will be utilized to display real-time data. It will record leak rates and pressure/vacuum level(s) simultaneously. This added functionality will provide electronic leak test and pressure data at specified sampling frequencies. Electronically stored data will provide ES61 with increased data security, analysis, and accuracy. The tasks performed in this procedure are to verify PACRATS only, and are not intended to provide verifications for MCTF equipment.

  3. Real-time detection and data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline. Ph.D. Thesis - Stanford Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiber, J. H. C.

    1976-01-01

    To automate the data acquisition procedure, a real-time contour detection and data acquisition system for the left ventricular outline was developed using video techniques. The X-ray image of the contrast-filled left ventricle is stored for subsequent processing on film (cineangiogram), video tape or disc. The cineangiogram is converted into video format using a television camera. The video signal from either the TV camera, video tape or disc is the input signal to the system. The contour detection is based on a dynamic thresholding technique. Since the left ventricular outline is a smooth continuous function, for each contour side a narrow expectation window is defined in which the next borderpoint will be detected. A computer interface was designed and built for the online acquisition of the coordinates using a PDP-12 computer. The advantage of this system over other available systems is its potential for online, real-time acquisition of the left ventricular size and shape during angiocardiography.

  4. HARD REAL TIME QUICK EXAFS DATA ACQUISITION WITH ALL OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE ON A COMMODITY PERSONAL COMPUTER.

    SciTech Connect

    SO,I.; SIDDONS, D.P.; CALIEBE, W.A.; KHALID, S.

    2007-04-25

    We describe here the data acquisition subsystem of the Quick EXAFS (QEXAFS) experiment at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. For ease of future growth and flexibility, almost all software components are open source with very active maintainers. Among them, Linux running on x86 desktop computer, RTAI for real-time response, COMEDI driver for the data acquisition hardware, Qt and PyQt for graphical user interface, PyQwt for plotting, and Python for scripting. The signal (A/D) and energy-reading (IK220 encoder) devices in the PCI computer are also EPICS enabled. The control system scans the monochromator energy through a networked EPICS motor. With the real-time kernel, the system is capable of deterministic data-sampling period of tens of micro-seconds with typical timing-jitter of several micro-seconds. At the same time, Linux is running in other non-real-time processes handling the user-interface. A modern Qt-based controls-front end enhances productivity. The fast plotting and zooming of data in time or energy coordinates let the experimenters verify the quality of the data before detailed analysis. Python scripting is built-in for automation. The typical data-rate for continuous runs are around ten mega-bytes per minute.

  5. Mobile real-time data acquisition system for application in preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Sebastian; Arndt, Dagmar; Thurow, Kerstin; Stoll, Regina

    2010-05-01

    In this article, the development of a system for online monitoring of a subject's physiological parameters and subjective workload regardless of location has been presented, which allows for studies on occupational health. In the sector of occupational health, modern acquisition systems are needed. Such systems can be used by the subject during usual daily routines without being influenced by the presence of an examiner. Moreover, the system's influence on the subject should be reduced to a minimum to receive reliable data from the examination. The acquisition system is based on a mobile handheld (or smart phone), which allows both management of the communication process and input of several dialog data (e.g., questionnaires). A sensor electronics module permits the acquisition of different physiological parameters and their online transmission to the handheld via Bluetooth. The mobile handheld and the sensor electronics module constitute a wireless personal area network. The handheld allows the first analysis, the synchronization of the data, and the continuous data transfer to a communication server by the integrated mobile radio standards of the handheld. The communication server stores the incoming data of several subjects in an application-dependent database and allows access from all over the world via a Web-based management system. The developed system permits one examiner to monitor the physiological parameters and the subjective workload of several subjects in different locations at the same time. Thereby the subjects can move almost freely in any area covered by the mobile network. The mobile handheld allows the popping-up of the questionnaires at flexible time intervals. This electronic input of the dialog data, in comparison to the manual documentation on papers, is more comfortable to the subject as well as to the examiner for an analysis. A Web-based management application facilitates a continuous remote monitoring of the physiological and the

  6. Data acquisition and processing platform in the real-time distance measurement system with dual-comb lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kai; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Qian; Li, Xinghui; Dong, Hao; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-11-01

    The real-time distance measurement system with dual femtosecond comb lasers combines time-of-flight and interferometric measurement. It has advantages of wide-range, high-accuracy and fast speed at the rate about 10000 pts/s. Such a distance measurement system needs dedicated higher performance of the data acquisition and processing hardware platform to support. This paper introduces the dedicated platform of the developed absolute distance measurement system. This platform is divided into three parts according to their respective functions. First part is the data acquisition module, which function is mainly to realize the A/D conversion. In this part we designed a sampling clock adjustment module to assist the A/D conversion module to sample accurately. The sampling clock adjustment module accept a 250MHz maximum reference clock input, which from the same femtosecond laser source as the optical measurement system, then generate an output clock for the A/D converter that can be delayed up to 20ns with a resolution of 714ps. This data acquisition module can convert the analog laser pulse signal to digital signal with a 14 bits resolution and a 250 MSPS maximum sample rate. Second is the data processing and storage module consists of FPGA and DDR3 modules. The FPGA module calculates the test distance by the 16 bits digital sampling signal from the front data acquisition module. The DDR3 module implements sampling data caching. Finally part is the data transmission and peripheral interfaces module based on three DB9 and USB2.0. We can easily debug the platform in the PC and implement communication with upper machine. We tested our system used dedicate test bench in real-time. The scope of the measurement system range is 0 to 3 meters and the measurement deviation is less than 10um.

  7. A real time dynamic data acquisition and processing system for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clukey, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    The real time Dynamic Data Acquisition and Processing System (DDAPS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAPS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. DDAPS receives input from hot wire anemometers. Amplifiers and filters condition the signals with computer controlled modules. The analog signals are simultaneously digitized and digitally recorded on disk. Automatic acquisition collects necessary calibration and environment data. Hot wire sensitivities are generated and applied to the hot wire data to compute fluctuations. The presentation of the raw and processed data is accomplished on demand. The interface to DDAPS is described along with the internal mechanisms of DDAPS. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAPS is also provided.

  8. Point-and-stare operation and high-speed image acquisition in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Richard D.; Bannon, David P.; Ciccone, Domenic; Hill, Sam L.

    2010-04-01

    The design and optical performance of a small-footprint, low-power, turnkey, Point-And-Stare hyperspectral analyzer, capable of fully automated field deployment in remote and harsh environments, is described. The unit is packaged for outdoor operation in an IP56 protected air-conditioned enclosure and includes a mechanically ruggedized fully reflective, aberration-corrected hyperspectral VNIR (400-1000 nm) spectrometer with a board-level detector optimized for point and stare operation, an on-board computer capable of full system data-acquisition and control, and a fully functioning internal hyperspectral calibration system for in-situ system spectral calibration and verification. Performance data on the unit under extremes of real-time survey operation and high spatial and high spectral resolution will be discussed. Hyperspectral acquisition including full parameter tracking is achieved by the addition of a fiber-optic based downwelling spectral channel for solar illumination tracking during hyperspectral acquisition and the use of other sensors for spatial and directional tracking to pinpoint view location. The system is mounted on a Pan-And-Tilt device, automatically controlled from the analyzer's on-board computer, making the HyperspecTM particularly adaptable for base security, border protection and remote deployments. A hyperspectral macro library has been developed to control hyperspectral image acquisition, system calibration and scene location control. The software allows the system to be operated in a fully automatic mode or under direct operator control through a GigE interface.

  9. A computer system for real-time data acquisition and analysis of biopotentials and quantal content at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Kim, Y I

    1983-06-01

    A computerized data acquisition system for on-line analysis of the parameters of neuromuscular transmission is described. Both hardware usage and software methodologies are discussed with regard to sampling in real-time and analyzing miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs), end-plate potentials (EPPs) and quantal content of the evoked transmitter release. Significant features of the program include: (1) automatic threshold determination for MEPP detection; (2) the use of a circular buffer to give pre-trigger information; (3) real-time noise spike rejection; (4) an automatic procedure for EPP failure detection; (5) rapid quantal content determinations by several methods as well as complete MEPP and EPP waveform analysis. The system has proven both accurate and reliable during more than two years of use. Advantages of the system over conventional methods include: (1) increased accuracy and efficiency in data analysis; (2) immediate availability of results; (3) conventional data storage; (4) flexibility to meet changing requirements.

  10. Technique for real-time frontal face image acquisition using stereo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Vizilter, Yuri V.; Kudryashov, Yuri I.

    2013-04-01

    Most part of existing systems for face recognition is usually based on two-dimensional images. And the quality of recognition is rather high for frontal images of face. But for other kind of images the quality decreases significantly. It is necessary to compensate for the effect of a change in the posture of a person (the camera angle) for correct operation of such systems. There are methods of transformation of 2D image of the person to the canonical orientation. The efficiency of these methods depends on the accuracy of determination of specific anthropometric points. Problems can arise for cases of partly occlusion of the person`s face. Another approach is to have a set of person images for different view angles for the further processing. But a need for storing and processing a large number of two-dimensional images makes this method considerably time-consuming. The proposed technique uses stereo system for fast generation of person face 3D model and obtaining face image in given orientation using this 3D model. Real-time performance is provided by implementing and graph cut methods for face surface 3D reconstruction and applying CUDA software library for parallel calculation.

  11. Demonstrating Acquisition of Real-Time Thermal Data Over Fires Utilizing UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Wegener, Steven S.; Brass, James A.; Buechel, Sally W.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A disaster mitigation demonstration, designed to integrate remote-piloted aerial platforms, a thermal infrared imaging payload, over-the-horizon (OTH) data telemetry and advanced image geo-rectification technologies was initiated in 2001. Project FiRE incorporates the use of a remotely piloted Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV), thermal imagery, and over-the-horizon satellite data telemetry to provide geo-corrected data over a controlled burn, to a fire management community in near real-time. The experiment demonstrated the use of a thermal multi-spectral scanner, integrated on a large payload capacity UAV, distributing data over-the-horizon via satellite communication telemetry equipment, and precision geo-rectification of the resultant data on the ground for data distribution to the Internet. The use of the UAV allowed remote-piloted flight (thereby reducing the potential for loss of human life during hazardous missions), and the ability to "finger and stare" over the fire for extended periods of time (beyond the capabilities of human-pilot endurance). Improved bit-rate capacity telemetry capabilities increased the amount, structure, and information content of the image data relayed to the ground. The integration of precision navigation instrumentation allowed improved accuracies in geo-rectification of the resultant imagery, easing data ingestion and overlay in a GIS framework. We focus on these technological advances and demonstrate how these emerging technologies can be readily integrated to support disaster mitigation and monitoring strategies regionally and nationally.

  12. Light field sensor and real-time panorama imaging multi-camera system and the design of data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu; Tao, Jiayuan; Wang, Keyi

    2014-09-01

    Advanced image sensor and powerful parallel data acquisition chip can be used to collect more detailed and comprehensive light field information. Using multiple single aperture and high resolution sensor record light field data, and processing the light field data real time, we can obtain wide field-of-view (FOV) and high resolution image. Wide FOV and high-resolution imaging has promising application in areas of navigation, surveillance and robotics. Qualityenhanced 3D rending, very high resolution depth map estimation, high dynamic-range and other applications we can obtained when we post-process these large light field data. The FOV and resolution are contradictions in traditional single aperture optic imaging system, and can't be solved very well. We have designed a multi-camera light field data acquisition system, and optimized each sensor's spatial location and relations. It can be used to wide FOV and high resolution real-time image. Using 5 megapixel CMOS sensors, and field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) acquisition light field data, paralleled processing and transmission to PC. A common clock signal is distributed to all of the cameras, and the precision of synchronization each camera achieved 40ns. Using 9 CMOSs build an initial system and obtained high resolution 360°×60° FOV image. It is intended to be flexible, modular and scalable, with much visibility and control over the cameras. In the system we used high speed dedicated camera interface CameraLink for system data transfer. The detail of the hardware architecture, its internal blocks, the algorithms, and the device calibration procedure are presented, along with imaging results.

  13. Data acquisition for a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, Larry D.; Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1989-01-01

    The design and implementation of the real-time data acquisition and processing system employed in the AMPERES project is described, including effective data structures for efficient storage and flexible manipulation of the data by the knowledge-based system (KBS), the interprocess communication mechanism required between the data acquisition system and the KBS, and the appropriate data acquisition protocols for collecting data from the sensors. Sensor data are categorized as critical or noncritical data on the basis of the inherent frequencies of the signals and the diagnostic requirements reflected in their values. The critical data set contains 30 analog values and 42 digital values and is collected every 10 ms. The noncritical data set contains 240 analog values and is collected every second. The collected critical and noncritical data are stored in separate circular buffers. Buffers are created in shared memory to enable other processes, i.e., the fault monitoring and diagnosis process and the user interface process, to freely access the data sets.

  14. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received.

  15. Spike-train acquisition, analysis and real-time experimental control using a graphical programming language (LabView).

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, M A; Mapletoft, E A; Miles, T S

    1995-11-01

    A solution is described for the acquisition on a personal computer of standard pulses derived from neuronal discharge, measurement of neuronal discharge times, real-time control of stimulus delivery based on specified inter-pulse interval conditions in the neuronal spike train, and on-line display and analysis of the experimental data. The hardware consisted of an Apple Macintosh IIci computer and a plug-in card (National Instruments NB-MIO16) that supports A/D, D/A, digital I/O and timer functions. The software was written in the object-oriented graphical programming language LabView. Essential elements of the source code of the LabView program are presented and explained. The use of the system is demonstrated in an experiment in which the reflex responses to muscle stretch are assessed for a single motor unit in the human masseter muscle.

  16. Real time access to commercial microwave link data: Details of the data acquisition software, the database and its web frontend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keis, Felix; Chwala, Christian; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Using commercial microwave link networks for precipitation estimation has become popular in the last years. Acquiring the necessary data from the network operators is however still difficult. Usually, data is provided to researches with large temporal delay and at irregular basis. Driven by the demand to facilitate this data accessibility, a custom acquisition software for microwave links has been developed in joint cooperation with our industry partner Ericsson. It is capable of recording data from a great number of microwave links simultaneously and of forwarding the data instantaneously to a newly established KIT-internal database. It makes use of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and collects the transmitter and receiver power levels via asynchronous SNMP requests. The software is currently in its first operational test phase, recording data from several hundred Ericsson microwave links in southern Germany. Furthermore the software is used to acquire data with 1 Hz temporal resolution from four microwave links operated by the skiing resort in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. For convenient accessibility of this amount of data we have developed a web frontend for the emerging microwave link database. It provides dynamic real time visualization and basic processing of the recorded transmitter and receiver power levels. Here we will present details of the custom data acquisition software with focus on the design of the KIT microwave link database and on the specifically developed web frontend.

  17. Development of a portable electrical impedance tomography data acquisition system for near-real-time spatial sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shieh-Kung; Loh, Kenneth J.

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and validate the performance of a miniature and portable data acquisition (DAQ) system designed for interrogating carbon nanotube (CNT)-based thin films for real-time spatial structural sensing and damage detection. Previous research demonstrated that the electrical properties of CNT-based thin film strain sensors were linearly correlated with applied strains. When coupled with an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) algorithm, the detection and localization of damage was possible. In short, EIT required that the film or "sensing skin" be interrogated along its boundaries. Electrical current was injected across a pair of boundary electrodes, and voltage was simultaneously recorded along the remaining electrode pairs. This was performed multiple times to obtain a large dataset needed for solving the EIT spatial conductivity mapping inverse problem. However, one of the main limitations of this technique was the large amount of time required for data acquisition. In order to facilitate the adoption of this technology and for field implementation purposes, a miniature DAQ that could interrogate these CNT-based sensing skins at high sampling rates was designed and tested. The prototype DAQ featured a Howland current source that could generate stable and controlled direct current. Measurement of boundary electrode voltages and the switching of the input, output, and measurement channels were achieved using multiplexer units. The DAQ prototype was fabricated on a two-layer printed circuit board, and it was designed for integration with a prototype wireless sensing system, which is the next phase of this research.

  18. Concept for an airborne real-time ISR system with multi-sensor 3D data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraké, Laura; Schilling, Hendrik; Blohm, Christian; Hillemann, Markus; Lenz, Andreas; Becker, Merlin; Keskin, Göksu; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    In modern aerial Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance operations, precise 3D information becomes inevitable for increased situation awareness. In particular, object geometries represented by texturized digital surface models constitute an alternative to a pure evaluation of radiometric measurements. Besides the 3D data's level of detail aspect, its availability is time-relevant in order to make quick decisions. Expanding the concept of our preceding remote sensing platform developed together with OHB System AG and Geosystems GmbH, in this paper we present an airborne multi-sensor system based on a motor glider equipped with two wing pods; one carries the sensors, whereas the second pod downlinks sensor data to a connected ground control station by using the Aerial Reconnaissance Data System of OHB. An uplink is created to receive remote commands from the manned mobile ground control station, which on its part processes and evaluates incoming sensor data. The system allows the integration of efficient image processing and machine learning algorithms. In this work, we introduce a near real-time approach for the acquisition of a texturized 3D data model with the help of an airborne laser scanner and four high-resolution multi-spectral (RGB, near-infrared) cameras. Image sequences from nadir and off-nadir cameras permit to generate dense point clouds and to texturize also facades of buildings. The ground control station distributes processed 3D data over a linked geoinformation system with web capabilities to off-site decision-makers. As the accurate acquisition of sensor data requires boresight calibrated sensors, we additionally examine the first steps of a camera calibration workflow.

  19. A Hybrid, Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Network for Real-Time Acquisition and Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    clustering mechanism, called the “Area of Interest” (AOI) is introduced, which combines the “content based ” feature of the data centric routing approach with...across the full range of network load. A contention based MAC scheme, Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), and a contention free approach, Time...Interest” (AOI) is introduced, which combines the “content based ” feature of the data centric routing approach with the principles of in-network

  20. Regional differences in brain volume predict the acquisition of skill in a complex real-time strategy videogame.

    PubMed

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes.

  1. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  2. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  3. UniScan technology for innovative laboratory at a university for acquisition data from space in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, V.; Gershenzon, O.; Sergeeva, M.; Ippolitov, V.; Targulyan, O.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: Remote Sensing, UniScan ground station, Education, Monitoring. Remote Sensing Centers allowing real-time imagery acquisition from Earth observing satellites within the structure of Universities provides proper environment for innovative education. It delivers the efficient training for scientific and academic and teaching personnel, secure the role of the young professionals in science, education and hi-tech, and maintain the continuity of generations in science and education. Article is based on experience for creation such centers in more than 20 higher education institutions in Russia, Kazakhstan, and Spain on the base of UniScan ground station by R&D Center ScanEx. These stations serve as the basis for Earth monitoring from space providing the training and advanced training to produce the specialists having the state-of-the-art knowledge in Earth Remote Sensing and GIS, as well as the land-use monitoring and geo-data service for the economic operators in such diverse areas as the nature resource management, agriculture, land property management, disasters monitoring, etc. Currently our proposal of UniScan for universities all over the world allows to receive low resolution free of charge MODIS data from Terra and Aqua satellites, VIIRS from the NPP mission, and also high resolution optical images from EROS A and radar images from Radarsat-1 satellites, including the telemetry for the first year of operation, within the footprint of up to 2,500 kilometers in radius. Creation remote sensing centers at universities will lead to a new quality level for education and scientific studies and will enable to make education system in such innovation institutions open to modern research work and economy.

  4. Intracellular nanomanipulation by a photonic-force microscope with real-time acquisition of a 3D stiffness matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertseva, E.; Singh, A. S. G.; Lekki, J.; Thévenaz, P.; Lekka, M.; Jeney, S.; Gremaud, G.; Puttini, S.; Nowak, W.; Dietler, G.; Forró, L.; Unser, M.; Kulik, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    A traditional photonic-force microscope (PFM) results in huge sets of data, which requires tedious numerical analysis. In this paper, we propose instead an analog signal processor to attain real-time capabilities while retaining the richness of the traditional PFM data. Our system is devoted to intracellular measurements and is fully interactive through the use of a haptic joystick. Using our specialized analog hardware along with a dedicated algorithm, we can extract the full 3D stiffness matrix of the optical trap in real time, including the off-diagonal cross-terms. Our system is also capable of simultaneously recording data for subsequent offline analysis. This allows us to check that a good correlation exists between the classical analysis of stiffness and our real-time measurements. We monitor the PFM beads using an optical microscope. The force-feedback mechanism of the haptic joystick helps us in interactively guiding the bead inside living cells and collecting information from its (possibly anisotropic) environment. The instantaneous stiffness measurements are also displayed in real time on a graphical user interface. The whole system has been built and is operational; here we present early results that confirm the consistency of the real-time measurements with offline computations.

  5. Vortex information display system program description manual. [data acquisition from laser Doppler velocimeters and real time operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, R.; Matuck, G. N.; Roe, J. M.; Taylor, J.; Turner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A vortex information display system is described which provides flexible control through system-user interaction for collecting wing-tip-trailing vortex data, processing this data in real time, displaying the processed data, storing raw data on magnetic tape, and post processing raw data. The data is received from two asynchronous laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV's) and includes position, velocity, and intensity information. The raw data is written onto magnetic tape for permanent storage and is also processed in real time to locate vortices and plot their positions as a function of time. The interactive capability enables the user to make real time adjustments in processing data and provides a better definition of vortex behavior. Displaying the vortex information in real time produces a feedback capability to the LDV system operator allowing adjustments to be made in the collection of raw data. Both raw data and processing can be continually upgraded during flyby testing to improve vortex behavior studies. The post-analysis capability permits the analyst to perform in-depth studies of test data and to modify vortex behavior models to improve transport predictions.

  6. XSTREAM: A Highly Efficient High Speed Real-time Satellite Data Acquisition and Processing System using Heterogeneous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Kumar, K.; Mahendra, P.; Ramakrishna rReddy, V.; Tirupathi, T.; Akilan, A.; Usha Devi, R.; Anuradha, R.; Ravi, N.; Solanki, S. S.; Achary, K. K.; Satish, A. L.; Anshu, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the remote sensing community has observed a significant growth in number of satellites, sensors and their resolutions, thereby increasing the volume of data to be processed each day. Satellite data processing is a complex and time consuming activity. It consists of various tasks, such as decode, decrypt, decompress, radiometric normalization, stagger corrections, ephemeris data processing for geometric corrections etc., and finally writing of the product in the form of an image file. Each task in the processing chain is sequential in nature and has different computing needs. Conventionally the processes are cascaded in a well organized workflow to produce the data products, which are executed on general purpose high-end servers / workstations in an offline mode. Hence, these systems are considered to be ineffective for real-time applications that require quick response and just-intime decision making such as disaster management, home land security and so on. This paper discusses anovel approach to processthe data online (as the data is being acquired) using a heterogeneous computing platform namely XSTREAM which has COTS hardware of CPUs, GPUs and FPGA. This paper focuses on the process architecture, re-engineering aspects and mapping of tasks to the right computing devicewithin the XSTREAM system, which makes it an ideal cost-effective platform for acquiring, processing satellite payload data in real-time and displaying the products in original resolution for quick response. The system has been tested for IRS CARTOSAT and RESOURCESAT series of satellites which have maximum data downlink speed of 210 Mbps.

  7. Flying triangulation - A motion-robust optical 3D sensor for the real-time shape acquisition of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    The three-dimensional shape acquisition of objects has become more and more important in the last years. Up to now, there are several well-established methods which already yield impressive results. However, even under quite common conditions like object movement or a complex shaping, most methods become unsatisfying. Thus, the 3D shape acquisition is still a difficult and non-trivial task. We present our measurement principle "Flying Triangulation" which enables a motion-robust 3D acquisition of complex-shaped object surfaces by a freely movable handheld sensor. Since "Flying Triangulation" is scalable, a whole sensor-zoo for different object sizes is presented. Concluding, an overview of current and future fields of investigation is given.

  8. X-ray beam modulation, image acquisition and real-time processing in region-of-interest fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chang-Ying Joseph

    2000-07-01

    Region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy is a technique whereby a partially attenuating filter with an aperture in the center is placed in the x-ray beam between the source and the patient The part of the x-ray beam going through the filter aperture un-attenuated is used to project the main features of interest in the patient to form the ROI in each fluoroscopic image. The periphery of the image is formed by the projection of the features needed only for reference using the part of the attenuated x-ray beam passing through the filter. This technique can substantially reduce patient and staff dose and improve the image quality in the ROI of the image. By using Gd for the filter material, it is even possible to improve the x-ray attenuation contrast in the periphery. However, real-time image processing is needed to compensate for the x-ray intensity attenuation in the periphery so that the brightness in the two parts of the fluoroscopic image is linearity is restored. Based on the method of binary masks, a system was developed to perform the real-time image processing with the flexibility to accommodate both the horizontal and vertical movement of the imaging chain relative to the patient. A binary mask is a binary image used to define those regions in the fluoroscopic image which should be processed and those which should not. A method of binary mask generation was proposed so the region defined as not to be processed in the binary mask maintains as close a resemblance as possible to the ROI of the fluoroscopic image. The construction method for the look-up table used for the processing of the periphery and its dependence on physical quantities were described and studied. An algorithm for constantly tracking the change of the ROI in the fluoroscopic images and selecting the proper corresponding binary mask was developed. The quality of the processed ROI fluoroscopic images such as brightness, contrast and noise were evaluated and compared using test phantoms. The test

  9. Real-Time Processing of ASL Signs: Delayed First Language Acquisition Affects Organization of the Mental Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of…

  10. Applying the Modality Principle to Real-Time Feedback and the Acquisition of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorella, Logan; Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Effectively presenting complex material is a crucial component of instructional design within simulation-based training (SBT) environments. One approach to facilitate the acquisition of higher-order knowledge is to embed instructional strategies within the systems themselves. Currently, however, there are few established guidelines to inform…

  11. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  12. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA, Langley Research Center Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.; Kindle, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms were extended through the purchase and integration of other hardware and the implementation of improved software. An operational manual for the current system is presented. Hardware and peripheral device registers are outlined only as an aid in debugging any DAS problems which may arise.

  13. An Open-Source Hardware and Software System for Acquisition and Real-Time Processing of Electrophysiology during High Field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Purdon, Patrick L.; Millan, Hernan; Fuller, Peter L.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electrophysiology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique of growing importance in neuroscience. Rapidly evolving clinical and scientific requirements have created a need for hardware and software that can be customized for specific applications. Hardware may require customization to enable a variety of recording types (e.g., electroencephalogram, local field potentials, or multi-unit activity) while meeting the stringent and costly requirements of MRI safety and compatibility. Real-time signal processing tools are an enabling technology for studies of learning, attention, sleep, epilepsy, neurofeedback, and neuropharmacology, yet real-time signal processing tools are difficult to develop. We describe an open source system for simultaneous electrophysiology and fMRI featuring low-noise (< 0.6 uV p-p input noise), electromagnetic compatibility for MRI (tested up to 7 Tesla), and user-programmable real-time signal processing. The hardware distribution provides the complete specifications required to build an MRI-compatible electrophysiological data acquisition system, including circuit schematics, print circuit board (PCB) layouts, Gerber files for PCB fabrication and robotic assembly, a bill of materials with part numbers, data sheets, and vendor information, and test procedures. The software facilitates rapid implementation of real-time signal processing algorithms. This system has used in human EEG/fMRI studies at 3 and 7 Tesla examining the auditory system, visual system, sleep physiology, and anesthesia, as well as in intracranial electrophysiological studies of the non-human primate visual system during 3 Tesla fMRI, and in human hyperbaric physiology studies at depths of up to 300 feet below sea level. PMID:18761038

  14. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1985-01-01

    Computer hardware and software of the NASA multipurpose differential absorption lidar (DIAL) sysatem were improved. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment for remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentration from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed with the capability of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights were successfully performed on board the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1984. Improvements on the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) are described.

  15. Design of a portable, intrinsically safe multichannel acquisition system for high-resolution, real-time processing HD-sEMG.

    PubMed

    Barone, Umberto; Merletti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    A compact and portable system for real-time, multichannel, HD-sEMG acquisition is presented. The device is based on a modular, multiboard approach for scalability and to optimize power consumption for battery operating mode. The proposed modular approach allows us to configure the number of sEMG channels from 64 to 424. A plastic-optical-fiber-based 10/100 Ethernet link is implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based board for real-time, safety data transmission toward a personal computer or laptop for data storage and offline analysis. The high-performance A/D conversion stage, based on 24-bit ADC, allows us to automatically serialize the samples and transmits them on a single SPI bus connecting a sequence of up to 14 ADC chips in chain mode. The prototype is configured to work with 64 channels and a sample frequency of 2.441 ksps (derived from 25-MHz clock source), corresponding to a real data throughput of 3 Mbps. The prototype was assembled to demonstrate the available features (e.g., scalability) and evaluate the expected performances. The analog front end board could be dynamically configured to acquire sEMG signals in monopolar or single differential mode by means of FPGA I/O interface. The system can acquire continuously 64 channels for up to 5 h with a lightweight battery pack of 7.5 Vdc/2200 mAh. A PC-based application was also developed, by means of the open source Qt Development Kit from Nokia, for prototype characterization, sEMG measurements, and real-time visualization of 2-D maps.

  16. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1986-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights of the DIAL system were successfully performed onboard the NASA Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1985. The DIAL Data Acquisition System has undergone a number of improvements over the past few years. These improvements have now been field tested. The theory behind a real time computer system as it applies to the needs of the DIAL system is discussed. This report is designed to be used as an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  17. Real-time development of data acquisition and analysis software for hands-on physiology education in neuroscience: G-PRIME.

    PubMed

    Lott, Gus K; Johnson, Bruce R; Bonow, Robert H; Land, Bruce R; Hoy, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    We report on the real-time creation of an application for hands-on neurophysiology in an advanced undergraduate teaching laboratory. Enabled by the rapid software development tools included in the Matlab technical computing environment (The Mathworks, Natick, MA), a team, consisting of a neurophysiology educator and a biophysicist trained as an electrical engineer, interfaced to a course of approximately 15 students from engineering and biology backgrounds. The result is the powerful freeware data acquisition and analysis environment, "g-PRIME." The software was developed from week to week in response to curriculum demands, and student feedback. The program evolved from a simple software oscilloscope, enabling RC circuit analysis, to a suite of tools supporting analysis of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission analysis in invertebrate model systems. The program has subsequently expanded in application to university courses, research, and high school projects in the US and abroad as free courseware.

  18. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  19. An architecture for real time data acquisition and online signal processing for high throughput tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anuj R.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Zuljevic, Nino; Monroe, Matthew E.; Liyu, Andrei V.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Gorton, Ian

    2010-12-09

    Independent, greedy collection of data events using simple heuristics results in massive over-sampling of the prominent data features in large-scale studies over what should be achievable through “intelligent,” online acquisition of such data. As a result, data generated are more aptly described as a collection of a large number of small experiments rather than a true large-scale experiment. Nevertheless, achieving “intelligent,” online control requires tight interplay between state-of-the-art, data-intensive computing infrastructure developments and analytical algorithms. In this paper, we propose a Software Architecture for Mass spectrometry-based Proteomics coupled with Liquid chromatography Experiments (SAMPLE) to develop an “intelligent” online control and analysis system to significantly enhance the information content from each sensor (in this case, a mass spectrometer). Using online analysis of data events as they are collected and decision theory to optimize the collection of events during an experiment, we aim to maximize the information content generated during an experiment by the use of pre-existing knowledge to optimize the dynamic collection of events.

  20. Real Time Network Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    Demonstrate a simple system Conduct a feasibility assessment of data storage, maintenance, and integration requirements Test a web-based data feed...Real Time Network Assessment Prototype We demonstrated the feasibility of linking near real time network analytics to mashups and web- based...combining similar concepts into single node) Stemmers Thesauri application Network position Statistical common patterns Pronoun identification

  1. Real-Time Data Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc

    2007-01-01

    RT-Display is a MATLAB-based data acquisition environment designed to use a variety of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware to digitize analog signals to a standard data format usable by other post-acquisition data analysis tools. This software presents the acquired data in real time using a variety of signal-processing algorithms. The acquired data is stored in a standard Operator Interactive Signal Processing Software (OISPS) data-formatted file. RT-Display is primarily configured to use the Agilent VXI (or equivalent) data acquisition boards used in such systems as MIDDAS (Multi-channel Integrated Dynamic Data Acquisition System). The software is generalized and deployable in almost any testing environment, without limitations or proprietary configuration for a specific test program or project. With the Agilent hardware configured and in place, users can start the program and, in one step, immediately begin digitizing multiple channels of data. Once the acquisition is completed, data is converted into a common binary format that also can be translated to specific formats used by external analysis software, such as OISPS and PC-Signal (product of AI Signal Research Inc.). RT-Display at the time of this reporting was certified on Agilent hardware capable of acquisition up to 196,608 samples per second. Data signals are presented to the user on-screen simultaneously for 16 channels. Each channel can be viewed individually, with a maximum capability of 160 signal channels (depending on hardware configuration). Current signal presentations include: time data, fast Fourier transforms (FFT), and power spectral density plots (PSD). Additional processing algorithms can be easily incorporated into this environment.

  2. Image Acquisition in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, Carlos Jorquera left NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to focus on erasing the growing void between high-performance cameras and the requisite software to capture and process the resulting digital images. Since his departure from NASA, Jorquera s efforts have not only satisfied the private industry's cravings for faster, more flexible, and more favorable software applications, but have blossomed into a successful entrepreneurship that is making its mark with improvements in fields such as medicine, weather forecasting, and X-ray inspection. Formerly a JPL engineer who constructed imaging systems for spacecraft and ground-based astronomy projects, Jorquera is the founder and president of the three-person firm, Boulder Imaging Inc., based in Louisville, Colorado. Joining Jorquera to round out the Boulder Imaging staff are Chief Operations Engineer Susan Downey, who also gained experience at JPL working on space-bound projects including Galileo and the Hubble Space Telescope, and Vice President of Engineering and Machine Vision Specialist Jie Zhu Kulbida, who has extensive industrial and research and development experience within the private sector.

  3. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  4. Real time obscuration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agricola, Koos

    2016-09-01

    Recently a real time particle deposition monitoring system is developed. After discussions with optical system engineers a new feature has been added. This enables the real time monitoring of obscuration of exposed optical components by counting the deposited particles and sizing the obscuration area of each particle. This way the Particle Obscuration Rate (POR) can be determined. The POR can be used to determine the risk of product contamination during exposure. The particle size distribution gives information on the type of potential particle sources. The deposition moments will indicate when these sources were present.

  5. Real Time Data Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberberg, George G.

    1983-03-01

    By the early 1970s, classical photo-optical range instrumentation technology (as a means of gathering weapons' system performance data) had become a costly and inefficient process. Film costs were increasing due to soaring silver prices. Time required to process, read, and produce optical data was becoming unacceptable as a means of supporting weapon system development programs. NWC investigated the feasibility of utilizing Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) technology as an alternative solution for providing optical data. In 1978 a program entitled Metric Video (measurements from video images) was formulated at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. The purpose of this program was to provide timely data, to reduce the number of operating personnel, and to lower data acquisition costs. Some of the task elements for this program included a near real-time vector miss-distance system, a weapons scoring system, a velocity measuring system, a time-space position system, and a system to replace film cameras for gathering real-time engineering sequential data. These task elements and the development of special hardware and techniques to achieve real-time data will be discussed briefly in this paper.

  6. Real-time cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quercellini, Claudia; Amendola, Luca; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, improved astrometric and spectroscopic techniques have opened the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky over relatively short time intervals. This has made at least conceivable to establish a novel research domain, which we dub “real-time cosmology”. We review for the first time most of the work already done in this field, analysing the theoretical framework as well as some foreseeable observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We first focus on real-time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant sources, which allows the observer to trace the background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper accelerations in clustered systems, and therefore their gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the future change of the cosmic microwave background on “short” time scales, as well as to the temporal shift of the temperature anisotropy power spectrum and maps. We conclude revisiting in this context the usefulness of upcoming experiments (like CODEX and Gaia) for real-time observations.

  7. Real Property Acquisition, Management, and Disposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    156 and 157 (reference ( m )) s’ates that withdrawal or restriction of public domain lands, including the Outer Continental Shelf, or any one acquisition...ance with DoD 7220.9- M (reference (o)). (3) Before acquiring real property by purchase, or lease, DoD Components shall determine that the requirements...8217 11a1x 1 (iuui xtenI)t possiblep c n iset n-ile l tlt. 1 1 1 t 1 j-1 1, in1I’mll l ’. m t ni f or 22 r i i ~ IT l0i . ~ t I I I II j I. Ii t 2 Comp

  8. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of real property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES...'s own name, with title eventually vesting in the Government. (2) Lease, and the Government...

  9. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  10. 24 CFR 1003.602 - Relocation and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance for displaced persons. A displaced person (defined in paragraph (g) of this section) must be... displaced persons. (e) Real Property acquisition requirements. The acquisition of real property for an... whether the person qualifies as a “displaced person,” or the amount of relocation assistance for which...

  11. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  12. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects.

  13. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  14. Axial tomography from digitized real time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnay, A.S.; McDonald, W.M.; Doupont, P.A.; McKinney, R.L.; Lee, M.M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  15. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  16. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  17. Real-time flutter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R.; Walker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques and a FORTRAN 77 MOdal Parameter IDentification (MOPID) computer program developed for identification of the frequencies and damping ratios of multiple flutter modes in real time are documented. Physically meaningful model parameterization was combined with state of the art recursive identification techniques and applied to the problem of real time flutter mode monitoring. The performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence speed and parameter estimation error is demonstrated for several simulated data cases, and the results of actual flight data analysis from two different vehicles are presented. It is indicated that the algorithm is capable of real time monitoring of aircraft flutter characteristics with a high degree of reliability.

  18. A real-time data acquisition and control of gradient coil noise for fMRI identification of hearing disorder in children with history of ear infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeseung; Holte, James; Ritenour, E Russell

    2013-02-01

    Early ear infection and trauma, from birth to age 12 are known to have a significant effect on sensory and cognitive development. This effect can be demonstrated through the fMRI study of children who have a history of ear infection compared to a control group. A second research question is the extent to which brain plasticity at an early age can reduce the impact of infection on hearing and cognitive development. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) provides a mapping of brain activity in cognitive and sensory regions by recording the oxygenation state of the local cerebral blood flow. The gradient coils of fMRI scanners generate intense acoustic noise (GCN) - to which the subject is in close proximity - in the range of 90 to 140 db SPL during the imaging process. Clearly this noise will impress its signature on low level brain response patterns. An Active Noise Canceller (ANC) system can suppress the effect of GCN on the subject's perception of a phonetic stimulus at the phoneme, word or phrase level. Due to a superimposition of the frequency and time domain components of the test signal and GCN for MR test, the ANC filtering system performs its function in real time - we must capture the brain's response to the test signal AFTER the noise has been removed. This goal is achieved through the application of field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology of NI LabVIEW. The presentation (in the noisy fMRI environment) of test words and phrases to hearing impaired children can identify sources of distortion to their perceptual processes associated with GCN. Once this distortion has been identified, learning strategies may be introduced to replace the hearing function distorted by early infection as well as the short term effect of GCN. The study of speech cognition without the confounding effect of GCN and with the varying level of GCN for a repeated test signal at later age can be allowed to a measure of recovery through brain plasticity.

  19. A real-time data acquisition and control of gradient coil noise for fMRI identification of hearing disorder in children with history of ear infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaeseung; Holte, James

    2013-01-01

    Early ear infection and trauma, from birth to age 12 are known to have a significant effect on sensory and cognitive development. This effect can be demonstrated through the fMRI study of children who have a history of ear infection compared to a control group. A second research question is the extent to which brain plasticity at an early age can reduce the impact of infection on hearing and cognitive development. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) provides a mapping of brain activity in cognitive and sensory regions by recording the oxygenation state of the local cerebral blood flow. The gradient coils of fMRI scanners generate intense acoustic noise (GCN) - to which the subject is in close proximity - in the range of 90 to 140 db SPL during the imaging process. Clearly this noise will impress its signature on low level brain response patterns. An Active Noise Canceller (ANC) system can suppress the effect of GCN on the subject’s perception of a phonetic stimulus at the phoneme, word or phrase level. Due to a superimposition of the frequency and time domain components of the test signal and GCN for MR test, the ANC filtering system performs its function in real time - we must capture the brain’s response to the test signal AFTER the noise has been removed. This goal is achieved through the application of field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology of NI LabVIEW. The presentation (in the noisy fMRI environment) of test words and phrases to hearing impaired children can identify sources of distortion to their perceptual processes associated with GCN. Once this distortion has been identified, learning strategies may be introduced to replace the hearing function distorted by early infection as well as the short term effect of GCN. The study of speech cognition without the confounding effect of GCN and with the varying level of GCN for a repeated test signal at later age can be allowed to a measure of recovery through brain plasticity. PMID:23482910

  20. A real time data acquisition system using the MIL-STD-1553B bus. [for transmission of data to host computer for control law processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A flight digital data acquisition system that uses the MIL-STD-1553B bus for transmission of data to a host computer for control law processing is described. The instrument, the Remote Interface Unit (RIU), can accommodate up to 16 input channels and eight output channels. The RIU employs a digital signal processor to perform local digital filtering before sending data to the host. The system allows flexible sensor and actuator data organization to facilitate quick control law computations on the host computer. The instrument can also run simple control laws autonomously without host intervention. The RIU and host computer together have replaced a similar larger, ground minicomputer system with favorable results.

  1. Real-time Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Harrah, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    Flying in poor visibility conditions, such as rain, snow, fog or haze, is inherently dangerous. However these conditions can occur at nearly any location, so inevitably pilots must successfully navigate through them. At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), under support of the Aviation Safety and Security Program Office and the Systems Engineering Directorate, we are developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) that combines image enhancement and synthetic vision elements to assist pilots flying through adverse weather conditions. This system uses a combination of forward-looking infrared and visible sensors for data acquisition. A core function of the system is to enhance and fuse the sensor data in order to increase the information content and quality of the captured imagery. These operations must be performed in real-time for the pilot to use while flying. For image enhancement, we are using the LaRC patented Retinex algorithm since it performs exceptionally well for improving low-contrast range imagery typically seen during poor visibility conditions. In general, real-time operation of the Retinex requires specialized hardware. To date, we have successfully implemented a single-sensor real-time version of the Retinex on several different Digital Signal Processor (DSP) platforms. In this paper we give an overview of the EVS and its performance requirements for real-time enhancement and fusion and we discuss our current real-time Retinex implementations on DSPs.

  2. Real Time Data System (RTDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned from operational real time expert systems are examined. The basic system architecture is discussed. An expert system is any software that performs tasks to a standard that would normally require a human expert. An expert system implies knowledge contained in data rather than code. And an expert system implies the use of heuristics as well as algorithms. The 15 top lessons learned by the operation of a real time data system are presented.

  3. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Chief of TVA's Land Branch will cause the property to be appraised and establish an amount believed...

  4. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Chief of TVA's Land Branch will cause the property to be appraised and establish an amount believed...

  5. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Chief of TVA's Land Branch will cause the property to be appraised and establish an amount believed...

  6. Real-time monitoring system for microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuppo, F.; Cantelli, G.; Fortuna, L.; Arena, P.; Bucolo, M.

    2007-05-01

    A new non-invasive real-time system for the monitoring and control of microfluidodynamic phenomena is proposed. The general purpose design of such system is suitable for in vitro and in vivo experimental setup and therefore for microfluidic application in the biomedical field such as lab-on-chip and for research studies in the field of microcirculation. The system consists of an ad hoc optical setup for image magnification providing images suitable for image acquisition and processing. The optic system was designed and developed using discrete opto-mechanic components mounted on a breadboard in order to provide an optic path accessible at any point where the information needs to be acquired. The optic sensing, acquisition, and processing were performed using an integrated vision system based on the Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) analogic technology called Focal Plane Processor (FPP, Eye-RIS, Anafocus) and inserted in the optic path. Ad hoc algorithms were implemented for the real-time analysis and extraction of fluido-dynamic parameters in micro-channels. They were tested on images recorded during in vivo microcirculation experiments on hamsters and then they were applied on images optically acquired and processed in real-time during in vitro experiments on a continuous microfluidic device (serpentine mixer, ThinXXS) with a two-phase fluid.

  7. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Carolyn; Spencer, Randall

    1988-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system has undergone development and experimental deployment at NASA/Langley Res. Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. The DIAL Data Acquisition System (DAS) has undergone a number of improvements also. Due to the participation of the DIAL in the Global Tropospheric Experiment, modifications and improvements of the system were tested and used both in the lab and in air. Therefore, this is an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  8. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  9. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-30

    and F. Wang, "On thle Competitiveness of On-Line Real-Time Task Sc~eduling," to appear. Proc. Icai - Time Systemns Symposium, Dec 1991. 6. Biyabaiii, S...Stankovic, and K. Ramrnamritham, "System Support for lRal-’Vi111C Al: A Spring Project Perspective," Workshop on Real-Time .A1, ICAI ., August 198!). 29...Informatics, Computer S,,iety ,f India , t,, aptpear. 41 . Shilh, C. and J. A. Stankovic, "Distributed Deadlock Detection in Ada IRuntinv En vi- ronments," TRI

  10. Use of a Real-Time Training Software (Laerdal QCPR®) Compared to Instructor-Based Feedback for High-Quality Chest Compressions Acquisition in Secondary School Students: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Cortegiani, Andrea; Russotto, Vincenzo; Montalto, Francesca; Iozzo, Pasquale; Meschis, Roberta; Pugliesi, Marinella; Mariano, Dario; Benenati, Vincenzo; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Gregoretti, Cesare; Giarratano, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    High-quality chest compressions are pivotal to improve survival from cardiac arrest. Basic life support training of school students is an international priority. The aim of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of a real-time training software (Laerdal QCPR®) compared to a standard instructor-based feedback for chest compressions acquisition in secondary school students. After an interactive frontal lesson about basic life support and high quality chest compressions, 144 students were randomized to two types of chest compressions training: 1) using Laerdal QCPR® (QCPR group- 72 students) for real-time feedback during chest compressions with the guide of an instructor who considered software data for students' correction 2) based on standard instructor-based feedback (SF group- 72 students). Both groups had a minimum of a 2-minute chest compressions training session. Students were required to reach a minimum technical skill level before the evaluation. We evaluated all students at 7 days from the training with a 2-minute chest compressions session. The primary outcome was the compression score, which is an overall measure of chest compressions quality calculated by the software expressed as percentage. 125 students were present at the evaluation session (60 from QCPR group and 65 from SF group). Students in QCPR group had a significantly higher compression score (median 90%, IQR 81.9-96.0) compared to SF group (median 67%, IQR 27.7-87.5), p = 0.0003. Students in QCPR group performed significantly higher percentage of fully released chest compressions (71% [IQR 24.5-99.0] vs 24% [IQR 2.5-88.2]; p = 0.005) and better chest compression rate (117.5/min [IQR 106-123.5] vs 125/min [115-135.2]; p = 0.001). In secondary school students, a training for chest compressions based on a real-time feedback software (Laerdal QCPR®) guided by an instructor is superior to instructor-based feedback training in terms of chest compression technical skill acquisition.

  11. Use of a Real-Time Training Software (Laerdal QCPR®) Compared to Instructor-Based Feedback for High-Quality Chest Compressions Acquisition in Secondary School Students: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Russotto, Vincenzo; Montalto, Francesca; Iozzo, Pasquale; Meschis, Roberta; Pugliesi, Marinella; Mariano, Dario; Benenati, Vincenzo; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Gregoretti, Cesare; Giarratano, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    High-quality chest compressions are pivotal to improve survival from cardiac arrest. Basic life support training of school students is an international priority. The aim of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of a real-time training software (Laerdal QCPR®) compared to a standard instructor-based feedback for chest compressions acquisition in secondary school students. After an interactive frontal lesson about basic life support and high quality chest compressions, 144 students were randomized to two types of chest compressions training: 1) using Laerdal QCPR® (QCPR group– 72 students) for real-time feedback during chest compressions with the guide of an instructor who considered software data for students’ correction 2) based on standard instructor-based feedback (SF group– 72 students). Both groups had a minimum of a 2-minute chest compressions training session. Students were required to reach a minimum technical skill level before the evaluation. We evaluated all students at 7 days from the training with a 2-minute chest compressions session. The primary outcome was the compression score, which is an overall measure of chest compressions quality calculated by the software expressed as percentage. 125 students were present at the evaluation session (60 from QCPR group and 65 from SF group). Students in QCPR group had a significantly higher compression score (median 90%, IQR 81.9–96.0) compared to SF group (median 67%, IQR 27.7–87.5), p = 0.0003. Students in QCPR group performed significantly higher percentage of fully released chest compressions (71% [IQR 24.5–99.0] vs 24% [IQR 2.5–88.2]; p = 0.005) and better chest compression rate (117.5/min [IQR 106–123.5] vs 125/min [115–135.2]; p = 0.001). In secondary school students, a training for chest compressions based on a real-time feedback software (Laerdal QCPR®) guided by an instructor is superior to instructor-based feedback training in terms of chest compression technical skill

  12. HEVC real-time decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Benjamin; Alvarez-Mesa, Mauricio; George, Valeri; Chi, Chi Ching; Mayer, Tobias; Juurlink, Ben; Schierl, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The new High Efficiency Video Coding Standard (HEVC) was finalized in January 2013. Compared to its predecessor H.264 / MPEG4-AVC, this new international standard is able to reduce the bitrate by 50% for the same subjective video quality. This paper investigates decoder optimizations that are needed to achieve HEVC real-time software decoding on a mobile processor. It is shown that HEVC real-time decoding up to high definition video is feasible using instruction extensions of the processor while decoding 4K ultra high definition video in real-time requires additional parallel processing. For parallel processing, a picture-level parallel approach has been chosen because it is generic and does not require bitstreams with special indication.

  13. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts.

    PubMed

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  14. A Low-Cost Multielectrode System for Data Acquisition Enabling Real-Time Closed-Loop Processing with Rapid Recovery from Stimulation Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  15. Optimisation of acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie; Cobbold, Mark; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Decreasing the acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT) will enable animals to be imaged within the window of stable emission of the bioluminescent source, a higher imaging throughput and minimisation of the time which an animal is anaesthetised. This work investigates, through simulation using a heterogeneous mouse model, two methods of decreasing acquisition time: 1. Imaging at fewer wavelengths (a reduction from five to three); and 2. Increasing the bandwidth of filters used for imaging. The results indicate that both methods are viable ways of decreasing the acquisition time without a loss in quantitative accuracy. Importantly, when choosing imaging wavelengths, the spectral attenuation of tissue and emission spectrum of the source must be considered, in order to choose wavelengths at which a high signal can be achieved. Additionally, when increasing the bandwidth of the filters used for imaging, the bandwidth must be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm.

  16. Minimum acquisition time detection. [of radar targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, H. I.; Hung, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Two different methods of target detection when the return signal is contaminated with noise are discussed and compared. The first method uses Neyman-Pearson detection philosophy and selects the threshold level to give a desired false alarm probability. The maximum probability of false alarm is constrained by the target cross scan velocity component. The second method (minimum acquisition time detection), which is similar to the ideal observer, selects the threshold level to minimize the expected target acquisition time. The probabilities of false alarm and missed detection are selected so that the errors produced by these effects produce the minimum acquisition time. Three different scan techniques - linear, spiral and two-mode scan - are studied and compared.

  17. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  18. Interactive real time flow simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive real time flow simulation technique is developed for an unsteady channel flow. A finite-volume algorithm in conjunction with a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme was developed for two-dimensional Euler equations. A global time step was used to accelerate convergence of steady-state calculations. A raster image generation routine was developed for high speed image transmission which allows the user to have direct interaction with the solution development. In addition to theory and results, the hardware and software requirements are discussed.

  19. Recommendations for Real-Time Speech MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P.; Miquel, Marc E.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  20. Radiation damping in real time.

    PubMed

    Mendes, A C; Takakura, F I

    2001-11-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a charge interacting with its own radiation, which originates the radiation damping. The real-time equation of motion for the charge and the associated Langevin equation is found in classical limit. The equation of motion for the charge allows one to obtain the frequency-dependent coefficient of friction. In the lowest order we find that although the coefficient of static friction vanishes, there is dynamical dissipation represented by a non-Markovian dissipative kernel.

  1. Real-time flutter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  2. Capturing the real value in high-tech acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, S; Tabrizi, B

    1999-01-01

    Eager to stay ahead of fast-changing markets, more and more high-tech companies are going outside for competitive advantage. Last year in the United States alone, there were 5,000 high-tech acquisitions, but many of them yielded disappointing results. The reason, the authors contend, is that most managers have a shortsighted view of strategic acquisitions--they focus on the specific products or market share. That focus might make sense in some industries, where those assets can confer substantial advantages, but in high tech, full-fledged technological capabilities--tied to skilled people--are the key to long-term success. Instead of simply following the "buzz," successful acquires systematically assess their own capability needs. They create product road maps to identify holes in their product line. While the business group determines if it can do the work in-house, the business development office scouts for opportunities to buy it. Once business development locates a candidate, it conducts an expanded due diligence, which goes beyond strategic, financial, and legal checks. Successful acquires are focused on long-term capabilities, so they make sure that the target's products reflect a real expertise. They also look to see if key people would be comfortable in the new environment and if they have incentives to stay on board. The final stage of a successful acquisition focuses on retaining the new people--making sure their transition goes smoothly and their energies stay focused. Acquisitions can cause great uncertainty, and skilled people can always go elsewhere. In short, the authors argue, high-tech acquisitions need a new orientation around people, not products.

  3. Real-time flight test data distribution and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesel, Michael C.; Hammons, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    Enhancements to the real-time processing and display systems of the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range are described. Display processing has been moved out of the telemetry and radar acquisition processing systems super-minicomputers into user/client interactive graphic workstations. Real-time data is provided to the workstations by way of Ethernet. Future enhancement plans include use of fiber optic cable to replace the Ethernet.

  4. Real-time pulmonary graphics.

    PubMed

    Mammel, Mark C; Donn, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Real-time pulmonary graphics now enable clinicians to view lung mechanics and patient-ventilator interactions on a breath-to-breath basis. Displays of pressure, volume, and flow waveforms, pressure-volume and flow-volume loops, and trend screens enable clinicians to customize ventilator settings based on the underlying pathophysiology and responses of the individual patient. This article reviews the basic concepts of pulmonary graphics and demonstrates how they contribute to our understanding of respiratory physiology and the management of neonatal respiratory failure.

  5. Real-time streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  6. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  7. Real-time analysis keratometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  8. Real time analysis under EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    The analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis.

  9. Real time analysis under EDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  10. Real-time flood forecasting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  11. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  12. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  13. Real-Time Forecasting of Echo-Centroid Motion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    motions has been developed. The key to this development is an algorithm for correlating previous with current storm- centroid positions. The program was...Modifications and Addtions ..... ... 12 1) Data Acquisition ..... ........... . 12 2) Correlation Algorithm .... .......... . 13 3) Forecast... Algorithm ............... 16 4) Data Diaplay ..... ............... . 20 3. Real-Time Operation ..... ................ 22 4. Data and Methodology

  14. Real-time optical tweezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Shah Mohammed Tamzidur

    In this thesis a new approach called ‘space-time-wavelength mapping’ has been developed for real-time electronic control of optical tweezers. The proposed technique enables precise control of optical signals in space, time, and frequency through time-domain dispersion and diffractive optics, which in turn enables generation of controlled radiation forces acting on small particles. In this study we show that 150 fs ultrafast optical pulses can be dispersed in time and space to achieve a 20 μm x 2 μm focused elliptical beam. The force field at the focal plane of the beam is dependent on local intensity gradients along the plane. The spatial intensity profile can be electronically controlled by assigning local power levels to each wavelength using time-domain RF modulation of dispersed pulses, and sending each wavelength, and hence the assigned power level, to a specific location in space through diffractive optics. We show that by choosing the appropriate RF waveform, one is able to create force fields for cell stretching and compression as well as multiple force hot-spots (of >200 pN force per pulse) for attractive and repulsive forces. A detailed theoretical model and simulation results from a proposed experimental setup are presented. This approach is significantly more advantageous in terms of flexibility and control, compared to conventional optical tweezers that require mechanical steering or holographic optical tweezers that produce undesired ‘ghost traps’. In addition, it is shown how the technique can also be extended to create tunable 2D force field distributions using a virtually-imaged phased-array (VIPA).

  15. New real-time strain imaging concepts using diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, A; Lorenz, A; Siebers, S; Ermert, H

    2000-06-01

    Two real-time strain imaging concepts and systems are presented. Both systems are based on a conventional ultrasound scanner that is connected to a PC with an A/D converter card for real-time data acquisition of rf data. Differential strain between successively acquired rf frames are estimated using phase root seeking. The first concept uses a special real-time implementation of manual elastography. In the second concept, denoted 'vibrography', the static compression is replaced by low-frequency axial vibration of the probe, still operating in quasistatic acquisition mode. The properties of both concepts are discussed with regard to noise and motion artefacts, and it is shown, using simulations and phantom experiments, that both imaging concepts yield the same kind of strain images. Vibrography has the advantage that no manual compression has to be applied, total compression can be very low and some motion artefacts are better suppressed.

  16. New real-time strain imaging concepts using diagnostic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesavento, A.; Lorenz, A.; Siebers, S.; Ermert, H.

    2000-06-01

    Two real-time strain imaging concepts and systems are presented. Both systems are based on a conventional ultrasound scanner that is connected to a PC with an A/D converter card for real-time data acquisition of rf data. Differential strain between successively acquired rf frames are estimated using phase root seeking. The first concept uses a special real-time implementation of manual elastography. In the second concept, denoted `vibrography', the static compression is replaced by low-frequency axial vibration of the probe, still operating in quasistatic acquisition mode. The properties of both concepts are discussed with regard to noise and motion artefacts, and it is shown, using simulations and phantom experiments, that both imaging concepts yield the same kind of strain images. Vibrography has the advantage that no manual compression has to be applied, total compression can be very low and some motion artefacts are better suppressed.

  17. Clinical virology in real time.

    PubMed

    Niesters, Hubert G M

    2002-12-01

    The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and introduce systems for most viruses of clinical interest, and to obtain clinical relevant information needed for optimal antiviral treatment options. Both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) can currently be used together with real time detection to generate results in a short turn-around time and to determine whether variants relevant for antiviral resistance are present. These new technologies enable the introduction of an individual patient disease management concept. Within our clinical setting, we have introduced this e.g. for quantitative detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in T-dell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. This enabled us to develop models for pre-emptive anti B-cell immunotherapy for EBV reactivation, thereby effectively reducing not the incidence of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease but the virus related mortality. Furthermore, additional clinically relevant viruses can now easily be detected simultaneously. It also becomes more feasible to introduce molecular testing for those viruses that can easily be detected using classical virological methods, like culture techniques or antigen detection. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of the additional positive samples detected. It should however be made clear that a complete exchange of technologies is unlikely to occur, and that some complementary technologies should stay operational enabling the discovery of new viruses. The implementation of these molecular diagnostic technologies furthermore

  18. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  19. Faster and cleaner real-time pure shift NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Mauhart, Johannes; Glanzer, Simon; Sakhaii, Peyman; Bermel, Wolfgang; Zangger, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Real-time pure shift experiments provide highly resolved proton NMR spectra which do not require any special processing. Although being more sensitive than their pseudo 2D counterparts, their signal intensities per unit time are still far below regular NMR spectra. In addition, scalar coupling evolution during the individual data chunks produces decoupling sidebands. Here we show that faster and cleaner real-time pure shift spectra can be obtained through the implementation of two parameter alterations. Variation of the FID chunk lengths between individual transients significantly suppresses decoupling sidebands for any kind of real-time pure shift spectra and thus allows for example the analysis of minor components in compound mixtures. Shifting the excitation frequency between individual scans of real-time slice-selective pure shift spectra increases their sensitivity obtainable in unit time by allowing faster repetitions of acquisitions.

  20. Holin triggering in real time.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca; Chiba, Shinobu; Pang, Ting; Dewey, Jill S; Savva, Christos G; Holzenburg, Andreas; Pogliano, Kit; Young, Ry

    2011-01-11

    During λ infections, the holin S105 accumulates harmlessly in the membrane until, at an allele-specific time, suddenly triggering to form irregular holes of unprecedented size (>300 nm), releasing the endolysin from the cytoplasm, resulting in lysis within seconds. Here we used a functional S105-GFP chimera and real-time deconvolution fluorescence microscopy to show that the S105-GFP fusion accumulated in a uniformly distributed fashion, until suddenly, within 1 min, it formed aggregates, or rafts, at the time of lethal triggering. Moreover, the isogenic fusion to a nonlethal S105 mutant remained uniformly distributed, whereas a fusion to an early-lysing mutant showed early triggering and early raft formation. Protein accumulation rates of the WT, early, and nonlethal alleles were identical. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that the nonlethal mutant and untriggered WT hybrids were highly mobile in the membrane, whereas the WT raft was essentially immobile. Finally, an antiholin allele, S105(ΔTMD1)-mcherryfp, in the product of which the S105 sequence deleted for the first transmembrane domain was fused to mCherryFP. This hybrid retained full antiholin activity, in that it blocked lethal hole formation by the S105-GFP fusion, accumulated uniformly throughout the host membrane and prevented the S105-GFP protein from forming rafts. These findings suggest that phage lysis occurs when the holin reaches a critical concentration and nucleates to form rafts, analogous to the initiation of purple membrane formation after the induction of bacteriorhodopsin in halobacteria. This model for holin function may be relevant for processes in mammalian cells, including the release of nonenveloped viruses and apoptosis.

  1. Real-Time Nonlinear Optical Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    operations aree presented. One approach realizes the halftone method of nonlinear optical processing in real time by replacing the conventional...photographic recording medium with a real-time image transducer. In the second approach halftoning is eliminated and the real-time device is used directly

  2. Casi real-time surface-laid mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Stephen B.; McFee, John E.; Anger, Clifford D.

    2001-10-01

    A ground vehicle-based, real-time, surface mine detection system, utilizing a Compact Airborne Spectrographic Image (casi), efficient mine detection algorithms, and real-time processing systems, was designed and tested. The combined real-time system was capable of 'learning' the in-situ spectra of various mines, thus providing a spectral library for the detection algorithms. The real-time processing of the casi data involved three steps. The first step was the radiometric correction of the raw data. The second step involved the application of the mine detection algorithms to the corrected data, referencing the spectral library. In the final step, the results of the real-time processes were stored and displayed, usually within a few frame times of the data acquisition. To the authors knowledge, this system represents the first hyperspectral imager to detect mines in real-time. This paper describes the generation of the in-situ mine spectral library, the collection of the scene data, the real-time processing of the scene data and the subsequent display and recording of the detection data. The limitation and expansion capabilities of the real-time system are discussed as well as various techniques that were implemented to achieve the goals. Planned future improvements that have been identified to create a more robust and higher performance, yet simpler processing systems are also discussed.

  3. Students Collecting Real time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  4. Challenges of AVHRR Vegetation Data for Real Time Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing data has long been used to monitor global ecosystems for floods and droughts and AVHRR data, as one of the first product, has many users interested in receiving the data within hours of acquisition. With the introduction of a new series of sensors in 2000 (the AVHRR/3 series), the quality of the NDVI datasets available for real time environmental monitoring has declined. This paper provides evidence of problems of cloud contamination, calibration and noise in the real time data which are not present in the historical AVHRR NDVIg dataset. These differences introduce significant uncertainty in the use of the real time data, degrading their utility for detecting climate variations in near real time.

  5. Real-Time MEG Source Localization Using Regional Clustering.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Christoph; Strohmeier, Daniel; Luessi, Martin; Güllmar, Daniel; Baumgarten, Daniel; Haueisen, Jens; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2015-11-01

    With its millisecond temporal resolution, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is well suited for real-time monitoring of brain activity. Real-time feedback allows the adaption of the experiment to the subject's reaction and increases time efficiency by shortening acquisition and off-line analysis. Two formidable challenges exist in real-time analysis: the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limited time available for computations. Since the low SNR reduces the number of distinguishable sources, we propose an approach which downsizes the source space based on a cortical atlas and allows to discern the sources in the presence of noise. Each cortical region is represented by a small set of dipoles, which is obtained by a clustering algorithm. Using this approach, we adapted dynamic statistical parametric mapping for real-time source localization. In terms of point spread and crosstalk between regions the proposed clustering technique performs better than selecting spatially evenly distributed dipoles. We conducted real-time source localization on MEG data from an auditory experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed real-time method localizes sources reliably in the superior temporal gyrus. We conclude that real-time source estimation based on MEG is a feasible, useful addition to the standard on-line processing methods, and enables feedback based on neural activity during the measurements.

  6. Real-Time MEG Source Localization using Regional Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Christoph; Strohmeier, Daniel; Luessi, Martin; Güllmar, Daniel; Baumgarten, Daniel; Haueisen, Jens; Hämäläinen, Matti S.

    2015-01-01

    With its millisecond temporal resolution, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is well suited for real-time monitoring of brain activity. Real-time feedback allows the adaption of the experiment to the subject’s reaction and increases time efficiency by shortening acquisition and offline analysis. Two formidable challenges exist in real-time analysis: the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limited time available for computations. Since the low SNR reduces the number of distinguishable sources, we propose an approach which downsizes the source space based on a cortical atlas and allows to discern the sources in the presence of noise. Each cortical region is represented by a small set of dipoles, which is obtained by a clustering algorithm. Using this approach, we adapted dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM) for real-time source localization. In terms of point spread and crosstalk between regions the proposed clustering technique performs better than selecting spatially evenly distributed dipoles. We conducted real-time source localization on MEG data from an auditory experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed real-time method localizes sources reliably in the superior temporal gyrus. We conclude that real-time source estimation based on MEG is a feasible, useful addition to the standard on-line processing methods, and enables feedback based on neural activity during the measurements. PMID:25782980

  7. Real-Time, Two-Dimensional Terahertz Beam Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The THz imaging system uses electro-optic crystals and is capable of time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy across a frequency range extending from...an electro-optic crystal which provides the measurement of a THz wave with an unprecedented data acquisition rate. We have attracted over $30,000...electro-optic crystal , the CCD, and optical design. We demonstrated the feasibility for building a real-time, two-dimensional, terahertz wave

  8. 41 CFR 102-73.10 - What is the basic real estate acquisition policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE ACQUISITION General Provisions § 102-73.10 What is the basic real estate acquisition policy? When... real estate and related services in an efficient and cost effective manner. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the basic...

  9. 10 CFR 1039.1 - Uniform relocation assistance and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform relocation assistance and real property acquisition. 1039.1 Section 1039.1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1039.1...

  10. A heterogeneous hierarchical architecture for real-time computing

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, D.A.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The need for high-speed data acquisition and control algorithms has prompted continued research in the area of multiprocessor systems and related programming techniques. The result presented here is a unique hardware and software architecture for high-speed real-time computer systems. The implementation of a prototype of this architecture has required the integration of architecture, operating systems and programming languages into a cohesive unit. This report describes a Heterogeneous Hierarchial Architecture for Real-Time (H{sup 2} ART) and system software for program loading and interprocessor communication.

  11. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  12. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  13. Real-time structured light profilometry: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The acquisition of high-resolution, real-time three-dimensional surface data of dynamically moving objects has large applicability in many fields. When additional restrictions such as non-invasiveness and non-contact measurement are imposed on the employed profilometry technique, the list of possible candidates is reduced mainly to the broad range of structured light profilometry methods. In this manuscript, the current state-of-the-art in structured light profilometry systems is described, as well as the main advancements in hardware technology and coding strategy that have led to their successful development. A chronological overview of optical profilometry systems that have been reported to perform real-time acquisition, digital signal processing and display of full-field 3D surface maps is presented. The respective operating principles, strengths and weaknesses of these setups are reviewed and the main limitations and future challenges in high-speed optical profilometry are discussed.

  14. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  15. Real-time segmentation by Active Geometric Functions.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D; Laine, Andrew F

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in 4D imaging and real-time imaging provide image data with clinically important cardiac dynamic information at high spatial or temporal resolution. However, the enormous amount of information contained in these data has also raised a challenge for traditional image analysis algorithms in terms of efficiency. In this paper, a novel deformable model framework, Active Geometric Functions (AGF), is introduced to tackle the real-time segmentation problem. As an implicit framework paralleling to level-set, AGF has mathematical advantages in efficiency and computational complexity as well as several flexible feature similar to level-set framework. AGF is demonstrated in two cardiac applications: endocardial segmentation in 4D ultrasound and myocardial segmentation in MRI with super high temporal resolution. In both applications, AGF can perform real-time segmentation in several milliseconds per frame, which was less than the acquisition time per frame. Segmentation results are compared to manual tracing with comparable performance with inter-observer variability. The ability of such real-time segmentation will not only facilitate the diagnoses and workflow, but also enables novel applications such as interventional guidance and interactive image acquisition with online segmentation.

  16. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.217-70... Energy will reimburse the incurred costs as a reimbursable contract cost. (3) Acquisition of...

  17. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.217-70... Energy will reimburse the incurred costs as a reimbursable contract cost. (3) Acquisition of...

  18. 48 CFR 952.217-70 - Acquisition of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... property. 952.217-70 Section 952.217-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.217-70... Energy will reimburse the incurred costs as a reimbursable contract cost. (3) Acquisition of...

  19. Real time programming environment for Windows

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, D.R.

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  20. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  1. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  2. Single-protein nanomechanical mass spectrometry in real time

    PubMed Central

    Hanay, M.S.; Kelber, S.; Naik, A.K.; Chi, D.; Hentz, S.; Bullard, E.C.; Colinet, E.; Duraffourg, L.; Roukes, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) resonators can detect mass with exceptional sensitivity. Previously, mass spectra from several hundred adsorption events were assembled in NEMS-based mass spectrometry using statistical analysis. Here, we report the first realization of single-molecule NEMS-based mass spectrometry in real time. As each molecule in the sample adsorbs upon the NEMS resonator, its mass and the position-of-adsorption are determined by continuously tracking two driven vibrational modes of the device. We demonstrate the potential of multimode NEMS-based mass spectrometry by analyzing IgM antibody complexes in real-time. NEMS-MS is a unique and promising new form of mass spectrometry: it can resolve neutral species, provides resolving power that increases markedly for very large masses, and allows acquisition of spectra, molecule-by-molecule, in real-time. PMID:22922541

  3. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sieglin, B. Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  4. 41 CFR 102-73.15 - What real estate acquisition and related services may Federal agencies provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What real estate... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION General Provisions § 102-73.15 What real estate... provide real estate acquisition and related services, including leasing (with or without purchase...

  5. Real-Time Tomography Mooring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    ma i t ain an accu racy of 20 jisec. far bet-ter than the I iiise accuracy (at b~est ) of’ thle tomograph11ic signal arrival t~ime deterininuat oion...surface buoy. The main supply consists of four stacks of ninety alkaline D-cells providing 360 amrlp hours of power at 12V to the IBC and associated...electronics. The second supply provides 90 amllp hours at 12V to the back-up PTT. The third supply is a rechargeable battery made up of lead-acid

  6. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  7. Real-time monitoring of landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.; Schulz, William H.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides cause fatalities and property damage throughout the Nation. To reduce the impact from hazardous landslides, the U.S. Geological Survey develops and uses real-time and near-real-time landslide monitoring systems. Monitoring can detect when hillslopes are primed for sliding and can provide early indications of rapid, catastrophic movement. Continuous information from up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring provides prompt notification of landslide activity, advances our understanding of landslide behavior, and enables more effective engineering and planning efforts.

  8. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  9. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  10. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body.

  11. Real-time airborne hyperspectral imaging of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Steve; McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Young, Jane

    2007-04-01

    DRDC Suffeld and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for surface and buried land mine detection since 1989. These studies have demonstrated reliable passive HSI detection of surface-laid mines, based on their reflectance spectra, from airborne and ground-based platforms. Commercial HSI instruments collect and store image data at aircraft speeds, but the data are analysed off- line. This is useful for humanitarian demining, but unacceptable for military countermine operations. We have developed a hardware and software system with algorithms that can process the raw hyperspectral data in real time to detect mines. The custom algorithms perform radiometric correction of the raw data, then classify pixels of the corrected data, referencing a spectral signature library. The classification results are stored and displayed in real time, that is, within a few frame times of the data acquisition. Such real-time mine detection was demonstrated for the first time from a slowly moving land vehicle in March 2000. This paper describes an improved system which can achieve real-time detection of mines from an airborne platform, with its commensurately higher data rates. The system is presently compatible with the Itres family of visible/near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared pushbroom hyperspectral imagers and its broadband thermal infrared pushbroom imager. Experiments to detect mines from an airborne platform in real time were conducted at DRDC Suffield in November 2006. Surface-laid land mines were detected in real time from a slowly moving helicopter with generally good detection rates and low false alarm rates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that land mines have been detected from an airborne platform in real time using hyperspectral imaging.

  12. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  13. Real-time scheduling using minimum search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

  14. The LAA real-time benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Block, R.K.; Krischer, W.; Lone, S.

    1989-04-01

    In the context of the LAA detector development program a subgroup Real Time Data Processing has tackled the problem of intelligent triggering. The main goal of this group is to show how fast digital devices, implemented as custom-made or commercial processors, can execute some basic algorithms, and how they can be embedded in the data flow between detector readout components and fully programmable commercial processors, which are expected to be the final data processing filter in real time.

  15. Real-Time Ada Problem Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-24

    define this set of problems. The authors were chosen because of their proven expertise in real-time development with Ada. They could enrich the results of...for Real-Time Embedded Systems". LabTek Corporation, the author , had proven expertise in embedded system design utilizing Motorola MC680XO- based...processors. The second report is entitledSoftware Enineering Problems Using Ada in Computers Integral to Weapons Systems. Its author , Sonicraft, had

  16. Real-time ECG transmission via Internet for nonclinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hernández, A I; Mora, F; Villegas, G; Passariello, G; Carrault, G

    2001-09-01

    Telemedicine is producing a great impact in the monitoring of patients located in remote nonclinical environments such as homes, elder communities, gymnasiums, schools, remote military bases, ships, and the like. A number of applications, ranging from data collection, to chronic patient surveillance, and even to the control of therapeutic procedures, are being implemented in many parts of the world. As part of this growing trend, this paper discusses the problems in electrocardiogram (ECG) real-time data acquisition, transmission, and visualization over the Internet. ECG signals are transmitted in real time from a patient in a remote nonclinical environment to the specialist in a hospital or clinic using the current capabilities and availability of the Internet. A prototype system is composed of a portable data acquisition and preprocessing module connected to the computer in the remote site via its RS-232 port, a Java-based client-server platform, and software modules to handle communication protocols between data acquisition module and the patient's personal computer, and to handle client-server communication. The purpose of the system is the provision of extended monitoring for patients under drug therapy after infarction, data collection in some particular cases, remote consultation, and low-cost ECG monitoring for the elderly.

  17. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  18. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  19. Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyle Park, Boris; Pierce, Mark D.; Cense, Barry; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2003-04-01

    We demonstrate real-time acquisition, processing, and display of tissue structure, birefringence, and blood flow in a multi-functional optical coherence tomography (MF-OCT) system. This is accomplished by efficient data processing of the phase-resolved inteference patterns without dedicated hardware or extensive modification to the high-speed fiber-based OCT system. The system acquires images of 2048 depth scans per second, covering an area of 5 mm in width × 1.2 mm in depth with real-time display updating images in a rolling manner 32 times each second. We present a video of the system display as images from the proximal nail fold of a human volunteer are taken.

  20. Characterization of real-time computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Krishna, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A real-time system consists of a computer controller and controlled processes. Despite the synergistic relationship between these two components, they have been traditionally designed and analyzed independently of and separately from each other; namely, computer controllers by computer scientists/engineers and controlled processes by control scientists. As a remedy for this problem, in this report real-time computers are characterized by performance measures based on computer controller response time that are: (1) congruent to the real-time applications, (2) able to offer an objective comparison of rival computer systems, and (3) experimentally measurable/determinable. These measures, unlike others, provide the real-time computer controller with a natural link to controlled processes. In order to demonstrate their utility and power, these measures are first determined for example controlled processes on the basis of control performance functionals. They are then used for two important real-time multiprocessor design applications - the number-power tradeoff and fault-masking and synchronization.

  1. Toward Real Time Uavs' Image Mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrdad, S.; Satari, M.; Safdary, M.; Moallem, P.

    2016-06-01

    Anyone knows that sudden catastrophes can instantly do great damage. Fast and accurate acquisition of catastrophe information is an essential task for minimize life and property damage. Compared with other ways of catastrophe data acquisition, UAV based platforms can optimize time, cost and accuracy of the data acquisition, as a result UAVs' data has become the first choice in such condition. In this paper, a novel and fast strategy is proposed for registering and mosaicking of UAVs' image data. Firstly, imprecise image positions are used to find adjoining frames. Then matching process is done by a novel matching method. With keeping Sift in mind, this fast matching method is introduced, which uses images exposure time geometry, SIFT point detector and rBRIEF descriptor vector in order to match points efficiency, and by efficiency we mean not only time efficiency but also elimination of mismatch points. This method uses each image sequence imprecise attitude in order to use Epipolar geometry to both restricting search space of matching and eliminating mismatch points. In consideration of reaching to images imprecise attitude and positions we calibrated the UAV's sensors. After matching process, RANSAC is used to eliminate mismatched tie points. In order to obtain final mosaic, image histograms are equalized and a weighted average method is used to image composition in overlapping areas. The total RMSE over all matching points is 1.72 m.

  2. Real-Time Gauge/Gravity Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Skenderis, Kostas; Rees, Balt C. van

    2008-08-22

    We present a general prescription for the holographic computation of real-time n-point functions in nontrivial states. In quantum field theory such real-time computations involve a choice of a time contour in the complex time plane. The holographic prescription amounts to 'filling in' this contour with bulk solutions: real segments of the contour are filled in with Lorentzian solutions while imaginary segments are filled in with Riemannian solutions and appropriate matching conditions are imposed at the corners of the contour. We illustrate the general discussion by computing the 2-point function of a scalar operator using this prescription and by showing that this leads to an unambiguous answer with the correct i{epsilon} insertions.

  3. Imaging of living cells in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Nikandrov, Serguei L.

    1996-12-01

    Parameters of intrinsic cell motility is one of the cell activity characteristics which can be measured in real-time. For evaluation of certain organelles velocity we propose to use high sensitivity of computer-aided phase microscope airyscan to local phase changes connected with refractive index. This method is based on periodical scanning of cell profile in direction perpendicular to organelles movement. Analysis of the obtained 2-dimensional time-coordinate matrix allows us to define organelle velocity in quasi-real time and areas of cell activity. The experiments with onion cells confirm the method applicability for cell activity investigation.

  4. Personnel real time dosimetry in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Servoli, L; Bissi, L; Fabiani, S; Magalotti, D; Placidi, P; Scorzoni, A; Calandra, A; Cicioni, R; Chiocchini, S; Dipilato, A C; Forini, N; Paolucci, M; Di Lorenzo, R; Cappotto, F P; Scarpignato, M; Maselli, A; Pentiricci, A

    2016-12-01

    Interventional radiology and hemodynamic procedures have rapidly grown in number in the past decade, increasing the importance of personnel dosimetry not only for patients but also for medical staff. The optimization of the absorbed dose during operations is one of the goals that fostered the development of real-time dosimetric systems. Indeed, introducing proper procedure optimization, like correlating dose rate measurements with medical staff position inside the operating room, the absorbed dose could be reduced. Real-time dose measurements would greatly facilitate this task through real-time monitoring and automatic data recording. Besides real-time dose monitoring could allow automatic data recording. In this work, we will describe the calibration and validation of a wireless real-time prototype dosimeter based on a new sensor device (CMOS imager). The validation measurement campaign in clinical conditions has demonstrated the prototype capability of measuring dose-rates with a frequency in the range of few Hz, and an uncertainty smaller than 10%.

  5. Visualization of Real-Time Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansifer, Ryan; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    In this project we explored various approaches to presenting real-time data from the numerous systems monitored on the space shuttle to computer users. We examined the approach that several projects at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used to accomplish this. We undertook to build a prototype system to demonstrate that the Internet and the Java programming language could be used to present the real-time data conveniently. Several Java programs were developed that presented real-time data in different forms including one form that emulated the display screens of the PC GOAL system which is familiar to many at KSC. Also, we developed several communications programs to supply the data continuously. Furthermore, a framework was created using the World Wide Web (WWW) to organize the collection and presentation of the real-time data. We believe our demonstration project shows the great flexibility of the approach. We had no particular use of the data in mind, instead we wanted the most general and the least complex framework possible. People who wish to view data need only know how to use a WWW browser and the address (the URL). People wanting to build WWW documents containing real-time data need only know the values of a few parameters, they do not need to program in Java or any other language. These are stunning advantages over more monolithic systems.

  6. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  7. Real-Time Confocal Imaging Of The Living Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, James V.; Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Essepian, John; Shields, William J.; Lemp, Michael A.

    1989-12-01

    In 1986, we adapted the Tandem Scanning Reflected Light Microscope of Petran and Hadraysky to permit non-invasive, confocal imaging of the living eye in real-time. We were first to obtain stable, confocal optical sections in vivo, from human and animal eyes. Using confocal imaging systems we have now studied living, normal volunteers, rabbits, cats and primates sequentially, non-invasively, and in real-time. The continued development of real-time confocal imaging systems will unlock the door to a new field of cell biology involving for the first time the study of dynamic cellular processes in living organ systems. Towards this end we have concentrated our initial studies on three areas (1) evaluation of confocal microscope systems for real-time image acquisition, (2) studies of the living normal cornea (epithelium, stroma, endothelium) in human and other species; and (3) sequential wound-healing responses in the cornea in single animals to lamellar-keratectomy injury (cellular migration, inflammation, scarring). We believe that this instrument represents an important, new paradigm for research in cell biology and pathology and that it will fundamentally alter all experimental and clinical approaches in future years.

  8. Making Real-Time Data "Real" for General Interest Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L.

    2003-04-01

    Helping educators realize the benefits of integrating technology into curricula to effectively engage student learning and improve student achievement, particularly in science and mathematics, is the core mission of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE). To achieve our mission, we focus on projects utilizing real-time data available from the Internet, and collaborative projects utilizing the Internet's potential to reach peers and experts around the world. As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), is committed to delivering relevant ocean science education to diverse audiences, including K-12 teachers, students, coastal managers, families and tourists. The highest priority of the Mid-Atlantic COSEE is to involve scientists and educators in the translation of data and information from the coastal observatories into instructional materials and products usable by educators and the public. A combination of three regional observing systems, the New Jersey Shelf Observing System (NJSOS), Chesapeake Bay Observing System (CBOS), and the York River observing system will provide the scientific backbone for an integrated program of science and education that improves user access to, and understanding of, modern ocean science and how it affects our daily lives. At present, the Mid-Atlantic COSEE offers three projects that enable users to apply and validate scientific concepts to real world situations. (1) The Gulf Stream Voyage is an online multidisciplinary project that utilizes both real-time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream current. (2) C.O.O.L. Classroom is an online project that utilizes concepts and real-time data collected through the NJSOS. The C.O.O.L. Classroom is based on the concept of the Rutgers-IMCS Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory, a real

  9. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  10. Real-time photo-magnetic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nouizi, Farouk; Erkol, Hakan; Luk, Alex; Unlu, Mehmet B.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    We previously introduced a new high resolution diffuse optical imaging modality termed, photo-magnetic imaging (PMI). PMI irradiates the object under investigation with near-infrared light and monitors the variations of temperature using magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). In this paper, we present a real-time PMI image reconstruction algorithm that uses analytic methods to solve the forward problem and assemble the Jacobian matrix much faster. The new algorithm is validated using real MRT measured temperature maps. In fact, it accelerates the reconstruction process by more than 250 times compared to a single iteration of the FEM-based algorithm, which opens the possibility for the real-time PMI. PMID:27867701

  11. Network protocols for real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  12. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  13. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  14. Real-time micro-modelling of city evacuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner, Rainald; Haug, Eberhard; Zinggerling, Claudio; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    A methodology to integrate geographical information system (GIS) data with large-scale pedestrian simulations has been developed. Advances in automatic data acquisition and archiving from GIS databases, automatic input for pedestrian simulations, as well as scalable pedestrian simulation tools have made it possible to simulate pedestrians at the individual level for complete cities in real time. An example that simulates the evacuation of the city of Barcelona demonstrates that this is now possible. This is the first step towards a fully integrated crowd prediction and management tool that takes into account not only data gathered in real time from cameras, cell phones or other sensors, but also merges these with advanced simulation tools to predict the future state of the crowd.

  15. Light sheet microscopy for real-time developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Within only a few short years, light sheet microscopy has contributed substantially to the emerging field of real-time developmental biology. Low photo-toxicity and high-speed multiview acquisition have made selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) a popular choice for studies of organ morphogenesis and function in zebrafish, Drosophila, and other model organisms. A multitude of different light sheet microscopes have emerged for the noninvasive imaging of specimens ranging from single molecules to cells, tissues, and entire embryos. In particular, developmental biology can benefit from the ability to watch developmental events occur in real time in an entire embryo, thereby advancing our understanding on how cells form tissues and organs. However, it presents a new challenge to our existing data and image processing tools. This review gives an overview of where we stand as light sheet microscopy branches out, explores new areas, and becomes more specialized.

  16. Real Time Fast Ultrasound Imaging Technology and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruza, J. F.; Perez, M.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

    In this work, a novel hardware architecture for fast ultrasound imaging based on FPGA devices is proposed. A key difference over other approaches is the unlimited scalability in terms of active channels without performance losses. Acquisition and processing tasks share the same hardware, eliminating communication bottlenecks with smaller size and power losses. These features make this system suitable to implement the most demanding imaging applications, like 3D Phased Array, Total Focusing Method, Vector Doppler, Image Compounding, High Speed Part Scanning and advanced elastographic techniques. A single medium sized FPGA allows beamforming up to 200 scan lines simultaneously, which is enough to perform most of the above mentioned applications in strict real time.

  17. GPU real-time processing in NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-01-01

    A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Direct GPU communication using a FPGA-based board has been used to reduce the data transmission latency. The performance of the system for multi-ring reconstrunction obtained during the NA62 physics run will be presented.

  18. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-10-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities.

  19. Software Package For Real-Time Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1991-01-01

    Software package for master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) at Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of NASA Ames Research Center provides general-purpose graphical display system for real-time and post-real-time analysis of data. Written in C language and intended for use on workstation of interactive raster imaging system (IRIS) equipped with level-V Unix operating system. Enables flight researchers to create their own displays on basis of individual requirements. Applicable to monitoring of complicated processes in chemical industry.

  20. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  1. Automated real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  2. Real-Time, Interactive Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Jr., Edward A. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is an improved real-time, interactive sonic boom display for aircraft. By using physical properties obtained via various sensors and databases, the invention determines, in real-time, sonic boom impacts locations and intensities for aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds. The information is provided to a pilot via a display that lists a selectable set of maneuvers available to the pilot to mitigate sonic boom issues. Upon selection of a maneuver, the information as to the result of the maneuver is displayed and the pilot may proceed with making the maneuver, or provide new data to the system in order to calculate a different maneuver.

  3. Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer (ROCA) produces an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scans the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converts the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. Changes in the occupancy grid can be reported in real time to support a number of tracking capabilities. The benefit of ROCA is that rather than only providing a vector to the detected change, it provides the actual x,y position of the change.

  4. OPAD-EDIFIS Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1997-01-01

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) detects engine hardware degradation of flight vehicles through identification and quantification of elemental species found in the plume by analyzing the plume emission spectra in a real-time mode. Real-time performance of OPAD relies on extensive software which must report metal amounts in the plume faster than once every 0.5 sec. OPAD software previously written by NASA scientists performed most necessary functions at speeds which were far below what is needed for real-time operation. The research presented in this report improved the execution speed of the software by optimizing the code without changing the algorithms and converting it into a parallelized form which is executed in a shared-memory multiprocessor system. The resulting code was subjected to extensive timing analysis. The report also provides suggestions for further performance improvement by (1) identifying areas of algorithm optimization, (2) recommending commercially available multiprocessor architectures and operating systems to support real-time execution and (3) presenting an initial study of fault-tolerance requirements.

  5. Acquisition Cycle Time: Defining the Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    H 16-000350 The Institute for Defense Analyses is a non-profit corporation that operates three federally funded research and development centers to...Time Problem – Perception Cycle times (or development lead times) for defense weapon systems are a hot topic in the defense world. In September of...long to develop and field new systems, and that we should do something about it. They say that the pace of technological advancement, especially in

  6. Graph-based real-time fault diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padalkar, S.; Karsai, G.; Sztipanovits, J.

    1988-01-01

    A real-time fault detection and diagnosis capability is absolutely crucial in the design of large-scale space systems. Some of the existing AI-based fault diagnostic techniques like expert systems and qualitative modelling are frequently ill-suited for this purpose. Expert systems are often inadequately structured, difficult to validate and suffer from knowledge acquisition bottlenecks. Qualitative modelling techniques sometimes generate a large number of failure source alternatives, thus hampering speedy diagnosis. In this paper we present a graph-based technique which is well suited for real-time fault diagnosis, structured knowledge representation and acquisition and testing and validation. A Hierarchical Fault Model of the system to be diagnosed is developed. At each level of hierarchy, there exist fault propagation digraphs denoting causal relations between failure modes of subsystems. The edges of such a digraph are weighted with fault propagation time intervals. Efficient and restartable graph algorithms are used for on-line speedy identification of failure source components.

  7. Real-time analysis of telemetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Simon A.; Laffey, Thomas J.; Schmidt, James L.; Read, Jackson Y.; Dunham, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper descibes a knowledge-based system for performing real-time monitoring and analysis of telemetry data from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In order to handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time the system consists of three or more separate processes, which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The data management process gathers, compresses, and scales the incoming telemetry data befoe sending it to the other tasks. The inferencing process uses the incoming data to perform a real-time analysis of the state and health of the Space Telescope. The I/O process receives telemetry monitors from the data management process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The three processes may run on the same or different computers. This system is currently under development and is being used to monitor testcases produced by the Bass Telemetry System in the Hardware/Software Integration Facility at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. in Sunnyvale, California.

  8. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  9. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  10. Real-time distributed multimedia systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rahurkar, S.S.; Bourbakis, N.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a survey on distributed multimedia systems and discusses real-time issues. In particular, different subsystems are reviewed that impact on multimedia networking, the networking for multimedia, the networked multimedia systems, and the leading edge research and developments efforts and issues in networking.

  11. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Larina, Irina V.; Larin, Kirill V.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2000-05-01

    Optoacoustic monitoring of tissue optical properties and speed of sound in real time can provide fast and accurate feedback information during thermotherapy performed with various heating or cooling agents. Amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic pressure waves are dependent on tissue properties. Detection and measurement of the optoacoustic waves may be used to monitor the extent of tissue hyperthermia, coagulation, or freezing with high resolution and contrast. We studied real-time optoacoustic monitoring of thermal coagulation induced by conductive heating and laser radiation and cryoablation with liquid nitrogen. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses were used as probing radiation to induce optoacoustic waves in tissues. Dramatic changes in optoacoustic signal parameters were detected during tissue freezing and coagulation due to sharp changes in tissue properties. The dimensions of thermally- induced lesions were measured in real time with the optoacoustic technique. Our studies demonstrated that the laser optoacoustic technique is capable of real-time monitoring of tissue coagulation and freezing front with submillimeter spatial resolution. This may allow accurate thermal ablation or cryotherapy of malignant and benign lesions with minimal damage to normal tissues.

  12. REAL TIME CONTROL OF URBAN DRAINAGE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed, computer-assisted management technology for a specific sewerage network to meet the operational objectives of its collection/conveyance system. RTC can operate in several modes, including a mode that is activated during a wet weather ...

  13. ALMA Correlator Real-Time Data Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, J.; Amestica, R.; Perez, J.

    2005-10-01

    The design of a real-time Linux application utilizing Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI) to process real-time data from the radio astronomy correlator for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is described. The correlator is a custom-built digital signal processor which computes the cross-correlation function of two digitized signal streams. ALMA will have 64 antennas with 2080 signal streams each with a sample rate of 4 giga-samples per second. The correlator's aggregate data output will be 1 gigabyte per second. The software is defined by hard deadlines with high input and processing data rates, while requiring interfaces to non real-time external computers. The designed computer system - the Correlator Data Processor or CDP, consists of a cluster of 17 SMP computers, 16 of which are compute nodes plus a master controller node all running real-time Linux kernels. Each compute node uses an RTAI kernel module to interface to a 32-bit parallel interface which accepts raw data at 64 megabytes per second in 1 megabyte chunks every 16 milliseconds. These data are transferred to tasks running on multiple CPUs in hard real-time using RTAI's LXRT facility to perform quantization corrections, data windowing, FFTs, and phase corrections for a processing rate of approximately 1 GFLOPS. Highly accurate timing signals are distributed to all seventeen computer nodes in order to synchronize them to other time-dependent devices in the observatory array. RTAI kernel tasks interface to the timing signals providing sub-millisecond timing resolution. The CDP interfaces, via the master node, to other computer systems on an external intra-net for command and control, data storage, and further data (image) processing. The master node accesses these external systems utilizing ALMA Common Software (ACS), a CORBA-based client-server software infrastructure providing logging, monitoring, data delivery, and intra-computer function invocation. The software is being developed in tandem

  14. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  15. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  16. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    bandwidth and space-bandwidth products. Real-time homonorphic and loga- rithmic filtering by halftone nonlinear processing has been achieved. A...Page ABSTRACT 1 1. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND PROGRESS 3 I-- 1.1 Introduction and Project overview 3 1.2 Halftone Processing 9 1.3 Direct Nonlinear...time homomorphic and logarithmic filtering by halftone nonlinear processing has been achieved. A detailed analysis of degradation due to the finite gamma

  17. Applications of real-time holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic principles are discussed, with a description of the steps of hologram production and reconstruction and the materials used in storage of the images. Real-time holography applications, including photolithography, double-exposure interferometry, time-averaged holography, parallel optical processing, optical phase conjugation, beam steering, and moving holograms, are described in detail. In addition, current areas of active research and some experimental applications are discussed.

  18. Real Time RF Simulator (RTS) and control

    SciTech Connect

    Cancelo, G.; Armiento, C.; Treptow, K.; Vignoni, A.; Zmuda, T.; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The multi-cavity RTS allows LLRF algorithm development and lab testing prior to commissioning with real cavities and cryomodules. The RTS is a valuable tool since it models the functions, errors and disturbances of real RF systems. The advantage of a RTS over an off-line simulator is that it can be implemented on the actual LLRF hardware, on the same FPGA and processor, and run at the same speed of the LLRF control loop. Additionally the RTS can be shared by collaborators who do not have access to RF systems or when the systems are not available to LLRF engineers. The RTS simulator incorporates hardware, firmware and software errors and limitations of a real implementation, which would be hard to identify and time consuming to model in off-line simulations.

  19. Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm

    SciTech Connect

    Moezzi, Mithra; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, Osman; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-05-26

    Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management strives to minimize operating costs and optimize profit, and labor, capital and energy are potential substitutes in the firm's production function. How well do private firms and public sector institutions operating conditions, knowledge structures, decision-making practices, and external relationships comport with these assumptions and how might this impact price response? We discuss these issues on the basis of interviews with 29 large (over 2 MW) industrial, commercial, and institutional customers in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service territory that have faced day-ahead electricity market prices since 1998. We look at stories interviewees told about why and how they respond to RTP, why some customers report that they can't, and why even if they can, they don't. Some firms respond as theorized, and we describe their load curtailment strategies. About half of our interviewees reported that they were unable to either shift or forego electricity consumption even when prices are high ($0.50/kWh). Reasons customers gave for why they weren't price-responsive include implicit value placed on reliability, pricing structures, lack of flexibility in adjusting production inputs, just-in-time practices, perceived barriers to onsite generation, and insufficient time. We draw these observations into a framework that could help refine economic theory of dynamic pricing by providing real-world descriptions of how firms behave and why.

  20. Real Time Correction of Aircraft Flight Fonfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring and analyzing, in real time, variation with time of an aircraft flight parameter. A time-dependent recovery band, defined by first and second recovery band boundaries that are spaced apart at at least one time point, is constructed for a selected flight parameter and for a selected time recovery time interval length .DELTA.t(FP;rec). A flight parameter, having a value FP(t=t.sub.p) at a time t=t.sub.p, is likely to be able to recover to a reference flight parameter value FP(t';ref), lying in a band of reference flight parameter values FP(t';ref;CB), within a time interval given by t.sub.p.ltoreq.t'.ltoreq.t.sub.p.DELTA.t(FP;rec), if (or only if) the flight parameter value lies between the first and second recovery band boundary traces.

  1. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  2. A novel time stamping technique for distributed data acquisition systems.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E T

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a synchronizing technique for data acquisition systems, which can effectively use the normal, standard local area network cables to provide a time stamp, with a range up to 32 days, resolution of 10 ns, and synchronization within ± 5 ns. This system may be used to synchronize data being collected by independent heterogeneous data acquisition modules, that acquire events independently. Such distributed systems are generally designed with a tree-like structure or independent self-triggered acquisition boxes. These leaf edges are connected through branches to the root node, via non-bus based inter-connecting links. The present system has been tested with a set of self-triggered digital signal processing based data acquisition engines, having a 100 MHz analog to digital converter front end.

  3. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  4. Real-time video image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kirk G.; Yool, Stephen R.

    1990-11-01

    Lockheed has designed and implemented a prototype real-time Video Enhancement Workbench (VEW) using commercial offtheshelf hardware and custom software. The hardware components include a Sun workstation Aspex PIPE image processor time base corrector VCR video camera and realtime disk subsystem. A cornprehensive set of image processing functions can be invoked by the analyst at any time during processing enabling interactive enhancement and exploitation of video sequences. Processed images can be transmitted and stored within the system in digital or video form. VEW also provides image output to a laser printer and to Interleaf technical publishing software.

  5. Real-time remote scientific model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frainier, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes flight results from the use of a CLIPS-based validation facility to compare analyzed data from a space life sciences (SLS) experiment to an investigator's preflight model. The comparison, performed in real-time, either confirms or refutes the model and its predictions. This result then becomes the basis for continuing or modifying the investigator's experiment protocol. Typically, neither the astronaut crew in Spacelab nor the ground-based investigator team are able to react to their experiment data in real time. This facility, part of a larger science advisor system called Principal Investigator in a Box, was flown on the space shuttle in October, 1993. The software system aided the conduct of a human vestibular physiology experiment and was able to outperform humans in the tasks of data integrity assurance, data analysis, and scientific model validation. Of twelve preflight hypotheses associated with investigator's model, seven were confirmed and five were rejected or compromised.

  6. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  7. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  8. Distributed Real-Time Computing with Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Di Saverio, Emanuele; Cesati, Marco; Di Biagio, Christian; Pennella, Guido; Engelmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern parallel and distributed computing solutions are often built onto a ''middleware'' software layer providing a higher and common level of service between computational nodes. Harness is an adaptable, plugin-based middleware framework for parallel and distributed computing. This paper reports recent research and development results of using Harness for real-time distributed computing applications in the context of an industrial environment with the needs to perform several safety critical tasks. The presented work exploits the modular architecture of Harness in conjunction with a lightweight threaded implementation to resolve several real-time issues by adding three new Harness plug-ins to provide a prioritized lightweight execution environment, low latency communication facilities, and local timestamped event logging.

  9. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  10. RTSPM: real-time Linux control software for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, V; Mehta, M M

    2013-01-01

    Real time computer control is an essential feature of scanning probe microscopes, which have become important tools for the characterization and investigation of nanometer scale samples. Most commercial (and some open-source) scanning probe data acquisition software uses digital signal processors to handle the real time data processing and control, which adds to the expense and complexity of the control software. We describe here scan control software that uses a single computer and a data acquisition card to acquire scan data. The computer runs an open-source real time Linux kernel, which permits fast acquisition and control while maintaining a responsive graphical user interface. Images from a simulated tuning-fork based microscope as well as a standard topographical sample are also presented, showing some of the capabilities of the software.

  11. Neural Network Retinal Model Real Time Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-02

    addresses the specific needs of vision processing. The goal of this SBIR Phase I project has been to take a significant neural network vision...application and to map it onto dedicated hardware for real time implementation. The neural network was already demonstrated using software simulation on a...general purpose computer. During Phase 1, HNC took a neural network model of the retina and, using HNC’s Vision Processor (ViP) prototype hardware

  12. Real-Time Ocean Modeling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-22

    2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Journal Article 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real-time 16iebaf Modeling Systems \\&&»A 5a...Director NCST E.O. Hartwig, 7000 Public Affairs (Unclassified/ Unlimited Only), Code 7n30 4 Division, Code Author, Code HQ-NRL 5511/6 (Rev. 12-93...according to the routing in Section 4 . 1. NRL Reports Submit the diskette (if available), manuscript, typed double-spaced, complete with tables

  13. Real-Time X-Ray Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray imaging instrument adapted to continuous scanning. Modern version of fluoroscope enables rapid x-ray inspection of parts. Developed for detection of buckling in insulated ducts. Uses radiation from radioactive gadolinium or thallium source. Instrument weighs only 6 1/2 lb. Quickly scanned by hand along duct surface, providing real-time image. Based on Lixiscope, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  14. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    DTIC ELECTE I B IIMAGE PROCESSING INSTITUTE 84 11 26 107 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dota Entered), REPORT DOCUMENTATION...30, 1984 N NONLINEAR REAL-TIME OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING i E~ A.A. Sawchuk, Principal Investigator T.C. Strand and A.R. Tanguay. Jr. October 1, 1984...RDepartment of Electrical Engineering Image Processing institute University of Southern California University Park-MC 0272 Los Angeles, California

  15. Software Analyzes Complex Systems in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Expert system software programs, also known as knowledge-based systems, are computer programs that emulate the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine) is one such program, a software inference engine (expert system) designed by NASA for the purpose of monitoring, analyzing, and diagnosing both real-time and non-real-time systems. It was developed to meet many of the Agency s demanding and rigorous artificial intelligence goals for current and future needs. NASA developed the sophisticated and reusable software based on the experience and requirements of its Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) Artificial Intelligence Research Group in developing expert systems for space flight operations specifically, the diagnosis of spacecraft health. It was designed to be efficient enough to operate in demanding real time and in limited hardware environments, and to be utilized by non-expert systems applications written in conventional programming languages. The technology is currently used in several ongoing NASA applications, including the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Spacecraft Health Automatic Reasoning Pilot (SHARP) program for the diagnosis of telecommunication anomalies during the Neptune Voyager Encounter. It is also finding applications outside of the Space Agency.

  16. Real-time Interactive Tree Animation.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Ed; Yu, Yue; Huang, Jingwei; Lin, Winnie; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2017-01-30

    We present a novel method for posing and animating botanical tree models interactively in real time. Unlike other state of the art methods which tend to produce trees that are overly flexible, bending and deforming as if they were underwater plants, our approach allows for arbitrarily high stiffness while still maintaining real-time frame rates without spurious artifacts, even on quite large trees with over ten thousand branches. This is accomplished by using an articulated rigid body model with as-stiff-as-desired rotational springs in conjunction with our newly proposed simulation technique, which is motivated both by position based dynamics and the typical O(N) algorithms for articulated rigid bodies. The efficiency of our algorithm allows us to pose and animate trees with millions of branches or alternatively simulate a small forest comprised of many highly detailed trees. Even using only a single CPU core, we can simulate ten thousand branches in real time while still maintaining quite crisp user interactivity. This has allowed us to incorporate our framework into a commodity game engine to run interactively even on a low-budget tablet. We show that our method is amenable to the incorporation of a large variety of desirable effects such as wind, leaves, fictitious forces, collisions, fracture, etc.

  17. Real-time speckle photography: a breakthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-12-01

    Speckle photography for small displacements can be carried out rather easily. It is a well established method. Unfortunately problems arise when specklegrams must be obtained in real time. Silver halide media infer lengthy multi-stage photoprocessing of specklegrams. Real time speckle photography utilizing non-silver media can be implemented but the techniques involved are rather complicated. Extremely simple and inexpensive approaches to speckle photography are introduced here. They combine positive features of speckle photography and momental holography. This permits the user to produce quasi real time specklegrams within a few seconds. High quality speckle photographs were obtained with different laser sources on high resolution silver halide media: Russian PFG-03, PFG-03 C (color), Agfa-Gevaert 8E 75 HD films and plates. Very good specklegrams were obtained also in lighted environment. Hybrid holospecklegrams i.e. holograms and speckle photographs of the same object were obtained simultaneously on the same media. Such holospecklegrams were also produced within fa few seconds. Quite unexpectedly good specklegrams were recorded even in water. Photographs of momentally produced specklegrams are given.

  18. Real-time preprocessing of holographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Bradley W.; Poon, Ting-Chung

    1995-11-01

    Optical scanning holography (OSH) is a holographic recording technique that uses active optical heterodyne scanning to generate holographic information pertaining to an object. The holographic information manifests itself as an electrical signal suitable for real-time image reconstruction using a spatial light modulator. The electrical signal that carries the holographic information can also be digitized for computer storage and processing, allowing the image reconstruction to be performed numerically. In previous experiments with this technique, holographic information has been recorded using the interference pattern of a plane wave and a spherical wave of different temporal frequencies to scan an object. However, the proper manipulation of the pupil functions in the recording stage can result in real-time processing of the holographic edge extraction technique as an important example of real-time preprocessing of holographic information that utilizes alternate pupils in the OSH recording stage. We investigate the theory of holographic preprocessing using a spatial frequency-domain analysis based on the recording system's optical transfer function. The theory is reinforced through computer simulation.

  19. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  20. Real-time machine tool chatter identification and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilong

    1997-05-01

    Chatter in machining processes is one of the most important factors limiting production rates. In order to suppress machine tool chatter during orthogonal cutting processes, a real time active chatter controller is designed and implemented that is able to adopt to the continuously changing machining parameters. An electro-hydraulic servo system is used to control the movement of the cutting tool. The cutting force, workpiece acceleration, and tool displacement are measured in real time. The transfer function of the workpiece is estimated by using the cutting force and the acceleration of the workpiece. All the digital signal acquisition and processing tasks are performed by a digital signal processor (MicroStar DAP3200a/415). The digital controller is designed such that the servo/actuator dynamics is adjusted to match the workpiece dynamics to suppress chatter. To make the controller adaptive to the changing dynamics of the workpiece, a recursive least square technique is used to identify the workpiece dynamics in real time. The estimated workpiece dynamics parameters are then used in the digital controller to calculate a new servo output, thus controlling the tool movement. Simulations show that chatter can be suppressed successfully by using this method. Experiments agree well with simulations.

  1. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  2. 16 CFR 802.2 - Certain acquisitions of real property assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain acquisitions of real property assets. 802.2 Section 802.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.2...

  3. 16 CFR 802.2 - Certain acquisitions of real property assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certain acquisitions of real property assets. 802.2 Section 802.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.2...

  4. 16 CFR 802.2 - Certain acquisitions of real property assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certain acquisitions of real property assets. 802.2 Section 802.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.2...

  5. 16 CFR 802.2 - Certain acquisitions of real property assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certain acquisitions of real property assets. 802.2 Section 802.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.2...

  6. 16 CFR 802.2 - Certain acquisitions of real property assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certain acquisitions of real property assets. 802.2 Section 802.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.2...

  7. 24 CFR 574.630 - Displacement, relocation and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Displacement, relocation and real property acquisition. 574.630 Section 574.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  8. 24 CFR 582.335 - Displacement, relocation, and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Displacement, relocation, and real property acquisition. 582.335 Section 582.335 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  9. 24 CFR 574.630 - Displacement, relocation and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Displacement, relocation and real property acquisition. 574.630 Section 574.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  10. 24 CFR 582.335 - Displacement, relocation, and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Displacement, relocation, and real property acquisition. 582.335 Section 582.335 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  11. 24 CFR 891.510 - Displacement, relocation, and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and real property acquisition. 891.510 Section 891.510 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.14 - What relocation and real property acquisition policies are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What relocation and real property acquisition policies are applicable? 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

  13. 24 CFR 1000.14 - What relocation and real property acquisition policies are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What relocation and real property acquisition policies are applicable? 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

  14. Capability of a Mobile Monitoring System to Provide Real-Time Data Broadcasting and Near Real-Time Source Attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, M.; Olaguer, J.; Wijesinghe, A.; Colvin, J.; Neish, B.; Williams, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to understand the emissions and health effects of industrial facilities. Many areas have no or limited sustained monitoring capabilities, making it difficult to quantify the major pollution sources affecting human health, especially in fence line communities. Developments in real-time monitoring and micro-scale modeling offer unique ways to tackle these complex issues. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of coupling real-time observations with micro-scale modeling to provide real-time information and near real-time source attribution. The Houston Advanced Research Center constructed the Mobile Acquisition of Real-time Concentrations (MARC) laboratory. MARC consists of a Ford E-350 passenger van outfitted with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and meteorological equipment. This allows for the fast measurement of various VOCs important to air quality. The data recorded from the van is uploaded to an off-site database and the information is broadcast to a website in real-time. This provides for off-site monitoring of MARC's observations, which allows off-site personnel to provide immediate input to the MARC operators on how to best achieve project objectives. The information stored in the database can also be used to provide near real-time source attribution. An inverse model has been used to ascertain the amount, location, and timing of emissions based on MARC measurements in the vicinity of industrial sites. The inverse model is based on a 3D micro-scale Eulerian forward and adjoint air quality model known as the HARC model. The HARC model uses output from the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) wind model and requires a 3D digital model of the monitored facility based on lidar or industrial permit data. MARC is one of the instrument platforms deployed during the 2014 Benzene and other Toxics Exposure Study (BEE-TEX) in Houston, TX. The main goal of the study is to quantify and explain the

  15. Machine learning for real time remote detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbé, Benjamin; Fournier, Jérôme; Henaff, Gilles; Bascle, Bénédicte; Canu, Stéphane

    2010-10-01

    Infrared systems are key to providing enhanced capability to military forces such as automatic control of threats and prevention from air, naval and ground attacks. Key requirements for such a system to produce operational benefits are real-time processing as well as high efficiency in terms of detection and false alarm rate. These are serious issues since the system must deal with a large number of objects and categories to be recognized (small vehicles, armored vehicles, planes, buildings, etc.). Statistical learning based algorithms are promising candidates to meet these requirements when using selected discriminant features and real-time implementation. This paper proposes a new decision architecture benefiting from recent advances in machine learning by using an effective method for level set estimation. While building decision function, the proposed approach performs variable selection based on a discriminative criterion. Moreover, the use of level set makes it possible to manage rejection of unknown or ambiguous objects thus preserving the false alarm rate. Experimental evidences reported on real world infrared images demonstrate the validity of our approach.

  16. Acting to gain information: Real-time reasoning meets real-time perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stan

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in intelligent reactive systems suggest new approaches to the problem of deriving task-relevant information from perceptual systems in real time. The author will describe work in progress aimed at coupling intelligent control mechanisms to real-time perception systems, with special emphasis on frame rate visual measurement systems. A model for integrated reasoning and perception will be discussed, and recent progress in applying these ideas to problems of sensor utilization for efficient recognition and tracking will be described.

  17. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. DAY; J.D. GILPATRICK; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles.

  18. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  19. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  20. Real-time design with peer tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre; Howes, Norman R.; Wood, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a real-time design methodology for large scale, distributed, parallel architecture, real-time systems (LDPARTS), as an alternative to those methods using rate or dead-line monotonic analysis. In our method the fundamental units of prioritization, work items, are domain specific objects with timing requirements (deadlines) found in user's specification. A work item consists of a collection of tasks of equal priority. Current scheduling theories are applied with artifact deadlines introduced by the designer whereas our method schedules work items to meet user's specification deadlines (sometimes called end-to-end deadlines). Our method supports these scheduling properties. Work item scheduling is based on domain specific importance instead of task level urgency and still meets as many user specification deadlines as can be met by scheduling tasks with respect to urgency. Second, the minimum (closest) on-line deadline that can be guaranteed for a work item of highest importance, scheduled at run time, is approximately the inverse of the throughput, measured in work items per second. Third, throughput is not degraded during overload and instead of resorting to task shedding during overload, the designer can specify which work items to shed. We prove these properties in a mathematical model.

  1. Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy.

  2. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  3. A Flexible Real-Time Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    WICKSTROM,GREGORY L.

    2000-08-17

    Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

  4. Real Time Simulation of Power Grid Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Supriya; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Fernandez, Steven J; Groer, Christopher S; Nutaro, James J; Olama, Mohammed M; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Spafford, Kyle L; Vacaliuc, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    DOE-OE and DOE-SC workshops (Reference 1-3) identified the key power grid problem that requires insight addressable by the next generation of exascale computing is coupling of real-time data streams (1-2 TB per hour) as the streams are ingested to dynamic models. These models would then identify predicted disruptions in time (2-4 seconds) to trigger the smart grid s self healing functions. This project attempted to establish the feasibility of this approach and defined the scientific issues, and demonstrated example solutions to important smart grid simulation problems. These objectives were accomplished by 1) using the existing frequency recorders on the national grid to establish a representative and scalable real-time data stream; 2) invoking ORNL signature identification algorithms; 3) modeling dynamically a representative region of the Eastern interconnect using an institutional cluster, measuring the scalability and computational benchmarks for a national capability; and 4) constructing a prototype simulation for the system s concept of smart grid deployment. The delivered ORNL enduring capability included: 1) data processing and simulation metrics to design a national capability justifying exascale applications; 2) Software and intellectual property built around the example solutions; 3) demonstrated dynamic models to design few second self-healing.

  5. Real-time applications of neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Real-time applications of neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E. )

    1989-10-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas e.g. improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. In this paper, such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed.

  7. Real-time PCR in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    A central method in a standard biochemical laboratory is represented by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), therefore many attempts have been performed so far to implement this technique in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. PCR is an ideal candidate for miniaturization because of a reduction of assay time and decreased costs for expensive bio-chemicals. In case of the "classical" PCR, detection is done by identification of DNA fragments electrophoretically separated in agarose gels. This method is meanwhile frequently replaced by the so-called Real-Time-PCR because here the exponential increase of amplificates can be observed directly by measurement of DNA interacting fluorescent dyes. Two main methods for on-chip PCRs are available: traditional "batch" PCR in chambers on a chip using thermal cycling, requiring about 30 minutes for a typical PCR protocol and continuous-flow PCR, where the liquid is guided over stationary temperature zones. In the latter case, the PCR protocol can be as fast as 5 minutes. In the presented work, a proof of concept is demonstrated for a real-time-detection of PCR products in microfluidic systems.

  8. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  9. Real-Time Ada Demonstration Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-31

    CENER OR OFTAREENGINEERING ADVANCED SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY Subject: Final Report - Real-Time Ada Demonstration Proj e-t- --.-. SEP 0 1989 D SEA)~ CIN...C02 0921I 6))00 I 31 MAY 1989 *:i ’C O~ 0"ed ~ 842 190 ?’ 45 DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FINAL REPORT PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army HQ CECOM Center for Software ...Engineering Advanced Software Technology Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703-5000 Accession For NTIS G1A&I DTIC TAB PREPARED BY: unannou:1r2d E LabTek Corporation

  10. Real-time teleteaching in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Woo, M; Ng, Kh

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics is a relatively small professional community, usually with a scarcity of expertise that could greatly benefit students entering the field. However, the reach of the profession can span great geographical distances, making the training of students a difficult task. In addition to the requirement of training new students, the evolving field of medical physics, with its many emerging advanced techniques and technologies, could benefit greatly from ongoing continuing education as well as consultation with experts.Many continuing education courses and workshops are constantly being offered, including many web-based study courses and virtual libraries. However, one mode of education and communication that has not been widely used is the real-time interactive process. Video-based conferencing systems do exist, but these usually require a substantial amount of effort and cost to set up.The authors have been working on promoting the ever-expanding capability of the Internet to facilitate the education of medical physics to students entering the field. A pilot project has been carried out for six years and reported previously. The project is a collaboration between the Department of Medical Physics at the Toronto Odette Cancer Centre in Canada and the Department of Biomedical Imaging at the University of Malaya in Malaysia. Since 2001, medical physics graduate students at the University of Malaya have been taught by lecturers from Toronto every year, using the Internet as the main tool of communication.The pilot study explored the different methods that can be used to provide real-time interactive remote education, and delivered traditional classroom lectures as well as hands-on workshops.Another similar project was started in 2007 to offer real-time teaching to a class of medical physics students at Wuhan University in Hubei, China. There are new challenges as well as new opportunities associated with this project. By building an inventory of tools and

  11. Real-time failure control (SAFD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.; Kemp, Victoria R.; Eckerling, Sherry J.

    1990-01-01

    The Real Time Failure Control program involves development of a failure detection algorithm, referred as System for Failure and Anomaly Detection (SAFD), for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This failure detection approach is signal-based and it entails monitoring SSME measurement signals based on predetermined and computed mean values and standard deviations. Twenty four engine measurements are included in the algorithm and provisions are made to add more parameters if needed. Six major sections of research are presented: (1) SAFD algorithm development; (2) SAFD simulations; (3) Digital Transient Model failure simulation; (4) closed-loop simulation; (5) SAFD current limitations; and (6) enhancements planned for.

  12. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  13. Real-Time Surface Traffic Adviser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A real-time data management system which uses data generated at different rates by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources are presented. In one embodiment, the invention is as an airport surface traffic data management system (traffic adviser) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline, and airport operations user communities to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. The system uses an expert system to fuse dam from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control sources, in order to establish, predict, and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation.

  14. Real-Time Reed-Solomon Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K.; Cameron, Kelly B.; Owsley, Patrick A.

    1994-01-01

    Generic Reed-Solomon decoder fast enough to correct errors in real time in practical applications designed to be implemented in fewer and smaller very-large-scale integrated, VLSI, circuit chips. Configured to operate in pipelined manner. One outstanding aspect of decoder design is that Euclid multiplier and divider modules contain Galoisfield multipliers configured as combinational-logic cells. Operates at speeds greater than older multipliers. Cellular configuration highly regular and requires little interconnection area, making it ideal for implementation in extraordinarily dense VLSI circuitry. Flight electronics single chip version of this technology implemented and available.

  15. Real-Time Ellipsometry-Based Transmission Ultrasound Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Poco, J F; Ashby, A E

    2007-02-14

    Ultrasonic imaging is a valuable tool for non-destructive evaluation and medical diagnosis. Reflection mode is exclusively used for medical imaging, and is most frequently used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) because of the relative speed of acquisition. Reflection mode imaging is qualitative, yielding little information about material properties, and usually only about material interfaces. Transmission imaging can be used in 3D reconstructions to yield quantitative information: sound speed and attenuation. Unfortunately, traditional scanning methods of acquiring transmission data are very slow, requiring on the order of 20 minutes per image. The sensing of acoustic pressure fields as optical images can significantly speed data acquisition. An entire 2D acoustic pressure field can be acquired in under a second. The speed of data acquisition for a 2D view makes it feasible to obtain multiple views of an object. With multiple views, 3D reconstruction becomes possible. A fast, compact (no big magnets or accelerators), inexpensive, 3D imaging technology that uses no ionizing radiation could be a boon to the NDE and medical communities. 2D transmission images could be examined in real time to give the ultrasonic equivalent of a fluoroscope, or accumulated in such a way as to acquire phase and amplitude data over multiple views for 3D reconstruction (for breast cancer imaging, for example). Composite panels produced for the aircraft and automobile industries could be inspected in near real time, and inspection of attenuating materials such as ceramics and high explosives would be possible. There are currently three optical-readout imaging transmission ultrasound technologies available. One is based on frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) [1,2], one on Fabry-Perot interferometry [3], and another on critical angle modulation [4]. Each of these techniques has its problems. The FTIR based system cannot currently be scaled to large aperture sizes, the Fabry

  16. Volumetric Real-Time Imaging Using a CMUT Ring Array

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung Woo; Oralkan, Ömer; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Gencel, Mustafa; Stephens, Douglas N.; O’Donnell, Matthew; Sahn, David J.; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2012-01-01

    A ring array provides a very suitable geometry for forward-looking volumetric intracardiac and intravascular ultrasound imaging. We fabricated an annular 64-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array featuring a 10-MHz operating frequency and a 1.27-mm outer radius. A custom software suite was developed to run on a PC-based imaging system for real-time imaging using this device. This paper presents simulated and experimental imaging results for the described CMUT ring array. Three different imaging methods—flash, classic phased array (CPA), and synthetic phased array (SPA)—were used in the study. For SPA imaging, two techniques to improve the image quality—Hadamard coding and aperture weighting—were also applied. The results show that SPA with Hadamard coding and aperture weighting is a good option for ring-array imaging. Compared with CPA, it achieves better image resolution and comparable signal-to-noise ratio at a much faster image acquisition rate. Using this method, a fast frame rate of up to 463 volumes per second is achievable if limited only by the ultrasound time of flight; with the described system we reconstructed three cross-sectional images in real-time at 10 frames per second, which was limited by the computation time in synthetic beamforming. PMID:22718870

  17. Real time optical Biopsy: Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy instrumentation and validation

    PubMed Central

    Kittle, David S.; Vasefi, Fartash; Patil, Chirag G.; Mamelak, Adam; Black, Keith L.; Butte, Pramod V.

    2016-01-01

    The Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-FS) has the potential to differentiate tumor and normal tissue in real time during surgical excision. In this manuscript, we describe the design of a novel TR-FS device, along with preliminary data on detection accuracy for fluorophores in a mixture. The instrument is capable of near real-time fluorescence lifetime acquisition in multiple spectral bands and analysis. It is also able to recover fluorescence lifetime with sub-20ps accuracy as validated with individual organic fluorescence dyes and dye mixtures yielding lifetime values for standard fluorescence dyes that closely match with published data. We also show that TR-FS is able to quantify the relative concentration of fluorescence dyes in a mixture by the unmixing of lifetime decays. We show that the TR-FS prototype is able to identify in near-real time the concentrations of dyes in a complex mixture based on previously trained data. As a result, we demonstrate that in complex mixtures of fluorophores, the relative concentration information is encoded in the fluorescence lifetime across multiple spectral bands. We show for the first time the temporal and spectral measurements of a mixture of fluorochromes and the ability to differentiate relative concentrations of each fluorochrome mixture in real time. PMID:27929039

  18. Real time optical Biopsy: Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy instrumentation and validation.

    PubMed

    Kittle, David S; Vasefi, Fartash; Patil, Chirag G; Mamelak, Adam; Black, Keith L; Butte, Pramod V

    2016-12-08

    The Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-FS) has the potential to differentiate tumor and normal tissue in real time during surgical excision. In this manuscript, we describe the design of a novel TR-FS device, along with preliminary data on detection accuracy for fluorophores in a mixture. The instrument is capable of near real-time fluorescence lifetime acquisition in multiple spectral bands and analysis. It is also able to recover fluorescence lifetime with sub-20ps accuracy as validated with individual organic fluorescence dyes and dye mixtures yielding lifetime values for standard fluorescence dyes that closely match with published data. We also show that TR-FS is able to quantify the relative concentration of fluorescence dyes in a mixture by the unmixing of lifetime decays. We show that the TR-FS prototype is able to identify in near-real time the concentrations of dyes in a complex mixture based on previously trained data. As a result, we demonstrate that in complex mixtures of fluorophores, the relative concentration information is encoded in the fluorescence lifetime across multiple spectral bands. We show for the first time the temporal and spectral measurements of a mixture of fluorochromes and the ability to differentiate relative concentrations of each fluorochrome mixture in real time.

  19. Real time optical Biopsy: Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy instrumentation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittle, David S.; Vasefi, Fartash; Patil, Chirag G.; Mamelak, Adam; Black, Keith L.; Butte, Pramod V.

    2016-12-01

    The Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-FS) has the potential to differentiate tumor and normal tissue in real time during surgical excision. In this manuscript, we describe the design of a novel TR-FS device, along with preliminary data on detection accuracy for fluorophores in a mixture. The instrument is capable of near real-time fluorescence lifetime acquisition in multiple spectral bands and analysis. It is also able to recover fluorescence lifetime with sub-20ps accuracy as validated with individual organic fluorescence dyes and dye mixtures yielding lifetime values for standard fluorescence dyes that closely match with published data. We also show that TR-FS is able to quantify the relative concentration of fluorescence dyes in a mixture by the unmixing of lifetime decays. We show that the TR-FS prototype is able to identify in near-real time the concentrations of dyes in a complex mixture based on previously trained data. As a result, we demonstrate that in complex mixtures of fluorophores, the relative concentration information is encoded in the fluorescence lifetime across multiple spectral bands. We show for the first time the temporal and spectral measurements of a mixture of fluorochromes and the ability to differentiate relative concentrations of each fluorochrome mixture in real time.

  20. Reconfigurable real-time distributed processing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, S. F.; Seely, R. D.; Hickman, D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a novel real-time image and signal processing network, RONINTM, which facilitates the rapid design and deployment of systems providing advanced geospatial surveillance and situational awareness capability. RONINTM is a distributed software architecture consisting of multiple agents or nodes, which can be configured to implement a variety of state-of-the-art computer vision and signal processing algorithms. The nodes operate in an asynchronous fashion and can run on a variety of hardware platforms, thus providing a great deal of scalability and flexibility. Complex algorithmic configuration chains can be assembled using an intuitive graphical interface in a plug-and- play manner. RONINTM has been successfully exploited for a number of applications, ranging from remote event detection to complex multiple-camera real-time 3D object reconstruction. This paper describes the motivation behind the creation of the network, the core design features, and presents details of an example application. Finally, the on-going development of the network is discussed, which is focussed on dynamic network reconfiguration. This allows to the network to automatically adapt itself to node or communications failure by intelligently re-routing network communications and through adaptive resource management.

  1. REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I.; Kozlov, Valery; Ksenofontov, Leonid, Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Yanke, Victor

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we present a first distributed REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD). The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains not only original cosmic ray data but also auxiliary data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomn.Stit, Moscow, Oulu; Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The database and all its mirrors are up dated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scripts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication to ols developed at Bio engineering division of the IRCCS E.Medea, Italy.

  2. Real-time animation of complex hairstyles.

    PubMed

    Volino, Pascal; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    True real-time animation of complex hairstyles on animated characters is the goal of this work, and the challenge is to build a mechanical model of the hairstyle which is sufficiently fast for real-time performance while preserving the particular behavior of the hair medium and maintaining sufficient versatility for simulating any kind of complex hairstyles. Rather than building a complex mechanical model directly related to the structure of the hair strands, we take advantage of a volume free-form deformation scheme. We detail the construction of an efficient lattice mechanical deformation model which represents the volume behavior of the hair strands. The lattice is deformed as a particle system using state-of-the-art numerical methods, and animates the hairs using quadratic B-Spline interpolation. The hairstyle reacts to the body skin through collisions with a metaball-based approximation. The model is highly scalable and allows hairstyles of any complexity to be simulated in any rendering context with the appropriate trade off between accuracy and computation speed, fitting the need of Level-of-Detail optimization schemes.

  3. An efficient real time superresolution ASIC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Dikpal; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    Superresolution of images is an important step in many applications like target recognition where the input images are often grainy and of low quality due to bandwidth constraints. In this paper, we present a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware, and capable of 30 fps of superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Consecutive frames from the video sequence are grouped and the registered values between them are used to fill the pixels in the higher resolution image. The registration between consecutive frames is evaluated using the algorithm proposed by Schaum et al. The pixels are filled by averaging a fixed number of frames associated with the smallest error distances. The number of frames (the number of nearest neighbors) is a user defined parameter whereas the weights in the averaging process are decided by inverting the corresponding smallest error distances. Wiener filter is used to post process the image. Different input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as the hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The algorithm performs with real time speed with very impressive superresolution results.

  4. Real-time Raman sensing without spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho; Yang, Timothy K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bae, Sung Chul

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in various fields of science and technology ranging from analytical chemistry to biomedical imaging. In spite of unique features, Raman spectroscopy has also some limitations. Among them are weak Raman signal compared to strong fluorescence and relatively complicated setup with expensive and bulky spectrometer. In order to increase the sensitivity of Raman technique, many clever attempts have been made and some of them were very successful including CARS, SRS, and so on. However, these still requires expensive and more complicated setup. In this work, we have attempted to build a real-time compact Raman sensor without spectrometer. Conventional spectrometer was replaced with a narrow-band optical filter and alternatively modulated two lasers with slightly different wavelengths. At one laser, Raman signal from a target molecule was transmitted through the optical filter. At the other laser, this signal was blocked by the optical filter and could not be detected by photon detector. The alternative modulation of two lasers will modulate the Raman signal from a target molecule at the same modulation frequency. This modulated weak Raman signal was amplified by a lock-in amplifier. The advantages of this setup include compactness, low cost, real-time monitoring, and so on. We have tested the sensitivity of this setup and we found that it doesn't have enough sensitivity to detect single molecule-level, but it is still good enough to monitor the change of major chemical composition in the sample.

  5. Real-time sensor data validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of an on-going effort to develop software capable of detecting sensor failures on rocket engines in real time. This software could be used in a rocket engine controller to prevent the erroneous shutdown of an engine due to sensor failures which would otherwise be interpreted as engine failures by the control software. The approach taken combines analytical redundancy with Bayesian belief networks to provide a solution which has well defined real-time characteristics and well-defined error rates. Analytical redundancy is a technique in which a sensor's value is predicted by using values from other sensors and known or empirically derived mathematical relations. A set of sensors and a set of relations among them form a network of cross-checks which can be used to periodically validate all of the sensors in the network. Bayesian belief networks provide a method of determining if each of the sensors in the network is valid, given the results of the cross-checks. This approach has been successfully demonstrated on the Technology Test Bed Engine at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Current efforts are focused on extending the system to provide a validation capability for 100 sensors on the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  6. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  7. Real-time forecasts of dengue epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of transmission. In many areas with endemic dengue, disease transmission is seasonal but prone to high inter-annual variability with occasional severe epidemics. Predicting and preparing for periods of higher than average transmission is a significant public health challenge. Here we present a model of dengue transmission and a framework for optimizing model simulations with real-time observational data of dengue cases and environmental variables in order to generate ensemble-based forecasts of the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. The model-inference system is validated using synthetic data and dengue outbreak records. Retrospective forecasts are generated for a number of locations and the accuracy of these forecasts is quantified.

  8. Identifying financial crises in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Eder Lucio; Ferreira, Fernando F.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

    2013-03-01

    Following the thermodynamic formulation of a multifractal measure that was shown to enable the detection of large fluctuations at an early stage, here we propose a new index which permits us to distinguish events like financial crises in real time. We calculate the partition function from which we can obtain thermodynamic quantities analogous to the free energy and specific heat. The index is defined as the normalized energy variation and it can be used to study the behavior of stochastic time series, such as financial market daily data. Famous financial market crashes-Black Thursday (1929), Black Monday (1987) and the subprime crisis (2008)-are identified with clear and robust results. The method is also applied to the market fluctuations of 2011. From these results it appears as if the apparent crisis of 2011 is of a different nature to the other three. We also show that the analysis has forecasting capabilities.

  9. Near Real Time Quantitative Gas Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herget, William F.; Tromp, Marianne L.; Anderson, Charles R.

    1985-12-01

    A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) - based system has been developed and is undergoing evaluation for near real time multicomponent quantitative analysis of undiluted gaseous automotive exhaust emissions. The total system includes: (1) a gas conditioning system (GCS) for tracer gas injection, gas mixing, and temperature stabilization; and (2) an exhaust gas analyzer (EGA) consisting of a sample cell, an FT-IR system, and a computerized data processing system. Tests have shown that the system can monitor about 20 individual species (concentrations down to the 1-20 ppm range) with a time resolution of one second. Tests have been conducted on a chassis dynamometer system utilizing different autos, different fuels, and different driving cycles. Results were compared with those obtained using a standard constant volume sampling (CVS) system.

  10. A miniature real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, Ira O.; Yeh, David T.; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, Arif S.; Karaman, Mustafa; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2005-04-01

    Progress made in the development of a miniature real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging system is presented. This system is targeted for use in a 5-mm endoscopic channel and will provide real-time, 30-mm deep, volumetric images. It is being developed as a clinically useful device, to demonstrate a means of integrating the front-end electronics with the transducer array, and to demonstrate the advantages of the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology for medical imaging. Presented here is the progress made towards the initial implementation of this system, which is based on a two-dimensional, 16x16 CMUT array. Each CMUT element is 250 um by 250 um and has a 5 MHz center frequency. The elements are connected to bond pads on the back side of the array with 400-um long through-wafer interconnects. The transducer array is flip-chip bonded to a custom-designed integrated circuit that comprises the front-end electronics. The result is that each transducer element is connected to a dedicated pulser and low-noise preamplifier. The pulser generates 25-V, 100-ns wide, unipolar pulses. The preamplifier has an approximate transimpedance gain of 500 kOhm and 3-dB bandwidth of 10 MHz. In the first implementation of the system, one element at a time can be selected for transmit and receive and thus synthetic aperture images can be generated. In future implementations, 16 channels will be active at a given time. These channels will connect to an FPGA-based data acquisition system for real-time image reconstruction.

  11. Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Stockmann, Leoni; Effe, Lisa; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Photocoagulation is a laser treatment widely used for the therapy of several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the ocular transmission, light scattering and the retinal absorption makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure and hence a uniform damage throughout the therapy. A real-time monitoring and control of the induced damage is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633nm HeNe laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. It is obvious that a control system needs to determine whether the desired damage is achieved to shut down the system in a fraction of the exposure time. Here we use a fast and simple adaption of the generalized difference algorithm to analyze the speckle movements. This algorithm runs on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage. For different spot sizes (50-200 μm) and different exposure times (50-500 ms) the algorithm shows the ability to discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes. Furthermore in-vivo experiments in rabbits show the ability of the system to determine tissue changes in living tissue during coagulation.

  12. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures for real time evaluation of the inflight health and performance of gas turbine engines and related systems were developed to enhance flight test safety and productivity. These techniques include the monitoring of the engine, the engine control system, thrust vectoring control system health, and the detection of engine stalls. Real time performance techniques were developed for the determination and display of inflight thrust and for aeroperformance drag polars. These new methods were successfully shown on various research aircraft at NASA-Dryden. The capability of NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range and the advanced data acquisition systems were key factors for implementation and real time display of these methods.

  13. Digital Real-Time Multiple Channel Multiple Mode Neutron Flux Estimation on FPGA-based Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenin, Mathieu; Barbot, Loïc; Corre, Gwénolé; Woo, Romuald; Destouches, Christophe; Normand, Stéphane

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a complete custom full-digital instrumentation device that was designed for real-time neutron flux estimation, especially for nuclear reactor in-core measurement using subminiature Fission Chambers (FCs). Entire fully functional small-footprint design (about 1714 LUTs) is implemented on FPGA. It enables real-time acquisition and analysis of multiple channels neutron's flux both in counting mode and Campbelling mode. Experimental results obtained from this brand new device are consistent with simulation results and show good agreement within good uncertainty. This device paves the way for new applications perspectives in real-time nuclear reactor monitoring.

  14. A modular real-time vision system for humanoid robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifan, Alina L.; Neves, António J. R.; Lau, Nuno; Cunha, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Robotic vision is nowadays one of the most challenging branches of robotics. In the case of a humanoid robot, a robust vision system has to provide an accurate representation of the surrounding world and to cope with all the constraints imposed by the hardware architecture and the locomotion of the robot. Usually humanoid robots have low computational capabilities that limit the complexity of the developed algorithms. Moreover, their vision system should perform in real time, therefore a compromise between complexity and processing times has to be found. This paper presents a reliable implementation of a modular vision system for a humanoid robot to be used in color-coded environments. From image acquisition, to camera calibration and object detection, the system that we propose integrates all the functionalities needed for a humanoid robot to accurately perform given tasks in color-coded environments. The main contributions of this paper are the implementation details that allow the use of the vision system in real-time, even with low processing capabilities, the innovative self-calibration algorithm for the most important parameters of the camera and its modularity that allows its use with different robotic platforms. Experimental results have been obtained with a NAO robot produced by Aldebaran, which is currently the robotic platform used in the RoboCup Standard Platform League, as well as with a humanoid build using the Bioloid Expert Kit from Robotis. As practical examples, our vision system can be efficiently used in real time for the detection of the objects of interest for a soccer playing robot (ball, field lines and goals) as well as for navigating through a maze with the help of color-coded clues. In the worst case scenario, all the objects of interest in a soccer game, using a NAO robot, with a single core 500Mhz processor, are detected in less than 30ms. Our vision system also includes an algorithm for self-calibration of the camera parameters as well

  15. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    PubMed

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Fryer, Jerome; Jaremko, Jacob L; Zeng, Hongbo; Rowe, Lindsay; Thompson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  16. Quasi-real-time fluorescence imaging with lifetime dependent contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Pei-Chi; Grundfest, Warren S.; Stafsudd, Oscar M.

    2011-08-01

    Conventional fluorescence lifetime imaging requires complicated algorithms to extract lifetimes of fluorophores and acquisition of multiple data points at progressively longer delay times to characterize tissues. To address diminishing signal-to-noise ratios at these progressively longer time delays, we report a time-resolved fluorescence imaging method, normalized fluorescence yield imaging that does not require the extraction of lifetimes. The concept is to extract the ``contrast'' instead of the lifetime value of the fluorophores by using simple mathematical algorithms. This process converts differences in decay times directly to different intensities. The technique was verified experimentally using a gated iCCD camera and an ultraviolet light-emitting diode light source. It was shown that this method can distinguish between chemical dyes (Fluorescein and Rhodamine-B) and biomedical samples, such as powders of elastin and collagen. Good contrast was obtained between fluorophores that varied by less than 6% in lifetime. Additionally, it was shown that long gate times up to 16 ns achieve good contrast depending upon the samples to be studied. These results support the feasibility of time-resolved fluorescence imaging without lifetime extraction, which has a potential clinical role in noninvasive real-time imaging.

  17. A real-time prediction of UTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

    1994-05-01

    The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  18. A real-time prediction of UTC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  19. High-resolution, real-time fringe pattern profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinsky, Nikolaus; Lei, Shuangyan; Zhang, Song

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents some of our recent work on high-resolution, real-time 3D profilometry using a digital fringe projection method. In particular, we utilize the unique projection mechanism of a single-chip digital-light-processing (DLP) projector: sequential channel-by-channel switching. Three phase-shifted fringe patterns are encoded into the three primary color channels and switched naturally. A high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, synchronized with the projector, is used to capture each individual color channel of the projector. Because color is not desirable, the color filters of the projector are removed, and an external trigger signal is supplied to enable its projection. Since three fringe images are sufficient to reconstruction one shape, this technique can, theoretically, reach the refresh rate of a projector (typically 120 Hz). However, due to the speed limit of the camera used, the data acquisition speed is up to 180 fps, thus the 3D shape measurement speed can be as high as 60 fps, as it requires three images to recover one 3D shape. To reach simultaneous 3D data acquisition, reconstruction, and display, we developed various efficient algorithms, and used advanced graphics hardware techniques to boost the processing. In this paper, we will summarize the technologies we developed, and will present some of the research results.

  20. High-resolution, real-time fringe pattern profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinsky, Nikolaus; Lei, Shuangyan; Zhang, Song

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents some of our recent work on high-resolution, real-time 3D profilometry using a digital fringe projection method. In particular, we utilize the unique projection mechanism of a single-chip digital-light-processing (DLP) projector: sequential channel-by-channel switching. Three phase-shifted fringe patterns are encoded into the three primary color channels and switched naturally. A high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, synchronized with the projector, is used to capture each individual color channel of the projector. Because color is not desirable, the color filters of the projector are removed, and an external trigger signal is supplied to enable its projection. Since three fringe images are sufficient to reconstruction one shape, this technique can, theoretically, reach the refresh rate of a projector (typically 120 Hz). However, due to the speed limit of the camera used, the data acquisition speed is up to 180 fps, thus the 3D shape measurement speed can be as high as 60 fps, as it requires three images to recover one 3D shape. To reach simultaneous 3D data acquisition, reconstruction, and display, we developed various efficient algorithms, and used advanced graphics hardware techniques to boost the processing. In this paper, we will summarize the technologies we developed, and will present some of the research results.

  1. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, G.; Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Graverini, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  2. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Deri, L.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Sozzi, M.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Gap Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ("trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  3. Real-time value-driven diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dambrosio, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis is often thought of as an isolated task in theoretical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of updating our beliefs about the world). We present a decision-theoretic interpretation of diagnosis as a task in practical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of acting in the world), and sketch components of our approach to this task. These components include an abstract problem description, a decision-theoretic model of the basic task, a set of inference methods suitable for evaluating the decision representation in real-time, and a control architecture to provide the needed continuing coordination between the agent and its environment. A principal contribution of this work is the representation and inference methods we have developed, which extend previously available probabilistic inference methods and narrow, somewhat, the gap between probabilistic and logical models of diagnosis.

  4. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  5. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  6. Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Ratner, Eliahu; Lokshin, Stas; Silman, Zmira; Breskin, Ilan; Budin, Nahum; Kamar, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is a mechanism which maintains constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Assessing whether this mechanism is intact or impaired and determining its boundaries is important in many clinical settings, where primary or secondary injuries to the brain may occur. Herein we describe the development of a new ultrasound tagged near infra red light monitor which tracks CBF trends, in parallel, it continuously measures blood pressure and correlates them to produce a real time autoregulation index. Its performance is validated in both in-vitro experiment and a pre-clinical case study. Results suggest that using such a tool, autoregulation boundaries as well as its impairment or functioning can be identified and assessed. It may therefore assist in individualized MAP management to ensure adequate organ perfusion and reduce the risk of postoperative complications, and might play an important role in patient care. PMID:27571474

  7. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  8. Optimal, real-time control--colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1991-05-01

    With reasonable definitions, optimal control is possible for both classical and quantal systems with new approaches called PISC(Parallel) and NISC(Neural) from analogy with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing). If control equals interaction, observation and comparison to some figure of merit with interaction via external fields, then optimization comes from varying these fields to give design or operating goals. Structural stability can then give us tolerance and design constraints. But simulations use simplified models, are not in real-time and assume fixed or stationary conditions, so optimal control goes far beyond convergence rates of algorithms. It is inseparable from design and this has many implications for colliders. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Real-time color holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desse, Jean-Michel; Albe, Felix; Tribillon, Jean-Louis

    2002-09-01

    A new optical technique based on real-time color holographic interferometry has been developed for analyzing unsteady aerodynamic wakes in fluid mechanics or for measuring displacements and deformations in solid mechanics. The technique's feasibility is demonstrated here. It uses three coherent wavelengths produced simultaneously by a cw laser (mixed argon and krypton). Holograms are recorded on single-layer panchromatic silver halide (Slavich PFG 03C) plates. Results show the optical setup can be adjusted to obtain a uniform background color. The interference fringe pattern visualized is large and colored and exhibits a single central white fringe, which makes the zero order of the interferogram easy to identify. An application in a subsonic wind tunnel is presented, in which the unsteady wake past a cylinder is recorded at high rate.

  10. Real-time color holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Desse, Jean-Michel; Albe, Félix; Tribillon, Jean-Louis

    2002-09-01

    A new optical technique based on real-time color holographic interferometry has been developed for analyzing unsteady aerodynamic wakes in fluid mechanics or for measuring displacements and deformations in solid mechanics. The technique's feasibility is demonstrated here. It uses three coherent wavelengths produced simultaneously by a cw laser (mixed argon and krypton). Holograms are recorded on single-layer panchromatic silver halide (Slavich PFG 03C) plates. Results show the optical setup can be adjusted to obtain a uniform background color. The interference fringe pattern visualized is large and colored and exhibits a single central white fringe, which makes the zero order of the interferogram easy to identify. An application in a subsonic wind tunnel is presented, in which the unsteady wake past a cylinder is recorded at high rate.

  11. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  12. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  13. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  14. A Measure of Real-Time Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavane, Vaibhav

    2013-03-01

    We propose a new measure of intelligence for general reinforcement learning agents, based on the notion that an agent's environment can change at any step of execution of the agent. That is, an agent is considered to be interacting with its environment in real-time. In this sense, the resulting intelligence measure is more general than the universal intelligence measure (Legg and Hutter, 2007) and the anytime universal intelligence test (Hernández-Orallo and Dowe, 2010). A major advantage of the measure is that an agent's computational complexity is factored into the measure in a natural manner. We show that there exist agents with intelligence arbitrarily close to the theoretical maximum, and that the intelligence of agents depends on their parallel processing capability. We thus believe that the measure can provide a better evaluation of agents and guidance for building practical agents with high intelligence.

  15. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  16. A Real-Time Community-of-Interest Framework for Command-and-Control Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    performed at runtime in real time. • Data Acquisition Service (DAS): The service collects data for situation awareness analysis, runtime monitoring and evaluation , security...for situation awareness analysis, runtime monitoring and evaluation , security analysis and test and evaluation Semantic web mining, Data

  17. Observations of Real-Time Captioning in the Elementary English Language Learner Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Nissa

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study reviews the effects of real-time captioning on vocabulary acquisition of a novice elementary English language learner (ELL). Triangulation of data was completed through review of teacher journaling, captioning transcripts, and student pretest and posttest assessments. Results illuminate improved retention and usage of…

  18. Real-time data flow and product generating for GNSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Caissy, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The last IGS workshop with the theme 'Towards Real-Time' resulted in the design of a prototype for real-time data and sharing within the IGS. A prototype real-time network is being established that will serve as a test bed for real-time activities within the IGS. We review the developments of the prototype and discuss some of the existing methods and related products of real-time GNSS systems. Recommendations are made concerning real-time data distribution and product generation.

  19. A tool for modeling concurrent real-time computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Huang, Shie-Rei; Bhatt, Rahul; Sridharan, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time computation is a significant area of research in general, and in AI in particular. The complexity of practical real-time problems demands use of knowledge-based problem solving techniques while satisfying real-time performance constraints. Since the demands of a complex real-time problem cannot be predicted (owing to the dynamic nature of the environment) powerful dynamic resource control techniques are needed to monitor and control the performance. A real-time computation model for a real-time tool, an implementation of the QP-Net simulator on a Symbolics machine, and an implementation on a Butterfly multiprocessor machine are briefly described.

  20. Multi-channel data acquisition system with absolute time synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Przemysław; Pustelny, Szymon; Budker, Dmitry; Lipiński, Marcin

    2014-11-01

    We present a low-cost, stand-alone global-time-synchronized data acquisition system. Our prototype allows recording up to four analog signals with a 16-bit resolution in variable ranges and a maximum sampling rate of 1000 S/s. The system simultaneously acquires readouts of external sensors e.g. magnetometer or thermometer. A complete data set, including a header containing timestamp, is stored on a Secure Digital (SD) card or transmitted to a computer using Universal Serial Bus (USB). The estimated time accuracy of the data acquisition is better than ±200 ns. The device is intended for use in a global network of optical magnetometers (the Global Network of Optical Magnetometers for Exotic physics - GNOME), which aims to search for signals heralding physics beyond the Standard Model, that can be generated by ordinary spin coupling to exotic particles or anomalous spin interactions.

  1. Precise time synchronization data acquisition with remote systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Robertson, P.J.

    1998-08-01

    Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center have identified a need to acquire data on the rotor of an operating wind turbine at precisely the same time as other data is acquired on the ground or on a non-rotating part of the wind turbine. The researchers will analyze that combined data with statistical and correlation techniques to clearly establish phase information and loading paths and insights into the structural loading of wind turbines. A data acquisition unit has been developed to acquire the data from the rotating system at precise universal times specified by the user. The unit utilizes commercial data acquisition hardware, spread-spectrum radio modems, and a Global Positioning Satellite receiver as well as a custom-built programmable logic device. A prototype of the system is now operational, and initial field deployment is anticipated this summer.

  2. Otolaryngology consultations by real-time telemedicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, R.; Gilliland, D.; Adams, D.

    2002-01-01

    We aimed to assess the value of real-time telemedicine using low cost videoconferencing equipment for otorhinolaryngology consultations. A general practitioner, using low cost videoconferencing equipment, presented patients to an otorhinolaryngologist. After history taking and clinical examination, investigations were requested if required and a diagnosis and management plan formulated. The patients were then seen, by the same otorhinolaryngologist, for a conventional face-to-face consultation. Differences in the history, clinical examination and investigation requests were reported. The accuracy of diagnosis and correlation of management plans between the two consultations were analysed. Forty-three patients were admitted to the study but one, a young child, refused examination either by tele-link or the conventional approach and had to be excluded. There were thus 42 patients with 55 diagnoses included in the trial, 26 (62%) females and 16 (38%) males. Age range was 5 months to 70 years. There was no difficulty with any of the patients in obtaining an accurate history and ordering investigations, if required, via the telelink. Clinical examination during the tele-link consultation was inadequate for eight out of the first 20 patients, resulting in a wrong diagnosis in three patients and a missed diagnosis in five patients. All of the next 22 patients had a correct diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of data from the two types of consultation showed that a correct diagnosis and management plan was made in 34 patients. Low cost real-time telemedicine is a useful technique, providing reliable otorhinolaryngology consultations in a general practice setting. However initial difficulties due to inexperience in using the equipment need to be overcome. PMID:12137160

  3. Public Science with Real-Time Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenardic, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the best ways for professional scientists to engage in public outreach is to get outside of the university and/or lab walls and go out into the public. That is, go to public spaces to do some science experiments with the public - this includes students of all ages that constitute that public. Technological advance in portable measurement gear now allow one to do real, or near real, time experiments in outdoor, public spaces. We have been running a meta-experiment of this sort, aimed at the public display of science, for about a year now in Houston TX at the Lee and Joe Jamail Skatepark. The project goes under the title of Sk8Lab Houston and has introduced students of all ages to the power of scientific experimentation. We bring a portable science pack with us to the park. The pack has a range of wireless measurement gear that allow experiments to be done on the spot. Some of the experiments are designed by us but many are designed on by whoever suggests them to us that day. Over time the Sk8Lab scientists have built up a level of "trust" with the people who frequent the park (no one feels like we are gonna grade them at the park and they know that the learning is not on some regimented clock). This has broken down some learning walls and allowed for a more informal mode of exploration and a more genuine mode of experimentation (as compared to what often happens in class labs when students feel like they are just being forced to reproduce some known result). We will describe some of the test case experiments we have run and also discuss some of the trials, tribulations, and happy successes (many unplanned) along the way.

  4. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays.

  5. 5 CFR 6701.104 - Prohibited purchases of real estate by certain GSA employees involved in the acquisition or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited purchases of real estate by certain GSA employees involved in the acquisition or disposal of real estate. 6701.104 Section 6701.104... OF THE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION § 6701.104 Prohibited purchases of real estate by certain...

  6. A storage scheme for the real-time database supporting the on-line commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hong-bin; Jing, Yu-jian; Wang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The modern SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data acquisition) systems have been applied to various aspects of everyday life. As the time goes on, the requirements of the applications of the systems vary. Thus the data structure of the real-time database, which is the core of a SCADA system, often needs modification. As a result, the commitment consisting of a sequence of configuration operations modifying the data structure of the real-time database is performed from time to time. Though it is simple to perform the off-line commitment by first stopping and then restarting the system, during which all the data in the real-time database are reconstructed. It is much more preferred or in some cases even necessary to perform the on-line commitment, during which the real-time database can still provide real-time service and the system continues working normally. In this paper, a storage scheme of the data in the real-time database is proposed. It helps the real-time database support its on-line commitment, during which real-time service is still available.

  7. Miniaturized and Wireless Optical Neurotransmitter Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Dopamine in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Choi, Sang H.; Zhao, Fei; Kim, Jongsung; Song, Kyo D.; Lee, Uhn

    2016-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of extracellular neurotransmitter concentration offers great benefits for diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders and diseases. This paper presents the study design and results of a miniaturized and wireless optical neurotransmitter sensor (MWONS) for real-time monitoring of brain dopamine concentration. MWONS is based on fluorescent sensing principles and comprises a microspectrometer unit, a microcontroller for data acquisition, and a Bluetooth wireless network for real-time monitoring. MWONS has a custom-designed application software that controls the operation parameters for excitation light sources, data acquisition, and signal processing. MWONS successfully demonstrated a measurement capability with a limit of detection down to a 100 nanomole dopamine concentration, and high selectivity to ascorbic acid (90:1) and uric acid (36:1). PMID:27834927

  8. Clinical experience with real-time ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Wolfman, Neil T.; Covitz, Wesley

    1995-05-01

    After testing the extended multimedia interface (EMMI) product which is an asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) user to network interface (UNI) of AT&T at the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology conference in Winston-Salem, the Department of Radiology together with AT&T are implementing a tele-ultrasound system to combine real- time ultrasound with the static imaging features of more traditional digital ultrasound systems. Our current ultrasound system archives digital images to an optical disk system. Static images are sent using our digital radiology systems. This could be transferring images from one digital imaging and communications (DICOM)-compliant machine to another, or the current image transfer methodologies. The prototype of a live ultrasound system using the EMMI demonstrated the feasibility of doing live ultrasound. We now are developing the scenarios using a mix of the two methodologies. Utilizing EMMI technology, radiologists at the BGSM review at a workstation both static images and real-time scanning done by a technologist on patients at a remote site in order to render on-line primary diagnosis. Our goal is to test the feasibility of operating an ultrasound laboratory at a remote site utilizing a trained technologist without the necessity of having a full-time radiologist at that site. Initial plans are for a radiologist to review an initial set of static images on a patient taken by the technologist. If further scanning is required, the EMMI is used to transmit real-time imaging and audio using the audio input of a standard microphone system and the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) output of the ultrasound equipment from the remote site to the radiologist in the department review station. The EMMI digitally encodes this data and places it in an ATM format. This ATM data stream goes to the GCNS2000 and then to the other EMMI where the ATM data stream is decoded into the live studies and voice communication which are then

  9. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  10. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  12. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  13. Systolic time interval data acquisition system. Specialized cardiovascular studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition system for noninvasive measurement of systolic time intervals is described. R-R interval from the ECG determines instantaneous heart rate prior to the beat to be measured. Total electromechanical systole (Q-S2) is measured from the onset of the ECG Q-wave to the onset of the second heart sound (S2). Ejection time (ET or LVET) is measured from the onset of carotid upstroke to the incisure. Pre-ejection period (PEP) is computed by subtracting ET from Q-S2. PEP/ET ratio is computed directly.

  14. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  15. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... available and share traffic and travel conditions information via real-time information programs as required... additional comments relating to the costs and benefits of the Real-Time System Management Information...

  16. Real-time support for high performance aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time processing schemes using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is investigated. A rationale for digital neural nets is presented and a general processor architecture for control applications is illustrated. Research results on ANN structures for real-time applications are given. Research results on ANN algorithms for real-time control are also shown.

  17. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  18. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  19. Real-Time Remote Monitoring with Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal Zainal Abidin, Ahmad; Huzaimy Jusoh, Mohammad; James, Elster; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Mohd Yassin, Ahmad Ihsan

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this system is to provide monitoring system for an electrical device and enable remote monitoring via web based application. This monitoring system allow the user to monitor the device condition from anywhere as the information will be synchronised to the website. The current and voltage reading of the monitored equipment, ambient temperature and humidity level are monitored and recorded. These parameters will be updated on the web page. All these sensor are connected to the microcontroller and the data will saved in micro secure digital (SD) card and send all the gathered information to a web page using the GPRS service connection synchronously. The collected data will be displayed on the website and the user enable to download the data directly from the website. The system will help user to monitor the devices condition and ambient changes with ease. The system is successfully developed, tested and has been installed at residential area in Taman Cahaya Alam, Section U12, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

  20. Real-time adaptive radiometric compensation.

    PubMed

    Grundhöfer, Anselm; Bimber, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent radiometric compensation techniques make it possible to project images onto colored and textured surfaces. This is realized with projector-camera systems by scanning the projection surface on a per-pixel basis. Using the captured information, a compensation image is calculated that neutralizes geometric distortions and color blending caused by the underlying surface. As a result, the brightness and the contrast of the input image is reduced compared to a conventional projection onto a white canvas. If the input image is not manipulated in its intensities, the compensation image can contain values that are outside the dynamic range of the projector. These will lead to clipping errors and to visible artifacts on the surface. In this article, we present an innovative algorithm that dynamically adjusts the content of the input images before radiometric compensation is carried out. This reduces the perceived visual artifacts while simultaneously preserving a maximum of luminance and contrast. The algorithm is implemented entirely on the GPU and is the first of its kind to run in real-time.

  1. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  2. Real-time virtual Doppler ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshniat, Mahdieh; Thorne, Meghan L.; Poepping, Tamie L.; Holdsworth, David W.; Steinman, David A.

    2004-04-01

    Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is widely used to diagnose and plan treatments for vascular diseases, but the relationship between complex blood flow dynamics and the observed DUS signal is not completely understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that Doppler ultrasound can be realistically simulated in a real-time manner via the coupling of a known, previously computed velocity field with a simple model of the ultrasound physics. In the present case a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of physiologically pulsatile flow a stenosed carotid bifurcation was interrogated using a sample volume of known geometry and power distribution. Velocity vectors at points within the sample volume were interpolated using a fast geometric search algorithm and, using the specified US probe characteristics and orientation, converted into Doppler shifts for subsequent display as a Doppler spectrogram or color DUS image. The important effect of the intrinsic spectral broadening was simulated by convolving the velocity at each point within the sample volume by a triangle function whose width was proportional to velocity. A spherical sample volume with a Gaussian power distribution was found to be adequate for producing realistic Doppler spectrogram in regions of uniform, jet, and recirculation flow. Fewer than 1000 points seeded uniformly within a radius comprising more than 99% of the total power were required, allowing spectra to be generated from high resolution CFD data at 100Hz frame rates on an inexpensive desktop workstation.

  3. High sensitivity real-time NVR monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D. (Inventor); Chuan, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A real time non-volatile residue (NVR) monitor, which utilizes surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators to detect molecular contamination in a given environment. The SAW resonators operate at a resonant frequency of approximately 200 MHz-2,000 MHz which enables the NVR monitor to detect molecular contamination on the order of 10.sup.-11 g-cm.sup.-2 to 10.sup.-13 g-cm.sup.2. The NVR monitor utilizes active temperature control of (SAW) resonators to achieve a stable resonant frequency. The temperature control system of the NVR monitor is able to directly heat and cool the SAW resonators utilizing a thermoelectric element to maintain the resonators at a present temperature independent of the environmental conditions. In order to enable the direct heating and cooling of the SAW resonators, the SAW resonators are operatively mounted to a heat sink. In one embodiment, the heat sink is located in between the SAW resonators and an electronic circuit board which contains at least a portion of the SAW control electronics. The electrical leads of the SAW resonators are connected through the heat sink to the circuit board via an electronic path which prevents inaccurate frequency measurement.

  4. Real-time DIRCM system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Mikael

    2004-12-01

    Directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM) play an increasingly important role in electronic warfare to counteract threats posed by infrared seekers. The usefulness and performance of such countermeasures depend, for example, on atmospheric conditions (attenuation and turbulence) and platform vibrations, causing pointing and tracking errors for the laser beam and reducing the power transferred to the seeker aperture. These problems make it interesting to simulate the performance of a DIRCM system in order to understand how easy or difficult it is to counteract an approaching threat and evaluate limiting factors in various situations. This paper describes a DIRCM model that has been developed, including atmospheric effects such as attenuation and turbulence as well as closed loop tracking algorithms, where the retro reflex of the laser is used for the pointing control of the beam. The DIRCM model is part of a large simulation framework (EWSim), which also incorporates several descriptions of different seekers (e.g. reticle, rosette, centroid, nutating cross) and models of robot dynamics. Effects of a jamming laser on a specific threat can be readily verified by simulations within this framework. The duel between missile and countermeasure is simulated in near real-time and visualized graphically in 3D. A typical simulation with a reticle seeker jammed by a modulated laser is included in the paper.

  5. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  6. ARC-VM: An architecture real options complexity-based valuation methodology for military systems-of-systems acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domercant, Jean Charles

    The combination of today's national security environment and mandated acquisition policies makes it necessary for military systems to interoperate with each other to greater degrees. This growing interdependency results in complex Systems-of-Systems (SoS) that only continue to grow in complexity to meet evolving capability needs. Thus, timely and affordable acquisition becomes more difficult, especially in the face of mounting budgetary pressures. To counter this, architecting principles must be applied to SoS design. The research objective is to develop an Architecture Real Options Complexity-Based Valuation Methodology (ARC-VM) suitable for acquisition-level decision making, where there is a stated desire for more informed tradeoffs between cost, schedule, and performance during the early phases of design. First, a framework is introduced to measure architecture complexity as it directly relates to military SoS. Development of the framework draws upon a diverse set of disciplines, including Complexity Science, software architecting, measurement theory, and utility theory. Next, a Real Options based valuation strategy is developed using techniques established for financial stock options that have recently been adapted for use in business and engineering decisions. The derived complexity measure provides architects with an objective measure of complexity that focuses on relevant complex system attributes. These attributes are related to the organization and distribution of SoS functionality and the sharing and processing of resources. The use of Real Options provides the necessary conceptual and visual framework to quantifiably and traceably combine measured architecture complexity, time-valued performance levels, as well as programmatic risks and uncertainties. An example suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) capability demonstrates the development and usefulness of the resulting architecture complexity & Real Options based valuation methodology. Different

  7. Five-Axis Machine Tool Condition Monitoring Using dSPACE Real-Time System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztendel, S.; Pislaru, C.; Longstaff, A. P.; Fletcher, S.; Myers, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the design, development and SIMULINK implementation of the lumped parameter model of C-axis drive from GEISS five-axis CNC machine tool. The simulated results compare well with the experimental data measured from the actual machine. Also the paper describes the steps for data acquisition using ControlDesk and hardware-in-the-loop implementation of the drive models in dSPACE real-time system. The main components of the HIL system are: the drive model simulation and input - output (I/O) modules for receiving the real controller outputs. The paper explains how the experimental data obtained from the data acquisition process using dSPACE real-time system can be used for the development of machine tool diagnosis and prognosis systems that facilitate the improvement of maintenance activities.

  8. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Han, Soorim

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  9. Real-time plasma control based on the ISTTOK tomography diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P J; Carvalho, B B; Neto, A; Coelho, R; Fernandes, H; Sousa, J; Varandas, C; Chávez-Alarcón, E; Herrera-Velázquez, J J E

    2008-10-01

    The presently available processing power in generic processing units (GPUs) combined with state-of-the-art programmable logic devices benefits the implementation of complex, real-time driven, data processing algorithms for plasma diagnostics. A tomographic reconstruction diagnostic has been developed for the ISTTOK tokamak, based on three linear pinhole cameras each with ten lines of sight. The plasma emissivity in a poloidal cross section is computed locally on a submillisecond time scale, using a Fourier-Bessel algorithm, allowing the use of the output signals for active plasma position control. The data acquisition and reconstruction (DAR) system is based on ATCA technology and consists of one acquisition board with integrated field programmable gate array (FPGA) capabilities and a dual-core Pentium module running real-time application interface (RTAI) Linux. In this paper, the DAR real-time firmware/software implementation is presented, based on (i) front-end digital processing in the FPGA; (ii) a device driver specially developed for the board which enables streaming data acquisition to the host GPU; and (iii) a fast reconstruction algorithm running in Linux RTAI. This system behaves as a module of the central ISTTOK control and data acquisition system (FIRESIGNAL). Preliminary results of the above experimental setup are presented and a performance benchmarking against the magnetic coil diagnostic is shown.

  10. 34 CFR 222.21 - What requirements must a local educational agency meet concerning Federal acquisition of real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concerning Federal acquisition of real property within the local educational agency? 222.21 Section 222.21... the Act § 222.21 What requirements must a local educational agency meet concerning Federal acquisition... the requirements in subpart A of this part and § 222.22. In addition, unless otherwise provided...

  11. Apparatus Characterizes Transient Voltages in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    is received, a volatile memory is filled with data for a total time of 200 ms. After the data are transferred to nonvolatile memory, the recorder rearms itself within 400 ms to enable recording of subsequent transients. Unfortunately, the recorded data must be retrieved through a serial communication link. Depending on the amount of data recorded, the memory can be filled before retrieval is completed. Although large amounts of data are recorded and retrieved, only a small part of the information (the selected parameters) is usually required. The present transient-voltage recorder provides the required information, without incurring the overhead associated with the recording, storage, and retrieval of complete transient-waveform data. In operation, this apparatus processes transient voltage waveforms in real time to extract and record the selected parameters. An analog-to-digital converter that operates at a speed of as much as 100 mega-samples per second is used to sample a transient waveform. A real-time comparator and peak detector are implemented by use of fast field-programmable gate arrays.

  12. NSTX-U Advances in Real-Time C++11 on Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Keith G.

    2015-08-14

    Programming languages like C and Ada combined with proprietary embedded operating systems have dominated the real-time application space for decades. The new C++11standard includes native, language-level support for concurrency, a required feature for any nontrivial event-oriented real-time software. Threads, Locks, and Atomics now exist to provide the necessary tools to build the structures that make up the foundation of a complex real-time system. The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is breaking new ground with the language as applied to the needs of fusion devices. A new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will serve as the main protection mechanism for the magnetic coils, and it is written entirely in C++11 running on Concurrent Computer Corporation's real-time operating system, RedHawk Linux. It runs over 600 algorithms in a 5 kHz control loop that determine whether or not to shut down operations before physical damage occurs. To accomplish this, NSTX-U engineers developed software tools that do not currently exist elsewhere, including real-time atomic synchronization, real-time containers, and a real-time logging framework. Together with a recent (and carefully configured) version of the GCC compiler, these tools enable data acquisition, processing, and output using a conventional operating system to meet a hard real-time deadline (that is, missing one periodic is a failure) of 200 microseconds.

  13. NSTX-U Advances in Real-Time C++11 on Linux

    DOE PAGES

    Erickson, Keith G.

    2015-08-14

    Programming languages like C and Ada combined with proprietary embedded operating systems have dominated the real-time application space for decades. The new C++11standard includes native, language-level support for concurrency, a required feature for any nontrivial event-oriented real-time software. Threads, Locks, and Atomics now exist to provide the necessary tools to build the structures that make up the foundation of a complex real-time system. The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is breaking new ground with the language as applied to the needs of fusion devices. A new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) willmore » serve as the main protection mechanism for the magnetic coils, and it is written entirely in C++11 running on Concurrent Computer Corporation's real-time operating system, RedHawk Linux. It runs over 600 algorithms in a 5 kHz control loop that determine whether or not to shut down operations before physical damage occurs. To accomplish this, NSTX-U engineers developed software tools that do not currently exist elsewhere, including real-time atomic synchronization, real-time containers, and a real-time logging framework. Together with a recent (and carefully configured) version of the GCC compiler, these tools enable data acquisition, processing, and output using a conventional operating system to meet a hard real-time deadline (that is, missing one periodic is a failure) of 200 microseconds.« less

  14. Benchmarking real-time HEVC streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently gaining pace. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC). Thus far, work on HEVC has concentrated on improvements to the coding efficiency and has not yet addressed transmission in networks other than to mandate byte stream compliance with Annex B of H.264/AVC. For practical networked HEVC applications a number of essential building blocks have yet to be defined. In this work, we design and prototype a real-time HEVC streaming system and empirically evaluate its performance, in particular we consider the robustness of the current Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM4.0) for HEVC to packet loss caused by a reduction in available bandwidth both in terms of decoder resilience and degradation in perceptual video quality. A NAL unit packetisation and streaming framework for HEVC encoded video streams is designed, implemented and empirically tested in a number of streaming environments including wired, wireless, single path and multiple path network scenarios. As a first step the HEVC decoder's error resilience is tested under a comprehensive set of packet loss conditions and a simple error concealment method for HEVC is implemented. Similarly to H.264 encoded streams, the size and distribution of NAL units within an HEVC stream and the nature of the NAL unit dependencies influences the packetisation and streaming strategies which may be employed for such streams. The relationships between HEVC encoding mode and the quality of the received video are shown under a wide range of bandwidth constraints. HEVC streaming is evaluated in both single and multipath network configuration scenarios. Through the use of extensive experimentation, we establish a comprehensive set of benchmarks for HEVC streaming in loss prone network environments. We show the visual quality

  15. PRIMAS: real-time image-based motion measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnee, E. Hans

    1990-08-01

    The PRIMAS system derives from a long line of development at Delft University of Technology , originating from [1] with subsequent innovations such as strobed illumination (1974) of reflective markers, to obtain the simultaneous, equidistant, periodic sampling of all marker positions; real-time estimation of the marker centroids from the full, digitized, contours (1984) to retain the on-line data reduction, while enhancing the resolution; interfacing to industry-standard AT type personal computers, with modest disk requirements and no buffering, even for long data runs; 100 Hz, 0.1 ms integration time, electronically-shuttered TV cameras, to get an optimum marker contrast in high ambient or outdoor light conditions (1986). System specifications include a precision of typ. 1:18000 (X) for 2-D coordinate noise or repeatability. With the 100 Hz sample rate this implies an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution [2]. This favors 3-D reconstruction, as well as a low noise propagation in the estimation of first and higher order derivatives, as are routinely required in biomechanics analysis. The latest feature is real-time marker identification by a software module within the data acquisition program. This option, for the not too complex situations, is feasible only by the data reduction inherent in on-line marker centroid processing. The 3-D calibration, reconstruction and further analytical and display programs are available in the ASYST 3.2 Scientific Language System. A source code option caters for customer extensions. The internal VME/VSB system bus allows the basic dual or quad camera 3-D systems to be readily expanded to larger configurations.

  16. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential.

  17. Real-Time Feature Tracking Using Homography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel S.; Cheng, Yang; Ansar, Adnan I.; Trotz, David C.; Padgett, Curtis W.

    2010-01-01

    This software finds feature point correspondences in sequences of images. It is designed for feature matching in aerial imagery. Feature matching is a fundamental step in a number of important image processing operations: calibrating the cameras in a camera array, stabilizing images in aerial movies, geo-registration of images, and generating high-fidelity surface maps from aerial movies. The method uses a Shi-Tomasi corner detector and normalized cross-correlation. This process is likely to result in the production of some mismatches. The feature set is cleaned up using the assumption that there is a large planar patch visible in both images. At high altitude, this assumption is often reasonable. A mathematical transformation, called an homography, is developed that allows us to predict the position in image 2 of any point on the plane in image 1. Any feature pair that is inconsistent with the homography is thrown out. The output of the process is a set of feature pairs, and the homography. The algorithms in this innovation are well known, but the new implementation improves the process in several ways. It runs in real-time at 2 Hz on 64-megapixel imagery. The new Shi-Tomasi corner detector tries to produce the requested number of features by automatically adjusting the minimum distance between found features. The homography-finding code now uses an implementation of the RANSAC algorithm that adjusts the number of iterations automatically to achieve a pre-set probability of missing a set of inliers. The new interface allows the caller to pass in a set of predetermined points in one of the images. This allows the ability to track the same set of points through multiple frames.

  18. Variational optical flow computation in real time.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Andrés; Weickert, Joachim; Feddern, Christian; Kohlberger, Timo; Schnörr, Christoph

    2005-05-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of bidirectional multigrid methods for variational optical flow computations. Although these numerical schemes are among the fastest methods for solving equation systems, they are rarely applied in the field of computer vision. We demonstrate how to employ those numerical methods for the treatment of variational optical flow formulations and show that the efficiency of this approach even allows for real-time performance on standard PCs. As a representative for variational optic flow methods, we consider the recently introduced combined local-global method. It can be considered as a noise-robust generalization of the Horn and Schunck technique. We present a decoupled, as well as a coupled, version of the classical Gauss-Seidel solver, and we develop several multgrid implementations based on a discretization coarse grid approximation. In contrast, with standard bidirectional multigrid algorithms, we take advantage of intergrid transfer operators that allow for nondyadic grid hierarchies. As a consequence, no restrictions concerning the image size or the number of traversed levels have to be imposed. In the experimental section, we juxtapose the developed multigrid schemes and demonstrate their superior performance when compared to unidirectional multgrid methods and nonhierachical solvers. For the well-known 316 x 252 Yosemite sequence, we succeeded in computing the complete set of dense flow fields in three quarters of a second on a 3.06-GHz Pentium4 PC. This corresponds to a frame rate of 18 flow fields per second which outperforms the widely-used Gauss-Seidel method by almost three orders of magnitude.

  19. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  20. Enhancements and Evolution of the Real Time Mission Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM has proven extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, mission scientists, instrument scientists and program managers alike appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. We have received numerous plaudits from a wide variety of scientists who used RTMM during recent field campaigns including the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) missions, the 2007-2008 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane flights and the 2008 Soil Moisture Active-Passive Validation Experiment (SMAP-VEX). Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated for altitude, latitude, longitude, flight leg distance, cumulative distance, flight leg time, cumulative time, and

  1. Real-time digital signal processing for live electro-optic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Kanno, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2009-08-31

    We present an imaging system that enables real-time magnitude and phase detection of modulated signals and its application to a Live Electro-optic Imaging (LEI) system, which realizes instantaneous visualization of RF electric fields. The real-time acquisition of magnitude and phase images of a modulated optical signal at 5 kHz is demonstrated by imaging with a Si-based high-speed CMOS image sensor and real-time signal processing with a digital signal processor. In the LEI system, RF electric fields are probed with light via an electro-optic crystal plate and downconverted to an intermediate frequency by parallel optical heterodyning, which can be detected with the image sensor. The artifacts caused by the optics and the image sensor characteristics are corrected by image processing. As examples, we demonstrate real-time visualization of electric fields from RF circuits.

  2. Least Squares Time-Series Synchronization in Image Acquisition Systems.

    PubMed

    Piazzo, Lorenzo; Raguso, Maria Carmela; Calzoletti, Luca; Seu, Roberto; Altieri, Bruno

    2016-07-18

    We consider an acquisition system constituted by an array of sensors scanning an image. Each sensor produces a sequence of readouts, called a time-series. In this framework, we discuss the image estimation problem when the time-series are affected by noise and by a time shift. In particular, we introduce an appropriate data model and consider the Least Squares (LS) estimate, showing that it has no closed form. However, the LS problem has a structure that can be exploited to simplify the solution. In particular, based on two known techniques, namely Separable Nonlinear Least Squares (SNLS) and Alternating Least Squares (ALS), we propose and analyze several practical estimation methods. As an additional contribution, we discuss the application of these methods to the data of the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), which is an infrared photometer onboard the Herschel satellite. In this context, we investigate the accuracy and the computational complexity of the methods, using both true and simulated data.

  3. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    PubMed Central

    Corrada-Bravo, Carlos; Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi; Milan, Carlos; Vega, Giovany; Alvarez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON), a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net). Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. PMID:23882441

  4. Transient imaging for real-time tracking around a corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Jonathan; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Non-line-of-sight imaging is a fascinating emerging area of research and expected to have an impact in numerous application fields including civilian and military sensing. Performance of human perception and situational awareness can be extended by the sensing of shapes and movement around a corner in future scenarios. Rather than seeing through obstacles directly, non-line-of-sight imaging relies on analyzing indirect reflections of light that traveled around the obstacle. In previous work, transient imaging was established as the key mechanic to enable the extraction of useful information from such reflections. So far, a number of different approaches based on transient imaging have been proposed, with back projection being the most prominent one. Different hardware setups were used for the acquisition of the required data, however all of them have severe drawbacks such as limited image quality, long capture time or very high prices. In this paper we propose the analysis of synthetic transient renderings to gain more insights into the transient light transport. With this simulated data, we are no longer bound to the imperfect data of real systems and gain more flexibility and control over the analysis. In a second part, we use the insights of our analysis to formulate a novel reconstruction algorithm. It uses an adapted light simulation to formulate an inverse problem which is solved in an analysis-by-synthesis fashion. Through rigorous optimization of the reconstruction, it then becomes possible to track known objects outside the line of side in real time. Due to the forward formulation of the light transport, the algorithm is easily expandable to more general scenarios or different hardware setups. We therefore expect it to become a viable alternative to the classic back projection approach in the future.

  5. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  6. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  7. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  8. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  9. Continuous real-time photoacoustic demodulation via field programmable gate array for dynamic imaging of zebrafish cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Scott P; Shelton, Ryan L; Maxson, Ryan T; Applegate, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    A four dimensional data set of the cardiac cycle of a zebrafish embryo was acquired using postacquisition synchronization of real time photoacoustic b-scans. Utilizing an off-axis photoacoustic microscopy (OA-PAM) setup, we have expanded upon our previous work with OA-PAM to develop a system that can sustain 100 kHz line rates while demodulating the bipolar photoacoustic signal in real-time. Real-time processing was accomplished by quadrature demodulation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in line with the signal digitizer. Simulated data acquisition verified the system is capable of real-time processing up to a line rate of 1 MHz. Galvanometer-scanning of the excitation laser inside the focus of the ultrasonic transducer enables real data acquisition of a 200 by 200 by 200 pixel, volumetric data set across a 2 millimeter field of view at a rate of 2.5 Hz.

  10. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    PERTS is a prototyping environment for real-time systems. It is being built incrementally and will contain basic building blocks of operating systems for time-critical applications, tools, and performance models for the analysis, evaluation and measurement of real-time systems and a simulation/emulation environment. It is designed to support the use and evaluation of new design approaches, experimentations with alternative system building blocks, and the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  11. A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity.

    PubMed

    Herr, Michael D; Hogeman, Cynthia S; Koch, Dennis W; Krishnan, Anandi; Momen, Afsana; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2010-05-01

    A Doppler signal converter has been developed to facilitate cardiovascular and exercise physiology research. This device directly converts audio signals from a clinical Doppler ultrasound imaging system into a real-time analog signal that accurately represents blood flow velocity and is easily recorded by any standard data acquisition system. This real-time flow velocity signal, when simultaneously recorded with other physiological signals of interest, permits the observation of transient flow response to experimental interventions in a manner not possible when using standard Doppler imaging devices. This converted flow velocity signal also permits a more robust and less subjective analysis of data in a fraction of the time required by previous analytic methods. This signal converter provides this capability inexpensively and requires no modification of either the imaging or data acquisition system.

  12. Fast Simulation of Tsunamis in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, G. J.; Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S. A.; Walsh, D.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers primarily base their wave height forecasts on precomputed tsunami scenarios, such as the SIFT model (Standby Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) developed by NOAA's Center for Tsunami Research. In SIFT, tsunami simulations for about 1600 individual earthquake sources, each 100x50 km, define shallow subduction worldwide. These simulations are stored in a database and combined linearly to make up the tsunami from any great earthquake. Precomputation is necessary because the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations are too time consuming to compute during an event. While such scenario-based models are valuable, they tacitly assume all energy in a tsunami comes from thrust at the décollement. The thrust assumption is often violated (e.g., 1933 Sanriku, 2007 Kurils, 2009 Samoa), while a significant number of tsunamigenic earthquakes are completely unrelated to subduction (e.g., 1812 Santa Barbara, 1939 Accra, 1975 Kalapana). Finally, parts of some subduction zones are so poorly defined that precomputations may be of little value (e.g., 1762 Arakan, 1755 Lisbon). For all such sources, a fast means of estimating tsunami size is essential. At the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, we have been using our model RIFT (Real-time Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) experimentally for two years. RIFT is fast by design: it solves only the linearized form of the equations. At 4 arc-minutes resolution calculations for the entire Pacific take just a few minutes on an 8-processor Linux box. Part of the rationale for developing RIFT was earthquakes of M 7.8 or smaller, which approach the lower limit of the more complex SIFT's abilities. For such events we currently issue a fixed warning to areas within 1,000 km of the source, which typically means a lot of over-warning. With sources defined by W-phase CMTs, exhaustive comparison with runup data shows that we can reduce the warning area significantly. Even before CMTs are available, we routinely run models

  13. Real-time digital signal processing in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of multiphoton interactions in biological tissue for imaging contrast requires highly sensitive optical measurements. These often involve signal processing and filtering steps between the photodetector and the data acquisition device, such as photon counting and lock-in amplification. These steps can be implemented as real-time digital signal processing (DSP) elements on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, an approach that affords much greater flexibility than commercial photon counting or lock-in devices. We will present progress toward developing two new FPGA-based DSP devices for multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy applications. The first is a high-speed multiharmonic lock-in amplifier for transient absorption microscopy, which is being developed for real-time analysis of the intensity-dependence of melanin, with applications in vivo and ex vivo (noninvasive histopathology of melanoma and pigmented lesions). The second device is a kHz lock-in amplifier running on a low cost (50-200) development platform. It is our hope that these FPGA-based DSP devices will enable new, high-speed, low-cost applications in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy.

  14. Highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward V R; Sodickson, Daniel K; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (∼2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (∼40 ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular function. In this work, we present an eightfold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our eightfold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1-5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both eightfold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable left ventricular function measurements, with coefficient of variation <10% for left ventricular volumes. Our proposed eightfold accelerated real-time cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function.

  15. Real-Time Bonner Sphere Spectrometry on the HL-2A Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunyu; Cao, Jing; Jiang, Xiaofei; Zhao, Yanfeng; Song, Xianying; Yin, Zejie

    2016-06-01

    Real-time Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) at the HL-2A tokamak for the neutron spectrum diagnostic is described. The spectrometer consists of eight different size Bonner spheres made of polyethylene and with a 3helium-filled detector in the center, pre-amplifiers, and parallel-processing data acquisition system (DAQ). Dynamic neutrons from plasma discharges of the HL-2A tokamak were measured and the real-time neutron spectrum was presented. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11375195) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB104003)

  16. Hardware-Software Framework of Microcomputerized Real-Time Biomedical Instrumentation: Near-Term Future

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Daniel F.

    1987-01-01

    Future microcomputerized biomedical instruments will provide a level of performance far beyond that available in existing systems. They will incorporate high-resolution multicolor graphical displays, sophisticated interactive user interfaces, and provide true real-time performance. This paper reports on the hardware-software realization of a prototype multiprocessor system with capability for extensive processing of multichannel biomedical data in real-time. This system serves as a “model” for future systems. Capabilities implemented include low overhead data acquisition, high-speed spectral processing, and multicolor graphical displays. Major applications could include medical research, clinical diagnosis, and surgical monitoring.

  17. The FPGA realization of a real-time Bayer image restoration algorithm with better performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Huaping; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Jiangyong; Tang, Zunlie; Deng, Qilin; Zhang, Hongliu

    2014-11-01

    Along with the wide usage of realizing Bayer color interpolation algorithm through FPGA, better performance, real-time processing, and less resource consumption have become the pursuits for the users. In order to realize the function of high speed and high quality processing of the Bayer image restoration with less resource consumption, the color reconstruction is designed and optimized from the interpolation algorithm and the FPGA realization in this article. Then the hardware realization is finished with FPGA development platform, and the function of real-time and high-fidelity image processing with less resource consumption is realized in the embedded image acquisition systems.

  18. Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hoa; Ding, Huafeng; Sobh, Nahil; Do, Minh; Patel, Sanjay; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate real time off-axis Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) using a phase reconstruction algorithm based on NVIDIA’s CUDA programming model. The phase unwrapping component is based on Goldstein’s algorithm. By mapping the process of extracting phase information and unwrapping to GPU, we are able to speed up the whole procedure by more than 18.8× with respect to CPU processing and ultimately achieve video rate for mega-pixel images. Our CUDA implementation also supports processing of multiple images simultaneously. This enables our imaging system to support high speed, high throughput, and real-time image acquisition and visualization. PMID:21750757

  19. Real-Time SCADA Cyber Protection Using Compression Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle G. Roybal; Gordon H Rueff

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) has a critical mission to secure the energy infrastructure from cyber attack. Through DOE-OE’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a method to detect malicious traffic on Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network using a data compression technique. SCADA network traffic is often repetitive with only minor differences between packets. Research performed at the INL showed that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for using compression analysis to identify abnormal network traffic. An open source implementation of a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless data compression algorithm was used to compress and analyze surrogate SCADA traffic. Infected SCADA traffic was found to have statistically significant differences in compression when compared against normal SCADA traffic at the packet level. The initial analyses and results are clearly able to identify malicious network traffic from normal traffic at the packet level with a very high confidence level across multiple ports and traffic streams. Statistical differentiation between infected and normal traffic level was possible using a modified data compression technique at the 99% probability level for all data analyzed. However, the conditions tested were rather limited in scope and need to be expanded into more realistic simulations of hacking events using techniques and approaches that are better representative of a real-world attack on a SCADA system. Nonetheless, the use of compression techniques to identify malicious traffic on SCADA networks in real time appears to have significant merit for infrastructure protection.

  20. The Near Real Time Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    process must strive to attain. These goals are as follows: * deployability, 26 1 11 * reliable and efficient systems, * complementary systems, * near real...is maximized. The optimum design of a system is one that is self-deployable or one that is wholly contained in a self-deployable system. Reliable and... reliable and dependable in any environment, on any terrain. Any supporting component of a system must be easily replaceable and not so critical that

  1. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of

  2. Real-time multi-mode neutron multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S; Alvarez, Raymond A

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments are directed to a digital data acquisition method that collects data regarding nuclear fission at high rates and performs real-time preprocessing of large volumes of data into directly useable forms for use in a system that performs non-destructive assaying of nuclear material and assemblies for mass and multiplication of special nuclear material (SNM). Pulses from a multi-detector array are fed in parallel to individual inputs that are tied to individual bits in a digital word. Data is collected by loading a word at the individual bit level in parallel, to reduce the latency associated with current shift-register systems. The word is read at regular intervals, all bits simultaneously, with no manipulation. The word is passed to a number of storage locations for subsequent processing, thereby removing the front-end problem of pulse pileup. The word is used simultaneously in several internal processing schemes that assemble the data in a number of more directly useable forms. The detector includes a multi-mode counter that executes a number of different count algorithms in parallel to determine different attributes of the count data.

  3. Real-time Fluorescence Image-Guided Oncologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Suman B.; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a critical role in cancer diagnosis and planning. Many of these patients rely on surgical intervention for curative outcomes. This requires a careful identification of the primary and microscopic tumors, and the complete removal of cancer. Although there have been efforts to adapt traditional imaging modalities for intraoperative image guidance, they suffer from several constraints such as large hardware footprint, high operation cost, and disruption of the surgical workflow. Because of the ease of image acquisition, relatively low cost devices and intuitive operation, optical imaging methods have received tremendous interests for use in real-time image-guided surgery. To improve imaging depth under low interference by tissue autofluorescence, many of these applications utilize light in the near-infra red (NIR) wavelengths, which is invisible to human eyes. With the availability of a wide selection of tumor-avid contrast agents, advancements in imaging sensors, electronic and optical designs, surgeons are able to combine different attributes of NIR optical imaging techniques to improve treatment outcomes. The emergence of diverse commercial and experimental image guidance systems, which are in various stages of clinical translation, attests to the potential high impact of intraoperative optical imaging methods to improve speed of oncologic surgery with high accuracy and minimal margin positivity. PMID:25287689

  4. Novor: Real-Time Peptide de Novo Sequencing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin

    2015-11-01

    De novo sequencing software has been widely used in proteomics to sequence new peptides from tandem mass spectrometry data. This study presents a new software tool, Novor, to greatly improve both the speed and accuracy of today's peptide de novo sequencing analyses. To improve the accuracy, Novor's scoring functions are based on two large decision trees built from a peptide spectral library with more than 300,000 spectra with machine learning. Important knowledge about peptide fragmentation is extracted automatically from the library and incorporated into the scoring functions. The decision tree model also enables efficient score calculation and contributes to the speed improvement. To further improve the speed, a two-stage algorithmic approach, namely dynamic programming and refinement, is used. The software program was also carefully optimized. On the testing datasets, Novor sequenced 7%-37% more correct residues than the state-of-the-art de novo sequencing tool, PEAKS, while being an order of magnitude faster. Novor can de novo sequence more than 300 MS/MS spectra per second on a laptop computer. The speed surpasses the acquisition speed of today's mass spectrometer and, therefore, opens a new possibility to de novo sequence in real time while the spectrometer is acquiring the spectral data.

  5. Use of high performance networks and supercomputers for real-time flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1993-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be consistent in processing time and be completed in as short a time as possible. These operations include simulation mathematical model computation and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) technology which resulted in a factor of ten increase in the effective bandwidth and reduced latency of modules necessary for simulator communication. This technology extension is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC are completing the development of the use of supercomputers for mathematical model computation to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and development of specialized software and hardware for the simulator network. This paper describes the data acquisition technology and the development of supercomputing for flight simulation.

  6. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Rickettsial Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    agents in the blood stream the diseases are also difficult to diagnose by laboratory methods. For that reason we have developed real - time PCR assays to...detect rickettsial disease agents both at the genus and the species level. Real - time PCR assays were developed to identify: 1) pathogenic Rickettsia...calculate the sensitivity of the assays. These real - time PCR assays were found to be capable of detecting rickettsial disease agents quickly and with great sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Extensions to Real-time Hierarchical Mine Detection Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Extensions to Real-Time Hierarchical Mine Detection Algorithm System Number: Patron Number: Requester: Notes: DSIS Use only: Deliver to: DK...Recherche et developpement pour Ia defense Canada Extensions to Real-Time Hierarchical Mine Detection Algorithm Final Report Sinh Duong and Mabo R. Ito...EXTENSIONS TO REAL-TIME HIERARCHICAL MINE DETECTION ALGORITHM FINAL REPORT by Smh Duong and Mabo R Ito The Univer~ity of Bntl~h Columbia Vancouver

  8. Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight Systems AF02T002 Phase II Final Report Contract No. FA9550-04-C-0032 Principal...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Report for 14 April 2004-14 April 2006 Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight...A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Unmanned aerial vehicle and smart munition systems need robust, real-time path generation and

  9. A Real-Time Linux for Multicore Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-20

    B . Chattopadhyay , S. Baruah. A lookup-table driven approach to partitioned scheduling, IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium...reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: ( b ) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/ A for none) James H...Herman, B . Brandenburg, A . Mills, J. Anderson. Soft Real-Time on Multiprocessors:Are Analysis-Based Schedulers ReallyWorth It?, 32nd IEEE Real-Time

  10. Efficient Data Capture and Post-Processing for Real-Time Imaging Using AN Ultrasonic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, L.; Hunter, A. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-02-01

    Over the past few years, ultrasonic phased arrays have shown good potential for nondestructive testing (NDT), thanks to high resolution imaging algorithms. Many algorithms are based on the full matrix capture, obtained by firing each element of an ultrasonic array independently, and collecting the data with all elements. Because of the finite sound velocity in the specimen, two consecutive firings must be separated by a minimum time interval. Therefore, more array elements require longer data acquisition times. Moreover, if the array has N elements, then the full matrix contains N2 temporal signals to be processed. Because of the limited calculation speed of current computers, a large matrix of data can result in long post-processing times. In an industrial context where real-time imaging is desirable, it is crucial to reduce acquisition and/or post-processing times. This paper investigates methods designed to reduce acquisition and post-processing times for the total focusing method and wavenumber imaging algorithms. Limited transmission cycles are used to reduce data capture and post-processing. Post-processing times are further reduced by demodulating the data to temporal baseband frequencies. Results are presented so that a compromise can be made between acquisition time, post-processing time and image quality.

  11. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  12. Real time simulation using position sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George F. (Inventor); Womack, Robert W. (Inventor); Hilferty, Michael F. (Inventor); Isbell, William B. (Inventor); Taylor, Jason A. (Inventor); Bacon, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An interactive exercise system including exercise equipment having a resistance system, a speed sensor, a controller that varies the resistance setting of the exercise equipment, and a playback device for playing pre-recorded video and audio. The controller, operating in conjunction with speed information from the speed sensor and terrain information from media table files, dynamically varies the resistance setting of the exercise equipment in order to simulate varying degrees of difficulty while the playback device concurrently plays back the video and audio to create the simulation that the user is exercising in a natural setting such as a real-world exercise course.

  13. Real-Time Leaky Lamb Wave Spectrum Measurement and Its Application to NDE of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1999-01-01

    Numerous analytical and theoretical studies of the behavior of leaky Lamb waves (LLW) in composite materials were documented in the literature. One of the key issues that are constraining the application of this method as a practical tool is the amount of data that needs to be acquired and the slow process that is involved with such experiments. Recently, a methodology that allows quasi real-time acquisition of LLW dispersion data was developed. At each angle of incidence the reflection spectrum is available in real time from the experimental setup and it can be used for rapid detection of the defects. This technique can be used to rapidly acquire the various plate wave modes along various angles of incidence for the characterization of the material elastic properties. The experimental method and data acquisition technique will be described in this paper. Experimental data was used to examine a series of flaws including porosity and delaminations and demonstrated the efficiency of the developed technique.

  14. Development of portable and real-time self-calibration angle encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yao; Xue, Zi; Lin, Hu; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    At National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM), a portable and real-time self-calibration angle encoder was developed to meet the requirement of angular measurement with high accuracy, high speed, and high adaptability in limited size. In the development, the special arrangement of reading heads, the structure of bearing was designed base on the novel selfcalibration method, and the corresponding signal acquisition and processing system was set up with capability of high speed and multi-channel synchronous data acquisition and processing. The max rotary speed of this angle encoder gets 18 r/min (110°/s) in real-time mode. This angle encoder was compared with NIM's primary angle standard. The calibration result shows that this angle encoder has angle measuring accuracy better than +/-4″.

  15. Real-time fMRI-based activation analysis and stimulus control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Bernarding, Johannes

    2007-03-01

    The real-time analysis of brain activation using functional MRI data offers a wide range of new experiments such as investigating self-regulation or learning strategies. However, besides special data acquisition and real-time data analysing techniques such examination requires dynamic and adaptive stimulus paradigms and self-optimising MRI-sequences. This paper presents an approach that enables the unified handling of parameters influencing the different software systems involved in the acquisition and analysing process. By developing a custom-made Experiment Description Language (EDL) this concept is used for a fast and flexible software environment which treats aspects like extraction and analysis of activation as well as the modification of the stimulus presentation. We describe how extracted real-time activation is subsequently evaluated by comparing activation patterns to previous acquired templates representing activated regions of interest for different predefined conditions. According to those results the stimulus presentation is adapted. The results showed that the developed system in combination with EDL is able to reliably detect and evaluate activation patterns in real-time. With a processing time for data analysis of about one second the approach is only limited by the natural time course of the hemodynamic response function of the brain activation.

  16. Evaluation of highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI in tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Elwin C; Kholmovski, Eugene G; Wilson, Brent D; DiBella, Edward V R; Dosdall, Derek J; Ranjan, Ravi; McGann, Christopher J; Kim, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated breath-hold cine MRI is considered to be the gold standard test for the assessment of cardiac function. However, it may fail in patients with arrhythmia, impaired breath-hold capacity and poor ECG gating. Although ungated real-time cine MRI may mitigate these problems, commercially available real-time cine MRI pulse sequences using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatiotemporal resolution because of their low image acquisition efficiency. As an extension of our previous work, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic quality and accuracy of eight-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI with compressed sensing (CS) for the quantification of cardiac function in tachycardia, where it is challenging for real-time cine MRI to provide sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. We evaluated the performances of eight-fold-accelerated cine MRI with CS, three-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI with temporal generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (TGRAPPA) and ECG-gated breath-hold cine MRI in 21 large animals with tachycardia (mean heart rate, 104 beats per minute) at 3T. For each cine MRI method, two expert readers evaluated the diagnostic quality in four categories (image quality, temporal fidelity of wall motion, artifacts and apparent noise) using a Likert scale (1-5, worst to best). One reader evaluated the left ventricular functional parameters. The diagnostic quality scores were significantly different between the three cine pulse sequences, except for the artifact level between CS and TGRAPPA real-time cine MRI. Both ECG-gated breath-hold cine MRI and eight-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI yielded all four scores of ≥ 3.0 (acceptable), whereas three-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI yielded all scores below 3.0, except for artifact (3.0). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measurements agreed better between ECG-gated cine MRI and eight-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI

  17. Optimal real-time Q-ball imaging using regularized Kalman filtering with incremental orientation sets.

    PubMed

    Deriche, Rachid; Calder, Jeff; Descoteaux, Maxime

    2009-08-01

    Diffusion MRI has become an established research tool for the investigation of tissue structure and orientation. Since its inception, Diffusion MRI has expanded considerably to include a number of variations such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and Q-ball imaging (QBI). The acquisition and analysis of such data is very challenging due to its complexity. Recently, an exciting new Kalman filtering framework has been proposed for DTI and QBI reconstructions in real-time during the repetition time (TR) of the acquisition sequence. In this article, we first revisit and thoroughly analyze this approach and show it is actually sub-optimal and not recursively minimizing the intended criterion due to the Laplace-Beltrami regularization term. Then, we propose a new approach that implements the QBI reconstruction algorithm in real-time using a fast and robust Laplace-Beltrami regularization without sacrificing the optimality of the Kalman filter. We demonstrate that our method solves the correct minimization problem at each iteration and recursively provides the optimal QBI solution. We validate with real QBI data that our proposed real-time method is equivalent in terms of QBI estimation accuracy to the standard offline processing techniques and outperforms the existing solution. Last, we propose a fast algorithm to recursively compute gradient orientation sets whose partial subsets are almost uniform and show that it can also be applied to the problem of efficiently ordering an existing point-set of any size. This work enables a clinician to start an acquisition with just the minimum number of gradient directions and an initial estimate of the orientation distribution functions (ODF) and then the next gradient directions and ODF estimates can be recursively and optimally determined, allowing the acquisition to be stopped as soon as desired or at any iteration with the optimal ODF estimates. This opens new and interesting opportunities for

  18. Development of real-time MHD markers based on biorthogonal decomposition of signals from Mirnov coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperti, C.; Marchetto, C.; Alessi, E.; Minelli, D.; Mosconi, M.; Belli, F.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Buratti, P.; Calabro', G.; Esposito, B.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, A.; Mellera, V.; Moro, A.; Piergotti, V.; Pucella, G.; Ramogida, G.; Bin, W.; Sozzi, C.

    2014-11-01

    The biorthogonal decomposition analysis of signals from an array of Mirnov coils is able to provide the spatial structure and the temporal evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in a tokamak. Such analysis can be adapted to a data acquisition and elaboration system suitable for fast real time applications such as instability detection and disruption precursory markers computation. This paper deals with the description of this technique as applied to the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU).

  19. Visualization of swallowing using real-time TrueFISP MR fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Goyen, Mathias; von Winterfeld, Friederike; Lauenstein, Thomas; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana; Debatin, Jörg F

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of different real-time true fast imaging with steady precession (TrueFISP) sequences regarding their ability to depict the swallowing process and delineate oropharyngeal pathologies in patients with dysphagia. Real-time TrueFISP visualization of swallowing was performed in 8 volunteers and 6 patients with dysphagia using a 1.5 T scanner (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen Germany) equipped with high-performance gradients (amplitude 40 mT/m). Image quality of four different real-time TrueFISP sequences (TR 2.2-3.0 ms, TE 1.1-1.5 ms, matrix 63 x 128-135 x 256, field of view 250 mm(2), acquisition time per image 139-405 ms) was evaluated. Water, yoghurt, and semolina pudding were assessed as oral contrast agents. Functional exploration of the oropharyngeal apparatus was best possible using the fastest real-time TrueFISP sequence (TR 2.2 ms, TE 1.1 ms, matrix 63 x 128). Increased acquisition time resulted in blurring of anatomical structures. As the image contrast of TrueFISP sequences depends on T2/T1 properties, all tested foodstuff were well suited as oral contrast agents, but image quality was best using semolina pudding. Real-time visualization of swallowing is possible using real-time TrueFISP sequences in conjunction with oral contrast agents. For the functional exploration of swallowing high temporal resolution is more crucial than spatial resolution.

  20. Real-time fault diagnosis for propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Delaat, John C.; Duyar, Ahmet

    1991-01-01

    Current research toward real time fault diagnosis for propulsion systems at NASA-Lewis is described. The research is being applied to both air breathing and rocket propulsion systems. Topics include fault detection methods including neural networks, system modeling, and real time implementations.

  1. Real-time hyperspectral imaging for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral imaging systems with selected bands can commonly be used for real-time applications of food processing. Recent research has demonstrated several image processing methods including binning, noise removal filter, and appropriate morphological analysis in real-time mode can remove most fa...

  2. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  3. "Real-Time" Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Shawn D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an activity that integrates theory and application by examining the multiple communication events affecting a single organization in "real time" over the course of an academic term. The "real-time" case study (RTCS) avails students of the opportunity to examine organizational communication events as they are occurring in…

  4. Real time orthorectification of high resolution airborne pushbroom imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguera-Salgado, Javier; Martin-Herrero, Julio

    2011-11-01

    Advanced architectures have been proposed for efficient orthorectification of digital airborne camera images, including a system based on GPU processing and distributed computing able to geocorrect three digital still aerial photographs per second. Here, we address the computationally harder problem of geocorrecting image data from airborne pushbroom sensors, where each individual image line has associated its own camera attitude and position parameters. Using OpenGL and CUDA interoperability and projective texture techniques, originally developed for fast shadow rendering, image data is projected onto a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) as if by a slide projector placed and rotated in accordance with GPS position and inertial navigation (IMU) data. Each line is sequentially projected onto the DTM to generate an intermediate frame, consisting of a unique projected line shaped by the DTM relief. The frames are then merged into a geometrically corrected georeferenced orthoimage. To target hyperband systems, avoiding the high dimensional overhead, we deal with an orthoimage of pixel placeholders pointing to the raw image data, which are then combined as needed for visualization or processing tasks. We achieved faster than real-time performance in a hyperspectral pushbroom system working at a line rate of 30 Hz with 200 bands and 1280 pixel wide swath over a 1 m grid DTM, reaching a minimum processing speed of 356 lines per second (up to 511 lps), over eleven (up to seventeen) times the acquisition rate. Our method also allows the correction of systematic GPS and/or IMU biases by means of 3D user interactive navigation.

  5. Real-Time Signal Processor for Pulsar Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumar, P. S.; Deshpande, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes the design, tests and preliminary results of a real-time parallel signal processor built to aid a wide variety of pulsar observations. The signal processor reduces the distortions caused by the effects of dispersion, Faraday rotation, doppler acceleration and parallactic angle variations, at a sustained data rate of 32 Msamples/sec. It also folds the pulses coherently over the period and integrates adjacent samples in time and frequency to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting data are recorded for further off-line analysis of the characteristics of pulsars and the intervening medium. The signal processing for analysis of pulsar signals is quite complex, imposing the need for a high computational throughput, typically of the order of a Giga operations per second (GOPS). Conventionally, the high computational demand restricts the flexibility to handle only a few types of pulsar observations. This instrument is designed to handle a wide variety of Pulsar observations with the Giant Metre Wave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and is flexible enough to be used in many other high-speed, signal processing applications. The technology used includes field-programmable-gate-array(FPGA) based data/code routing interfaces, PC-AT based control, diagnostics and data acquisition, digital signal processor (DSP) chip based parallel processing nodes and C language based control software and DSP-assembly programs for signal processing. The architecture and the software implementation of the parallel processor are fine-tuned to realize about 60 MOPS per DSP node and a multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) capability.

  6. Real-time functional MRI using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Greenwald, Mark K; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Peltier, Scott J

    2011-06-01

    The first implementation of real-time acquisition and analysis of arterial spin labeling-based functional magnetic resonance imaging time series is presented in this article. The implementation uses a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme followed by a spiral k-space acquisition trajectory. Real-time reconstruction of the images, preprocessing, and regression analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were implemented on a laptop computer interfaced with the MRI scanner. The method allows the user to track the current raw data, subtraction images, and the cumulative t-statistic map overlaid on a cumulative subtraction image. The user is also able to track the time course of individual time courses and interactively selects a region of interest as a nuisance covariate. The pulse sequence allows the user to adjust acquisition and labeling parameters while observing their effect on the image within two successive pulse repetition times. This method is demonstrated by two functional imaging experiments: a simultaneous finger-tapping and visual stimulation paradigm, and a bimanual finger-tapping task.

  7. Contributors to Undergraduates' Perception of Skill Acquisition across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Andreia; Steffgen, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between the amount of years of study and the perception of skill acquisition through indicators of students' satisfaction with the course program. It was hypothesized that the more years students spend at the university, the higher their perception of skill acquisition and that factors related to the course…

  8. Recent achievements in real-time computational seismology in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time computational seismology is currently possible to be achieved which needs highly connection between seismic database and high performance computing. We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) by using continuous BATS records and moment tensor inversion (CMT) technique. The real-time online earthquake simulation service is also ready to open for researchers and public earthquake science education (ROS). Combine RMT with ROS, the earthquake report based on computational seismology can provide within 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred (RMT obtains point source information < 120 sec; ROS completes a 3D simulation < 3 minutes). All of these computational results are posted on the internet in real-time now. For more information, welcome to visit real-time computational seismology earthquake report webpage (RCS).

  9. Hardware for a real-time multiprocessor simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, R. A.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware for a real time multiprocessor simulator (RTMPS) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The RTMPS is a multiple microprocessor system used to investigate the application of parallel processing concepts to real time simulation. It is designed to provide flexible data exchange paths between processors by using off the shelf microcomputer boards and minimal customized interfacing. A dedicated operator interface allows easy setup of the simulator and quick interpreting of simulation data. Simulations for the RTMPS are coded in a NASA designed real time multiprocessor language (RTMPL). This language is high level and geared to the multiprocessor environment. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) has also been developed that provides a user friendly operator interface. The RTMPS and supporting software are currently operational and are being evaluated at Lewis. The results of this evaluation will be used to specify the design of an optimized parallel processing system for real time simulation of dynamic systems.

  10. Recent advances to obtain real - Time displacements for engineering applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments and approaches (using GPS technology and real-time double-integration) to obtain displacements and, in turn, drift ratios, in real-time or near real-time to meet the needs of the engineering and user community in seismic monitoring and assessing the functionality and damage condition of structures. Drift ratios computed in near real-time allow technical assessment of the damage condition of a building. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and story structural characteristics (including geometry) are used in computing drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Thus, drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can be compared to pre-computed threshold drift ratios. The approaches described herein can be used for performance evaluation of structures and can be considered as building health-monitoring applications.

  11. A real-time simulator of a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    A real-time digital simulator of a Pratt and Whitney F100 engine has been developed for real-time code verification and for actuator diagnosis during full-scale engine testing. This self-contained unit can operate in an open-loop stand-alone mode or as part of closed-loop control system. It can also be used for control system design and development. Tests conducted in conjunction with the NASA Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation program show that the simulator is a valuable tool for real-time code verification and as a real-time actuator simulator for actuator fault diagnosis. Although currently a small perturbation model, advances in microprocessor hardware should allow the simulator to evolve into a real-time, full-envelope, full engine simulation.

  12. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control.

  13. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Zhou, Hongyi; Liang, Hao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-01

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  14. FPGA-based real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Dandekar, Omkar S.; Shekhar, Raj

    2005-02-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging, especially the emerging real-time version of it, is particularly valuable in medical applications such as echocardiography, obstetrics and surgical navigation. A known problem with ultrasound images is their high level of speckle noise. Anisotropic diffusion filtering has been shown to be effective in enhancing the visual quality of 3D ultrasound images and as preprocessing prior to advanced image processing. However, due to its arithmetic complexity and the sheer size of 3D ultrasound images, it is not possible to perform online, real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering using standard software implementations. We present an FPGA-based architecture that allows performing anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D images at acquisition rates, thus enabling the use of this filtering technique in real-time applications, such as visualization, registration and volume rendering.

  15. Advanced Visualization of Experimental Data in Real Time Using LiveView3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    LiveView3D is a software application that imports and displays a variety of wind tunnel derived data in an interactive virtual environment in real time. LiveView3D combines the use of streaming video fed into a three-dimensional virtual representation of the test configuration with networked communications to the test facility Data Acquisition System (DAS). This unified approach to real time data visualization provides a unique opportunity to comprehend very large sets of diverse forms of data in a real time situation, as well as in post-test analysis. This paper describes how LiveView3D has been implemented to visualize diverse forms of aerodynamic data gathered during wind tunnel experiments, most notably at the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Planned future developments of the LiveView3D system are also addressed.

  16. Developing a real time electrocardiogram system using virtual bio-instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Elmansouri, Khalifa; Latif, Rachid; Nassiri, Boujamaa; Maoulainine, Fadel Mrabih Rabou

    2014-04-01

    Today bio-manufacturers propose various electrocardiogram (ECG) instruments that have addressed a wide variety of clinical issues. However, the discovery of new applications in ECG devices that provide doctors with the right information at the right time and in the right way will help them to provide a highest quality care possible. In this paper, we focus on the development of an accurate and robust virtual bio-instrument. The important goals of the described project is to provide online new diagnostic informations, an accurate analysis algorithm applied to the acquired signals, data capture from commercial monitors, fast real time ECG acquisition, real time data display and recording of real ECG signals which results in the improvement of data availability. The virtual bio-instrument is validated and tested on the level of robustness, diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic impact and Human - System Interface (HSI) functioning with collaboration of the cardiologists.

  17. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Zhou, Hongyi; Liang, Hao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-01

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  18. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  19. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  20. Calibration method of the time synchronization error of many data acquisition nodes in the chained system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jia-jia; Duan, Fa-jie; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Kai; Chang, Zong-jie

    2012-08-01

    Time synchronization is very important in a distributed chained seismic acquisition system with a large number of data acquisition nodes (DANs). The time synchronization error has two causes. On the one hand, there is a large accumulated propagation delay when commands propagate from the analysis and control system to multiple distant DANs, which makes it impossible for different DANs to receive the same command synchronously. Unfortunately, the propagation delay of commands (PDCs) varies in different application environments. On the other hand, the phase jitter of both the master clock and the clock recovery phase-locked loop, which is designed to extract the timing signal, may also cause the time synchronization error. In this paper, in order to achieve accurate time synchronization, a novel calibration method is proposed which can align the PDCs of all of the DANs in real time and overcome the time synchronization error caused by the phase jitter. Firstly, we give a quantitative analysis of the time synchronization error caused by both the PDCs and the phase jitter. Secondly, we propose a back and forth model (BFM) and a transmission delay measurement method (TDMM) to overcome these difficulties. Furthermore, the BFM is designed as the hardware configuration to measure the PDCs and calibrate the time synchronization error. The TDMM is used to measure the PDCs accurately. Thirdly, in order to overcome the time synchronization error caused by the phase jitter, a compression and mapping algorithm (CMA) is presented. Finally, based on the proposed BFM, TDMM and CMA, a united calibration algorithm is developed to overcome the time synchronization error caused by both the PDCs and the phase jitter. The simulation experiment results show the effectiveness of the calibration method proposed in this paper.

  1. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  2. Real-Time Functional MRI Using Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Greenwald, Mark K.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Peltier, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    The first implementation of real-time acquisition and analysis of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) based functional MRI time series is presented in this article. The implementation uses a pseudo-continuous labeling scheme followed by a spiral k-space acquisition trajectory. Real-time reconstruction of the images, preprocessing and regression analysis of the fMRI data were implemented on a laptop computer interfaced with the MRI scanner. The method allows the user to track the current raw data, subtraction images, and the cumulative t-statistic map overlaid on a cumulative subtraction image. The user is also able to track the time course of individual time courses, and interactively select an ROI as a nuisance covariate. The pulse sequence allows the user to adjust acquisition and labeling parameters while observing their effect on the image within two successive TRs. This method is illustrated on a stimulation paradigm consisting of simultaneous finger-tapping and visual stimulation and on a bimanual finger tapping task alternating hands. PMID:21446035

  3. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  4. Real-Time Geospatial Data Viewer (RETIGO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a web-based method that allows the users to upload their air monitoring data and explore the data on graphical interface. The method is optimized for mobile monitoring data sets, showing the data on a map, on a time series, and referenced to a hypothesized line and/or poi...

  5. Real-time quantitative phase imaging for cell studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoa Vinh

    Most biological cells are not clearly visible with a bright field microscope. Several methods have been developed to improve contrast in cell imaging, including use of exogenous contrast agents such as fluorescence microscopy, as well as utilizing properties of light-specimen interaction for optics design, to reveal the endogenous contrast, such as phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Although PCM and DIC methods significantly improve the image contrast without the need for staining agents, they only provide qualitative information about the phase change induced by the cells as light passes through them. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as an effective imaging tool which provides not only better image contrast but also cell-induced phase shifts in the optical pathlength, thus allowing nanometer-scale measurements of structures and dynamics of the cells. Other important aspects of an imaging system are its imaging speed and throughput. High-throughput, high-speed, real-time quantitative phase imaging with high spatial and temporal sensitivity is highly desirable in many applications including applied physics and biomedicine. In this dissertation, to address this need, I discuss the development of such an imaging system that includes the white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a new optical imaging method, and image reconstruction/analysis algorithms using graphics processing units (GPUs). wDPM can measure optical pathlength changes at nanometer scale both spatially and temporally with single-shot image acquisition, enabling very fast imaging. I also exploit the broadband spectrum of white light used as the light source in wDPM to develop a system called spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM). This sDPM system allows QPI measurements at several wavelengths, which solves the problem of thickness and refractive index coupling in the phase shifts induced by the cell, and which

  6. An Automated Real Time Capillary Viscometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    blood viscosity accounts for clinical manifestations of Polycythemia that have been observed in approximately 50 % of newborn infants with...Merlob and S.H. Reisner, "Neonatal Polycythemia . I. Early diagnosis and incidence relating to time of sampling," Pediatrics, vol. 73, pp. 7-10, 1984...10] T.E. Wiswell, J.D. Cornish and R.S. Northam, "Neonatal Polycythemia : frequency of clinical manifestations and other associated findings

  7. Movement Retraining using Real-time Feedback of Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Michael Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Any modification of movement - especially movement patterns that have been honed over a number of years - requires re-organization of the neuromuscular patterns responsible for governing the movement performance. This motor learning can be enhanced through a number of methods that are utilized in research and clinical settings alike. In general, verbal feedback of performance in real-time or knowledge of results following movement is commonly used clinically as a preliminary means of instilling motor learning. Depending on patient preference and learning style, visual feedback (e.g. through use of a mirror or different types of video) or proprioceptive guidance utilizing therapist touch, are used to supplement verbal instructions from the therapist. Indeed, a combination of these forms of feedback is commonplace in the clinical setting to facilitate motor learning and optimize outcomes. Laboratory-based, quantitative motion analysis has been a mainstay in research settings to provide accurate and objective analysis of a variety of movements in healthy and injured populations. While the actual mechanisms of capturing the movements may differ, all current motion analysis systems rely on the ability to track the movement of body segments and joints and to use established equations of motion to quantify key movement patterns. Due to limitations in acquisition and processing speed, analysis and description of the movements has traditionally occurred offline after completion of a given testing session. This paper will highlight a new supplement to standard motion analysis techniques that relies on the near instantaneous assessment and quantification of movement patterns and the display of specific movement characteristics to the patient during a movement analysis session. As a result, this novel technique can provide a new method of feedback delivery that has advantages over currently used feedback methods. PMID:23353633

  8. Real-time adaptive aircraft scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolitz, Stephan E.; Terrab, Mostafa

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important functions of any air traffic management system is the assignment of ground-holding times to flights, i.e., the determination of whether and by how much the take-off of a particular aircraft headed for a congested part of the air traffic control (ATC) system should be postponed in order to reduce the likelihood and extent of airborne delays. An analysis is presented for the fundamental case in which flights from many destinations must be scheduled for arrival at a single congested airport; the formulation is also useful in scheduling the landing of airborne flights within the extended terminal area. A set of approaches is described for addressing a deterministic and a probabilistic version of this problem. For the deterministic case, where airport capacities are known and fixed, several models were developed with associated low-order polynomial-time algorithms. For general delay cost functions, these algorithms find an optimal solution. Under a particular natural assumption regarding the delay cost function, an extremely fast (O(n ln n)) algorithm was developed. For the probabilistic case, using an estimated probability distribution of airport capacities, a model was developed with an associated low-order polynomial-time heuristic algorithm with useful properties.

  9. Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Harney, Allison S.; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S.; Entenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, host stromal cells interact with tumor cells to promote tumor progression, angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Multicellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment can lead to transient events including directional tumor cell motility and vascular permeability. Quantification of tumor vascular permeability has frequently used end-point experiments to measure extravasation of vascular dyes. However, due to the transient nature of multicellular interactions and vascular permeability, the kinetics of these dynamic events cannot be discerned. By labeling cells and vasculature with injectable dyes or fluorescent proteins, high-resolution time-lapse intravital microscopy has allowed the direct, real-time visualization of transient events in the tumor microenvironment. Here we describe a method for using multiphoton microscopy to perform extended intravital imaging in live mice to directly visualize multicellular dynamics in the tumor microenvironment. This method details cellular labeling strategies, the surgical preparation of a mammary skin flap, the administration of injectable dyes or proteins by tail vein catheter and the acquisition of time-lapse images. The time-lapse sequences obtained from this method facilitate the visualization and quantitation of the kinetics of cellular events of motility and vascular permeability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27341448

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, F. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic analysis. A real time engine model was developed on the AD100 computer system. This model provides sufficient fidelity on the dynamics of major engine components and yet simplified enough to be executed in real time. The hardware-in-the-loop type simulation and analysis becomes necessary as NASA is continuously improving the SSME technology, some with significant changes in the dynamics of the engine. The many issues of interfaces between new components and the engine can be better understood and be resolved prior to the firing of the engine. In this paper, the SSME real time simulation Lab at the MSFC, the SSME real time model, SSME engine and control system stability analysis, both in real time and non-real time is presented.

  11. Application of a PC based, real-time, data-aquisition system in rotorcraft wind-tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1989-01-01

    Data has been acquired for a rotocraft test in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using a desktop data acquisition system. The system, which consists of an IBM Personal Computer AT (PC-AT) and an Omega Engineering OM-900 Stand-Alone Interface System, is well suited for acquiring high speed data on a limited number of channels. The data acquisition system and the interrupt driven software which provides the capability for near real-time cyclic data acquisition as well as data storage and display are described.

  12. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  13. Black Hole Formation in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissanke, Samaya

    2015-08-01

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in the formation, evolution and fate of stars. However, it remains unclear how massive stars, almost always in pairs, end their lives as extreme gravity objects (neutron stars and black holes) and what their eventual fate is. The physics driving these events in strong-field gravity are complex, rich but still remain elusive. Theoretical work in general relativity has long predicted that the formation of black holes through neutron star mergers emit vast amounts of gravitational radiation, through gravitational waves (GWs), and conventional electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Observing GWs and EM radiation from these elusive short-lived mergers remains one of the holy grails of modern astronomy and is only now possible with a suite of new time-domain telescopes and experiments. I will first review the most recent advances in this blossoming field of EM+GW astronomy, which combines three active disciplines: time-domain astronomy, computational astrophysics and general relativity. I will discuss the promises of this new convergence by illustrating the wealth of astrophysical information that a combined EM+GW measurement would immediately bring. I will then outline the main challenges that lie ahead for this new field in pinpointing the sky location of neutron star mergers using GW detectors and optical and radio wide-field synoptic surveys.

  14. Managerial Real Options Practice in Large System Acquisition: Empirical Descriptions and Comparison with Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Principles of Corporate Finance . Irwin-McGraw Hill. New York. Brehmer, B. (1998). Effects of time pressure on fully connected and hierarchical...state of the practice. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance , 14(2), 8-24. Trigeorgis, L. (1993, Autumn). Real options and interactions with

  15. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.; Martinelli, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ramos, M. P. L. P.

    2016-08-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the Λ CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is j =1 for flat Λ CDM , while generically j ≠1 for other models. We emphasize that such a measurement is well within the reach of the ELT-HIRES and SKA Phase 2 array surveys.

  16. Real time control for NASA robotic gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, Carole A.; Baras, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Control laws (in some optimal sense) are being developed for the gripper/nut runner end effector. Control laws for the gripper and nut runner portions of the end effector may be developed independently since these two systems are decoupled. A hybrid force/position controller will be used for both the gripper and nut runner. The development of the gripper controller is explained. Sensory data available to the controller is obtained from an array of strain gages as well as a linear potentiometer. Applying well known optimal control theoretic principles, the control which minimizes the transition time between positions is obtained. In addition, a robust force control scheme is developed to contend with the strain gage drift caused by extreme temperature variations encountered in space.

  17. Real time control for NASA robotic gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, Carole A.; Baras, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to easily manipulate objects in a zero gravity environment will pay a key role in future space activities. Emphasis will be placed on robotic manipulation. This will serve to increase astronaut safety and utility in addition to several other benefits. The aim is to develop control laws for the zero gravity robotic end effectors. A hybrid force/position controller will be used. Sensory data available to the controller are obtained from an array of strain gauges and a linear potentiometer. Applying well known optimal control theoretical principles, the control which minimizes the transition time between positions is obtained. A robust force control scheme is developed which allows the desired holding force to be achieved smoothly without oscillation. In addition, an algorithm is found to determine contact force and contact location.

  18. Real-time dynamic simulation of the Cassini spacecraft using DARTS. Part 2: Parallel/vectorized real-time implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, A.; Roberts, J. A.; Jain, A.; Man, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper presented the requirements for the real-time simulation of Cassini spacecraft along with some discussion of the DARTS algorithm. Here, in Part 2 we discuss the development and implementation of parallel/vectorized DARTS algorithm and architecture for real-time simulation. Development of the fast algorithms and architecture for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of spacecraft dynamics is motivated by the fact that it represents a hard real-time problem, in the sense that the correctness of the simulation depends on both the numerical accuracy and the exact timing of the computation. For a given model fidelity, the computation should be computed within a predefined time period. Further reduction in computation time allows increasing the fidelity of the model (i.e., inclusion of more flexible modes) and the integration routine.

  19. Method for Real-Time Model Based Structural Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy A. (Inventor); Urnes, James M., Sr. (Inventor); Reichenbach, Eric Y. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and methods for real-time model based vehicle structural anomaly detection are disclosed. A real-time measurement corresponding to a location on a vehicle structure during an operation of the vehicle is received, and the real-time measurement is compared to expected operation data for the location to provide a modeling error signal. A statistical significance of the modeling error signal to provide an error significance is calculated, and a persistence of the error significance is determined. A structural anomaly is indicated, if the persistence exceeds a persistence threshold value.

  20. Real Time Target Tracking in a Phantom Using Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Corner, G.; Huang, Z.

    In this paper we present a real-time ultrasound image guidance method suitable for tracking the motion of tumors. A 2D ultrasound based motion tracking system was evaluated. A robot was used to control the focused ultrasound and position it at the target that has been segmented from a real-time ultrasound video. Tracking accuracy and precision were investigated using a lesion mimicking phantom. Experiments have been conducted and results show sufficient efficiency of the image guidance algorithm. This work could be developed as the foundation for combining the real time ultrasound imaging tracking and MRI thermometry monitoring non-invasive surgery.

  1. A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

    1993-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  2. Metamorphoses of ONAV console operations: From prototype to real time application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Malise; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System is being developed as a real time console assistant to the ONAV flight controller for use in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. Currently the entry and rendezvous systems are in verification, and the ascent is being prototyped. To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, what is verification, and availability, stability, and the size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware stability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  3. Can Real-Time Data Also Be Climate Quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, M.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    GMI, AMSR-2 and WindSat herald a new era of highly accurate and timely microwave data products. Traditionally, there has been a large divide between real-time and re-analysis data products. What if these completely separate processing systems could be merged? Through advanced modeling and physically based algorithms, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) has narrowed the gap between real-time and research-quality. Satellite microwave ocean products have proven useful for a wide array of timely Earth science applications. Through cloud SST capabilities have enormously benefited tropical cyclone forecasting and day to day fisheries management, to name a few. Oceanic wind vectors enhance operational safety of shipping and recreational boating. Atmospheric rivers are of import to many human endeavors, as are cloud cover and knowledge of precipitation events. Some activities benefit from both climate and real-time operational data used in conjunction. RSS has been consistently improving microwave Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) for several decades, while making near real-time data publicly available for semi-operational use. These data streams have often been produced in 2 stages: near real-time, followed by research quality final files. Over the years, we have seen this time delay shrink from months or weeks to mere hours. As well, we have seen the quality of near real-time data improve to the point where the distinction starts to blur. We continue to work towards better and faster RFI filtering, adaptive algorithms and improved real-time validation statistics for earlier detection of problems. Can it be possible to produce climate quality data in real-time, and what would the advantages be? We will try to answer these questions…

  4. Real-time and reliable human detection in clutter scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yumei; Luo, Xiaoshu; Xia, Haiying

    2013-10-01

    To solve the problem that traditional HOG approach for human detection can not achieve real-time detection due to its time-consuming detection, an efficient algorithm based on first segmentation then identify method for real-time human detection is proposed to achieve real-time human detection in clutter scene. Firstly, the ViBe algorithm is used to segment all possible human target regions quickly, and more accurate moving objects is obtained by using the YUV color space to eliminate the shadow; secondly, using the body geometry knowledge can help to found the valid human areas by screening the regions of interest; finally, linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier and HOG are applied to train for human body classifier, to achieve accurate positioning of human body's locations. The results of our comparative experiments demonstrated that the approach proposed can obtain high accuracy, good real-time performance and strong robustness.

  5. Real Time & Power Efficient Adaptive - Robust Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioan Gliga, Lavinius; Constantin Mihai, Cosmin; Lupu, Ciprian; Popescu, Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    A design procedure for a control system suited for dynamic variable processes is presented in this paper. The proposed adaptive - robust control strategy considers both adaptive control advantages and robust control benefits. It estimates the degradation of the system’s performances due to the dynamic variation in the process and it then utilizes it to determine when the system must be adapted with a redesign of the robust controller. A single integral criterion is used for the identification of the process, and for the design of the control algorithm, which is expressed in direct form, through a cost function defined in the space of the parameters of both the process and the controller. For the minimization of this nonlinear function, an adequate mathematical programming minimization method is used. The theoretical approach presented in this paper was validated for a closed loop control system, simulated in an application developed in C. Because of the reduced number of operations, this method is suitable for implementation on fast processes. Due to its effectiveness, it increases the idle time of the CPU, thereby saving electrical energy.

  6. Nonlinear real-time optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawchuk, A. A.; Jenkins, B. J.

    1986-07-01

    During the period 1 July 1984 - 30 June 1985, the research under Grant AFOSR-84-0181 has concentrated on four major areas. First, work has continued on an experimental sequential optical binary parallel architecture that is constructed from an array of binary optical switching elements (NOR gates) with interconnections done by a computer-generated hologram. We are examining new binary array SLM's, high efficiency, high space-bandwidth product (SBWP) interconnection holograms, and compact reflection versions of the general architecture with the intent of building a larger demonstration system with great capabilities. Next, we have studied improved methods of providing the interconnections in these systems by the use of hybrid digital/analog (facet) holograms. We have examined analytical techniques for mapping circuit diagrams into gate locations and hologram arrays, and optimization procedures to determine the minimum set of necessary space-invariant basis functions and minimum set of space-variant indexing holograms. Another area of study has been the evaluation of devices and materials for high speed optical switching and bistability. Switching energies of 1 to 10 pJ and response times of 10 ns have been experimentally demonstrated at the University of Arizona for devices consisting of an array of Fabry-Perot cavities filled with a nonlinear material. We have begun to use the specifications of these devices and other high speed switching technologies in order to determine better designs and fundamental limits of the binary optical computing architectures under consideration.

  7. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  8. Real time viability detection of bacterial spores

    DOEpatents

    Vanderberg, Laura A.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Obiso, Richard J.

    2003-07-29

    This invention relates to a process for detecting the presence of viable bacterial spores in a sample and to a spore detection system, the process including placing a sample in a germination medium for a period of time sufficient for commitment of any present viable bacterial spores to occur, mixing the sample with a solution of a lanthanide capable of forming a fluorescent complex with dipicolinic acid, and, measuring the sample for the presence of dipicolinic acid, and the system including a germination chamber having inlets from a sample chamber, a germinant chamber and a bleach chamber, the germination chamber further including an outlet through a filtering means, the outlet connected to a detection chamber, the detection chamber having an inlet from a fluorescence promoting metal chamber and the detection chamber including a spectral excitation source and a means of measuring emission spectra from a sample, the detection chamber further connected to a waste chamber. A germination reaction mixture useful for promoting commitment of any viable bacterial spores in a sample including a combination of L-alanine, L-asparagine and D-glucose is also described.

  9. An integrated, subsurface characterization system for real-time, in-situ field analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, C.W.; Creager, J.; Mathes, J.; Pounds, T.; VanDeusen, A.; Warthen, B.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes current efforts at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) to develop and field an in-situ, data analysis platform to acquire, process, and display site survey data in near real-time. In past years, FM and T has performed a number of site survey tasks. Each of these surveys was unique in application as well as in the type of data processing and analysis that was required to extract and visualize useful site characterization information. However, common to each of these surveys were the following specific computational and operational requirements: (1) a capability to acquire, process, and visualize the site survey data in the field; (2) a capability to perform all processing in a timely fashion (ideally real-time); and (3) a technique for correlating (or fusing) data streams from multiple sensors. Two more general, but no less important, requirements include system architecture modularity and positioning capability. Potential applications include: survey, evaluation, and remediation of numerous Department of Defense and Department of Energy waste sites; real-time detection and characterization of unexploded ordnance and landmines; survey, evaluation, and remediation of industrial waste sites; location of underground utility lines; and providing law enforcement agencies with real-time surveys of crime scenes. The paper describes an integrated data acquisition, processing, and visualization platform that is capable of performing in-situ data processing, interpretation, and visualization in real-time.

  10. A real-time multi-channel monitoring system for stem cell culture process.

    PubMed

    Xicai Yue; Drakakis, E M; Lim, M; Radomska, A; Hua Ye; Mantalaris, A; Panoskaltsis, N; Cass, A

    2008-06-01

    A novel, up to 128 channels, multi-parametric physiological measurement system suitable for monitoring hematopoietic stem cell culture processes and cell cultures in general is presented in this paper. The system aims to measure in real-time the most important physical and chemical culture parameters of hematopoietic stem cells, including physicochemical parameters, nutrients, and metabolites, in a long-term culture process. The overarching scope of this research effort is to control and optimize the whole bioprocess by means of the acquisition of real-time quantitative physiological information from the culture. The system is designed in a modular manner. Each hardware module can operate as an independent gain programmable, level shift adjustable, 16 channel data acquisition system specific to a sensor type. Up to eight such data acquisition modules can be combined and connected to the host PC to realize the whole system hardware. The control of data acquisition and the subsequent management of data is performed by the system's software which is coded in LabVIEW. Preliminary experimental results presented here show that the system not only has the ability to interface to various types of sensors allowing the monitoring of different types of culture parameters. Moreover, it can capture dynamic variations of culture parameters by means of real-time multi-channel measurements thus providing additional information on both temporal and spatial profiles of these parameters within a bioreactor. The system is by no means constrained in the hematopoietic stem cell culture field only. It is suitable for cell growth monitoring applications in general.

  11. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Vaucher, Alain C; Haag, Moritz P; Reiher, Markus

    2016-04-05

    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm used and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semiempirical methods as the data source and apply the surrogate-potential mediator to deliver reliable real-time feedback.

  12. Real-time estimation of dynamic functional connectivity networks.

    PubMed

    Monti, Ricardo Pio; Lorenz, Romy; Braga, Rodrigo M; Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos; Leech, Robert; Montana, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Two novel and exciting avenues of neuroscientific research involve the study of task-driven dynamic reconfigurations of functional connectivity networks and the study of functional connectivity in real-time. While the former is a well-established field within neuroscience and has received considerable attention in recent years, the latter remains in its infancy. To date, the vast majority of real-time fMRI studies have focused on a single brain region at a time. This is due in part to the many challenges faced when estimating dynamic functional connectivity networks in real-time. In this work, we propose a novel methodology with which to accurately track changes in time-varying functional connectivity networks in real-time. The proposed method is shown to perform competitively when compared to state-of-the-art offline algorithms using both synthetic as well as real-time fMRI data. The proposed method is applied to motor task data from the Human Connectome Project as well as to data obtained from a visuospatial attention task. We demonstrate that the algorithm is able to accurately estimate task-related changes in network structure in real-time. Hum Brain Mapp 38:202-220, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A real-time detector system for precise timing of audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Henelius, Andreas; Jagadeesan, Sharman; Huotilainen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    The successful recording of neurophysiologic signals, such as event-related potentials (ERPs) or event-related magnetic fields (ERFs), relies on precise information of stimulus presentation times. We have developed an accurate and flexible audiovisual sensor solution operating in real-time for on-line use in both auditory and visual ERP and ERF paradigms. The sensor functions independently of the used audio or video stimulus presentation tools or signal acquisition system. The sensor solution consists of two independent sensors; one for sound and one for light. The microcontroller-based audio sensor incorporates a novel approach to the detection of natural sounds such as multipart audio stimuli, using an adjustable dead time. This aids in producing exact markers for complex auditory stimuli and reduces the number of false detections. The analog photosensor circuit detects changes in light intensity on the screen and produces a marker for changes exceeding a threshold. The microcontroller software for the audio sensor is free and open source, allowing other researchers to customise the sensor for use in specific auditory ERP/ERF paradigms. The hardware schematics and software for the audiovisual sensor are freely available from the webpage of the authors' lab.

  14. A real time scintillating fiber Time of Flight spectrometer for LINAC photoproduced neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maspero, M.; Berra, A.; Conti, V.; Giannini, G.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2015-03-01

    The use of high-energy (> 8 MeV) LINear ACcelerators (LINACs) for medical cancer treatments causes the photoproduction of secondary neutrons, whose unwanted dose to the patient has to be calculated. The characterization of the neutron spectra is necessary to allow the dosimetric evaluation of the neutron beam contamination. The neutron spectrum in a hospital environment is usually measured with integrating detectors such as bubble dosimeters, Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) or Bonner Spheres, which integrate the information over a time interval and an energy one. This paper presents the development of a neutron spectrometer based on the Time of Flight (ToF) technique in order to perform a real time characterization of the neutron contamination. The detector measures the neutron spectrum exploiting the fact that the LINAC beams are pulsed and arranged in bunches with a rate of 100-300 Hz depending on the beam type and energy. The detector consists of boron loaded scintillating fibers readout by a MultiAnode PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT). A detailed description of the detector and the acquisition system together with the results in terms of ToF spectra and number of neutrons with a Varian Clinac iX are presented.

  15. The First Real-Time Tsunami Animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C.; Weinstein, S.; Ward, B.

    2014-12-01

    For the first time a U.S. tsunami warning center created and issued a tsunami forecast model animation while the tsunami was still crossing an ocean. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists had predicted they would have this ability (Becker et al., 2012) with their RIFT forecast model (Wang et al., 2009) by using rapidly-determined W-phase centroid-moment tensor earthquake focal mechanisms as tsunami sources in the RIFT model (Wang et al., 2012). PTWC then acquired its own YouTube channel in 2013 for its outreach efforts that showed animations of historic tsunamis (Becker et al., 2013), but could also be a platform for sharing future tsunami animations. The 8.2 Mw earthquake of 1 April 2014 prompted PTWC to issue official warnings for a dangerous tsunami in Chile, Peru and Ecuador. PTWC ended these warnings five hours later, then issued its new tsunami marine hazard product (i.e., no coastal evacuations) for the State of Hawaii. With the international warning canceled but with a domestic hazard still present PTWC generated a forecast model animation and uploaded it to its YouTube channel six hours before the arrival of the first waves in Hawaii. PTWC also gave copies of this animation to television reporters who in turn passed it on to their national broadcast networks. PTWC then created a version for NOAA's Science on a Sphere system so it could be shown on these exhibits as the tsunami was still crossing the Pacific Ocean. While it is difficult to determine how many people saw this animation since local, national, and international news networks showed it in their broadcasts, PTWC's YouTube channel provides some statistics. As of 1 August 2014 this animation has garnered more than 650,000 views. Previous animations, typically released during significant anniversaries, rarely get more than 10,000 views, and even then only when external websites share them. Clearly there is a high demand for a tsunami graphic that shows both the speed and the severity of a

  16. Exploiting sparsity in time-of-flight range acquisition using a single time-resolved sensor.

    PubMed

    Kirmani, Ahmed; Colaço, Andrea; Wong, Franco N C; Goyal, Vivek K

    2011-10-24

    Range acquisition systems such as light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and time-of-flight (TOF) cameras operate by measuring the time difference of arrival between a transmitted pulse and the scene reflection. We introduce the design of a range acquisition system for acquiring depth maps of piecewise-planar scenes with high spatial resolution using a single, omnidirectional, time-resolved photodetector and no scanning components. In our experiment, we reconstructed 64 × 64-pixel depth maps of scenes comprising two to four planar shapes using only 205 spatially-patterned, femtosecond illuminations of the scene. The reconstruction uses parametric signal modeling to recover a set of depths present in the scene. Then, a convex optimization that exploits sparsity of the Laplacian of the depth map of a typical scene determines correspondences between spatial positions and depths. In contrast with 2D laser scanning used in LIDAR systems and low-resolution 2D sensor arrays used in TOF cameras, our experiment demonstrates that it is possible to build a non-scanning range acquisition system with high spatial resolution using only a standard, low-cost photodetector and a spatial light modulator.

  17. Real-Time Camera Guidance for 3d Scene Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, F.; Förstner, W.

    2012-07-01

    We propose a framework for operator guidance during the image acquisition process for reliable multi-view stereo reconstruction. Goal is to achieve full coverage of the object and sufficient overlap. Multi-view stereo is a commonly used method to reconstruct both camera trajectory and 3D object shape. After determining an initial solution, a globally optimal reconstruction is usually obtained by executing a bundle adjustment involving all images. Acquiring suitable images, however, still requires an experienced operator to ensure accuracy and completeness of the final solution. We propose an interactive framework for guiding unexperienced users or possibly an autonomous robot. Using approximate camera orientations and object points we estimate point uncertainties within a sliding bundle adjustment and suggest appropriate camera movements. A visual feedback system communicates the decisions to the user in an intuitive way. We demonstrate the suitability of our system with a virtual image acquisition simulation as well as in real-world scenarios. We show that when following the camera movements suggested by our system, the proposed framework is able to generate good approximate values for the bundle adjustment, leading to accurate results compared to ground truth after few iterations. Possible applications are non-professional 3D acquisition systems on low-cost platforms like mobile phones, autonomously navigating robots as well as online flight planning of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  18. Real-time synchronization of wireless sensor network by 1-PPS signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammarini, Marco; Pieralisi, Marco; Isidori, Daniela; Concettoni, Enrico; Cristalli, Cristina; Fioravanti, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks with different nodes is desirable in a smart environment, because the network setting up and installation on preexisting structures can be done without a fixed cabled infrastructure. The flexibility of the monitoring system is fundamental where the use of a considerable quantity of cables could compromise the normal exercise, could affect the quality of acquired signal and finally increase the cost of the materials and installation. The network is composed of several intelligent "nodes", which acquires data from different kind of sensors, and then store or transmit them to a central elaboration unit. The synchronization of data acquisition is the core of the real-time wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper, we present a comparison between different methods proposed by literature for the real-time acquisition in a WSN and finally we present our solution based on 1-Pulse-Per-Second (1-PPS) signal generated by GPS systems. The sensor node developed is a small-embedded system based on ARM microcontroller that manages the acquisition, the timing and the post-processing of the data. The communications between the sensors and the master based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and managed by dedicated software. Finally, we present the preliminary results obtained on a 3 floor building simulator with the wireless sensors system developed.

  19. Ultrashort echo time imaging using pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA).

    PubMed

    Grodzki, David M; Jakob, Peter M; Heismann, Bjoern

    2012-02-01

    Sequences with ultrashort echo times enable new applications of MRI, including bone, tendon, ligament, and dental imaging. In this article, a sequence is presented that achieves the shortest possible encoding time for each k-space point, limited by pulse length, hardware switching times, and gradient performance of the scanner. In pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA), outer k-space is filled with radial half-projections, whereas the centre is measured single pointwise on a Cartesian trajectory. This hybrid sequence combines the features of single point imaging with radial projection imaging. No hardware changes are required. Using this method, 3D images with an isotropic resolution of 1 mm can be obtained in less than 3 minutes. The differences between PETRA and the ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence are evaluated by simulation and phantom measurements. Advantages of pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition are shown for tissue with a T(2) below 1 ms. The signal to noise ratio and Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) performance, as well as possible limitations of the approach, are investigated. In-vivo head, knee, ankle, and wrist examples are presented to prove the feasibility of the sequence. In summary, fast imaging with ultrashort echo time is enabled by PETRA and may help to establish new routine clinical applications of ultrashort echo time sequences.

  20. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  1. Decision graphs: a tool for developing real-time software

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of decision graphs in the preparation of, in particular, real-time software is briefly described. The usefulness of decision graphs in software design, testing, and maintenance is pointed out. 2 figures. (RWR)

  2. Near-Real-Time and Laboratory Data by State

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RadNet data from individual near-real-time air monitors is available on a clickable map and is also listed by state and city. Sampling locations for drinking water, precipitation and air filters are also listed.

  3. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  4. Real-time interactive speech technology at Threshold Technology, Incorporated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herscher, Marvin B.

    1977-01-01

    Basic real-time isolated-word recognition techniques are reviewed. Industrial applications of voice technology are described in chronological order of their development. Future research efforts are also discussed.

  5. Real-Time Engineering Simulation of Lunar Excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Damer, George Tompkins, Sheldon Freid, Dave Rasmussen, Peter Newman, Brad Blair

    2007-06-12

    DigitalSpace Corporation has been building an open source real-time three-dimensional (3-D) collaborative design engineering and training platform called Digital Spaces (DSS) in support of the Exploration Vision of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Real-time 3-D simulation has reached a level of maturity where it is capable of supporting engineering design and operations using off-the-shelf game chipsets and open source physics and rendering technologies. This paper will illustrate a state-of-the-art real-time engineering simulation utilizing DSS in support of NASA lunar excavation studies. During the project DigitalSpace building driveable 3-D models of lunar excavators and South Polar terrain, and added a soil mechanics physics model as well as a random failure generator to the repertoire of standard mobility platform physics in prior use for real-time engineering and operational analysis at NASA.

  6. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  7. Application of real time PCR for diagnosis of Swine Dysentery.

    PubMed

    Akase, Satoru; Uchitani, Yumi; Sohmura, Yoshiko; Tatsuta, Keikichi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Adachi, Yoshikazu

    2009-03-01

    Evaluation of a genetic diagnostic technique using real time PCR of Swine Dysentery (SD) was performed using nox primers. Culture, ordinary PCR and real time PCR were compared in this experiment. Sixty-seven specimens from pigs with clinical signs of SD brought to a slaughterhouse in Shibaura, Tokyo, were used. B. hyodysenteriae was isolated from 49 of the pigs, was detected by ordinary PCR in 49 of the pigs and was detected by real time PCR in 54 of the pigs. Furthermore, we were able to determine the numbers of B. hyodysenteriae cells in all positive specimens by real time PCR. The rapid diagnostic technique established in this experiment was useful for detection of B. hyodysenteriae because it was more effective than ordinary PCR and culture.

  8. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  9. The Effects of Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Teleradiology System

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safadi, Lilac

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the design of a real-time interactive multimedia teleradiology system and assesses how the system is used by referring physicians in point-of-care situations and supports or hinders aspects of physician-radiologist interaction. We developed a real-time multimedia teleradiology management system that automates the transfer of images and radiologists' reports and surveyed physicians to triangulate the findings and to verify the realism and results of the experiment. The web-based survey was delivered to 150 physicians from a range of specialties. The survey was completed by 72% of physicians. Data showed a correlation between rich interactivity, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The results of our experiments suggest that real-time multimedia teleradiology systems are valued by referring physicians and may have the potential for enhancing their practice and improving patient care and highlight the critical role of multimedia technologies to provide real-time multimode interactivity in current medical care. PMID:27294118

  10. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  11. Real-Time Collision Avoidance for Dexterous 7-DOF Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bon, Bruce; Seraji, Homayoun

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to real-time collison avoidance for dexterous 7-DOF arms and supportive simulation and experimental results are presented. The collision avoidance problem is formulated and solved as a force control problem.

  12. Prototype real-time baseband signal combiner. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype real-time baseband signal combiner, used to enhance the received Voyager 2 spacecraft signals during the Jupiter flyby, is described. Hardware delay paths, operating programs, and firmware are discussed.

  13. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  14. Real-time Position Control of Concentric Tube Robots.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pierre E; Lock, Jesse; Itkowitz, Brandon

    2010-05-03

    A novel approach to constructing robots is based on concentrically combining pre-curved elastic tubes. By rotating and extending the tubes with respect to each other, their curvatures interact elastically to position and orient the robot's tip, as well as to control the robot's shape along its length. Since these robots form slender curves, they are well suited for minimally invasive medical procedures. A substantial challenge to their practical use is the real-time solution of their kinematics that are described by differential equations with split boundary equations. This paper proposes a numerically efficient approach to real-time position control. It is shown that the forward kinematics are smooth functions that can be pre-computed and accurately approximated using Fourier series. The inverse kinematics can be solved in real time using root finding applied to the functional approximation. Experimental demonstration of real-time position control using this approach is also described.

  15. The Effects of Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Teleradiology System.

    PubMed

    Al-Safadi, Lilac

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the design of a real-time interactive multimedia teleradiology system and assesses how the system is used by referring physicians in point-of-care situations and supports or hinders aspects of physician-radiologist interaction. We developed a real-time multimedia teleradiology management system that automates the transfer of images and radiologists' reports and surveyed physicians to triangulate the findings and to verify the realism and results of the experiment. The web-based survey was delivered to 150 physicians from a range of specialties. The survey was completed by 72% of physicians. Data showed a correlation between rich interactivity, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The results of our experiments suggest that real-time multimedia teleradiology systems are valued by referring physicians and may have the potential for enhancing their practice and improving patient care and highlight the critical role of multimedia technologies to provide real-time multimode interactivity in current medical care.

  16. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  17. Evaluation of Open-Source Hard Real Time Software Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattei, Nicholas S.

    2004-01-01

    Reliable software is, at times, hard to find. No piece of software can be guaranteed to work in every situation that may arise during its use here at Glenn Research Center or in space. The job of the Software Assurance (SA) group in the Risk Management Office is to rigorously test the software in an effort to ensure it matches the contract specifications. In some cases the SA team also researches new alternatives for selected software packages. This testing and research is an integral part of the department of Safety and Mission Assurance. Real Time operation in reference to a computer system is a particular style of handing the timing and manner with which inputs and outputs are handled. A real time system executes these commands and appropriate processing within a defined timing constraint. Within this definition there are two other classifications of real time systems: hard and soft. A soft real time system is one in which if the particular timing constraints are not rigidly met there will be no critical results. On the other hand, a hard real time system is one in which if the timing constraints are not met the results could be catastrophic. An example of a soft real time system is a DVD decoder. If the particular piece of data from the input is not decoded and displayed to the screen at exactly the correct moment nothing critical will become of it, the user may not even notice it. However, a hard real time system is needed to control the timing of fuel injections or steering on the Space Shuttle; a delay of even a fraction of a second could be catastrophic in such a complex system. The current real time system employed by most NASA projects is Wind River's VxWorks operating system. This is a proprietary operating system that can be configured to work with many of NASA s needs and it provides very accurate and reliable hard real time performance. The down side is that since it is a proprietary operating system it is also costly to implement. The prospect of

  18. Real-time visual simulation of APT system based on RTW and Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shuai; Fu, Chengyu; Tang, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The Matlab/Simulink simulation model of APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) system is analyzed and established. Then the model's C code which can be used for real-time simulation is generated by RTW (Real-Time Workshop). Practical experiments show, the simulation result of running the C code is the same as running the Simulink model directly in the Matlab environment. MultiGen-Vega is a real-time 3D scene simulation software system. With it and OpenGL, the APT scene simulation platform is developed and used to render and display the virtual scenes of the APT system. To add some necessary graphics effects to the virtual scenes real-time, GLSL (OpenGL Shading Language) shaders are used based on programmable GPU. By calling the C code, the scene simulation platform can adjust the system parameters on-line and get APT system's real-time simulation data to drive the scenes. Practical application shows that this visual simulation platform has high efficiency, low charge and good simulation effect.

  19. Final report on Arete's real-time processor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, J.; Reder, L.; Tong, K. )

    1990-01-12

    This is Arete Associates' final report on the initial phase of a project to develop a real-time processor for an airborne lidar system. Arete has developed a programmable Real-Time Processor (RTP) and image display and recording system. It is presently integrated with an ocean (water) lidar sensor (OWLS) system onboard one of the Navel Air Development Center's (NADC's) P-3A aircraft. The RTP is a rack mounted, PF/AT based system.

  20. Near real-time stereo matching using geodesic diffusion.

    PubMed

    De-Maeztu, Leonardo; Villanueva, Arantxa; Cabeza, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive-weight algorithms currently represent the state of the art in local stereo matching. However, due to their computational requirements, these types of solutions are not suitable for real-time implementation. Here, we present a novel aggregation method inspired by the anisotropic diffusion technique used in image filtering. The proposed aggregation algorithm produces results similar to adaptive-weight solutions while reducing the computational requirements. Moreover, near real-time performance is demonstrated with a GPU implementation of the algorithm.

  1. Real-time shipboard orbit determination using Kalman filtering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The real-time tracking and orbit determination program used on board the NASA tracking ship, the USNS Vanguard, is described in this paper. The computer program uses a variety of filtering algorithms, including an extended Kalman filter, to derive real-time orbit determinations (position-velocity state vectors) from shipboard tracking and navigation data. Results from Apollo missions are given to show that orbital parameters can be estimated quickly and accurately using these methods.

  2. Evaluation Criteria for Real-Time Specification Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-11

    languages designed to specify the requirements of real-time systems. It is intended for a reader who is beginning a real-time development project and... project staffed with unskilled or inexperienced personnel than one with seasoned veterans; sophisticated support tools may be irrelevant to a project ...motivate the project manager to think about long-term issues and provide a justification framework for choosing a particular language and rejecting

  3. High speed, real-time, camera bandwidth converter

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Dan E; Bloom, David A; Curry, James R

    2014-10-21

    Image data from a CMOS sensor with 10 bit resolution is reformatted in real time to allow the data to stream through communications equipment that is designed to transport data with 8 bit resolution. The incoming image data has 10 bit resolution. The communication equipment can transport image data with 8 bit resolution. Image data with 10 bit resolution is transmitted in real-time, without a frame delay, through the communication equipment by reformatting the image data.

  4. Real-time laser holographic Interferometry for aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in thermoplastic recording holograms and advancements in automated image digitalization and analysis make real-time laser holographic interferometry feasible for two-dimensional flows such as airfoil flows. Typical airfoil measurements would include airfoil presssure distributions, wake and boundary layer profiles, and flow field density contours. This paper addresses some of the problems and requirements of a real-time laser holographic interferometer.

  5. Real-time laser holographic interferometry for aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in thermoplastic recording holograms and advancements in automated image digitalization and analysis make real-time laser holographic interferometry feasible for two-dimensional flows such as airfoil flows. Typical airfoil measurements would include airfoil pressure distributions, wake and boundary layer profiles, and flow field density contours. This paper addresses some of the problems and requirements of a real-time laser holographic interferometer.

  6. Improving Predictability in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    Systems CMU/SEI-2000-SR-011 Peter H. Feiler , Software Engineering Institute Bruce Lewis, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command Steve Vestal...SUBTITLE Improving Predictability in Embedded Real-Time Systems 5. FUNDING NUMBERS F19628-00-C-0003 6. AUTHOR(S) Peter H. Feiler , Bruce ...Carnegie Metton Software Engineering Institute Improving Predictability in Embedded Real-Time Systems Peter H. Feiler , Software Engineering

  7. Real-Time Optical Correlator Based On GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus performs correlation between input image and reference image in real time by means of degenerate four-wave mixing in photorefractive crystal, which serves as real-time holographic medium. Gallium arsenide chosen to be photorefractive material in this application because at frame rate and level of illumination used in experiments, offers adequate diffraction efficiency. Frame rates as high as 1,000 s to negative 1st power achievable.

  8. Real-time monitoring of bacterial and organic pollution in a water stream by fluorescence depletion spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulier, Geoffrey; Staedler, Davide; Sousa, Gustavo; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate an approach for a real-time, consumable-free optical system operating on a liquid jet which can be easily derived from the water distribution infrastructure. We apply a pump-probe scheme based on the acquisition and nanosecond manipulation of UV-excited fluorescence to increase the selective identification of bacterial against organic pollutants in water.

  9. Real-time Java for on-board systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cechticky, V.; Pasetti, A.

    2002-07-01

    The Java language has several attractive features but cannot at present be used in on-board systems primarily because it lacks support for hard real-time operation. This shortcoming is in being addressed: some suppliers are already providing implementations of Java that are RT-compliant; Sun Microsystem has approved a formal specification for a real-time extension of the language; and an independent consortium is working on an alternative specification for real-time Java. It is therefore expected that, within a year or so, standardized commercial implementations of real-time Java will be on the market. Availability of real-time implementations now opens the way to its use on-board. Within this context, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it discusses the suitability of Java for on-board applications. Secondly, it reports the results of an ESA study to port a software framework for on-board control systems to a commercial real-time version of Java.

  10. Real time magnetic resonance guided endomyocardial local delivery

    PubMed Central

    Corti, R; Badimon, J; Mizsei, G; Macaluso, F; Lee, M; Licato, P; Viles-Gonzalez, J F; Fuster, V; Sherman, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of targeting various areas of left ventricle myocardium under real time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a customised injection catheter equipped with a miniaturised coil. Design: A needle injection catheter with a mounted resonant solenoid circuit (coil) at its tip was designed and constructed. A 1.5 T MR scanner with customised real time sequence combined with in-room scan running capabilities was used. With this system, various myocardial areas within the left ventricle were targeted and injected with a gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Indian ink mixture. Results: Real time sequencing at 10 frames/s allowed clear visualisation of the moving catheter and its transit through the aorta into the ventricle, as well as targeting of all ventricle wall segments without further image enhancement techniques. All injections were visualised by real time MR imaging and verified by gross pathology. Conclusion: The tracking device allowed real time in vivo visualisation of catheters in the aorta and left ventricle as well as precise targeting of myocardial areas. The use of this real time catheter tracking may enable precise and adequate delivery of agents for tissue regeneration. PMID:15710717

  11. Reducing acquisition times in multidimensional NMR with a time-optimized Fourier encoding algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Smith, Pieter E S; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-11-21

    Speeding up the acquisition of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra is an important topic in contemporary NMR, with central roles in high-throughput investigations and analyses of marginally stable samples. A variety of fast NMR techniques have been developed, including methods based on non-uniform sampling and Hadamard encoding, that overcome the long sampling times inherent to schemes based on fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) methods. Here, we explore the potential of an alternative fast acquisition method that leverages a priori knowledge, to tailor polychromatic pulses and customized time delays for an efficient Fourier encoding of the indirect domain of an NMR experiment. By porting the encoding of the indirect-domain to the excitation process, this strategy avoids potential artifacts associated with non-uniform sampling schemes and uses a minimum number of scans equal to the number of resonances present in the indirect dimension. An added convenience is afforded by the fact that a usual 2D FFT can be used to process the generated data. Acquisitions of 2D heteronuclear correlation NMR spectra on quinine and on the anti-inflammatory drug isobutyl propionic phenolic acid illustrate the new method's performance. This method can be readily automated to deal with complex samples such as those occurring in metabolomics, in in-cell as well as in in vivo NMR applications, where speed and temporal stability are often primary concerns.

  12. Reducing acquisition times in multidimensional NMR with a time-optimized Fourier encoding algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Smith, Pieter E. S.; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-11-21

    Speeding up the acquisition of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra is an important topic in contemporary NMR, with central roles in high-throughput investigations and analyses of marginally stable samples. A variety of fast NMR techniques have been developed, including methods based on non-uniform sampling and Hadamard encoding, that overcome the long sampling times inherent to schemes based on fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) methods. Here, we explore the potential of an alternative fast acquisition method that leverages a priori knowledge, to tailor polychromatic pulses and customized time delays for an efficient Fourier encoding of the indirect domain of an NMR experiment. By porting the encoding of the indirect-domain to the excitation process, this strategy avoids potential artifacts associated with non-uniform sampling schemes and uses a minimum number of scans equal to the number of resonances present in the indirect dimension. An added convenience is afforded by the fact that a usual 2D FFT can be used to process the generated data. Acquisitions of 2D heteronuclear correlation NMR spectra on quinine and on the anti-inflammatory drug isobutyl propionic phenolic acid illustrate the new method's performance. This method can be readily automated to deal with complex samples such as those occurring in metabolomics, in in-cell as well as in in vivo NMR applications, where speed and temporal stability are often primary concerns.

  13. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, H.; Yoshida, K.; Tsuji, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Kagoshima, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  14. An approach to real-time magnetic resonance imaging for speech production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Nayak, Krishna; Lee, Sungbok; Sethy, Abhinav; Byrd, Dani

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has served as a valuable tool for studying static postures in speech production. Now, recent improvements in temporal resolution are making it possible to examine the dynamics of vocal-tract shaping during fluent speech using MRI. The present study uses spiral k-space acquisitions with a low flip-angle gradient echo pulse sequence on a conventional GE Signa 1.5-T CV/i scanner. This strategy allows for acquisition rates of 8-9 images per second and reconstruction rates of 20-24 images per second, making veridical movies of speech production now possible. Segmental durations, positions, and interarticulator timing can all be quantitatively evaluated. Data show clear real-time movements of the lips, tongue, and velum. Sample movies and data analysis strategies are presented.

  15. Real-Time Visualization System for Computational Offloading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Real- Time Visualization System for Computational Offloading by Bryan Dawson and David L Doria ARL-TN-0655 January 2015... Time Visualization System for Computational Offloading Bryan Dawson Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education David L Doria Computational...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and

  16. Explaining How to Play Real-Time Strategy Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metoyer, Ronald; Stumpf, Simone; Neumann, Christoph; Dodge, Jonathan; Cao, Jill; Schnabel, Aaron

    Real-time strategy games share many aspects with real situations in domains such as battle planning, air traffic control, and emergency response team management which makes them appealing test-beds for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning. End user annotations could help to provide supplemental information for learning algorithms, especially when training data is sparse. This paper presents a formative study to uncover how experienced users explain game play in real-time strategy games. We report the results of our analysis of explanations and discuss their characteristics that could support the design of systems for use by experienced real-time strategy game users in specifying or annotating strategy-oriented behavior.

  17. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  18. Real time microcontroller implementation of an adaptive myoelectric filter.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, P J; Chappell, P H

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a real time digital adaptive filter for processing myoelectric signals. The filter time constant is automatically selected by the adaptation algorithm, giving a significant improvement over linear filters for estimating the muscle force and controlling a prosthetic device. Interference from mains sources often produces problems for myoelectric processing, and so 50 Hz and all harmonic frequencies are reduced by an averaging filter and differential process. This makes practical electrode placement and contact less critical and time consuming. An economic real time implementation is essential for a prosthetic controller, and this is achieved using an Intel 80C196KC microcontroller.

  19. Communication system features dual mode range acquisition plus time delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, S. W.; Kline, A. W., Jr.; Welter, N. E.

    1968-01-01

    Communication system combines range acquisition system and time measurement system for tracking high velocity aircraft and spacecraft. The range acquisition system uses a pseudonoise code to determine range and the time measurement system reduces uncontrolled phase variations in the demodulated signal.

  20. Geomagnetic Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several international agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time geomagnetic data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping geomagnetic activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of geomagnetic activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical geomagnetic and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints