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Sample records for acquisition sla research

  1. SLA Research and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    This book discusses how second language acquisition (SLA) research can illuminate language pedagogy, and suggests four main roles for the SLA researcher: developing relevant theories; conducting classroom research; making research accessible to teachers; and facilitating action research. The first chapter outlines a number of different…

  2. Problems in SLA. Second Language Acquisition Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    Second language acquisition has an identity problem. It is a young field struggling to emerge from the parent fields of education and applied linguistics. In this book, the author proposes a way to help second language acquisition develop a systematic and coherent focus using the philosophy of science as the lens. The structure of the book allows…

  3. The Role of Technology in SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Dorothy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this review article for the 20th Anniversary Issue, I look back at research from the last two decades on the role of computer technology in understanding and facilitating second language acquisition (SLA) and forward to what future research might investigate. To be discussed are both how technology has been used to conduct research on SLA…

  4. SCMC for SLA: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauro, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This research synthesis explores the role of synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) for second language acquisition (SLA). Using Hymes' (1971) notion of communicative competence and Canale and Swain's (1980; Canale, 1983) subsequent framework for communicative language teaching, the synthesis examines the research trends, methods, and…

  5. Colloquium--Toward a Reconceptualization of "Language" and "Acquisition" in SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellermann, John; Olsher, David

    2010-01-01

    Held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics Annual Conference, Denver, CO, USA; 21 March 2009. This all-day colloquium was part of an ongoing discussion of ways that methods and frameworks from micro-ethnography, Conversation Analysis (CA), and Vygotskian Sociocultural Theory are re-specifying "language" and "acquisition" from a…

  6. On Discourse, Communication, and (Some) Fundamental Concepts in SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Alan; Wagner, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This article argues for a reconceptualization of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research that would enlarge the ontological and empirical parameters of the field. We claim that methodologies, theories, and foci within SLA reflect an imbalance between cognitive and mentalistic orientations, and social and contextual orientations to language, the…

  7. SLA Research in Postmethod Era: Neglects, Misunderstandings and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navidinia, Hossein; Eghtesadi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Much of the recent literature in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research has a primary reliance on experimental design and quantitative analysis. Since SLA is so complex and multidimensional, it is difficult to study in an unnatural experimental design. In such a setting, some of the variables that affect the very nature of…

  8. Bilingualism, Heritage Language Learners, and SLA Research: Opportunities Lost or Seized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Guadalupe

    2005-01-01

    In this article I invite a reconceptualization and expansion of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) by examining possible intersections between SLA and the area of language instruction currently referred to as the teaching of heritage languages. I discuss the ways in which the opportunity of broadening SLA-and-instruction research can…

  9. Epistemological Diversity and Moral Ends of Research in Instructed SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore epistemological diversity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) from the perspective that obtains if we examine the moral ends of research, and we ask: In what ways does epistemological diversity relate to enhancing the social value and educational relevance of the research generated by the instructed SLA…

  10. The Relationship between SLA Research and Language Pedagogy: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    There is currently a substantial body of research on second language (L2) learning and this body of knowledge is constantly growing. There are also many attempts in most teacher education programs around the world to inform practicing and prospective L2 teachers about second language acquisition (SLA) research and its findings. However, an…

  11. The Rise of Identity in SLA Research, Post Firth and Wagner (1997)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2007-01-01

    Although Firth and Wagner (1997) did not explicitly discuss the issue of identity in second language acquisition (SLA) research, their article was symptomatic of a general trend to open up SLA to social theory and sociological and sociolinguistic research, which in turn led some researchers to explore links between second language (L2) learning…

  12. French Immersion Studies: From Second-Language Acquisition (SLA) to Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    French immersion in Canada was instituted by parents in Quebec who wished their children to learn French in order to have social, political, and economic advantages. Several learning theories and research methods, especially those related to second-language acquisition (SLA), have been used in the field of French immersion. More recently,…

  13. Psycholinguistic Techniques in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinis, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    Presents the benefits of using online methodologies in second language acquisition (SLA) research. Provides a selection of online experiments that have been widely used in first and second language processing studies that are suitable for SLA research and discusses the hardware and software packages required for setting up a psycholinguistic…

  14. The Disciplinary Constraints of SLA and TESOL: Additive Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    For over 15 years now, various commentators have highlighted the 'monolingual bias' inherent in SLA and TESOL research, which invariably constructs bi/multilingualism in deficit terms. In contrast, these critics have advocated an additive bilingual approach to SLA and TESOL, albeit, not as yet to any great effect. In this paper, I explore why so…

  15. The Use of Statistics in L2 Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Gass, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) as a discipline has not had a long history and, as any new discipline, has seen growing pains over the years. This research timeline traces the development of the increased and more sophisticated use of statistics in SLA research and the increasing demands for rigor in their use. Use of statistical procedures has…

  16. Psycholinguistic Techniques and Resources in Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a survey of current psycholinguistic techniques relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) research is presented. I summarize many of the available methods and discuss their use with particular reference to two critical questions in current SLA research: (1) What does a learner's current knowledge of the second language (L2)…

  17. From Theory to Research: Contextual Predictors of "Estar + Adjective" and the Study of the SLA of Spanish Copula Choice--A Response to Woolsey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of social vs. cognitive approaches to the study of second language acquisition (SLA) has engendered considerable debate in the field. For instance, the recent "Modern Language Journal" Focus Issue (Lafford, 2007a) reviewed the ongoing debate between scholars espousing socially- and cognitively-grounded approaches to SLA research and…

  18. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA... original and ten copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35641, must be filed with the...

  19. Introduction: Interlanguage Pragmatics in SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the proper place of interlanguage pragmatics in the realm of second-language acquisition (SLA). This introductory essay describes the thematic issue of the ensuing articles as an endeavor to move interlanguage pragmatics more closely toward the center of SLA. The research suggests that many aspects of pragmatic competence can be…

  20. A Survey of SLA Doctoral Programs in Canada and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrim, Nancy Mae

    2005-01-01

    The increasing interest in second language acquisition (SLA) has sharpened the focus on SLA research. While most university linguistic programs and departments offer at least a course in SLA, not all offer the opportunity to concentrate on SLA research. This article provides an overview of the programs/departments offering opportunities for SLA…

  1. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  2. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  3. A Meta-Synthesis of Empirical Research on the Effectiveness of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huifen

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis reports the results of a systematic synthesis of primary studies on the effectiveness of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in second language acquisition (SLA) for the period 2000-2012. By extracting information on 21 features from each primary study, this meta-analysis intends to summarize the CMC research literature for…

  4. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  5. Beyond Poverty: Engaging with Input in Generative SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Tom; Unsworth, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    A generative approach to language acquisition is no different from any other in assuming that target language input is crucial for language acquisition. This discussion note addresses the place of input in generative second language acquisition (SLA) research and the perception in the wider field of SLA research that generative SLA…

  6. "New" Mainstream SLA Theory: Expanded and Enriched

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Deters, Ping

    2007-01-01

    How have the ideas raised by Firth and Wagner (1997) influenced the construction of second language acquisition (SLA) theories? In this article, we take the position that prior to and since 1997, there was and has been a notable increase in SLA research and theory that prioritizes sociocultural and contextual factors in addition to acknowledging…

  7. Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

  8. Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

  9. Child Second Language Acquisition of Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research in universal grammar-based child second language acquisition (SLA) research, arguing that child SLA studies can better explore the role of biological factors in language acquisition and strengthen the links between SLA and linguistic theory. (129 references) (MDM)

  10. Statistical Literacy among Applied Linguists and Second Language Acquisition Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Lavolette, Elizabeth; Spino, Le Anne; Papi, Mostafa; Schmidtke, Jens; Sterling, Scott; Wolff, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of statistical knowledge in applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research has been emphasized in recent publications. However, the last investigation of the statistical literacy of applied linguists occurred more than 25 years ago (Lazaraton, Riggenbach, & Ediger, 1987). The current study undertook a partial…

  11. Processing Perspectives in SLA Research and Their Compatibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienemann, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    Truscott and Sharwood-Smith's (henceforth T&SS's) paper offers an interesting set of hypotheses about one possible processing perspective in research on language acquisition. What is striking about this exposition of their model is that it ignores almost entirely the context of previous research on this issue. Embedding their exposition in its…

  12. Lessons for WAC/WID from Language Learning Research: Multicompetence, Register Acquisition, and the College Writing Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Navarro, Nela

    2011-01-01

    This article is a collaboration between WAC/WID and second language acquisition (SLA) specialists. It examines alternate disciplinary notions of the place of writing among other skills and adapts concepts from SLA theory and pedagogy with the goal of providing new interdisciplinary options for WAC/WID research and classroom practice.

  13. To Think Aloud or Not to Think Aloud: The Issue of Reactivity in SLA Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several studies in SLA (e.g., for discourse, Alanen, 1995; Leow, 2001b; Rott, 1999; for problem-solving tasks, Leow, 1998a, 1998b, 2000, 2001a; Rosa & Leow, in press a, in press b; Rosa & O'Neill, 1999) have addressed the operationalization and measurement of attention (and awareness) in their research methodology. Studies have employed…

  14. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  15. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition in Germany (2006-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrent, Sigrid; Doff, Sabine; Marx, Nicole; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Our overview of current dissertation work at German universities has identified four main strands of research interest within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). The 38 Ph.D. theses reviewed here were all read between 2006 and 2009 and fall into the subject areas of: foreign language (FL) teaching in primary school, Content and…

  16. The Statistical Loop Analyzer (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The statistical loop analyzer (SLA) is designed to automatically measure the acquisition, tracking and frequency stability performance characteristics of symbol synchronizers, code synchronizers, carrier tracking loops, and coherent transponders. Automated phase lock and system level tests can also be made using the SLA. Standard baseband, carrier and spread spectrum modulation techniques can be accomodated. Through the SLA's phase error jitter and cycle slip measurements the acquisition and tracking thresholds of the unit under test are determined; any false phase and frequency lock events are statistically analyzed and reported in the SLA output in probabilistic terms. Automated signal drop out tests can be performed in order to trouble shoot algorithms and evaluate the reacquisition statistics of the unit under test. Cycle slip rates and cycle slip probabilities can be measured using the SLA. These measurements, combined with bit error probability measurements, are all that are needed to fully characterize the acquisition and tracking performance of a digital communication system.

  17. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  18. Border Crossings? Exploring the Intersection of Second Language Acquisition, Conversation Analysis, and Foreign Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Junko

    2007-01-01

    This article explores recent changes in the landscape of second language acquisition (SLA) and foreign language pedagogical (FLP) research. Firth and Wagner's (1997) proposal for the reconceptualization of SLA has been supported by SLA and FLP researchers who share the sentiment concerning the need for increased attention to social and contextual…

  19. SLA before ABC: Factors Facilitating Second Language Acquisition in Irish-Medium Playgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhathuna, Maire Mhic

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated factors facilitating acquisition of Irish in Irish-medium playgroups designed for children who are native English-speakers. Data were gathered in four visits each to two such playgroups, each containing approximately 20 children. Four aspects of conversational exchanges were examined: understanding; code mixing; formulaic…

  20. Ames Research Center Shear Tests of SLA-561V Heat Shield Material for Mars-Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael; Tran, Huy; Henline, William; Cartledge, Alan; Hui, Frank; Tran, Duoc; Zimmerman, Norm

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of arc-jet testing at Ames Research Center on behalf of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the development of the Mars-Pathfinder heat shield. The current test series evaluated the performance of the ablating SLA-561V heat shield material under shear conditions. In addition, the effectiveness of several methods of repairing damage to the heat shield were evaluated. A total of 26 tests were performed in March 1994 in the 2 in. X 9 in. arc-heated turbulent Duct Facility, including runs to calibrate the facility to obtain the desired shear stress conditions. A total of eleven models were tested. Three different conditions of shear and heating were used. The non-ablating surface shear stresses and the corresponding, approximate, non-ablating surface heating rates were as follows: Condition 1, 170 N/m(exp 2) and 22 W/cm(exp 2); Condition 2, 240 N/m(exp 2) and 40 W/cm(exp 2); Condition 3, 390 N/m(exp 2) and 51 W/cm(exp 2). The peak shear stress encountered in flight is represented approximately by Condition 1; however, the heating rate was much less than the peak flight value. The peak heating rate that was available in the facility (at Condition 3) was about 30 percent less than the maximum value encountered during flight. Seven standard ablation models were tested, of which three models were instrumented with thermocouples to obtain in-depth temperature profiles and temperature contours. An additional four models contained a variety of repair plugs, gaps, and seams. These models were used to evaluated different repair materials and techniques, and the effect of gaps and construction seams. Mass loss and surface recession measurements were made on all models. The models were visually inspected and photographed before and after each test. The SLA-561 V performed well; even at test Condition 3, the char remained intact. Most of the resins used for repairs and gap fillers performed poorly. However, repair plugs made of SLA-561V performed

  1. Swine leukocyte antigen class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) polymorphism and genotyping in Guizhou minipigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Z; Xia, J H; Xin, L L; Wang, Z G; Qian, L; Wu, S G; Yang, S L; Li, K

    2015-11-30

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex harbors highly polymorphic gene clusters encoding glycoproteins that are involved in responses to vaccines, infectious disease, and production performance. Pigs with well-defined SLA class II genes are useful for the study of disease, immunology, and vaccines. In this study, we analyzed four SLA class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) in 22 founder Guizhou minipigs using a sequence-based typing method. Twelve alleles were detected, compared with the SLA class II allele sequences in the GenBank, and one of twelve alleles was found to be novel in Guizhou minipigs. There are four SLA II haplotypes, and one of them has been previously reported in Meishan pigs. Furthermore, based on sequence information of these alleles, we developed a simple SLA typing method implemented to SLA-typing for unknown offspring of Guizhou minipigs, relying on designed twelve sequence specific primers that could discriminate between each other. According to the combination of sequence-based typing and PCR-SSP, we were able to rapidly check SLA typing of Guizhou breeding stock and identified four SLA haplotypes in the herd. Therefore, SLA-defined Guizhou minipigs will be useful as animal models for xenotransplantation and immunological research.

  2. Teaching Second Language Acquisition Courses: Views from New Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta J.; Beglar, David

    2004-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) courses are a perennial feature of graduate level teacher preparation programs in Applied Linguistics and TESOL. While there has been recent interest in exploring the interfaces of second language acquisition research and classroom teaching (Ellis, 1997), the teaching of SLA courses at the university level is…

  3. Factors Influencing Oral Corrective Feedback Provision in the Spanish Foreign Language Classroom: Investigating Instructor Native/Nonnative Speaker Status, SLA Education, & Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has been a critical area of second language acquisition (SLA) research for decades and while findings suggest interactional feedback can facilitate SLA, the extent of its influence can vary depending on a number of factors, including the native language of those involved in communication. Although studies have…

  4. SLA and the Emergence of Creoles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the emergence of creoles presupposes naturalistic SLA, current SLA scholarship does not shed much light on the development of creoles with regard to the population-internal mechanisms that produce normalization and autonomization from the creoles' lexifiers. This is largely due to the fact that research on SLA is focused on individuals…

  5. French Immersion Research in Canada: Recent Contributions to SLA and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    2000-01-01

    Discusses two questions: (1) What has the recent research conducted in French immersion programs in Canada contributed to understanding of second language acquisition?; and (2) What has it contributed to the broader field of applied linguistics? Considers research in the coming decade, and discusses obstacles that may be faced in Canada in…

  6. Cognitive Perspectives on SLA: The Associative-Cognitive CREED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines current cognitive perspectives on second language acquisition (SLA). The Associative-Cognitive CREED holds that SLA is governed by the same principles of associative and cognitive learning that underpin the rest of human knowledge. The major principles of the framework are that SLA is Construction-based, Rational,…

  7. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  8. Using Time-Series Research Designs to Investigate the Effects of Instruction on SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellow, J. Dean; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the study of second-language acquisition theory can be enhanced through time-series research designs. Within the context of investigating the effects of second-language instruction, four main reasons for using T-S design are identified. (95 references) (Author/CK)

  9. Role of Focus-on-Form Instruction, Corrective Feedback and Uptake in Second Language Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afitska, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…

  10. The CALL-SLA Interface: Insights from a Second-Order Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Ziegler, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and second language acquisition (SLA) has been studied both extensively, covering numerous subdomains, and intensively, resulting in hundreds of primary studies. It is therefore no surprise that CALL researchers, as in other areas of applied linguistics, have turned in recent…

  11. Language Learning in Mindbodyworld: A Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent research in cognitive science, interaction, and second language acquisition (SLA), I describe a sociocognitive approach to SLA. This approach adopts a "non-cognitivist" view of cognition: Instead of an isolated computational process in which input is extracted from the environment and used to build elaborate internal…

  12. New Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas Scovel; (4) "Exceptions to…

  13. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  14. Theories and Research on Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornejo, Ricardo J.; Cornejo, Luz O.

    Intended for students, teachers, parents, and administrators in charge of educating bilingual children, the monograph provides a summarized account of the information available regarding theories and research in second language acquisition, divided into four chapters. Chapter I is an historical overview of language acquisition theories,…

  15. Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency from the Perspective of Psycholinguistic Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towell, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter, which is written from the perspective of psycholinguistic SLA research, is to establish a possible relationship between representations, processes and mechanisms of second language learning and knowledge as defined from within psycholinguistic SLA on the one hand, and the more behavioural performance outcomes such as…

  16. Generative Research on Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubank, Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent trends in generative research on second language acquisition, focusing on the role of universal grammar, parameter resetting, and anaphoric binding. An annotated bibliography discusses five important works in the field. (61 references) (MDM)

  17. Second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  19. Commentary: The Promise of Digital Scholarship in SLA Research and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Sally Sieloff

    2007-01-01

    Although digital scholarship is now well established in academia, there is no consensus about how it should be evaluated for tenure and promotion. Is digital publication acceptable as a way to disseminate research? Is the digital medium appropriate for conducting research? To what degree does creating digital materials--from research instruments…

  20. Quantitative Research Methods, Study Quality, and Outcomes: The Case of Interaction Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Gass, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article constitutes the first empirical assessment of methodological quality in second language acquisition (SLA). We surveyed a corpus of 174 studies (N = 7,951) within the tradition of research on second-language interaction, one of the longest and most influential traditions of inquiry in SLA. Each report was coded for methodological…

  1. Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

  2. Linking CALL and SLA: Using the IRIS Database to Locate Research Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zöe; Marsden, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To establish an evidence base for future computer-assisted language learning (CALL) design, CALL research needs to move away from CALL versus non-CALL comparisons, and focus on investigating the differential impact of individual coding elements, that is, specific features of a technology which might have an impact on learning (Pederson, 1987).…

  3. Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.; Beckett, Tracy G.

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) research informed by sociocultural theory (henceforth, SCT) began in earnest with the publication of Frawley & Lantolf's (1985) article on L2 (second language) discourse (described in the timeline proper). Since then, well over 300 journal articles, book chapters and doctoral dissertations have appeared in the…

  4. On the Nature of Interaction in SLA: A Philosophical Stream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Shakouri, Nima

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long grappled with situating the stance of interaction in SLA, but it is only recently that interaction has begun to receive consideration from SLA quarters. Delving into the nature of interaction and the prerequisite of interaction in real world, in general, and in classroom, in particular, the authors hold that based on…

  5. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  6. Distributed Data Acquisition For Biomechanics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myklebust, J.; Geisler, M.; Prieto, T.; Weiss, R.

    1987-01-01

    Biomechanics research at the Medical College of Wisconsin is directed to the determination of the mechanisms of head and spine injury and the evaluation of surgical treatments for these injuries. This work involves mechanical testing of components of the spine (disks, vertebral bodies, and ligaments) as well as testing of composite spines and in situ evaluation of intact human cadavers (1,3). Other studies utilize experimental animals to measure neurologic and physiologic effects due to injury producing loads and accelerations (2). An integrated system has been developed to facilitate the acquisition and analysis of the diverse types of data from these experiments.

  7. Social and Cognitive Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie, Ed.; Morris, Frank, Ed.; Anderson, Michael E., Ed.; Klee, Carol A., Ed.; Tarone, Elaine, Ed.

    This edited volume includes the following chapters: "Three Kinds of Sociolinguistics and SLA: A Psycholinguistic Perspective" (Dennis R. Preston); "Getting Serious about Language Play: Language Play, Interlanguage Variation, and Second Language Acquisition" (Elaine Tarone); "Oppositional Talk and the Acquisition of Modality in L2 English" (Tom…

  8. Sociolinguistic Approaches to SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses two complementary traditions in the study of communication and social context and shows how one researcher's theory of context influences the methodologies he or she adopts. Reviews substantive findings of sociolinguistic researchers in four main areas of second-language acquisition and use: interlanguage variation, cross-cultural…

  9. Temporal Dynamics of Late Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Karsten; White, Erin J.; Drury, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The ways in which age of acquisition (AoA) may affect (morpho)syntax in second language acquisition (SLA) are discussed. We suggest that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide an appropriate online measure to test some such effects. ERP findings of the past decade are reviewed with a focus on recent and ongoing research. It is concluded…

  10. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Participants Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250 000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Findings to date Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Future plans Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20 000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume

  11. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  12. The Role of Turkish Lessons and Reflective Practice in Teaching SLA as Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-­Moody, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether foreign language lessons coupled with engaging learners in reflective practice facilitates a deeper understanding of second language acquisition (SLA) course content. During this semester-­long SLA course, 14 graduate students were taught eight Turkish lessons for 25 minutes at the beginning of each class. As a…

  13. The Influence of SLA Training in Curricular Design among Teachers in Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg; Bikowski, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on how language teachers in preparation integrate key concepts from second language acquisition (SLA) theory into CALL curricular design. The need for language teachers who have had SLA coursework to receive orientation to student-centered learning in a CALL context has been identified previously (Kessler, 2010). This research…

  14. Lexical Learning in Second Language Acquisition: Optionality in the Numeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere suggests that second language acquisition (SLA) researchers should pay more attention to the distribution of a given feature in source and target languages, using the distribution of [plural] in English, Chinese and Korean to illustrate. I argue that the distribution of [definite] in English shows a similar complexity, and that this has…

  15. Sequence and mRNA expression of nonclassical SLA class I genes SLA-7 and SLA-8.

    PubMed

    Crew, Mark D; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Garcia-Borges, Carmen N

    2004-05-01

    Given the prominent position of pig endothelial cells in pig-to-human xenotransplantation and the role of classical and nonclassical MHC class I proteins in T and NK cell recognition, the expression of pig MHC (SLA) class I genes in a pig aortic endothelial cell line (AOC cells) was examined. Using a primer corresponding to a highly conserved region of exon 4, RT-PCR analysis of SLA class I expression in AOC cells revealed not only expression of the classical SLA class I ( SLA-1, -2, and -3) genes, but also SLA class I transcripts corresponding to SLA nonclassical class I (class Ib) genes SLA-6 and SLA-8. Further analysis of SLA class Ib expression in porcine aortic endothelial cells using SLA class I gene-specific primers confirmed SLA-6 and SLA-8 expression and also demonstrated expression of SLA-7. While SLA-6 has been relatively well characterized, no data regarding bona fide SLA-7 and SLA-8 transcripts have been reported. Therefore, cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of SLA-6, -7, and -8 were obtained. Compared to an SLA-1 protein sequence, the predicted SLA-7 and -8 protein sequences exhibited most sequence divergence in alpha1, alpha2, and cytoplasmic domains. Expression of SLA-6, -7, and -8 was examined by RT-PCR using RNA prepared from a variety of tissues. SLA-6 transcripts were detected in every tissue examined. Except for brain, SLA-8 transcripts were similarly widespread. SLA-7 exhibited more limited tissue distribution.

  16. Acquisition of Literacy in Bilingual Children: A Framework for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research that contributes to understanding how bilingual children become literate is not able to isolate the contribution of bilingualism to the discussion of literacy acquisition for these children. This article begins by identifying three areas of research that are relevant to examining literacy acquisition in bilinguals, explaining…

  17. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning and Teaching in Poland (2006-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdzial-Szelest, Krystyna; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 doctoral dissertations on second language acquisition (SLA), English language learning and teaching submitted in Poland in the years 2006-2010. The theses were selected for review on the basis of the recommendations of Ph.D. supervisors from leading Polish universities and they are divided into six groups: learner autonomy,…

  18. Cognitive and Sociocultural Perspectives: Two Parallel SLA Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuengler, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2006-01-01

    Looking back at the past 15 years in the field of second language acquisition (SLA), the authors select and discuss several important developments. One is the impact of various sociocultural perspectives such as Vygotskian sociocultural theory, language socialization, learning as changing participation in situated practices, Bakhtin and the…

  19. Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how connectionism might expand its role in second language acquisition (SLA) theory by showing how some symbolic models of bilingual and second language lexical memory can be reduced to a biologically realistic (i.e., neurally plausible) connectionist model. This integration or hybridization of the two models follows the…

  20. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  1. SLA — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SLA, or Src-like-adaptor, is an adaptor protein involved in negative regulation of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by direct association. SLA is also involved in the negative regulation of positive selection and mitosis of T-cells.

  2. SLA at 100: Conference Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    When School Library Association (SLA) convenes its annual conference in Washington, DC, June 14-17, 2009, the association will be celebrating its 100th birthday. This occasion allows for grand gestures--the SLA Salutes! Awards and Leadership Reception will be held in the Library of Congress's Great Hall. The conference also draws upon Washington…

  3. SLA: Global Visions, Local Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMattia, Susan S.

    1992-01-01

    Report on the 1992 Special Libraries Association (SLA) conference summarizes keynote addresses on the competitive role of special librarians and on international libraries around the Pacific Rim, the report of the SLA president, the inaugural address of the new president on a vision of the future, and conference exhibits. (MES)

  4. Hungarian Research on the Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macwhinney, Brian

    1976-01-01

    This review analyzes research on acquisition of Hungarian morphology and syntax, specifically, morphological analysis, neologisms, acquisition of first inflections, morpheme order, word order and agreement. Because of Hungarian structure, errors in segmentation of the utterance and the word are minimized. Morphological analysis begins at semantic…

  5. Recent Progress on the Stretched Lens Array (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Markl; McDanal, A. J.; Piszczor, Michael; George, Patrick; Eskenazi, Michael; Botke, Matthew; Edwards, David; Hoppe, David; Brandhorst, Henry

    2005-01-01

    At the last Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference, SPRAT XVII, held during the fateful week of 9/11/01, our team presented a paper on the early developments related to the new Stretched Lens Array (SLA), including its evolution from the successful SCARLET array on the NASA/JPL Deep Space 1 spacecraft. Within the past two years, the SLA team has made significant progress in the SLA technology, including the successful fabrication and testing of a complete four-panel prototype solar array wing (Fig. 1). The prototype wing verified the mechanical and structural design of the rigid-panel SLA approach, including multiple successful demonstrations of automatic wing deployment. One panel in the prototype wing included four fully functional photovoltaic receivers, employing triple-junction solar cells.

  6. Implications of Second Language Acquisition Theory for Business English Teaching in Current China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Muchun, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) as a sub-branch of applied linguistics has been researched by Chinese and foreign scholars for over 40 years, but few researches have been done on its implications for Business English teaching which needs more language teaching theories to support. This paper makes a review of related studies, and puts forward a…

  7. Nomenclature for factors of the SLA class-I system, 2004.

    PubMed

    Smith, D M; Lunney, J K; Martens, G W; Ando, A; Lee, J-H; Ho, C-S; Schook, L; Renard, C; Chardon, P

    2005-02-01

    A systematic nomenclature for the genes and alleles of the swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to the development and communication of research in swine immunology. The Swine Leucocyte Antigen (SLA) Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Animal Genetics has reviewed all of the DNA sequence information for MHC class-I genes, available in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases, and the associated published reports in order to develop such a systematic nomenclature. This report summarizes the proposed nomenclature, which parallels the World Health Organization's nomenclature for factors of the human MHC. The classical class-I SLA genes are designated as SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3; the non-classical as SLA-6, SLA-7 and SLA-8. Nomenclature assignments for all SLA class-I GenBank sequences are now noted. The Committee will add new SLA class-I allele designations, as they are discovered, and will maintain a publicly available list of all recognized genes and alleles by using the International ImMunoGeneTics Project and its Immuno Polymorphism Database/MHC (IPD/MHC) sequence database for MHC sequences in veterinary species.

  8. Functionalism in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Russell S.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the role of functional approaches to linguistics in understanding second-language acquisition (SLA), focusing on central premises, tenets, and theoretical problems. It is concluded that functional universals are too insufficiently grounded theoretically and empirically to contribute more than heuristic guidance to SLA theory. (141…

  9. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  10. English Native Speakers' L2 Acquisition of the Spanish Clitic Se

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of the Spanish clitic se by English native speakers in passive, middle, and impersonal constructions. Little research has been done on this topic in SLA within a UG framework (Bayona, 2005; Bruhn de Garavito, 1999). VanPatten (2004) proposed the Processing Instruction (PI) model arguing for the necessity of…

  11. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

  12. Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Second Language Acquisition Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David, Ed.

    This book considers the question of whether, or to what extent, a critical period limits the acquisition of a first language as well as a second language acquired postpubertally. The diversity of opinion on this question is represented in this volume. It is a question that has been approached by researchers working in linguistic theory, evolution…

  13. Second-Language Acquisition and Bilingualism: Research in Canada (1970-1979). Research Bulletin No. 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert C.; Desrochers, Alain M.

    This paper reviews the research on second language acquisition and bilingualism conducted in Canada over the past decade (1970-79). The material on second language acquisition is presented under the followinq headings: approaches to second language instruction, individual differences and second language acquisition, and effects of second language…

  14. Establishing an Empirical Link between Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and SLA: A Meta-Analysis of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huifen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interactionist and socio-cultural theories, tools provided in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments have long been considered able to create an environment that shares many communicative features with face-to-face communication. Over the past two decades, researchers have employed a variety of strategies to examine the…

  15. Conceptualizing Pronunciation as Part of Translingual/Transcultural Competence: New Impulses for SLA Research and the L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Mareike

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to reconceptualize pronunciation teaching and learning according to the tenets of the 2007 MLA Report and its call for translingual/transcultural competence. The critical discussion of current teaching and research practices shows that the realm of pronunciation has benefitted little from debates on intercultural language…

  16. A data acquisition system for marine and ecological research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a self-contained portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research. The compact lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing. Currently undergoing component performance upgrading, the prototype system has been utilized in several environmental science investigations associated with air pollution investigations and weather modification and is currently being used for marine data acquisition.

  17. Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan. JALT Applied Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter, Ed.; Sawyer, Mark, Ed.; Ross, Steven, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan: Theoretical Issues" (Peter Robinson, Mark Sawyer, and Steven Ross); (2) "Focus on Form: Implicit and Explicit Form Focused Instruction Incorporated into a Communicative Task" (Hitoshi Muranoi); (3) "A Task that Works for Negotiation of Meaning"…

  18. Computer Skills Acquisition: A Review and Future Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    A review of past research on training employees for computer-mediated work leads to the development of theory and propositions concerning the relationship between different variables, such as: (1) individual factors; (2) task and person-computer interface; (3) characteristics of training design for the acquisition of computer skills; and (4) the…

  19. Characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) polymorphism by sequence-based and PCR-SSP methods in Chinese Bama miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Jiang, Qian; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Jiasen; Han, Lingxia; Qu, Liandong

    2014-07-01

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes have been repeatedly shown to influence swine immune traits, disease resistance, vaccine responsiveness and tumour penetrance. Analysis of the SLA diversity in as many pig breeds as possible is important to clarify the relationships between SLA genes and diseases or traits, and develop these pigs as valuable animal models for biomedical research. The Chinese Bama miniature pig breed is an economically significant breed that is available at several research institutions in China. In this study, we identified a total of 32 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing nine class I and seven class II haplotypes using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing (SBT) method. The possible functional sites of the SLA genes were predicted and analyzed by comparison with those of the human and mouse. Based on the sequence information, we subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the progeny. In the studied cohort (2n = 562), the most prevalent Haplotype Hp-35.6 (SLA-1(∗)1201, SLA-1(∗)1301-SLA-3(∗)0502-SLA-2(∗)1001-DRB1(∗)0501-DQB1(∗)0801) was identified in 182 Bama pigs with a frequency of 32.38%. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in five of the class I haplotypes. Moreover, we identified two crossovers within the class I region and one between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.36% and 0.18%, respectively. The information of this study is essential for an understanding of the SLA allelic architecture and diversity, and it will be helpful for studying the adaptive immune response and further developing the more effective vaccines in the context of SLA specificities.

  20. The Acquisition of Case in Spanish Pronominal Object Clitics in English-Speaking College-Level L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michael Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) of Spanish pronominal object clitics (POCs) has been a topic of research with regards to clitic placement (Houston, 1997; Lee, 1987; LoCoco, 1987; VanPatten, 1984; and VanPatten & Houston 1998), acquiring specific dialectal norms (Geeslin, Garcia-Amaya, Hasler-Barker, Henriksen, & Killam, 2010), and…

  1. An intelligent data acquisition system for fluid mechanics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E. R.; Zilliac, G.; Fukunishi, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel data acquisition system for use with wind-tunnel probe-based measurements, which incorporates a degree of specific fluid dynamics knowledge into a simple expert system-like control program. The concept was developed with a rudimentary expert system coupled to a probe positioning mechanism operating in a small-scale research wind tunnel. The software consisted of two basic elements, a general-purpose data acquisition system and the rulebased control element to take and analyze data and supplying decisions as to where to measure, how many data points to take, and when to stop. The system was validated in an experiment involving a vortical flow field, showing that it was possible to increase the resolution of the experiment or, alternatively, reduce the total number of data points required, to achieve parity with the results of most conventional data acquisition approaches.

  2. Comparison of voice acquisition methodologies in speech research.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Maruff, Paul

    2008-11-01

    The use of voice acoustic techniques has the potential to extend beyond work devoted purely to speech or vocal pathology. For this to occur, however, researchers and clinicians will require acquisition technologies that provide fast, accurate, and cost-effective methods for recording data. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare industry-standard techniques for acquiring high-quality acoustic signals (e.g., hard drive and solid-state recorder) with widely available and easy-to-use, computer-based (standard laptop) data-acquisition methods. Speech samples were simultaneously acquired from 15 healthy controls using all three methods and were analyzed using identical analysis techniques. Data from all three acquisition methods were directly compared using a variety of acoustic correlates. The results suggested that selected acoustic measures (e.g., f 0, noise-to-harmonic ratio, number of pauses) were accurately obtained using all three methods; however, minimum recording standards were required for widely used measures of perturbation.

  3. Establishment of a resource population of SLA haplotype-defined Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Ok; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Yu-Joo; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Sung-Soo; Ko, Moon-Suck; Park, Chankyu; Smith, Douglas M; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2010-05-01

    The highly polymorphic porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or the swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), has been repeatedly associated with variations in swine immune response to pathogens and vaccines as well as with production traits. The SLA antigens are also important targets for immunological recognition of foreign tissue grafts. We recently established a resource population of Korean native pigs as models for human transplantation and xenotransplantation research. In this study, 115 animals derived from three generations of the Korean native pigs were genotyped for three SLA class I (SLA-2, SLA-3 and SLA-1) and three SLA class II loci (DRB1, DQB1, DQA) using PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) at the allele group resolution. A total of seven SLA haplotypes (Lr-5.34, Lr-7.23, Lr-31.13, Lr-56.23, Lr-56.30, Lr-59.1, Lr-65.34), comprising six unique class I and five unique class II haplotypes, were characterized in the founding animals. Class I haplotype Lr-65.0 and class II haplotype Lr-0.34 were novel; and together with Lr-56.0 these haplotypes appeared to be breed-specific. In the progeny population, Lr-7.23 and Lr-56.30 appeared to be the most prevalent haplotypes with frequencies of 34.7% and 31.6%, respectively; the overall homozygosity was 27.4%. This resource population of SLA-defined Korean native pigs will be useful as large animal models for various transplantation and xenotransplantation experiments, as well as for dissecting the roles of SLA proteins in swine disease resistance and production traits.

  4. Data acquisition and preprocessing techniques for remote sensing field research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1983-01-01

    A crops and soils data base has been developed at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing using spectral and agronomic measurements made by several government and university researchers. The data are being used to (1) quantitatively determine the relationships of spectral and agronomic characteristics of crops and soils, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques. Researchers follow defined data acquisition and preprocessing techniques to provide fully annotated and calibrated sets of spectral, agronomic, and meteorological data. These procedures enable the researcher to combine his data with that acquired by other researchers for remote sensing research. The key elements or requirements for developing a field research data base of spectral data that can be transported across sites and years are appropriate experiment design, accurate spectral data calibration, defined field procedures, and through experiment documentation.

  5. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  6. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  7. Transcription specificity of the class Ib genes SLA-6, SLA-7 and SLA-8 of the swine major histocompatibility complex and comparison with class Ia genes.

    PubMed

    Kusza, S; Flori, L; Gao, Y; Teillaud, A; Hu, R; Lemonnier, G; Bosze, Z; Bourneuf, E; Vincent-Naulleau, S; Rogel-Gaillard, C

    2011-10-01

    Our aim was to analyse the transcription levels of the three non-classical class Ib genes SLA-6, SLA-7 and SLA-8 of the swine major histocompatibility complex in various tissues and conditions and to compare them to the transcription levels of classical class Ia genes. Twenty-five adult tissues from two pig breeds, pig renal PK15 cells infected with the Pseudorabies virus, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide or a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin were included in our study. Relative transcription was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. On average, in adult tissues and PBMCs and compared to SLA-6, the transcription level of SLA-Ia genes was 100-1000 times higher, the level of SLA-8 was 10-20 times higher, and that of SLA-7 was five times higher. Thus, SLA-8 is the most transcribed SLA-Ib gene, followed by the SLA-7 and SLA-6 genes. The highest transcription levels of SLA-Ib transcripts were found in the lymphoid organs, followed by the lung and the digestive tract. The tissue variability of expression levels was widest for the SLA-6 gene, with a 1:32 ratio between the lowest and highest levels in contrast to a 1:12 ratio for the SLA-7 and SLA-8 genes and a 1:16 ratio for the SLA-Ia genes. During PK-15 infection and PBMC stimulation, SLA-Ia and SLA-8 genes were downregulated, whereas SLA-6 and SLA-7 were upregulated, downregulated or not significantly modified. Our overall results confirm the tissue-wide transcription of the three SLA-Ib genes and suggest that they have complementary roles.

  8. A Research on Second Language Acquisition and College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Changyu

    2009-01-01

    It was in the 1970s that American linguist S.D. Krashen created the theory of "language acquisition". The theories on second language acquisition were proposed based on the study on the second language acquisition process and its rules. Here, the second language acquisition process refers to the process in which a learner with the…

  9. Research on knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Bruce G.

    1987-01-01

    Research in knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition performed at Knowledge Systems Lab. is summarized. The major goal of the research was to develop flexible, effective methods for representing the qualitative knowledge necessary for solving large problems that require symbolic reasoning as well as numerical computation. The research focused on integrating different representation methods to describe different kinds of knowledge more effectively than any one method can alone. In particular, emphasis was placed on representing and using spatial information about three dimensional objects and constraints on the arrangement of these objects in space. Another major theme is the development of robust machine learning programs that can be integrated with a variety of intelligent systems. To achieve this goal, learning methods were designed, implemented and experimented within several different problem solving environments.

  10. The Value of SLA Main Theories on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in Vocational Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Renyu

    2008-01-01

    Along with the development of linguistic science, the second language acquisition (SLA) has become an independent subject. Its theory is widely accepted and applied to the foreign language-teaching field. The mark theory, the mother tongue transfer theory, language input theory, cultural introject theory and so on have important enlightenment and…

  11. Pragmatics and SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele; Rose, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews interlanguage pragmatics studies with a focus on learning in a liberal sense; in addition to studies with an explicit focus on development, investigations that examine the effect of proficiency as an independent variable on pragmatic performance are also considered. Two lines of inquiry are suggested for further research. (Author/VWL)

  12. Airloads research study. Volume 1: Flight test loads acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, M. D.; Feltz, T. F.; Olsen, A. D., Jr.; Smith, D. B.; Wildermuth, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    The acquisition of B-1 aircraft flight loads data for use in subsequent tasks of the Airloads Research Study is described. The basic intent is to utilize data acquired during B-1 aircraft tests, analyze these data beyond the scope of Air Force requirements, and prepare research reports that will add to the technology base for future large flexible aircraft. Flight test data obtained during the airloads survey program included condition-describing parameters, surface pressures, strain gage outputs, and loads derived from pressure and strain gauges. Descriptions of the instrumentation, data processing, and flight load survey program are included. Data from windup-turn and steady yaw maneuvers cover a Mach number range from 0.7 to 2.0 for a wing sweep position of 67.5 deg.

  13. [Latest advances of SLA class I genes].

    PubMed

    Tao, Xuan; Li, Hua; Li, Xue-Wei; Yu, Hui; Zuo, Qi-Zhen

    2007-11-01

    The Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes encode multi-glycoproteins on cell surface, which present endogenous antigenic peptides to T cells and thus initiate specific immune responses. In this article, latest advances on molecular structure, expression in tissues, regulation of expression, genotyping, polymorphism, and evolution of SLA class I genes were introduced, in which genotyping and polymorphism were emphasized. Molecular typing methods of SLA class I genes include serological method, DNA sequencing, PCR-SSP, PCR-SSOP and MS, of which PCR-SSP is frequently used in genotyping of SLA class I genes as a simple and rapid method. Future directions for the study and application of SLA class I genes on gene functions, peptide vaccine, xenotransplantation were also discussed.

  14. Nomenclature for factors of the SLA system, update 2008.

    PubMed

    Ho, C-S; Lunney, J K; Ando, A; Rogel-Gaillard, C; Lee, J-H; Schook, L B; Smith, D M

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the new swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) allele sequences and haplotypes designated by the SLA Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Animal Genetics. There have been 74 new SLA alleles, comprising 18 SLA-1 alleles, 11 SLA-2 alleles, six SLA-3 alleles, two SLA-6 alleles, one SLA-DRA allele, 20 SLA-DRB1 alleles, three SLA-DQA alleles and 13 SLA-DQB1 alleles. Twelve new SLA class I and four new class II haplotypes have also been designated. This is the first official update since the 2005 reports on the nomenclature for factors of the SLA class I and II systems. This report also summarizes recent updates to the Immunopolymorphism Database-Major Histocompatibility Complex (IPD-MHC) website (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/sla/). All information has now been integrated to the SLA section of the IPD-MHC database, which serves as the repository for maintaining a list of all recognized SLA genes and their allelic sequences.

  15. Developing a Framework for Using E-Portfolios as a Research and Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-young

    2013-01-01

    As Tarone (1998) stated, an understanding of interlanguage variation in relation to contextual changes has been a key issue in both second language acquisition (SLA) and language assessment (LA) research. Research on interlanguage variation has shown that systematic variation is often evidenced when different phonological and syntactic forms are…

  16. Exploring a Sociocultural Approach to Writing Strategy Research: Mediated Actions in Writing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the traditional cognitive view of writing strategies, this study explores English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' writing strategy use within the Activity Theory framework, adding to the growing body of writing strategy research and sociocultural research on writing and second language acquisition (SLA). Drawing on data…

  17. Density of Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…

  18. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  19. Second Language Acquisition, Teacher Education and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Various positions regarding the Second Language Acquisition (SLA)-Language Pedagogy (LP) nexus have been advanced. Taking these as a starting point, this article will examine the nature of the SLA/LP relationship both more generally and more concretely. First, it will place the debates evident in the different positions regarding the relationship…

  20. The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Catherine J., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    This handbook provides an integrated discussion of key issues in second language acquisition (SLA). The 24 chapters include the following: (1) "The Scope of Inquiry and the Goals of SLA" (Catherine J. Doughty and Michael H. Long); (2) "On the Nature of Interlanguage Representation: Universal Grammar in the Second Language" (Lydia White); (3) "The…

  1. The Past, Present, and Future of Second Language Research: Selected Proceedings of the 2000 Second Language Research Forum (Madison, Wisconsin, September 7-10, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonch-Bruevich, Xenia, Ed.; Crawford, William J., Ed.; Hellermann, John, Ed.; Higgins, Christina, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh, Ed.

    This book presents 16 peer-reviewed papers from a 2000 conference on second language research. Part 1, "Formal Investigations of SLA," includes "L2 Acquisition of English Liquids: Evidence for Production Independent from Perception" (Laura Catharine Smith); "Is L2 Learning the Same as L1 Learning? Learning L2 Phonology in Optimality Theory"…

  2. Exploring the Interlanguage of Interlanguage Pragmatics: A Research Agenda for Acquisitional Pragmatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Presents a research agenda in which the study of interlanguage becomes more central to the study of interlanguage pragmatics, assessing the state of acquisition research in interlanguage pragmatics, surveying work in interlanguage pragmatics that either directly examines or appeals to grammatical competence, showing how acquisition studies in…

  3. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition). 700.326 Section 700.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Assistants § 700.326 The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition)....

  4. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition). 700.326 Section 700.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Assistants § 700.326 The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition)....

  5. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition). 700.326 Section 700.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Assistants § 700.326 The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition)....

  6. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition). 700.326 Section 700.326 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Assistants § 700.326 The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition)....

  7. Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.

    1991-01-01

    Monthly progress reports for September 1990 to January 1991 are given. Topics that are briefly covered include problem solving and learning taxonomies, knowledge acquisition techniques, software design, air traffic control, and space shuttle flight control.

  8. An Overview of Mixed-Effects Statistical Models for Second Language Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnings, Ian

    2012-01-01

    As in any field of scientific inquiry, advancements in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) rely in part on the interpretation and generalizability of study findings using quantitative data analysis and inferential statistics. While statistical techniques such as ANOVA and t-tests are widely used in second language research, this review…

  9. Redressing the Roles of Correction and Repair in Research on Second and Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joan Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Correction and repair as components of an instructional practice that facilitates learning have figured prominently in research on classroom-based second and foreign language learning. Recent studies incorporating a conversation analytic (CA) perspective on second language acquisition (SLA) have also focused on repair and correction. From a CA…

  10. Bilingualism/Second-Language Research and the Assessment of Oral Proficiency in Minority Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges that researchers working in the fields of bilingualism and second-language acquisition (SLA) and in the field of language testing face in developing comparable and culturally and cognitively appropriate data collection and language assessment tools for bilingual children from rural minority-language…

  11. Development of a simultaneous high resolution typing method for three SLA class II genes, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 and the analysis of SLA class II haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Le, MinhThong; Choi, Hojun; Choi, Min-Kyeung; Cho, Hyesun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Cha, Se-Yeon; Seo, Kunho; Dadi, Hailu; Park, Chankyu

    2015-06-15

    The characterization of the genetic variations of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to understand the relationship between the genetic diversity of MHC molecules and disease resistance and susceptibility in adaptive immunity. We previously reported the development of high-resolution individual locus typing methods for three of the most polymorphic swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class II loci, namely, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1. In this study, we extensively modified our previous protocols and developed a method for the simultaneous amplification of the three SLA class II genes and subsequent analysis of individual loci using direct sequencing. The unbiased and simultaneous amplification of alleles from the all three hyper-polymorphic and pseudogene containing genes such as MHC genes is extremely challenging. However, using this method, we demonstrated the successful typing of SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 for 31 selected individuals comprising 26 different SLA class II haplotypes which were identified from 700 animals using the single locus typing methods. The results were identical to the known genotypes from the individual locus typing. The new method has significant benefits over the individual locus typing, including lower typing cost, use of less biomaterial, less effort and fewer errors in handling large samples for multiple loci. We also extensively characterized the haplotypes of SLA class II genes and reported three new haplotypes. Our results should serve as a basis to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of MHC class II and differences in immune responses to exogenous antigens.

  12. Automated Acquisition, Cataloging, and Circulation in a Large Research Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Merle N.; And Others

    This report describes automated procedures now in use for book acquisition, and book and document cataloging and circulation, in the library at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore. The purpose of the automation is to increase frequency and accuracy of record updatings, decrease the time required to maintain records, improve the formats of the…

  13. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  14. Research on the Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of second language acquisition based on the social-psychology of acculturation, including factors in social, affective, personality, cognitive, biological, aptitude, personal, input, and instructional areas. Studies which test this model are reviewed and evaluated. (Author/CB)

  15. Linguistic Diversity in First Language Acquisition Research: Moving beyond the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Barbara F.; Forshaw, William; Nordlinger, Rachel; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The field of first language acquisition (FLA) needs to take into account data from the broadest typological array of languages and language-learning environments if it is to identify potential universals in child language development, and how these interact with socio-cultural mechanisms of acquisition. Yet undertaking FLA research in remote…

  16. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying…

  17. The Comparative Method of Language Acquisition Research: A Mayan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and…

  18. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  19. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches. PMID:26382972

  20. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches.

  1. A research of a high precision multichannel data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ling-na; Tang, Xiao-ping; Yan, Wei

    2013-08-01

    The output signals of the focusing system in lithography are analog. To convert the analog signals into digital ones which are more flexible and stable to process, a desirable data acquisition system is required. The resolution of data acquisition, to some extent, affects the accuracy of focusing. In this article, we first compared performance between the various kinds of analog-to-digital converters (ADC) available on the market at the moment. Combined with the specific requirements (sampling frequency, converting accuracy, numbers of channels etc) and the characteristics (polarization, amplitude range etc) of the analog signals, the model of the ADC to be used as the core chip in our hardware design was determined. On this basis, we chose other chips needed in the hardware circuit that would well match with ADC, then the overall hardware design was obtained. Validation of our data acquisition system was verified through experiments and it can be demonstrated that the system can effectively realize the high resolution conversion of the multi-channel analog signals and give the accurate focusing information in lithography.

  2. The research of data acquisition system for Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao; Guo, Pan; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Chen, Wenbo

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectrometer has been widely used as an identification tool for analyzing material structure and composition in many fields. However, Raman scattering echo signal is very weak, about dozens of photons at most in one laser plus signal. Therefore, it is a great challenge to design a Raman spectrum data acquisition system which could accurately receive the weak echo signal. The system designed in this paper receives optical signals with the principle of photon counter and could detect single photon. The whole system consists of a photoelectric conversion module H7421-40 and a photo counting card including a field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip and a PCI9054 chip. The module H7421-40 including a PMT, an amplifier and a discriminator has high sensitivity on wavelength from 300nm to 720nm. The Center Wavelength is 580nm which is close to the excitation wavelength (532nm), QE 40% at peak wavelength, Count Sensitivity is 7.8*105(S-1PW-1) and Count Linearity is 1.5MHZ. In FPGA chip, the functions are divided into three parts: parameter setting module, controlling module, data collection and storage module. All the commands, parameters and data are transmitted between FPGA and computer by PCI9054 chip through the PCI interface. The result of experiment shows that the Raman spectrum data acquisition system is reasonable and efficient. There are three primary advantages of the data acquisition system: the first one is the high sensitivity with single photon detection capability; the second one is the high integrated level which means all the operation could be done by the photo counting card; and the last one is the high expansion ability because of the smart reconfigurability of FPGA chip.

  3. Study Quality in SLA: A Cumulative and Developmental Assessment of Designs, Analyses, Reporting Practices, and Outcomes in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2011-01-01

    I began this study with two assumptions. Assumption 1: Study quality matters. If the means by which researchers design, carry out, and report on their studies lack in rigor or transparency, theory and practice are likely to be misguided or at least decelerated. Assumption 2 is an implication of Assumption 1: Quality should be measured rather than…

  4. Genetic polymorphism of the swine major histocompatibility complex ( SLA) class I genes, SLA-1, -2 and -3.

    PubMed

    Ando, Asako; Kawata, Hisako; Shigenari, Atsuko; Anzai, Tatsuya; Ota, Masao; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Sada, Masaharu; Goto, Rieko; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko; Iwanaga, Takahiro; Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Gojobori, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2003-12-01

    In order to identify and characterize genetic polymorphism of the swine major histocompatibility complex ( Mhc: SLA) class I genes, RT-PCR products of the second and third exons of the three SLA classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3 were subjected to nucleotide determination. These analyses allowed the identification of four, eight and seven alleles at the SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3 loci, respectively, from three different breeds of miniature swine and one mixed breed. Among them, 12 alleles were novel. Construction of a phylogenetic tree using the nucleotide sequences of those 19 alleles indicated that the SLA-1 and -2 genes are more closely related to each other than to SLA-3. Selective forces operating at single amino acid sites of the SLA class I molecules were analyzed by the Adaptsite Package program. Ten positive selection sites were found at the putative antigen recognition sites (ARSs). Among the 14 positively selected sites observed in the human MHC ( HLA) classical class I molecules, eight corresponding positions in the SLA class I molecules were inferred as positively selected. On the other hand, four amino acids at the putative ARSs were identified as negatively selected in the SLA class I molecules. These results suggest that selective forces operating in the SLA class I molecules are almost similar to those of the HLA class I molecules, although several functional sites for antigen and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition by the SLA class I molecules may be different from those of the HLA class I molecules.

  5. Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA): A pathfinder for space-based laser altimetry and lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack; Blair, Bryan; Cavanaugh, John; Garvin, James

    1995-01-01

    objectives for the STS-72 mission center on the acquisition of sample data sets for land topography and vegetation height, waveform digitizer performance, and verification of data acquisition algorithms. The operational concept of SLA is illustrated in Fig. 1 where a series of 100 m footprints stretch in a profile of Earth surface topography along the nadir track of the Space Shuttle. The location of SLA as a dual canister payload on the Hitchhiker Bridge Assembly in Bay 12 of the Space Shuttle Endeavor can also be noted in this figure. Full interpretation of the SLA range measurement data set requires a 1 m knowledge of the Orbiter trajectory and better than 0.1 deg knowledge of Orbiter pointing angle. These ancillary data sets will be acquired during the STS-72 mission with an on-board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, K-band range and range-rate tracking of the Orbiter through TDRSS, and use of on-board inertial measurement units and star trackers. Integration and interpretation of all these different data sets as a pathfinder investigation for accurate determination of Earth surface elevation is the overall science of the SLA investigation.

  6. Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA): A pathfinder for space-based laser altimetry and lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufton, Jack; Blair, Bryan; Cavanaugh, John; Garvin, James

    1995-09-01

    objectives for the STS-72 mission center on the acquisition of sample data sets for land topography and vegetation height, waveform digitizer performance, and verification of data acquisition algorithms. The operational concept of SLA is illustrated in Fig. 1 where a series of 100 m footprints stretch in a profile of Earth surface topography along the nadir track of the Space Shuttle. The location of SLA as a dual canister payload on the Hitchhiker Bridge Assembly in Bay 12 of the Space Shuttle Endeavor can also be noted in this figure. Full interpretation of the SLA range measurement data set requires a 1 m knowledge of the Orbiter trajectory and better than 0.1 deg knowledge of Orbiter pointing angle. These ancillary data sets will be acquired during the STS-72 mission with an on-board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, K-band range and range-rate tracking of the Orbiter through TDRSS, and use of on-board inertial measurement units and star trackers. Integration and interpretation of all these different data sets as a pathfinder investigation for accurate determination of Earth surface elevation is the overall science of the SLA investigation.

  7. 77 FR 47797 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... 9000-AM33 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development... result of market research, that there are small businesses capable of providing the best scientific and... met before a contracting officer can proceed with a small business set-aside for research...

  8. 76 FR 11414 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions (DFARS Case 2010-D011) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... research and development (IR&D) projects generating annual costs in excess of $50,000. DATES: Comments on... to pursue in its independent research and development program. Affected Public: Businesses or...

  9. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  10. Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the research was on the development of a problem solving taxonomy that can support and direct the knowledge engineering process during the development of an intelligent tutoring system. The results of the research are necessarily general. Being only a small initial attempt at a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, the process has had to be bootstrapped and the results can only provide pointers to further, more formal research designs.

  11. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  12. Utility of Krashen's Five Hypotheses in the Saudi Context of Foreign Language Acquisition/Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Gulnaz, Fahmeeda; Ijaz, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the paradigm that has dominated the discipline of language teaching is the SLA theory and Krashen's five hypotheses which are still proving flexible to accommodate earlier reforms. This paper reviews second language acquisition (SLA) theory to establish an understanding of its role in the EFL/ESL classrooms. Other areas…

  13. Distributed Acquisition for Geomagnetic Research (DAGR) for SmallSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zesta, E.; Bonalsky, T. M.; Wendel, D. E.; Simpson, D. G.; Beach, T. L.; Allen, L.; Clavier, O.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements are a fundamental, key parameter measurement for any space weather application, particularly for tracking the electromagnetic energy input in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere system and for high latitude dynamics governed by the large-scale field-aligned currents. The full characterization of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere coupled system necessitates measurements with higher spatial/temporal resolution and from multiple locations simultaneously. This becomes extremely challenging in the current state of shrinking budgets. Traditionally, including a science-grade magnetometer in a mission necessitates very costly integration and design (sensor on long boom) and imposes magnetic cleanliness restrictions on all components of the bus and payload. Recent advances in Smallsat and Cubesat developments offer a pathway for the proliferation of measurements. However, the Cubesat bus is a small volume in which to include all traditional bus components and payload, and the low cost of such programs makes the acquisition of clean Geomagnetic field observations a challenge. This work presents our approach of combining multiple sensitive onboard sensors with an innovative algorithm approach that enables high quality magnetic field measurements in Cubesats.

  14. The Acquisition and Development of Values. Perspectives on Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Leora Wood, Comp.

    A conference on research relating to how children acquire their systems of values and morality was held with the overall objective toward improving the quality of human life through greater scientific understanding of the developmental processes and the support of research on these complex problems. Participants stressed that many child-rearing…

  15. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  16. Vocabulary Acquisition: Synthesis of the Research. Technical Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Scott K.; And Others

    Recent research on vocabulary development is reviewed, highlighting issues related to diverse learners. The review included studies of students who are low performers; learning or reading disabled; remedial readers; high achievers; and students who are culturally disadvantaged, language delayed, and linguistically diverse. Areas of convergence in…

  17. Computer-Based Imaginary Sciences and Research on Concept Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brockenbrough S.

    To control for interactions in learning research due to subjects' prior knowledge of the instructional material presented, an imaginary curriculum was presented with a computer assisted technique based on Carl Berieter's imaginary science of Xenograde systems. The curriculum consisted of a classification system for ten conceptual classes of…

  18. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) diversity in Sinclair and Hanford swine.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chak-Sum; Martens, Gregory W; Amoss, Max S; Gomez-Raya, Luis; Beattie, Craig W; Smith, Douglas M

    2010-03-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotype B is associated with increased penetrance of the tumor traits in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma (SSCM). We established a series of SinclairxHanford swine crosses to facilitate genetic mapping of the tumor-associated loci. In this study, the SLA diversity in the founding animals was characterized for effective selection of maximum tumor penetrance in the pedigrees. Using the sequence-based typing (SBT) method we identified a total of 29 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing six class I and five class II haplotypes. We subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the crossbred progeny. In a total of 469 animals we identified three crossovers within the class I region and three between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.39% and 0.56%, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of two expressed SLA-1 loci in three of the class I haplotypes and were able to determine the relative chromosomal arrangement of the duplicated loci in two haplotypes. This study furthers our understanding of the allelic architecture and polymorphism of the SLA system and will facilitate the mapping of loci associated with the expression of SSCM.

  19. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) for marine and ecological research from aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The efforts of researchers at Mississippi State University to utilize space-age technology in the development of a self-contained, portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research are presented. The compact, lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing.

  20. Enhancing cricket batting skill: implications for biomechanics and skill acquisition research and practice.

    PubMed

    Portus, Marc R; Farrow, Damian

    2011-11-01

    This review synthesises the biomechanical and skill acquisition/sport expertise literature focused on the skill of cricket batting. The literature is briefly reviewed and the major limitations, challenges, and suggested future research directions are outlined. This is designed to stimulate researchers to enhance the understanding of cricket batting biomechanics and skill acquisition and in turn assist cricket coaches develop efficacious batting skill development programmes. An interdisciplinary approach between biomechanists and skill acquisition specialists is advocated to further knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms of cricket batting expertise. Issues such as skill measurement, practice design, ball machines, skill transfer, the impact of Twenty/20 cricket, video simulation, and skill decomposition are discussed. The ProBatter ball machine systems are introduced along with suggestions for best practice approaches for coaches when designing batting skill development programmes.

  1. SLA typing using the PCR-SSP method and establishment of the SLA homozygote line in pedigreed SNU miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Su-Cheong; Park, Chung-Gyu; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Lee, Wang-Jae

    2010-04-01

    Seoul National University (SNU) miniature pigs represent a closed colony with 24 founder pigs and a well preserved pedigree. Characterization using mRNA sequence analysis was conducted for 6 swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) loci in parental or founder pigs, and 17 defined alleles were detected. Based on these complete coding sequences, 17 sequence specific primers (SSPs) were designed for polymorphic sites. To validate the specificity of each allele SSP, the PCR-SSP was conducted with defined allele clones as templates. PCR-SSP was conducted with the hot start polymerase and touch-down PCR. The parental or found SNU miniature pigs showed overall SLA class I and II heterozygotes. Using the established PCR-SSP method, we conducted SLA typing for breeding stock including 2 pedigreed pigs and identified the novel SLA class II homozygote haplotye (DRA*0201, DRB1*0403, DQA*0102 and DQB1*0701) and 2 SLA homozygote pig lines: SLA class I Hp-3.0 and class II Hp-0.3, and SLA class I Hp-2.0 and class II Hp-0.2. We thought that our PCR-SSP SLA typing method could be applicable for new SLA homozygote line establishment by assignment and scheduled breeding.

  2. 75 FR 18034 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Research and Development Contract Type...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Regulation Supplement; Research and Development Contract Type Determination (DFARS Case 2006-D053) AGENCY... a major defense acquisition program (MDAP) to select the contract type for a development program... INFORMATION: A. Background DoD published an interim rule at 73 FR 4117 on January 24, 2008, to...

  3. The Missing Link in Vision and Governance: Foreign Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire J.

    1987-01-01

    Foreign language acquisition research (concerned with the theoretical and practical issues related to socialization into and literacy in another language and culture) can help integrate language, literature, and culture in foreign language departments because it draws on insights gained from such diverse fields as anthropology, sociology,…

  4. The Use of Web Questionnaires in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rosemary; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    The present article focuses on data collection through web questionnaires, as opposed to the traditional pen-and-paper method for research in second language acquisition and bilingualism. It is argued that web questionnaires, which have been used quite widely in psychology, have the advantage of reaching out to a larger and more diverse pool of…

  5. The Roles of Attention and (Un)awareness in SLA: Conceptual Replication of N. C. Ellis & Sagarra (2010a) and Leung & Williams (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that attention and (un)awareness in second/foreign language (L2 learning) are two constructs that have permeated, explicitly or implicitly, second language acquisition (SLA) studies since their inception. Indeed, we have witnessed several empirical studies attempting to probe more deeply into the roles of these two constructs in…

  6. Class and SLA: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how class might be brought to the fore as an identity inscription in studies of second language learning, alongside other identity inscriptions such as gender, ethnicity and national identity, which have been the focus of rather more research. It begins by clarifying what is meant by class through a brief discussion of the…

  7. Retention in SLA Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2011-01-01

    Second language learners are faced with the challenging task of remembering many new words. Exactly how learners are supposed to accomplish that task is disputed. Research on lexical processing that has been carried out in cognitive psychology showed that rehearsing words in expanded patterns, that is, with a delay between each rehearsal, leads to…

  8. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  9. The comparative method of language acquisition research: a Mayan case study.

    PubMed

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and is especially useful in drawing attention to variation in contexts of use across languages. This article uses the Comparative Method to analyze the acquisition of verb suffixes in two Mayan languages: K'iche' and Yucatec. Mayan status suffixes simultaneously mark distinctions in verb transitivity, verb class, mood, and clause position. Two-year-old children acquiring K'iche' and Yucatec Maya accurately produce the status suffixes on verbs, in marked distinction to the verbal prefixes for aspect and agreement. We find evidence that the contexts of use for the suffixes differentially promote the children's production of cognate status suffixes in K'iche' and Yucatec.

  10. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  11. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  12. The Spirituality of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Baxter

    2006-01-01

    Parallels between the reconstruction of self in Alcoholics Anonymous and the reconstruction of self in second language acquisition are drawn out and examined in three areas: ego deflation, identification at depth, and mutual assistance. These spiritual principles are shown to be theoretically and empirically supported in SLA literature and…

  13. Research and design of portable photoelectric rotary table data-acquisition and analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dawei; Yang, Xiufang; Han, Junfeng; Yan, Xiaoxu

    2015-02-01

    Photoelectric rotary table as the main test tracking measurement platform, widely use in shooting range and aerospace fields. In the range of photoelectric tracking measurement system, in order to meet the photoelectric testing instruments and equipment of laboratory and field application demand, research and design the portable photoelectric rotary table data acquisition and analysis system, and introduces the FPGA device based on Xilinx company Virtex-4 series and its peripheral module of the system hardware design, and the software design of host computer in VC++ 6.0 programming platform and MFC package based on class libraries. The data acquisition and analysis system for data acquisition, display and storage, commission control, analysis, laboratory wave playback, transmission and fault diagnosis, and other functions into an organic whole, has the advantages of small volume, can be embedded, high speed, portable, simple operation, etc. By photoelectric tracking turntable as experimental object, carries on the system software and hardware alignment, the experimental results show that the system can realize the data acquisition, analysis and processing of photoelectric tracking equipment and control of turntable debugging good, and measurement results are accurate, reliable and good maintainability and extensibility. The research design for advancing the photoelectric tracking measurement equipment debugging for diagnosis and condition monitoring and fault analysis as well as the standardization and normalization of the interface and improve the maintainability of equipment is of great significance, and has certain innovative and practical value.

  14. The Syntactic Positions of Adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zi-hong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of linguistic universal and Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the paper discusses the acquisition of syntactic positions of adverbs in English. According to the data collected, the paper concludes that what adult learners acquire about adverbs is the distinction of different adverbs and the different scopes they take.…

  15. Research in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Papers of the Los Angeles Second Language Acquisition Research Forum. Issues In Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarcella, Robin C., Ed.; Krashen, Stephen D., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "The Theoretical and Practical Relevance of Simple Codes in Second Language Acquisition" (Krashen); (2) "Talking to Foreigners versus Talking to Children: Similarities and Differences" (Freed); (3) "The Levertov Machine" (Stevick); (4) "Acquiring a Second Language when You're Not the Underdog" (Edelsky and…

  16. Sequence-based characterization of the eight SLA loci in Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y J; Cho, K H; Kim, M J; Smith, D M; Ho, C S; Jung, K C; Jin, D I; Park, C S; Jeon, J T; Lee, J H

    2008-08-01

    Eight swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) gene (SLA-1, SLA-2, SLA-3, SLA-6, DRA, DRB1, DQA, DQB1) alleles were identified using sequence-based typing method in three Korean native pigs used for breeding at the National Institute of Animal Science in Korea. Six new alleles in class I genes and three new alleles in class II genes have been identified in this breed and can give valuable information for xenotransplantation and disease resistance.

  17. On the Danger of Exogenous Theory in CA-for-SLA: A Response to Hellermann and Cole (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Within the growing body of work that is sometimes labeled CA-for-SLA, there is a need for more research with longitudinal data. Hellermann and Cole (2009) provide a valuable contribution in this area. However, in doing so, they also make use of an exogenous theory of learning, situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger 1991), and its associated…

  18. The biocompatibility of SLA-treated titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongil; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Koh, Seung-Yong; Park, Ju-Han; Lee, In-Seop

    2008-06-01

    The titanium implant surface was sandblasted with large grits and acid etched (SLA) to increase the implant surface for osseointegration. The topography of the titanium surface was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer. The SLA implant demonstrated uniform small micro pits (1-2 microm in diameter). The values of average roughness (R(a)) and maximum height (R(t)) were 1.19 microm and 10.53 microm respectively after sandblasting and the acid-etching treatment. In the cell-surface interaction study, the human osteoblast cells grew well in vitro. The in vivo evaluation of the SLA implant placed in rabbit tibia showed good bone-to-implant contact (BIC) with a mean value of 29% in total length of the implant. In the short-term clinical study, SLA implants demonstrated good clinical performance, maintaining good crestal bone height.

  19. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., procurement, competition, contracts and business management, logistics, product integrity, and education and... management of acquisition programs; (c) All aspects of the acquisition process within the Department of...

  20. Second Language Acquisition by Low-Literate Learners: An Understudied Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescent and adult L2 learners in language classrooms, both in the US and other countries, have little or no alphabetic print literacy. Language teachers may turn to SLA research for assistance, yet almost all research on oral SLA has focused on educated, highly-literate learners (Bigelow & Tarone 2004; Tarone, Bigelow & Hansen 2009). The…

  1. Molecular characteristics of the SLA-2 gene from Chinese Hebao pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, F-S; Bai, J; Zhang, X-H; Zhang, W-J; Guo, D; Zhang, S

    2012-02-01

    To study the molecular characteristics of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I from the Hebao pig, a rare inbreed in China, a pair of primers was designed to amplify the SLA-2 gene (SLA-2-HB) and then the molecular characteristics of the gene were analyzed by computer. After cloning, sequencing and computer analysis, four SLA-2-HB alleles were found, all of 1119 bp. Sites 3-1097 were an open reading frame encoding 364 amino acids with two sets of intra-chain disulfide bonds comprising four cysteines situated in sites 125, 188, 227 and 283. By alignment of SLA-2-HB sequences with other SLA-2 alleles in the DNA Data Bank of Japan/European Molecular Biology Laboratory/GenBank database, nine key variable amino acid sites were found in the extracellular domain of the SLA-2-HB alleles at sites 23(F), 24(I), 43(A), 44(K), 50(Q), 73(N), 95(I), 114(R) and 216(S), which could be used to differentiate other SLA-2 alleles. The amino acid identities between SLA-2-HB and other SLA-2, SLA-3 and SLA-1 alleles were 87.1-97.0%, 85.0-93.9% and 83.3- 88.6%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree of SLA-2-HB showed that it was relatively independent of the other SLA-2 genes. Furthermore, the SLA-2-HB alleles were similar to HLA-B15 and HLA-A2 functional do- mains and preserved some functional sites of HLA-A2. It was concluded that SLA-2-HB is an allele of SLA-2 and that the Hebao pig might have evolved independently in China.

  2. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S. E.; McLauglin, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  3. Sequence-based characterization of five SLA loci in Asian wild boars.

    PubMed

    Jung, W Y; Choi, N R; Seo, D W; Lim, H T; Ho, C S; Lee, J H

    2014-10-01

    Two swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) class I (SLA-1 and SLA-2) and three class II (DRB1, DQB1 and DQA) genes were investigated for their diversity in Asian wild boars using a sequence-based typing method. A total of 15 alleles were detected at these loci, with eleven being novel. The findings provide one of the first glimpses of the SLA allelic diversity and architecture in the wild boar populations.

  4. Substrate Influence in Creoles and the Role of Transfer in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how research on language transfer in the field of SLA can help to explain the origins of substrate influence in creoles and provide answers to more difficult questions concerning the distribution and verification of substrate features. First, it argues against the view that both SLA and transfer are not involved in the…

  5. MICROSATELLITE DIVERSITY AND CROSSOVER REGIONS WITHIN HOMOZYGOUS AND HETEROZYGOUS SLA HAPLOTYPES OF DIFFERENT PIG BREEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to investigate microsatellite (MS) diversity and find crossover regions at 42 polymorphic MS loci in the SLA genomic region of 72 pigs with different homozygous and heterozygous well-defined SLA haplotypes. We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of the 42 MS markers in 23 SLA homozygous/h...

  6. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the SLA class I region.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hoyoung; McClure, Matthew Charles

    2011-04-01

    Microsatellite (MS) markers in the SLA-1 region were characterized via sequencing analysis with BAC clones generated from the National Institute of Health miniature pigs (MIPs). A total of 16 BAC clones were sequenced producing 15,228 shotgun reads, corresponding to 11.2 X sequencing coverage, that were used to construct a contig of 12.18 Mb in length. MS markers were compared with previously deposited GenBank sequences to verify the existence of 423 potential MS candidate markers in the SLA-1 region. Evaluation of these polymorphisms confirmed 59 markers in MIPs, and the combined data including sequences from GenBank revealed 155 polymorphic MS markers. MS markers identified from this analysis can be used to provide an alternative method to direct typing for determining an individual's SLA-1 haplotype.

  7. Proposal for Research and Development: Vertexing, Tracking, and Data Acquisition for the Bottom Collider Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, H.; Gomez, B.; Rivera, F.; Sanabria, J.-C.; Yager, P.; Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Childress, S.; Lebrun, P.; Morfin, J.; Roberts, L.A.; /Fermilab /Florida U. /Houston U. /IIT /Iowa U. /Northeastern U. /Northern Illinois U. /Ohio State U. /Oklahoma U. /Pennsylvania U.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a program of research and development into the detector systems needed for a B-physics experiment at the Fermilab p-{bar p} Collider. The initial emphasis is on the critical issues of vertexting, tracking, and data acquisition in the high-multiplicity, high-rate collider environment. R and D for the particle-identification systems (RICH counters, TRD's, and EM calorimeter) will be covered in a subsequent proposal. To help focus their efforts in a timely manner, they propose the first phase of the R and D should culminate in a system test at the C0 collider intersect during the 1990-1991 run: a small fraction of the eventual vertex detector would be used to demonstrate that secondary-decay vertices can be found at a hadron collider. The proposed budget for the r and D program is $800k in 1989, $1.5M in 1990, and $1.6M in 1991.

  8. The Development of Theories of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a relatively new field of enquiry. Before the late 1960s, educators did write about L2 learning, but very much as an adjunct of language teaching pedagogy, underpinned by behaviourism, the then-dominant learning theory in psychology. In this view, the task facing learners of foreign languages was to rote-learn…

  9. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Second Language and Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang Leimbigler, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    This article iterates the results of integrating literacy into SLA (Second Language Acquisition) from a constructivist's perspective in preparing syllabi, pedagogical activities and testing. The observation of Mandarin-learning students' performance and conversations with them suggest that introducing certain vocabulary, expressions and…

  10. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) Photovoltaic Concentrator Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Stretched Lens Array (SLA) photovoltaic concentrator has evolved, under a NASA contract, from a concept with small component demonstrators to operational array hardware that is ready for space validation testing. A fully-functional four panel SLA solar array has been designed, built and tested. This paper will summarize the focus of the hardware development effort, discuss the results of recent testing conducted under this program and present the expected performance of a full size 7kW array designed to meet the requirements of future space missions.

  11. Language Acquisition without Universal Grammar: A General Nativist Proposal for L2 Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    1996-01-01

    Explores the prospects for a "general nativist" theory of first- and second-language acquisition (SLA), outlines a modular acquisition device not including Universal Grammar, and considers the role of universal grammar in the emergence of a first language (L1). (50 references) (Author/CK)

  12. Focus and Split-Intransitivity: The Acquisition of Word Order Alternations in Non-Native Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Cristobal

    2006-01-01

    Recent unrelated studies reveal what appears to be a common acquisitional pattern in second language acquisition (SLA). While some findings show that advanced learners can indeed achieve convergent, native-like competence with formal syntactic properties (even when these are underdetermined by the input), other findings suggest that they can…

  13. [The influence of sex and menstrual cycle on conditioned acquisition and extinction: Event-related potential research].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Zheng, Xi-Fu

    2015-10-25

    Previous studies have indicated phase-related differences in conditioned acquisition and extinction. In recent years, many researchers used event-related potential (ERP) technology to assess the extent of the acquisition and extinction. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the sex- and menstrual cycle-dependent effects on the conditioned acquisition and extinction using ERP technology. Thirty-two females at two phases (menses phase, FM, and luteal phase, FL) of their menstrual cycle and 16 males participated in the experiment. The experiment consisted of two stages: acquisition stage and extinction stage. In the acquisition stage, in the predictable context, a condition stimulus (CS) was always followed by the presentation of a negative picture or a neutral picture; but in the unpredictable context, a CS was paired with a negative picture or a neutral picture 20% of the time. In the extinction stage, only CS was presented. The results showed that at acquisition stage, significant larger P2 amplitudes were recorded in female subjects in FL and FM in comparison with those of males. The female subjects in FL may acquire the strongest CS-US conditional connection. At extinction stage, the female subjects in FL showed larger P2 amplitudes than males, but there were no significant differences in P2 amplitudes between the males and females in FM. The results suggest that the females in FL allocate more attention resources to the acquisition of a conditioned response and delayed extinction. In conclusion, we suggest that female menstrual cycle may modulate conditioned acquisition and extinction processes, and our ERP data may provide an explanation for the premenstrual dysphoric disorder. PMID:26490064

  14. [The influence of sex and menstrual cycle on conditioned acquisition and extinction: Event-related potential research].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Zheng, Xi-Fu

    2015-10-25

    Previous studies have indicated phase-related differences in conditioned acquisition and extinction. In recent years, many researchers used event-related potential (ERP) technology to assess the extent of the acquisition and extinction. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the sex- and menstrual cycle-dependent effects on the conditioned acquisition and extinction using ERP technology. Thirty-two females at two phases (menses phase, FM, and luteal phase, FL) of their menstrual cycle and 16 males participated in the experiment. The experiment consisted of two stages: acquisition stage and extinction stage. In the acquisition stage, in the predictable context, a condition stimulus (CS) was always followed by the presentation of a negative picture or a neutral picture; but in the unpredictable context, a CS was paired with a negative picture or a neutral picture 20% of the time. In the extinction stage, only CS was presented. The results showed that at acquisition stage, significant larger P2 amplitudes were recorded in female subjects in FL and FM in comparison with those of males. The female subjects in FL may acquire the strongest CS-US conditional connection. At extinction stage, the female subjects in FL showed larger P2 amplitudes than males, but there were no significant differences in P2 amplitudes between the males and females in FM. The results suggest that the females in FL allocate more attention resources to the acquisition of a conditioned response and delayed extinction. In conclusion, we suggest that female menstrual cycle may modulate conditioned acquisition and extinction processes, and our ERP data may provide an explanation for the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

  15. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Design specifications. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow driver performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During Phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volume 2 presents the related appendices. Volume three (this report) displays the design specifications developed for DASCAR during the ``develop design requirements and specifications for a portable driver performance data acquisition system`` task. Design specifications were assembled for each DASCAR element. The specifications were prepared in sufficient detail to allow a third party to use them to design, develop, procure, and subsequently construct the data acquisition system. This report also covers the background to the program.

  16. Investigation of the relationship between SLA-1 and SLA-3 gene expression and susceptibility to Escherichia coli F18 in post-weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Zi, C; Pan, Z Y; Zhu, J; Du, Z D; Zhu, G Q; Huang, X G; Bao, W B; Wu, S L

    2012-01-01

    Porcine post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease are principally caused by Escherichia coli strains that produce F18 adhesin. FUT1 genotyping and receptor binding studies divided piglets into E. coli F18-resistant and -sensitive groups, and the roles of SLA-1 and SLA-3 were investigated. SLA-1 and SLA-3 expression was detected in 11 pig tissues, with higher levels of SLA-1 in lung, immune tissues and gastrointestinal tract, and higher levels of SLA-3 also in lung and lymphoid tissues. Both genes were expressed higher in F18-resistant piglets, and their expression was positively correlated in different tissues; a negative correlation was observed in some tissues of F18-sensitive group, particularly in lung and lymphatic samples. Gene ontology and pathway analyses showed that SLA-1 and SLA-3 were involved in 37 biological processes, including nine pathways related to immune functions. These observations help to elucidate the relationship between SLA class I genes and E. coli F18-related porcine gastrointestinal tract diseases.

  17. Lexical Processing and Organization in Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Guiding Future Research

    PubMed Central

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between two languages in the early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. PMID:26866430

  18. Lexical processing and organization in bilingual first language acquisition: Guiding future research.

    PubMed

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between 2 languages in early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. SLA Annual Salary Survey and Workplace Study, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, John, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Libraries' Association (SLA) has conducted salary surveys since 1967, triennially from 1967 to 1990, biennially from 1990 to 1996 and annually from 1997 forward. The objectives of the annual Salary Survey are to: (1) Collect and analyze systematic, accurate information about the salaries of special librarians and information…

  20. SLA Annual Salary Survey and Workplace Study, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, John, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The Special Libraries' Association (SLA) has conducted salary surveys since 1967, triennially from 1967 to 1990, biennially from 1990 to 1996 and annually from 1997 forward. The objectives of the annual Salary Survey are to: (1) Collect and analyze systematic, accurate information about the salaries of special librarians and information…

  1. Profile of middle school students on scientific literacy achievements by using scientific literacy assessments (SLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmatullah, Arif; Diana, Sariwulan; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.

    2016-02-01

    Along with the development of science and technology, the basic ability to read, write and count is not enough just to be able to survive in the modern era that surrounded by the products of science and technology. Scientific literacy is an ability that might be added as basic ability for human in the modern era. Recently, Fives et al. developed a new scientific literacy assessment for students, named as SLA (Scientific Literacy Assessment). A pilot study on the achievements of scientific literacy of middle school students in Sumedang using SLA was conducted to investigate the profile scientific literacy achievement of 223 middle school students in Sumedang, and compare the outcomes between genders (159 girls and 64 boys) and school accreditation (A and B) using a quantitative method with descriptive research-school survey. Based on the results, the average achievement of scientific literacy Sumedang middle school students is 45.21 and classified as the low category. The five components of scientific literacy, which is only one component in the medium category, namely science motivation and beliefs, and the four other components are in the low and very low category. Boys have higher scientific literacy, but the differences not statistically significant. Student's scientific literacy in an accredited school is higher than B, and the differences are statistically significant. Recommendation for further are: involve more research subjects, add more number of questions for each indicator, and conduct an independent research for each component.

  2. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  3. Identification of peptides from foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class I swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) alleles, SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L E; Harndahl, M; Nielsen, M; Patch, J R; Jungersen, G; Buus, S; Golde, W T

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of the peptide-binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. Here, we describe the complete binding motif of the SLA-2*0401 molecule based on a positional scanning combinatorial peptide library approach. By combining this binding motif with data achieved by applying the NetMHCpan peptide prediction algorithm to both SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401, we identified high-affinity binding peptides. A total of 727 different 9mer and 726 different 10mer peptides within the structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), strain A24 were analyzed as candidate T-cell epitopes. Peptides predicted by the NetMHCpan were tested in ELISA for binding to the SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401 major histocompatibility complex class I proteins. Four of the 10 predicted FMDV peptides bound to SLA-2*0401, whereas five of the nine predicted FMDV peptides bound to SLA-1*0401. These methods provide the characterization of T-cell epitopes in response to pathogens in more detail. The development of such approaches to analyze vaccine performance will contribute to a more accelerated improvement of livestock vaccines by virtue of identifying and focusing analysis on bona fide T-cell epitopes.

  4. The Associations between Language Aptitude and Second Language Grammar Acquisition: A Meta-Analytic Review of Five Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a meta-analysis that synthesizes the empirical research on the role of language aptitude in second language grammar acquisition. A total of 33 study reports were identified including 17 predictive studies that investigated the correlations between aptitude and ultimate L2 attainment and 16 interactional studies that examined the…

  5. Research and Development in the Computer and Information Sciences. Volume 1, Information Acquisition, Sensing, and Input: A Selective Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary Elizabeth

    The series, of which this is the initial report, is intended to give a selective overview of research and development efforts and requirements in the computer and information sciences. The operations of information acquisition, sensing, and input to information processing systems are considered in generalized terms. Specific topics include but are…

  6. Fostering Language Acquisition in Daycare Settings: What Does the Research Tell Us? Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The ways in which children learn a language--be it their mother tongue or their second language--can have a strong influence on their success in school. Researchers in linguistics and early child development have tried to determine the factors that can help and hinder language acquisition in young children, with some conflicting results. In this…

  7. The Invisibility of SLA Theory in Mainstream Creole Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouse, Rex A.

    2010-01-01

    This review article argues that contemporary mainstream second language acquisition research has extremely little, if any, impact on current scholarship in creole linguistics. After a promise of an active synergy between the two subfields 30 years ago, genuine engagement slowed to a virtual stop by the mid-1980s as both fields continued to develop…

  8. Some Implications of Research in Second Language Acquisition for Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Linda

    On the continuum along which theories of first and second language acquisition are located, the two extremes represent the classic controversy of nature (nativist) vs. nurture (environmentalist), while those in the middle view language acquisition as a result of a more or less balanced interaction between innate capacities and linguistic…

  9. A combined prediction strategy increases identification of peptides bound with high affinity and stability to porcine MHC class I molecules SLA-1*04:01, SLA-2*04:01, and SLA-3*04:01.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Rasmussen, Michael; Harndahl, Mikkel; Nielsen, Morten; Buus, Søren; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-02-01

    Affinity and stability of peptides bound by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are important factors in presentation of peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In silico prediction methods of peptide-MHC binding followed by experimental analysis of peptide-MHC interactions constitute an attractive protocol to select target peptides from the vast pool of viral proteome peptides. We have earlier reported the peptide binding motif of the porcine MHC-I molecules SLA-1*04:01 and SLA-2*04:01, identified by an ELISA affinity-based positional scanning combinatorial peptide library (PSCPL) approach. Here, we report the peptide binding motif of SLA-3*04:01 and combine two prediction methods and analysis of both peptide binding affinity and stability of peptide-MHC complexes to improve rational peptide selection. Using a peptide prediction strategy combining PSCPL binding matrices and in silico prediction algorithms (NetMHCpan), peptide ligands from a repository of 8900 peptides were predicted for binding to SLA-1*04:01, SLA-2*04:01, and SLA-3*04:01 and validated by affinity and stability assays. From the pool of predicted peptides for SLA-1*04:01, SLA-2*04:01, and SLA-3*04:01, a total of 71, 28, and 38% were binders with affinities below 500 nM, respectively. Comparison of peptide-SLA binding affinity and complex stability showed that peptides of high affinity generally, but not always, produce complexes of high stability. In conclusion, we demonstrate how state-of-the-art prediction and in vitro immunology tools in combination can be used for accurate selection of peptides for MHC class I binding, hence providing an expansion of the field of peptide-MHC analysis also to include pigs as a livestock experimental model.

  10. The Data Acquisition and Control Systems of the Jet Noise Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, B. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The features of the data acquisition and control systems of the NASA Langley Research Center's Jet Noise Laboratory are presented. The Jet Noise Laboratory is a facility that simulates realistic mixed flow turbofan jet engine nozzle exhaust systems in simulated flight. The system is capable of acquiring data for a complete take-off assessment of noise and nozzle performance. This paper describes the development of an integrated system to control and measure the behavior of model jet nozzles featuring dual independent high pressure combusting air streams with wind tunnel flow. The acquisition and control system is capable of simultaneous measurement of forces, moments, static and dynamic model pressures and temperatures, and jet noise. The design concepts for the coordination of the control computers and multiple data acquisition computers and instruments are discussed. The control system design and implementation are explained, describing the features, equipment, and the experiences of using a primarily Personal Computer based system. Areas for future development are examined.

  11. Research on the design of surface acquisition system of active lap based on FPGA and FX2LP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongshen; Li, Xiaojin; Fan, Bin; Zeng, Zhige

    2014-08-01

    In order to research the dynamic surface shape changes of active lap during the processing, this paper introduces a dynamic surface shape acquisition system of active lap using FPGA and USB communication. This system consists of high-precision micro-displacement sensor array, acquisition board, PC computer composition, and acquisition circuit board includes six sub-boards based on FPGA, a hub-board based on FPGA and USB communication. A sub-board is responsible for a number of independent channel sensors' data acquisition; hub-board is responsible for creating encoder simulation tools to active lap deformation control system with location information, sending synchronization information to latch the sensor data in all of the sub-boards for a time, while addressing the sub-boards to gather the sensor data in each sub-board one by one and transmitting all the sensor data together with location information via the USB chip FX2LP to the host computer. Experimental results show that the system is capable of fixing the location and speed of active lap, meanwhile the control of surface transforming and dynamic surface data acquisition at a certain location in the processing is implemented.

  12. [Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SLA-DR genes in Hunan Shaziling pigs].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Ya; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Xue, Li-Qun; Huang, Sheng-Qiang; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    In order to clone class II DRA and DRB genes of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) in Hunan Shaziling pigs, to analyze their characteristics and polymorphism and to provide immunological basic parameters for xenotransplantation from pigs to humans. SLA-DRA and SLA-DRB genes in two Shaziling pigs with the absence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) env-c were amplified by RT-PCR, cloned into PUCm-T vectors, sequenced and analyzed through BLAST in NCBI and related software in ExPASY. The obtained SLA-DRA and SLA-DRB genes of Shaziling pigs were 1,177 and 909 nucleotides in length with their accession numbers in Genbank as EF143987 and EF143988. Bioinformatics analyses have shown that they both contain opening reading frame (ORF) and encode 252 and 266 amino acids respectively. Comparing the ORF and protein sequences of the Shaziling SLA-DRA and SLA-DRB genes with their counterpart sequences of human, the homologies of nucleotide sequences were 83% and 83%, and the homologies of amino acid sequences 83 % and 79% respectively. Further comparison with SLA sequences published in GenBank indicated that SLA-DRB gene found in Shaziling pigs has polymorphism while the homology of SLA-DRA gene is up to 100 % .

  13. Ultrasound research scanner for real-time synthetic aperture data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holm, Ole; Jensen, Lars Joost; Bendsen, Henrik; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Munk, Peter; Hansen, Martin; Salomonsen, Kent; Hansen, Johnny; Gormsen, Kim; Pedersen, Henrik Møller; Gammelmark, Kim L

    2005-05-01

    Conventional ultrasound systems acquire ultrasound data sequentially one image line at a time. The architecture of these systems is therefore also sequential in nature and processes most of the data in a sequential pipeline. This often makes it difficult to implement radically different imaging strategies on the platforms and makes the scanners less accessible for research purposes. A system designed for imaging research flexibility is the prime concern. The possibility of sending out arbitrary signals and the storage of data from all transducer elements for 5 to 10 seconds allows clinical evaluation of synthetic aperture and 3D imaging. This paper describes a real-time system specifically designed for research purposes. The system can acquire multichannel data in real-time from multi-element ultrasound transducers, and can perform some real-time processing on the acquired data. The system is capable of performing real-time beamforming for conventional imaging methods using linear, phased, and convex arrays. Image acquisition modes can be intermixed, and this makes it possible to perform initial trials in a clinical environment with new imaging modalities for synthetic aperture imaging, 2D and 3D B-mode, and velocity imaging using advanced coded emissions. The system can be used with 128-element transducers and can excite 128 transducer elements and receive and sample data from 64 channels simultaneously at 40 MHz with 12-bit precision. Two-to-one multiplexing in receive can be used to cover 128 receive channels. Data can be beamformed in real time using the system's 80 signal processing units, or it can be stored directly in RAM. The system has 16 Gbytes RAM and can, thus, store more than 3.4 seconds of multichannel data. It is fully software programmable and its signal processing units can also be reconfigured under software control. The control of the system is done over a 100-Mbits/s Ethernet using C and Matlab. Programs for doing, e.g., B-mode imaging can be

  14. Differential alloreactivity at SLA-DR and -DQ matching in two-way mixed lymphocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa-Kanai, Tomoko; Tanioka, Yoshikuni; Tanigawa, Manabu; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Ueda, Susumu; Onodera, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu

    2002-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are heterodimeric cell surface glycoproteins important for antigen presentation to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Class II molecules of the pig MHC, termed SLA, identified so far include DR and DQ. Thus far, functional differences between products of different loci in SLalpha class II have not been well characterized. For detailed research on this issue, SLalpha-DRbeta1 and -DQbeta typings were newly developed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products. Using this method, several RFLP types were chosen from 13 CSK miniature pigs, and alloreactivities in two-way mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) derived from these pigs were examined by cell proliferation assay using flow cytometry. The responses in MLC varied according to the degree of phenotype difference. In MLC from individuals of the same RFLP type in both SLA-DRbeta1 and -DQbeta, the proliferative responses showed slight reaction indicating that they were not so stimulated by each other. On the other hand, for the RFLP type-mismatching combination, the responses were strong indicating that they recognized each others alloantigens. The reactivity of only the DQbeta mismatching combination was as strong as those of only the DRbeta1 mismatching combination. These data indicate the important role of the DQ as well as DR molecule on alloreactivity in MLC.

  15. Resource Provisioning in SLA-Based Cluster Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Kaiqi; Suh, Sang

    Cluster computing is excellent for parallel computation. It has become increasingly popular. In cluster computing, a service level agreement (SLA) is a set of quality of services (QoS) and a fee agreed between a customer and an application service provider. It plays an important role in an e-business application. An application service provider uses a set of cluster computing resources to support e-business applications subject to an SLA. In this paper, the QoS includes percentile response time and cluster utilization. We present an approach for resource provisioning in such an environment that minimizes the total cost of cluster computing resources used by an application service provider for an e-business application that often requires parallel computation for high service performance, availability, and reliability while satisfying a QoS and a fee negotiated between a customer and the application service provider. Simulation experiments demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  16. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  17. Child-Adult Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Series on Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen D., Ed.; And Others

    Studies of age differences in second language learning ability are collected along with commentary on the results. The 12 papers describe long and short term studies of children and adults that focus on the optimal age for second language acquisition, the effect of different teaching methods and environments on age differences, and theories that…

  18. 78 FR 48331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Release of Fundamental Research Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of.... Background DoD published a proposed rule, DFARS case 2011-D039, in the Federal Register at 76 FR 38089 on... the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) in a memorandum...

  19. The Effectiveness of the Comprehension Hypothesis: A Review on the Current Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…

  20. The Age-Length-Onset Problem in Research on Second Language Acquisition among Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating the possible effects of age at immigration (a proxy for age at onset of second language learning) on second language acquisition among immigrants often explicitly take the effect of length of residence in the destination country (a measure of exposure to opportunities to learn the second language) into account. A third…

  1. Is the Acquisition Order of Grammatical Morphemes Impervious to L1 Knowledge? Evidence from the Acquisition of Plural -"s", Articles, and Possessive '"s"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Zoe Pei-sui; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    In SLA, it has been often assumed that the effect of the first language (L1) is not very strong in the acquisition of grammatical morphemes (e.g., Ellis, 1994; Mitchell & Myles, 2004). However, such an assumption has not been systematically examined in the literature. This article reviews the morpheme studies conducted with native speakers of…

  2. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  3. Allelic diversity at class II DRB1 and DQB loci of the pig MHC (SLA).

    PubMed

    Kanai, T H; Tanioka, Y; Tanigawa, M; Matsumoto, Y; Ueda, S; Onodera, T; Matsumoto, Y

    1999-12-01

    The loci encoding the beta chain of the pig major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, SLA-DR and -DQ, have been known to exhibit a remarkable degree of allelic polymorphism. Here, to understand the generation of SLA class II polymorphism, 25 SLA-DRB1 and 24 SLA-DQB genes including newly identified 12 SLA-DRB1 and 7 SLA-DQB genes obtained from miniature pigs were analyzed based on the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. Most of the allelic diversity was attributed to the variable sequences which encode a beta1 domain consisting of a beta-pleated sheet followed by an a helix. In the beta1 domain coding region, there were four GC-rich sequences, which have been considered to involve the intra-exon sequence exchange also in other gene evolutions. The first and second GC-rich sequences were alpha-like sequences, which have been shown to be a putative recombination signal, and were stably conserved among SLA-DRB1 and DQB genes. These alpha-like sequences identified in SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB were found to encode the first turning point of the beta-pleated sheet and the boundary between the beta-pleated sheet and the alpha helix. Analysis of clustered sequence variation also suggested intra-exon gene conversions in which the alpha-like sequences act as putative breakpoints. In addition to point mutations and selection mechanism, intra-exon gene conversions must be an important mechanism in the generation of allelic polymorphism at the SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB.

  4. Acquisition and Analysis of NASA Ames Sunphotometer Measurements during SAGE III Validation Campaigns and other Tropospheric and Stratospheric Research Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1251 provided funding from April 2001 through December 2003 for Mr. John Livingston of SRI International to collaborate with NASA Ames Research Center scientists and engineers in the acquisition and analysis of airborne sunphotometer measurements during various atmospheric field studies. Mr. Livingston participated in instrument calibrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, pre-mission hardware and software preparations, acquisition and analysis of sunphotometer measurements during the missions, and post-mission analysis of data and reporting of scientific findings. The atmospheric field missions included the spring 2001 Intensive of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003) experiment, and the winter 2003 Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II).

  5. [Research on data acquisition of portable uroflowmeter and accuracy of measurement].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaojun; Ge, Bin; Yan, Rongguo; Ruan, Hongyu

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design of data acquisition system of a portable uroflowmeter. The system uses double-hole cantilever pressure sensor. The signal is transferred to ATmega644PA microprogrammed control unit (MCU), converted by A/D (analog to digital) convertor. Then the further data are processed and get the corresponding relationship of weight-time and two curves of urine flow and urinary flow rate. In the measurement accuracy of the device about urine flow, two factors about the placement and height of the data acquisition are analyzed to show the accuracy of the equipment through the Origin 8.0 data analysis software. The design is characterized by low cost and high speed of data collection, real-time, high accuracy. PMID:24804487

  6. Research on remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition method in AutoCAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Guangtong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The remote sensing image has been widely used in AutoCAD, but AutoCAD lack of the function of remote sensing image processing. In the paper, ObjectARX was used for the secondary development tool, combined with the Image Engine SDK to realize remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition in AutoCAD, which provides critical technical support for AutoCAD environment remote sensing image processing algorithms.

  7. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research

    PubMed Central

    Campagnola, Luke; Kratz, Megan B.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multiphoton microscopy, intrinsic imaging, and calcium imaging. The system is highly modular, which facilitates the addition of new devices and functionality. The modules included with ACQ4 provide for rapid construction of acquisition protocols, live video display, and customizable analysis tools. Position-aware data collection allows automated construction of image mosaics and registration of images with 3-dimensional anatomical atlases. ACQ4 uses free and open-source tools including Python, NumPy/SciPy for numerical computation, PyQt for the user interface, and PyQtGraph for scientific graphics. Supported hardware includes cameras, patch clamp amplifiers, scanning mirrors, lasers, shutters, Pockels cells, motorized stages, and more. ACQ4 is available for download at http://www.acq4.org. PMID:24523692

  8. Microsatellite diversity and crossover regions within homozygous and heterozygous SLA haplotypes of different pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Ando, Asako; Uenishi, Hirohide; Kawata, Hisako; Tanaka-Matsuda, Maiko; Shigenari, Atsuko; Flori, Laurence; Chardon, Patrick; Lunney, Joan K; Kulski, Jerzy K; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2008-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate microsatellite (MS) diversity and find crossover regions at 42 polymorphic MS loci in the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genomic region of 72 pigs with different well-defined homozygous and heterozygous SLA haplotypes. We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 42 MS markers in 23 SLA homozygous-heterozygous, common pig breeds with 12 SLA serological haplotypes and 49 National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Clawn homozygous-heterozygous miniature pigs with nine SLA serological or genotyped haplotypes including four recombinant haplotypes. In comparing the same and different haplotypes, both haplospecific patterns and allelic variations were observed at the MS loci. Some of the shared haplotype blocks extended over 2 Mb suggesting the existence of strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the entire SLA region. Crossover regions were easily defined by the MS markers within the class I and/or III region in the NIH and Clawn recombinant haplotypes. The present haplotype comparison shows that our set of MS markers provides a fast and cost-efficient alternative, or complementary, method to the serological or sequence-based determination of the SLA alleles for the characterization of SLA haplotypes and/or the crossover regions between different haplotypes.

  9. The Development and Validation of the Science Learning Assessment (SLA): A Measure of Kindergarten Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samarapungavan, Ala; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen; French, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Science Learning Assessment (SLA) is an individually administered, instructionally sensitive science assessment for kindergarten students. The SLA is a 24-item objective test, broken down into two subtests. The Scientific Inquiry Processes subtest consists of 9 items designed to measure young children's functional understanding of the nature…

  10. Molecular characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes in outbred pig populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune, disease and vaccine responses. Thus, understanding how SLA gene polymorphism affects immunity, especially in outbred pig populations with a diverse genetic background, requires accu...

  11. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SWINE LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN (SLA) CLASS I GENES IN OUTBRED PIG POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and in transplantation. Study of SLA influence requires accurate and effective typing methods. We developed a simple and rapid method to t...

  12. UPDATE ON SLA GENES AND THEIR IMPACT ON IMMUNE AND DISEASE INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  13. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE SWINE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX, THE SLA COMPLEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  14. A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, S.; Atwood, C.; Bell, P.; Blacker, T. D.; Dey, S.; Fisher, D.; Fisher, D. A.; Genalis, P.; Gorski, J.; Harris, A.; Hill, K.; Hurwitz, M.; Kendall, R. P.; Meakin, R. L.; Morton, S.; Moyer, E. T.; Post, D. E.; Strawn, R.; Veldhuizen, D. v.; Votta, L. G.; Wynn, S.; Zelinski, G.

    2008-07-01

    In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a 360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution of CREATE are based on the 'lessons learned' from case studies of large-scale computational science and engineering projects. The case studies stress the importance of a stable, close-knit development team; a focus on customer needs and requirements; verification and validation; flexible and agile planning, management, and development processes; risk management; realistic schedules and resource levels; balanced short- and long-term goals and deliverables; and stable, long-term support by the program sponsor. Since it began in FY2008, the CREATE program has built a team and project structure, developed requirements and begun validating them, identified candidate products, established initial connections with the acquisition programs, begun detailed project planning and development, and generated the initial collaboration infrastructure necessary for success by its multi-institutional, multidisciplinary teams.

  15. Symbiotic Gesture and the Sociocognitive Visibility of Grammar in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Eton; Okada, Hanako; Nishino, Takako; Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    This article argues for the embodied and environmentally embedded nature of second language acquisition (SLA). Through fine-grained analysis of interaction using Goodwin's (2003a) concept of "symbiotic gesture"--gesture coupled with its rich environmental context to produce complex social action--we illustrate how a tutor, learner, and grammar…

  16. Features or Parameters: Which One Makes Second Language Acquisition Easier, and More Interesting to Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana

    2009-01-01

    While agreeing with Lardiere that the "parameter-resetting" approach to understanding second language acquisition (SLA) needs rethinking, it is suggested that a more construction-based perspective runs the risk of losing deductive and explanatory power. An alternative is to investigate the constraints on feature assembly/re-assembly in second…

  17. Structuring Narrative in 3D Digital Game-Based Learning Environments to Support Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, David O.

    2010-01-01

    The essay is a conceptual analysis from an instructional design perspective exploring the feasibility of using three-dimensional digital game-based learning (3D-DGBL) environments to assist in second language acquisition (SLA). It examines the shared characteristics of narrative within theories of situated cognition, context-based approaches to…

  18. Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for Grammar Activity Sequencing and Design in Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…

  19. Implicit and Explicit Corrective Feedback and the Acquisition of L2 Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod; Loewen, Shawn; Erlam, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews previous studies of the effects of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on SLA, pointing out a number of methodological problems. It then reports on a new study of the effects of these two types of corrective feedback on the acquisition of past tense -ed. In an experimental design (two experimental groups and a control…

  20. The Linguistic Landscape as an Additional Source of Input in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the role that the linguistic landscape, in the sense of all the written language in the public space, can have in second language acquisition (SLA). The linguistic landscape has symbolic and informative functions and it is multimodal, because it combines visual and printed texts, and multilingual, because it uses several…

  1. Saying What We Mean: Making a Case for "Language Acquisition" to Become "Language Development"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    As applied linguists know very well, how we use language both constructs and reflects our understanding. It is therefore important that we use terms that do justice to our concerns. In this presentation, I suggest that a more apt designation than "multilingual" or "second language acquisition" (SLA) is "multilingual"…

  2. Re-Assembling Formal Features in Second Language Acquisition: Beyond Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, Lardiere's discussion of features is compared with the use of features in constraint-based theories, and it is argued that constraint-based theories might offer a more elegant account of second language acquisition (SLA). Further evidence is reported to question the accuracy of Chierchia's (1998) Nominal Mapping Parameter.…

  3. Input, Triggering and Poverty of the Stimulus in the Second Language Acquisition of Japanese Passives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    This article adopts an input perspective in examining a poverty-of-the stimulus (POS) learning situation in second language acquisition (SLA). Analysis of grammaticality judgement data from 81 English-speaking and 85 Chinese-speaking learners of Japanese isolates triggering input that informed English learners of subtle semantic properties of the…

  4. Imposture: A Late Modern Notion in Poststructuralist SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the feelings of imposture that are sometimes experienced by multilingual subjects--learners of a language other than their own or users of multiple languages--and their difficulty of finding authentic or legitimate subject positions in a global world with fluid boundaries and uncertain categories of identity. It examines what…

  5. Secondary structure and 3D homology modeling of swine leukocyte antigen class 2 (SLA-2) molecules.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-Shan; Xu, Chong-bo; Long, Yi-hou; Xia, Chun

    2009-01-01

    No information to date is available to elucidate the structure of swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) molecule which is comprised by a heavy chain of SLA-I non-covalently associated with a light chain, beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) proteins. Presently, one of SLA-I gene SLA-2 and beta(2)m gene were expressed as soluble maltose binding proteins (MBP-proteins) in a pMAL-p2X/Escherichia coli TB1 system and identified by western blotting with anti-MBP polyclonal antibodies. The expressed proteins MBP-SLA-2 and MBP-beta(2)m were purified on amylose affinity columns followed by DEAE-Sepharose. The purified products were cleaved by Factor Xa, respectively, and the interest of proteins SLA-2 and beta(2)m were purified on amylose affinity columns followed by separation from MBP on DEAE-Sepharose. The secondary structures of SLA-2 and beta(2)m were analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of their peptide-binding domain (PBD) was modeled-based sequence homology. The content of the alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn, and random coil in the SLA-2 protein were 76, 95, 36, and 67aa, respectively. In the 98aa of beta(2)m, the contents of the alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn, and random coil were 0, 45, 8, and 45aa, respectively. The SLA-2 protein displayed a typical alpha-helix structure while beta(2)m protein displayed a typical beta-sheet structure. Homology modeling of the SLA-2 and beta(2)m proteins demonstrated similarities with the structure of human and mouse MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I proteins.

  6. Armstrong Flight Research Center Flight Test Capabilities and Opportunities for the Applications of Wireless Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.

  7. A sophisticated, multi-channel data acquisition and processing system for high frequency noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Bridges, James

    1992-01-01

    A sophisticated, multi-channel computerized data acquisition and processing system was developed at the NASA LeRC for use in noise experiments. This technology, which is available for transfer to industry, provides a convenient, cost-effective alternative to analog tape recording for high frequency acoustic measurements. This system provides 32-channel acquisition of microphone signals with an analysis bandwidth up to 100 kHz per channel. Cost was minimized through the use of off-the-shelf components. Requirements to allow for future expansion were met by choosing equipment which adheres to established industry standards for hardware and software. Data processing capabilities include narrow band and 1/3 octave spectral analysis, compensation for microphone frequency response/directivity, and correction of acoustic data to standard day conditions. The system was used successfully in a major wind tunnel test program at NASA LeRC to acquire and analyze jet noise data in support of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program.

  8. Drawing and Emerging Research: The Acquisition of Experiential Knowledge through Drawing as a Methodological Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda; Riley, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes the activity of drawing as a methodological strategy within a university research context. It is illustrated with examples from one of the authors' (Roberts) practice-based PhD research. The paper argues that drawing as a research method can be validated in a manner akin to the more established research methods associated…

  9. Escort: A data acquisition and display system to support research testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Primarily designed to acquire data at steady state test conditions, the system can also monitor slow transients such as those generated in moving to a new test condition. The system configuration makes use of a microcomputer at the test site which acts as a communications multiplexer between the measurement and display devices and a centrally located minicomputer. A variety of measurement and display devices are supported using a modular approach. This allows each system to be configured with the proper combination of devices to meet the specific test requirements, while still leaving the option to add special interfaces when needed. Centralization of the minicomputer improves utilization through sharing. The creation of a pool of minis to provide data acquisition and display services to a variable number of running tests also offers other important advantages.

  10. Entre dicho y hecho ...: An Assessment of the Application of Research from Second Language Acquisition and Related Fields to the Creation of Spanish CALL Materials for Lexical Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Lafford, Peter A.; Sykes, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Despite the problems presented by lexical errors in second language (L2) communication, most computer assisted language learning (CALL) programs tend to focus on the acquisition of grammar points rather than on the development of the L2 lexicon. In addition, CALL vocabulary tasks are typically limited in scope and mechanical in nature, covering…

  11. Transcription variants of SLA-7, a swine non classical MHC class I gene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Bourneuf, Emmanuelle; Vincent-Naulleau, Silvia; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

    2011-06-03

    In pig, very little information is available on the non classical class I (Ib) genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) i.e. SLA-6, -7 and -8. Our aim was to focus on the transcription pattern of the SLA-7 gene. RT-PCR experiments were carried out with SLA-7 specific primers targeting either the full coding sequence (CDS) from exon 1 to the 3 prime untranslated region (3UTR) or a partial CDS from exon 4 to the 3UTR. We show that the SLA-7 gene expresses a full length transcript not yet identified that refines annotation of the gene with eight exons instead of seven as initially described from the existing RefSeq RNA. These two RNAs encode molecules that differ in cytoplasmic tail length. In this study, another SLA-7 transcript variant was characterized, which encodes a protein with a shorter alpha 3 domain, as a consequence of a splicing site within exon 4. Surprisingly, a cryptic non canonical GA-AG splicing site is used to generate this transcript variant. An additional SLA-7 variant was also identified in the 3UTR with a splicing site occurring 31 nucleotides downstream to the stop codon. In conclusion, the pig SLA-7 MHC class Ib gene presents a complex transcription pattern with two transcripts encoding various molecules and transcripts that do not alter the CDS and may be subject to post-transcriptional regulation.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a new swine MHC (SLA) class II DQB allele.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, T; Tanioka, Y; Tanigawa, M; Matsumoto, Y; Onodera, T; Matsumoto, Y

    1998-06-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of pigs is known as swine leukocyte antigen (SLA). The cDNA encoding a new allele of SLA class II DQ beta-chain was successfully isolated from a CSK miniature pig (derived from Göttingen strain) and characterized by sequence analyses. SLA-DQB cDNA fragment encoding beta 2-domain was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the sequences preserved in a various vertebrates as primers. Using non-radioisotope technique with the PCR product as a probe, cDNA clone G01 was isolated from a spleen cDNA library, and nucleotide sequence of this clone was determined. This clone encompassed a whole SLA-DQ beta-chain coding region, containing a total length of 1161 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 786 nucleotides, 5' untranslated region of 15 nucleotides, and 3' untranslated region of 360 nucleotides ending with a canonical polyadenylation signal, followed by a poly A tail. Sequence comparisons of the ORF of this clone with those of known SLA-DQB genes confirmed that this clone is a new allele (SLA-DQB*G01). Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of swine, human, and murine MHC class II genes indicated that SLA-DQB was more similar to HLA-DQB1 than H-2A beta. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among SLA-DQB alleles showed that the SLA-DQ beta-chain polymorphism was found almost in beta 1-domain which contains the antigenic peptide binding sites.

  13. State Education Agencies' Acquisition and Use of Research Knowledge for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massell, Diane; Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, state education agencies (SEAs) have been given considerable responsibilities for improving low-performing schools and for adopting research-based practices in doing so. Yet we know little about how and where these organizations search for, select, and use research and other kinds of evidence. We examined these questions…

  14. Age as a Factor in Second Language Acquisition: A Review of Some Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, D. M.

    The assumed connection between ease of language learning and age has been investigated in recent years by researchers from a wide range of disciplines. With the exception of the findings of research that authentic accents are more easily acquired by children, studies seem to indicate that efficiency in language learning increases with maturation.…

  15. Implicit Learning in SLA and the Issue of Internal Validity: A Response to Leung and Williams's (2011) "The Implicit Learning of Mappings between Forms and Contextually Derived Meanings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Hama, Mike

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing theoretical, empirical, and methodological debate in the SLA field as to whether unawareness plays a role during attention to or processing of new incoming second language (L2) data. Indeed, studies that have methodologically addressed the construct of unawareness in their research designs offer both empirical support (e.g.,…

  16. pSLA2-M of Streptomyces rochei is a composite linear plasmid characterized by self-defense genes and homology with pSLA2-L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingjie; Kurokawa, Toru; Takahama, Yoshifumi; Nindita, Yosi; Mochizuki, Susumu; Arakawa, Kenji; Endo, Satoru; Kinashi, Haruyasu

    2011-01-01

    The 113,463-bp nucleotide sequence of the linear plasmid pSLA2-M of Streptomyces rochei 7434AN4 was determined. pSLA2-M had a 69.7% overall GC content, 352-bp terminal inverted repeats with 91% (321/352) identity at both ends, and 121 open reading frames. The rightmost 14.6-kb sequence was almost (14,550/14,555) identical to that of the coexisting 211-kb linear plasmid pSLA2-L. Adjacent to this homologous region an 11.8-kb CRISPR cluster was identified, which is known to function against phage infection in prokaryotes. This cluster region as well as another one containing two large membrane protein genes (orf78 and orf79) were flanked by direct repeats of 194 and 566 bp respectively. Hence the insertion of circular DNAs containing each cluster by homologous recombination was suggested. In addition, the orf71 encoded a Ku70/Ku80-like protein, known to function in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks in eukaryotes, but disruption of it did not affect the radiation sensitivity of the mutant. A pair of replication initiation genes (orf1-orf2) were identified at the extreme left end. Thus, pSLA2-M proved to be a composite linear plasmid characterized by self-defense genes and homology with pSLA2-L that might have been generated by multiple recombination events.

  17. Complete congenital heart block in autoimmune hepatitis (SLA-positive).

    PubMed

    Knolle, P; Mayet, W; Lohse, A W; Treichel, U; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Gerken, G

    1994-08-01

    Complete congenital heart block is a serious complication of neonatal lupus erythematosus which most often occurs in children of mothers suffering from connective tissue disease. We report the occurrence of complete congenital heart block associated with autoimmune hepatitis (SLA-positive). A 32-year-old woman was treated for more than 10 years for autoimmune hepatitis (SLA-/ANA-positive) and remained in clinical remission under immunosuppressive therapy. She showed an MHC-haplotype typical for autoimmune hepatitis (A1, B8, DR3). After a normal first pregnancy, an emergency caesarean section was performed in the 32nd week of her second pregnancy because of fetal bradycardia. The child died a few hours after delivery of complete congenital AV-block. Retrospective analysis of the maternal serum showed the emergence of SS-A/Ro-antibodies prior to the second pregnancy. The maternal serum antibodies were reactive with the 52 kD SS-A/Ro-antigen, as demonstrated by immunoblot employing recombinant SSA/Ro-antigen. The occurrence of complete congenital heart block has been shown to be associated with the presence of SS-A/Ro antibodies as well as the MHC-haplotype DR3. With respect to this genetic linkage, pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis and the MHC-haplotype DR3 should be examined for the presence of SS-A/Ro-antibodies. They should be closely followed during pregnancy to enable early detection of the development of congenital heart block, as prevention by plasmapheresis plus dexamethasone may be possible at an early stage.

  18. An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

  19. SLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 genotyping by the PCR-SSOP-Luminex method.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Shigenari, A; Ota, M; Sada, M; Kawata, H; Azuma, F; Kojima-Shibata, C; Nakajoh, M; Suzuki, K; Uenishi, H; Kulski, J K; Inoko, H

    2011-07-01

    A simple and novel genotyping method was developed to detect alleles at the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DRB1 and -DQB1 class II loci by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-fluorescently labeled sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) and Luminex 100 xMAP detection. The PCR-SSOP-Luminex method exhibited accuracy of 95% for both SLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 in 6 homozygous and 16 heterozygous pig samples as confirmed by sequencing the PCR products of the same samples. In addition, 12 low-resolution SLA class II haplotypes consisting of 7 and 9 DRB1 and DQB1 alleles were identified, respectively, in one population of 283 Landrace pigs. This genotyping method facilitates the rapid and accurate identification of two- or four-digit alleles at the SLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci.

  20. Bad Influence?--An Investigation into the Purported Negative Influence of Foreign Domestic Helpers on Children's Second Language English Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…

  1. New Funding Opportunity: Tissue Purchase Order Acquisitions - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expanding its basic and translational research programs that rely heavily on sufficient availability of high quality, well annotated biospecimens suitable for use in genomic and proteomic studies. The NCI’s overarching goal with such programs is to improve the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer.

  2. Diverse Multilingual Researchers Contribute Language Acquisition Components to an Integrated Model of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Robert Dean

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based outcomes in the literature have caused adjustments in neuro-psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives that indicate a need for a current model of education. Implications from research suggest the new model of education should use a multilingual framework: L3 enhances and reinforces L2 and L1, if L2 and L1 are supported. The…

  3. Researching the Effects of Frame-Focused Instruction on Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, Elena; Burmistrova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In the context of globalization, the research of innovative teaching methods and techniques becomes relevant. The traditional teaching approach where the training of practice material is preceded by rule-presentation (explanation + mechanical form-oriented practice) does not meet the requirements of constantly developing rational language…

  4. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  5. Molecular genetics of the swine major histocompatibility complex, the SLA complex.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Joan K; Ho, Chak-Sum; Wysocki, Michal; Smith, Douglas M

    2009-03-01

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span approximately 1.1, 0.7 and 0.5Mb, respectively, making the swine MHC the smallest among mammalian MHC so far examined and the only one known to span the centromere. This review summarizes recent updates to the Immuno Polymorphism Database-MHC (IPD-MHC) website (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/sla/) which serves as the repository for maintaining a list of all SLA recognized genes and their allelic sequences. It reviews the expression of SLA proteins on cell subsets and their role in antigen presentation and regulating immune responses. It concludes by discussing the role of SLA genes in swine models of transplantation, xenotransplantation, cancer and allergy and in swine production traits and responses to infectious disease and vaccines.

  6. The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Luyster, Rhiannon J

    2016-08-01

    Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification of peptides fromm foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class I swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) alleles, SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analysis of peptide binding to porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules has not been extensively performed. Critical to understanding the adaptive immune response of swine to infection is characterization of Swine Leucocyte Antigens (SLA) class I and class II peptide bind...

  8. CDNA microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in blood mononuclear cells of SLA-DRB1-defined Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Nino-Soto, M I; Jozani, R J; Bridle, B; Mallard, B A

    2008-01-01

    Three lines of commercialYorkshire pigs with defined SLA-DRB1 alleles were developed at the University of Guelph for xenotransplantation and immune response studies. Two of the SLA-DRB1 alleles have been previously reported (SLA-DRB1*0502 and *0701), whereas the third one is a new allele. The influence of defined SLA-DRB1 alleles on transcriptional patterns of immune-related genes in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) of pigs was explored using cDNA microarray. Microarray analysis showed significant differential expression of inflammatory genes in association with the various SLA-DRB1 alleles. A better understanding of the association between SLA genotypes and gene activity can increase the knowledge of the function of these molecules, as well as define new strategies to control animal health and optimize animal production.

  9. SLA-constrained service selection for minimizing costs of providing composite cloud services under stochastic runtime performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Tsai, Mu-Jung; Lu, Sin-Ji; Hung, Chun-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Composite cloud services based on the methodologies of Software as a Service and Service-Oriented Architecture are transforming how people develop and use software. Cloud service providers are confronting the service selection problem when composing composite cloud services. This paper deals with an important type of service selection problem, minimizing the total cost of providing a composite cloud service with respect to the constraints of service level agreement (SLA). Two types of SLA are considered in the study: per-request-based SLA and ratio-based SLA. We present three service selection approaches for dynamic cloud environments where services' performance might vary with time. The first two are iterative compound approaches for per-request-based SLA and the third approach is a one-step method for ratio-based SLA based on the Chebyshev's theorem and nonlinear programming. Experimental results show that our approaches outperform the previous method significantly in terms of total cost reduction.

  10. SLA-constrained service selection for minimizing costs of providing composite cloud services under stochastic runtime performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Tsai, Mu-Jung; Lu, Sin-Ji; Hung, Chun-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Composite cloud services based on the methodologies of Software as a Service and Service-Oriented Architecture are transforming how people develop and use software. Cloud service providers are confronting the service selection problem when composing composite cloud services. This paper deals with an important type of service selection problem, minimizing the total cost of providing a composite cloud service with respect to the constraints of service level agreement (SLA). Two types of SLA are considered in the study: per-request-based SLA and ratio-based SLA. We present three service selection approaches for dynamic cloud environments where services' performance might vary with time. The first two are iterative compound approaches for per-request-based SLA and the third approach is a one-step method for ratio-based SLA based on the Chebyshev's theorem and nonlinear programming. Experimental results show that our approaches outperform the previous method significantly in terms of total cost reduction. PMID:27066331

  11. State Education Agencies' Acquisition and Use of Research Knowledge in School Improvement Strategies. CPRE Research Report # RR-77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol; Massell, Diane; Fink, Ryan; Francis, Anthony Tuf

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, state education agencies (SEAs) have been given considerably more responsibilities for directing and guiding the improvement of low-performing schools. At the same time, federal policies strongly pressed SEAs to use research to design these supports. Very few studies have explored the SEA as an organization, or its role in…

  12. Novel SLA-DR alleles of three Chinese pig strains and the related function in human T cell response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuxiang; Xie, Jin; Zhou, Yun; Li, Ningli; Chou, Kuang-Yen

    2004-06-01

    To elucidate the structures of SLA-DR (swine leukocyte antigen DR) genes of three Chinese pig strains (Gz, Bm and Yn), the SLA-DRA and SLA-DRB cDNA were amplified by RT-PCR and subjected to determine the sequences. The whole structures of SLA-DRA alleles are identical among three strains, consisting of 759 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF), and are shared with those reported from NIH minipigs SLA-DRA(c) and SLA-DRA(d). The same length of the ORF-containing SLA-DRB genes of three Chinese pig strains was also identified. They are composed of 801 nucleotides encoding a xenogeneic antigen molecule of 266 amino acid residues. The nucleotide sequences of the SLA-DRB genes, however, are different when compared either among the three strains or with the published data of SLA-DRB sequences, which allowed our novel SLA-DRB alleles receiving their accession numbers AY102479, AY102480 and AY102481 from the GenBank. This study further reveals that the phylogenic homologies of MHC DR or DR-like genes in structures of nucleotides and deduced amino acids between Chinese pigs (SLA) and human (HLA-DRB1*0901) are better than those between pigs and mice (H-2(b)Ebeta). High similarities were also found for DRalpha-DRbeta heterodimers between Chinese pigs and human in terms of amino acids sequences critical for binding with human CD4 coreceptor molecule, which are better than those between SLA-DR and H-2 I-E molecules. A functional test indicated that, by cotransfection with Bm-DRA and Bm-DRB genes, the Bm-DR molecule-expressed L929 cells could stimulate human T cells quite well in a xenogeneic reaction in presence of human APCs.

  13. Simple and comprehensive SLA-DQB1 genotyping using genomic PCR and direct sequencing.

    PubMed

    Park, K; Choi, H; Thong, L M; Kwon, O-J; Kim, J-H; Lee, H-T; Kim, Y-B; Park, S-B; Park, C

    2010-10-01

    To enable the efficient analysis of a highly polymorphic swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene, swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DQB1, we developed a simple and comprehensive high-resolution genotyping protocol. To obtain sufficient sequence information to design a set of common genotyping primers for SLA-DQB1, we cloned SLA-DQB1 introns 1 and 2 from 11 alleles with official four-digit allelic designations and sequenced the regions directly surrounding the SLA-DQB1 exon 2. Significant intronic nucleotide variations, including several deletions, were identified. Based on 733-bp assembled genomic sequences including introns 1 and 2 and exon 2 from 11 different alleles, a primer set was identified that allowed the ubiquitous amplification and analysis of the complete SLA-DQB1 exon 2 sequence. We then developed a method to directly sequence the amplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products without further experimental steps. We especially focused on avoiding superimposed peaks, which arose from the presence of allelic deletions, in the sequencing electropherogram of SLA-DQB1 heterozygous animals. The genotyping accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT) with those of other available methods, including cDNA sequence-based typing (SBT), low-resolution PCR typing with sequence-specific primers, allelic segregation analysis, and heterozygote simulation typing. In all cases, the results were consistent between SLA-DQB1 GSBT and previously reported methods or expected results. We applied it to genotype 350 animals from seven pig breeds. The observed level of heterozygosity from our genotyping was ∼51%, reflecting that a large portion of the animals were inbred miniature pigs. Among the seven pig breeds tested, the allelic diversity of SLA-DQB1 was highest in Berkshire pigs. In conclusion, we have developed a simple and effective SLA-DQB1 GSBT method by combining simple genomic DNA PCR and direct sequencing

  14. Aspects of Reading Acquisition; Proceedings of the Annual Hyman Blumberg Symposium on Research in Early Childhood Education (5th, Johns Hopkins University, Nov. 13-14, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.

    Papers collected in this volume were presented at the Fifth Annual Blumberg Symposium on Research in Early Childhood Education, held at Johns Hopkins University in 1974. Selections include "Alexia" (D. Frank Benson), "Young Children's Expectations for Reading" (Doris R. Entwisle), "Relations between Acquisition of Phonology and Reading" (Paula…

  15. Acquisition of a High-resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for Cosmochemical and Geochemical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of our research in this program is to develop new techniques for the analysis of volatile trace elements in very small samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in preparation for samples returned by the Stardust mission. The instrument that will serve as the basis of our experiments is the ELEMENT2 high-resolution ICP-MS. We have spent the past year designing the laboratory to house this instrument as well as space to store and prepare samples returned by the Stardust mission. Unfortunately, the location that we had initially selected for the instrument turned out to be insufficient for our needs. This was determined almost eight months into the first year of our funding cycle, after extensive work including the production of engineering drawings. However, during this time the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory was selected to lead Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission. As a result of this award LPL purchased a new, 50,000 square foot building. We have acquired 1400 square feet of laboratory space in this new facility. Four-hundred square feet will be used for a class-100 clean room. This area is designated for storage and preparation of extraterrestrial materials. The additional 1000 square feet will house the ELEMENT2 ICP-MS and peripheral devices. This is an enormous amount of space for this instrument, but it provides plenty of room for expansion in the future. The ICP-MS and the clean room facilities have been purchased. The instrument has been delivered. The startup time for this instrument is relatively short and we expect to be collecting our first data by mid-summer.

  16. Novel SLA-DQ alleles and their recombinant molecules in xenogeneic stimulation of human T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuxiang; Xie, Jin; Li, Ningli; Zhou, Yun; Xin, Lijun; Chou, Kuang-Yen

    2005-06-01

    MHC class II antigens DR and DQ are essential for graft rejection both in allo- and xeno-transplantation. The antigens, especially the DQA and DQB gene-coencoded DQ molecules, are also involved in transplantation tolerance induced by activation of regulatory T cells. Here we report six novel DQ alleles from three properly inbred Chinese pig strains Gz, Bm and Yn. In our study, cDNA of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DQA and -DQB were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced for each strain. The ORF-containing SLA-DQA and -DQB genes are composed of 768 (or 765) and 786 nucleotides, encoding antigen molecules of 255 (or 254) and 261 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequences of both SLA-DQA and -DQB alleles showed disparities when compared either among the three pig strains or with available SLA data, which allows our novel alleles receiving their accession numbers from GenBank. The sequence analysis further revealed a phylogenic connection of our SLA-DQ alleles with SLA-DQ(c) haplotype. In addition, the homologies of MHC DQ or DQ-like molecules between Chinese pigs (SLA) and human (HLA) are higher than those between pigs and mice (H-2). By co-transfection of Bm pig DQA and DQB genes into L929 cells, the Bm-DQ heterodimer-expressed cells could effectively stimulate the human lymphoproliferation in presence of human APCs with a mean stimulation index (SI) 9.9+/-1.4. This functional assay indicated that our recombinant DQ antigens are capable of initiating human lymphoproliferation in a xeno-MLR.

  17. Improving Data Collection and Analysis Interface for the Data Acquisition Software of the Spin Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Curatolo, Ben S.; Woike, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    In jet engines, turbines spin at high rotational speeds. The forces generated from these high speeds make the rotating components of the turbines susceptible to developing cracks that can lead to major engine failures. The current inspection technologies only allow periodic examinations to check for cracks and other anomalies due to the requirements involved, which often necessitate entire engine disassembly. Also, many of these technologies cannot detect cracks that are below the surface or closed when the crack is at rest. Therefore, to overcome these limitations, efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center are underway to develop techniques and algorithms to detect cracks in rotating engine components. As a part of these activities, a high-precision spin laboratory is being utilized to expand and conduct highly specialized tests to develop methodologies that can assist in detecting predetermined cracks in a rotating turbine engine rotor. This paper discusses the various features involved in the ongoing testing at the spin laboratory and elaborates on its functionality and on the supporting data system tools needed to enable successfully running optimal tests and collecting accurate results. The data acquisition system and the associated software were updated and customized to adapt to the changes implemented on the test rig system and to accommodate the data produced by various sensor technologies. Discussion and presentation of these updates and the new attributes implemented are herein reported

  18. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  19. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): An Ultra-Light Photovoltaic Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ONeill, Mark J.; Pisczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.

    2002-10-01

    A high-performance, ultralight, photovoltaic concentrator array is being developed for space power. The stretched lens array (SLA) uses stretched-membrane, silicone Fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight onto triple-junction photovoltaic cells. The cells are mounted to a composite radiator structure. The entire solar array wing, including lenses, photovoltaic cell flex circuits, composite panels, hinges, yoke, wiring harness, and deployment mechanisms, has a mass density of 1.6 kg/sq.m. NASA Glenn has measured 27.4% net SLA panel efficiency, or 375 W/sq.m. power density, at room temperature. At GEO operating cell temperature (80 C), this power density will be 300 W/sq.m., resulting in more than 180 W/kg specific power at the full wing level. SLA is a direct ultralight descendent of the successful SCARLET array on NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution from SCARLET to SLA, summarizes the SLA's key features, and provides performance and mass data for this new concentrator array.

  20. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): An Ultra-Light Photovoltaic Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, Mark J.; Pisczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    A high-performance, ultralight, photovoltaic concentrator array is being developed for space power. The stretched lens array (SLA) uses stretched-membrane, silicone Fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight onto triple-junction photovoltaic cells. The cells are mounted to a composite radiator structure. The entire solar array wing, including lenses, photovoltaic cell flex circuits, composite panels, hinges, yoke, wiring harness, and deployment mechanisms, has a mass density of 1.6 kg/sq.m. NASA Glenn has measured 27.4% net SLA panel efficiency, or 375 W/sq.m. power density, at room temperature. At GEO operating cell temperature (80 C), this power density will be 300 W/sq.m., resulting in more than 180 W/kg specific power at the full wing level. SLA is a direct ultralight descendent of the successful SCARLET array on NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution from SCARLET to SLA, summarizes the SLA's key features, and provides performance and mass data for this new concentrator array.

  1. Sequence variations of the locus-specific 5' untranslated regions of SLA class I genes and the development of a comprehensive genomic DNA-based high-resolution typing method for SLA-2.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Le, M T; Lee, H; Choi, M-K; Cho, H-S; Nagasundarapandian, S; Kwon, O-J; Kim, J-H; Seo, K; Park, J-K; Lee, J-H; Ho, C-S; Park, C

    2015-10-01

    The genetic diversity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules of pigs has not been well characterized. Therefore, the influence of MHC genetic diversity on the immune-related traits of pigs, including disease resistance and other MHC-dependent traits, is not well understood. Here, we attempted to develop an efficient method for systemic analysis of the polymorphisms in the epitope-binding region of swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class I genes. We performed a comparative analysis of the last 92 bp of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) to the beginning of exon 4 of six SLA classical class I-related genes, SLA-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -9, from 36 different sequences. Based on this information, we developed a genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing-based comprehensive typing method for SLA-2. We successfully typed SLA-2 from 400 pigs and 8 cell lines, consisting of 9 different pig breeds, and identified 49 SLA-2 alleles, including 31 previously reported alleles and 18 new alleles. We observed differences in the composition of SLA-2 alleles among different breeds. Our method can be used to study other SLA class I loci and to deepen our knowledge of MHC class I genes in pigs.

  2. Clathrin is Important for Normal Actin Dynamics and Progression of Sla2p-Containing Patches During Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Newpher, Thomas M.; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Clathrin is a major vesicle coat protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. In yeast and higher eukaryotes, clathrin is recruited to the plasma membrane during the early stage of endocytosis along with clathrin-associated adaptors. As coated pits undergo maturation, a burst of actin polymerization accompanies and helps drive vesicle internalization. Here, we investigate the dynamics of clathrin relative to the early endocytic patch protein Sla2p. We find that clathrin is recruited to the cortex prior to Sla2p. In the absence of clathrin, normal numbers of Sla2p patches form, but many do not internalize or are dramatically delayed in completion of endocytosis. Patches that do internalize receive Sla1p late, which is followed by Abp1, which appears near the end of Sla2p lifetime. In addition, clathrin mutants develop actin comet tails, suggesting an important function in actin patch organization/dynamics. Similar to its mammalian counterparts, the light chain (LC) subunit of yeast clathrin interacts directly with the coiled-coil domain of Sla2p. A mutant of Sla2p that no longer interacts with LC (sla2Δ376-573) results in delayed progression of endocytic patches and aberrant actin dynamics. These data demonstrate an important role for clathrin in organization and progression of early endocytic patches to the late stages of endocytosis. PMID:16643280

  3. Experimental Designs in Sentence Processing Research: A Methodological Review and User's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Gregory D.; Jegerski, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of Clahsen and Felser's (2006) keynote article on grammatical processing in language learners, the online study of sentence comprehension in adult second language (L2) learners has quickly grown into a vibrant and prolific subfield of SLA. As online methods begin to establish a foothold in SLA research, it is important…

  4. SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec) antigen in autoimmune hepatitis: identification of the native protein in human hepatic cell extract.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Martin; Luithle, Daniel; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Schnölzer, Martina; Fiedler, Sabine; Heid, Hans; Schulze-Bergkamen, Andrea; Strassburg, Christian P; Gehrke, Sven G; Manns, Michael P

    2010-02-01

    A diagnostic subgroup of AIH type 1 is characterized by specific serum antibodies against soluble liver protein. The respective autoantigen was named SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec), after three homologous recombinant polypeptides were isolated from expression gene libraries. We analyzed human cultured liver cells for the human homologue of recombinant SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec) by antigen purification. In addition, a monoclonal antibody was generated against recombinant SLA-p35, a truncated recombinant SLA-reactive polypeptide. With a positive patient serum, immune affinity chromatography was performed on the 52 kD-SLA main antigenic determinant pre-enriched by ion exchange chromatography. By mass spectrometry, the 52 kD-SLA/LP/tRNP ((Ser)Sec) autoantigen was unambiguously identified in the purification product. The identity of the recombinant SLA-p35 and its human homologue was further confirmed by a specific signal of the anti SLA-p35 monoclonal antibody with purified human SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec). The 48 kD-SLA species frequently comigrating in SLA-immunoblotting however was not identified by either approach. We conclude that the native counterpart of recombinant tRNP((Ser)(Sec)) indeed is detectable with a molecular weight of 52 kD in soluble liver extract of human cells as the major antigenic component of SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec).

  5. The Incidental Acquisition of English Plural "-S" by Japanese Children in Comprehension-Based and Production-Based Lessons: A Process-Product Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Most studies that have investigated the effects of instruction on the SLA of specific grammatical features have focused on intentional learning. This study investigated incidental acquisition by comparing the relative effects of two types of instruction--comprehension-based instruction (CBI) and production-based instruction (PBI)--on young…

  6. Anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies in chronic HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Vitozzi, Susana; Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Marceau, Gabriel; Beland, Kathie; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    Hepatitis C infection is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as the production of autoantibodies. Anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1, immunomarkers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, have been previously associated with a HCV infection. Anti-Soluble-Liver-Antigen autoantibodies (SLA) are specifically associated with type 1 and type 2 autoimmune hepatitis and more closely related to patients who relapse after steroid therapy. The recent molecular cloning of the soluble liver antigen provides the opportunity to develop more specific tests for the detection of antibodies against it. The aim of this work is to characterize anti-soluble-liver autoantibodies in sera from patients chronically infected by HCV. A recombinant cDNA from activated Jurkat cells coding for the full length tRNP(Ser)Sec/SLA antigen was obtained. ELISA, Western Blot and immunoprecipitation tests were developed and used to search for linear and conformational epitopes recognized by anti-SLA antibodies in sera from patients chronically infected by HCV. Anti-soluble liver antigen antibodies were found in sera from 10.4% of HCV-infected patients. The prevalence was significantly increased to 27% when anti-LKM1 was also present. Most anti-SLA reactivity was directed against conformational epitopes on the antigen. The means titers by ELISA were lower than those obtained in type 2 AIH. The result of autoantibody isotyping showed a subclass restriction to IgG1 and also IgG4. This study shows the presence of anti-SLA antibodies in approximately 10% of HCV infected patients. The prevalence of SLA autoantibodies in HCV infected patients increases when LKM1 autoantibodies are also present. The relationship between the prevalence of this characteristic autoimmune hepatitis autoantibody and the implication of an autoimmune phenomenon in the liver injury of patients chronically infected by HCV needs further investigation.

  7. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.

  8. Contextual Change After Fear Acquisition Affects Conditioned Responding and the Time Course of Extinction Learning—Implications for Renewal Research

    PubMed Central

    Sjouwerman, Rachel; Niehaus, Johanna; Lonsdorf, Tina B.

    2015-01-01

    Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear) memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF) paradigms (in particular renewal), involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g., in ABC and ABA renewal). Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e., renewal). Thus, the possibility of a general effect of context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied. Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36) was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149), while measuring physiological (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle) measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e., contextual switch after extinction). Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects. PMID:26696855

  9. Measuring Explicit and Implicit Knowledge: A Psychometric Study in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebadi, Mandana Rohollahzadeh; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Saad, Mohd Rashid Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Lack of valid means of measuring explicit and implicit knowledge in acquisition of second language is a concern issue in investigations of explicit and implicit learning. This paper endeavors to validate the use of four tests (i.e., Untimed Judgment Grammatical Test, UJGT; Test of Metalinguistic Knowledge, TMK; Elicited Oral Imitation Test, EOIT;…

  10. Using Blogs: Authentic Material and Ranking Quality for SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppens, Xulian; Rico, Mercedes; Agudo, J. Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Exposure real life language experiences forms an integral part of the acquisition process. Authentic materials--those derived from the culture of the target language rather than specially produced for language learners--increase the relevance of the learning experience by reusing texts taken directly from the target culture. Web 2.0 technologies…

  11. Instructional Strategies and SLA in Early French Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Birgit

    1993-01-01

    The potential of various instructional strategies for promoting second-language acquisition among child second-language (L2) learners is considered in relation to empirical findings in early French immersion programs. Several principles are proposed concerning code-focused L2 instruction in a communicatively oriented school-based acquisition…

  12. A Neurobiological Basis for SLA and First Language Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bode, Stella

    The two-part paper examines the neurobiological processes of synapse overproduction, synapse elimination, and issues of language acquisition and attrition. The first part consists of diagrams and notes explaining some basic terms and concepts of neurobiology: cortex; white matter; neuron; synapse; synaptogenesis; and development and organization…

  13. Comprehensive and high-resolution typing of swine leukocyte antigen DQA from genomic DNA and determination of 25 new SLA class II haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Le, M T; Choi, H; Choi, M-K; Nguyen, D T; Kim, J-H; Seo, H G; Cha, S-Y; Seo, K; Chun, T; Schook, L B; Park, C

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported the development of genomic-DNA-based high-resolution genotyping methods for SLA-DQB1 and DRB1. Here, we report the successful typing of SLA-DQA using similar methodological principles. We designed a method for comprehensive genotyping of SLA-DQA using intronic sequence information of SLA-DQA exon 2 that we had obtained from 12 animals with different SLA-DQB1 genotypes. We expanded our typing to 76 selected animals with diverse DQB1 and DRB1 genotypes, 140 random animals from 7 pig breeds, and 3 wild boars. This resulted in the identification of 17 DQA alleles with 49 genotypes. Two new alleles were identified from wild boars. Combine with SLA-DQB1, and DRB1 typing results, we identified 34 SLA class II haplotypes including 25 that were previously unreported.

  14. Up to the Challenge: SLA Commits to New Tools and Techniques to Ace Old Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    According to conference co-chair Ty Webb, this year's Special Libraries Association (SLA) conference theme, "Climb to New Heights," challenges the info pro to "accept challenges by creating innovative solutions." To meet that need, conference programming, which runs June 3-6 in Denver, includes SYNERGY sessions, which are based on the…

  15. SLA: A Time for New Initiatives-- CI Division Formed, Fundraising Goal Set, Certification Coming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMattia, Susan; Blumenstein, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Several initiatives were announced at the Special Libraries Association (d.b.a. SLA) conference, June 4-9, at the Gaylord Opryland Hotel in Nashville. A petition drive resulted in formation of a Competitive Intelligence (CI) Division from the former CI Section of the Leadership and Management Division. The board encouraged the member-driven…

  16. Cationic liposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) plus CpG ODNs induce protection against murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Heravi Shargh, Vahid; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Firouzmand, Hengameh; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible due to the fact that individuals cured from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are protected from further infection. First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites reached to phase 3 clinical trials but failed to show enough efficacies mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, an efficient liposomal protein-based vaccine against Leishmania major infection was developed using soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) as a first generation vaccine and cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane was used as a cationic lipid to prepare the liposomes due to its intrinsic adjuvanticity. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in 2-week intervals, with Lip-SLA-CpG, Lip-SLA, SLA + CpG, SLA, or HEPES buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge and spleen parasite loads were assessed, and the immune responses were evaluated by determination of IFN-γ and IL-4 levels of cultured splenocytes, and IgG subtypes. The group of mice that received Lip-SLA-CpG showed a significantly smaller footpad swelling, lower spleen parasite burden, higher IgG2a antibody, and lower IL-4 level compared to the control groups. It is concluded that cationic liposomes containing SLA and CpG ODNs are appropriate to induce Th1 type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis. PMID:22223037

  17. Cationic liposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) plus CpG ODNs induce protection against murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Heravi Shargh, Vahid; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Firouzmand, Hengameh; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible due to the fact that individuals cured from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are protected from further infection. First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites reached to phase 3 clinical trials but failed to show enough efficacies mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, an efficient liposomal protein-based vaccine against Leishmania major infection was developed using soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) as a first generation vaccine and cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane was used as a cationic lipid to prepare the liposomes due to its intrinsic adjuvanticity. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in 2-week intervals, with Lip-SLA-CpG, Lip-SLA, SLA + CpG, SLA, or HEPES buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge and spleen parasite loads were assessed, and the immune responses were evaluated by determination of IFN-γ and IL-4 levels of cultured splenocytes, and IgG subtypes. The group of mice that received Lip-SLA-CpG showed a significantly smaller footpad swelling, lower spleen parasite burden, higher IgG2a antibody, and lower IL-4 level compared to the control groups. It is concluded that cationic liposomes containing SLA and CpG ODNs are appropriate to induce Th1 type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis.

  18. Relationship between the expression level of SLA-DQA and Escherichia coli F18 infection in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen-bin; Ye, Lan; Zi, Chen; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Zhang-yuan; Zhu, Guo-qiang; Huang, Xue-gen; Wu, Sheng-long

    2012-02-15

    The expression of SLA-DQA was assayed by Real-time PCR to analyze the differential expression between ETEC F18-resistant and -sensitive post-weaning piglets, and then to compare the expression levels of SLA-DQA in 11 different tissues from 8-, 18-, 30- and 35-day-old ETEC F18-resistant piglets, which aimed at discussing the role of SLA-DQA in resistance to ETEC F18. The results showed that SLA-DQA is broadly expressed in 11 tissues with the highest expression level in lymph nodes, and a relatively higher expression level in lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum. In tissues of lymph node, lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum, the mRNA expression of SLA-DQA in resistant individuals was significantly higher than that in sensitive ones (P<0.05). In most tissues, the expression of SLA-DQA increased from 8 to 18 and 30 days (weaning day), and increased persistently to 35 days of post-weaning. Expression levels of SLA-DQA on 35 days in most tissues were significant higher than that on 8, 18 and 30 days (P<0.05). The results demonstrated that the resistance to ETEC F18 in post-weaning piglets is related to up-regulation of mRNA expression of SLA-DQA to a certain extent. The analysis suggested that SLA-DQA may be not the direct immune factor that resisted the Escherichia coli F18, but perhaps enhanced humoral immunity and cell immunity to reduce the transmembrane signal transduction of ETEC F18 bacterial LPS and then led to the resistance to ETEC F18 in piglets.

  19. Functional analyses of Src-like adaptor (SLA), a glucocorticoid-regulated gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mansha, Muhammad; Carlet, Michela; Ploner, Christian; Gruber, Georg; Wasim, Muhammad; Wiegers, Gerrit Jan; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan; Kofler, Reinhard

    2010-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) cause apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in lymphoid cells and are used in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies. SLA (Src-like-adaptor), an inhibitor of T- and B-cell receptor signaling, is a promising candidate derived from expression profiling analyses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Over-expression and knock-down experiments in ALL in vitro model revealed that transgenic SLA alone had no effect on survival or cell cycle progression, nor did it affect sensitivity to, or kinetics of, GC-induced apoptosis. Although SLA is a prominent GC response gene, it does not seem to contribute to the anti-leukemic effects of GC.

  20. Development of dense microsatellite markers in the entire SLA region and evaluation of their polymorphisms in porcine breeds.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Maiko; Ando, Asako; Renard, Christine; Chardon, Patrick; Domukai, Michiko; Okumura, Naohiko; Awata, Takashi; Uenishi, Hirohide

    2005-10-01

    We developed 40 microsatellite markers in the entire swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) region, spanning over 2.35 Mb. The average span between markers was 59 kb, and the largest interval between markers was 127 kb. We also evaluated polymorphisms of length for the markers using 97 pigs derived from 12 breeds, including representative commercial breeds. All of the markers were successfully amplified in genomic DNA and shown to be polymorphic. These markers will provide an alternative method for determining the SLA haplotypes instead of direct typing of SLA genes per se. They will be valuable for transplantation studies and for association studies between immunological traits such as disease susceptibility and tumor rejection.

  1. User's manual for the Langley Research Center 14- by 22- foot subsonic tunnel static data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orie, Nettie M.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Static Data Acquisition System (SDAS) components primarily responsible for acquiring data at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are the NEFF 620/600 Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and the PSI 780B electronically scanned pressure (ESP) measurement system. A 9250 Modcomp computer is used to process the signal, to do all aerodynamic calculation, and to control the output of data. All of the tasks required to support a wind tunnel investigation are menu driven. The purpose of this report is to acquaint users of this system with the wide range of capabilities that exist with the available hardware and software and provide them with the proper procedures to follow when setting up or running individual tests.

  2. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA, Langley Research Center Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.; Kindle, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms were extended through the purchase and integration of other hardware and the implementation of improved software. An operational manual for the current system is presented. Hardware and peripheral device registers are outlined only as an aid in debugging any DAS problems which may arise.

  3. The Role of Discursive Features in SLA Modeling and Grammatical Frequency--A Response to Cheng, Lu and Giannakouros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Initial studies on the acquisition of two Spanish copulas, "ser" and "estar", emerged from a research agenda exploring whether second language (L2) development was driven by universal mechanisms manifested in stages rather than an accumulation of entities (Rutherford, 1987). Concerning the Spanish copulas, the stages of acquisition through which…

  4. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination.

  5. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  6. Doing "Not" Being a Foreign Language Learner: English as a "Lingua Franca" in the Workplace and (Some) Implications for SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to shift the focus on "learning" away from the traditional locus of inquiry in SLA--the L2 classroom--in order to extend the SLA empirical database, and by so doing extend and broaden our understanding of what it means to learn and use (in mutually reinforcing and enlightening ways) an additional, or second,…

  7. Prioritizing Acquisition Pathways in the State Level Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Chantell L.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory; Pilat, Joseph F.

    2012-06-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards has launched a project to further develop the State-level concept for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of safeguards activities. In order to further evolve the safeguards system an emphasis is placed on integrating inspection-related activities and the State evaluation process to draw safeguards conclusions in the most efficient way. The credible implementation of acquisition pathway analysis is central to the success of the IAEA's State-level concept. NNSA's Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is sponsoring Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to produce a study that will examine the use of acquisition pathway analysis in: (1) Developing a State-specific, State-level approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP); (2) Maximizing the utility of the physical model; and (3) Supporting resource allocation decisions through a pathway prioritization. To deal with the challenge of developing an effective and efficient SLA, this study looks at: (1) Prioritizing proliferation pathways based on an assessment of a State's capabilities and assumed proliferation strategies; and (2) Relevant State behavior (e.g., transparency, cooperation, etc.) while avoiding subjective judgments about States themselves. The study makes use of case studies and concrete examples in order to illustrate how new concepts and approaches will be implemented, and how they may differ from more traditional safeguards approaches.

  8. Telecommunications and data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  9. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    PubMed

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3). PMID:18198117

  10. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Barry; Harrington, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between representational and processing models of second-language acquisition. The first approach is derived primarily from linguistics, the second from psychology. Both fields, it is argued, need to collaborate more fully, overcoming disciplinary narrowness in order to achieve more fruitful research. (GLR)

  11. Language Acquisition, Pidgins and Creoles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wode, Henning

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that structural universals between different-based pidgins result from universal linguo-cognitive processing strategies which are employed in learning languages. Some of the strategies occur in all types of acquisition, and others are more applicable to L2 type acquisition. Past research is discussed, and some exemplary data are given.…

  12. Handbook of Child Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William C., Ed.; Bhatia, Tej K., Ed.

    This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the major areas of research in the field of child language acquisition. It is divided into seven parts and 19 chapters. Part I is an introduction and overview. Part II covers central issues in the study of child language acquisition, focusing on syntax, including those of innateness, maturation, and…

  13. Knowledge Acquisition in Observational Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    This paper presents findings from research on knowledge acquisition in observational astronomy to demonstrate the kinds of intuitive models children form and to show how these models influence the acquisition of science knowledge. Sixty children of approximate ages 6, 9, and 12 were given a questionnaire to investigate their knowledge of the size,…

  14. Human SepSecS or SLA/LP: selenocysteine formation and autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Palioura, Sotiria; Herkel, Johannes; Simonović, Miljan; Lohse, Ansgar W; Söll, Dieter

    2010-07-01

    Selenocysteine, the 21st genetically encoded amino acid, is the major form of the antioxidant trace element selenium in the human body. In eukaryotes and archaea its synthesis proceeds through a phosphorylated intermediate in a tRNA-dependent fashion. The final step of selenocysteine formation is catalyzed by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) that converts phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) to selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec). The human SepSecS protein is also known as soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas (SLA/LP), which represents one of the antigens of autoimmune hepatitis. Here we review the discovery of human SepSecS and the current understanding of the immunogenicity of SLA/LP in autoimmune hepatitis.

  15. Raising Teachers' Awareness about Corrective Feedback through Research Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Camilla; Harvey, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that examined the evolving thoughts and beliefs about corrective feedback of graduate students in applied linguistics, who were enrolled in a semester-long second language acquisition (SLA) course. Working in groups, the graduate students (students in an MA-TESL program, and doctoral students in a related…

  16. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  17. Stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printing of oral modified-release dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Goyanes, Alvaro; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of stereolithography (SLA) to fabricate drug-loaded tablets with modified-release characteristics. The SLA printer creates solid objects by using a laser beam to photopolymerise monomers. In this work polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as a monomer and diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide was used as a photo-initiator. 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) were selected as model drugs. Tablets were successfully printed and formulations with different properties were fabricated by adding polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG 300) to the printing solution. The loading of paracetamol and 4-ASA in the printed tablets was 5.69% and 5.40% respectively. In a realistic dynamic dissolution simulation of the gastrointestinal tract, drug release from the tablets was dependent on the composition of the formulations, but independent of dissolution pH. In conclusion SLA 3DP technology allows the manufacture of drug loaded tablets with specific extended-release profiles. In the future this technology could become a manufacturing technology for the elaboration of oral dosage forms, for industrial production or even for personalised dose.

  18. Stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printing of oral modified-release dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Goyanes, Alvaro; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of stereolithography (SLA) to fabricate drug-loaded tablets with modified-release characteristics. The SLA printer creates solid objects by using a laser beam to photopolymerise monomers. In this work polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as a monomer and diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide was used as a photo-initiator. 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) were selected as model drugs. Tablets were successfully printed and formulations with different properties were fabricated by adding polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG 300) to the printing solution. The loading of paracetamol and 4-ASA in the printed tablets was 5.69% and 5.40% respectively. In a realistic dynamic dissolution simulation of the gastrointestinal tract, drug release from the tablets was dependent on the composition of the formulations, but independent of dissolution pH. In conclusion SLA 3DP technology allows the manufacture of drug loaded tablets with specific extended-release profiles. In the future this technology could become a manufacturing technology for the elaboration of oral dosage forms, for industrial production or even for personalised dose. PMID:26976500

  19. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  20. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting. PMID:24860518

  1. Construction of multiple recombinant SLA-I proteins by linking heavy chains and light chains in vitro and analyzing their secondary and 3-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-shan; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-bo; Li, Yanmin

    2012-07-10

    Six breeds of swine were used to study the structure of swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I). SLA-I complexes were produced by linking SLA-2 genes and β(2)m genes via a linker encoding a 15 amino acid glycine-rich sequence, (G4S)3, using splicing overlap extension (SOE)-PCR in vitro. The six recombinant SLA-2-linker-β(2)m genes were each inserted into p2X vectors and their expression induced in Escherichia coli TB1. The expressed proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The maltose binding protein (MBP)-SLA-I fusion proteins were purified by amylose affinity chromatography followed by cleavage with factor Xa and separation of the SLA-I protein monomers from the MBP using a DEAE Ceramic Hyper D F column. The purified SLA-I monomers were detected by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and the 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the constructed single-chain SLA-I molecules were analyzed by homology modeling. Recombinant SLA-2-Linker-β(2)m was successfully amplified from all six breeds of swine by SOE-PCR and expressed as fusion proteins of 84.1 kDa in pMAL-p2X, followed by confirmation by western blotting. After purification and cleavage of the MBP-SLA-I fusion proteins, SLA-I monomeric proteins of 41.6 kDa were separated. CD spectroscopy demonstrated that the SLA-I monomers had an α-helical structure, and the average α-helix, β-sheet, turn and random coil contents were 21.6%, 37.9%, 15.0% and 25.5%, respectively. Homology modeling of recombinant single-chain SLA-I molecules showed that the heavy chain and light chain constituted SLA-I complex with an open antigenic peptide-binding groove. It was concluded that the expressed SLA-I proteins in pMAL-p2X folded correctly and could be used to bind and screen nonameric peptides in vitro.

  2. Attitudine Linguistica e Acquisizione della Competenza. Un Progetto di Ricerca (Linguistic Aptitude and Acquisition of Competence. A Research Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    1982-01-01

    Subjects were 45 Italians who were studying English as a second language. They were administered the Modern Language Aptitude Test and a cloze test and were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their language study. The researcher then analyzed the interrelationships among the subjects' linguistic aptitude, language study history, and level…

  3. Interactions between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitive…

  4. A Social and Cognitive Approach to Affect in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Jennifer; White, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Affective factors in language learning have long attracted attention. While research findings indicate substantial links between affect and achievement, further inquiry into the role and contribution of affect in language learning has been limited by a narrow focus on single emotions and on the disruptive effects of emotion. Drawing on social…

  5. Induction of protection against leishmaniasis in susceptible BALB/c mice using simple DOTAP cationic nanoliposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA).

    PubMed

    Firouzmand, Hengameh; Badiee, Ali; Khamesipour, Ali; Heravi Shargh, Vahid; Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Abbasi, Azam; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-12-01

    A suitable adjuvant and delivery system are needed to develop an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. To induce a Th1 type of response and protection in BALB/c mice against Leishmania major infection, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) nanoliposomes bearing an intrinsic adjuvanticity, were used as an antigen delivery system and immunoadjuvant for soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA). DOTAP liposomes containing different concentrations of SLA were prepared by using lipid film method followed by sonication. The prepared vesicles showed a diameter of about 100nm, a positive zeta potential and approximately 70% encapsulation efficiency of SLA. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in a 3-week interval with different concentrations of liposomal SLA (12.5, 25, and 50μg of SLA/50μl/mice), free SLA and as well as free liposome. The group of mice received 50μg of SLA in DOTAP-nanoliposomes showed a significantly (p<0.001) smaller footpad swelling and the lowest spleen and footpad parasite burden after the challenge. This group also showed the highest IFN-γ production compared to the other groups, lower IL-4 level and higher IgG2a antibody titer. Taken together, the results indicated that simple DOTAP nanoliposome containing 1μg/μl SLA are appropriate delivery systems to induce a Th1 type of immune response and protection against L. major infection in BALB/c mice.

  6. Anti-soluble liver antigen/liver-pancreas (SLA/LP) antibodies in pediatric patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vitozzi, Susana; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Lapierre, Pascal; Alvarez, Fernando

    2002-12-01

    Antibodies against soluble liver antigen/liver-pancreas (SLA/LP) have been associated with severe autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and poor outcome, but most of these reports have focused on adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-SLA/LP antibodies in a pediatric population with AIH. We developed a quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), a Western blot (WB) and an immunoprecipitation assay (IPA) based on recombinant cDNA from activated Jurkat cells. The specificity of these tests was validated by testing 200 serum samples from healthy subjects, and from patients with liver and non-liver diseases. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies were found in patients with type 1 and type 2 AIH. The prevalence of these antibodies in patients with type 1 AIH was: 42% when tested by ELISA, 15% by WB and 50% by IPA. In patients with type 2 AIH, the prevalence rates were 42% by ELISA, 18% by WB and 44% by IPA. The mean titer values for anti-SLA/LP antibodies was significantly higher in type 2 AIH (1:1,300 +/- 339) than in type 1 AIH (1:600 +/- 71; p < 0.0001) and closely associated with higher titers of anti-liver kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) antibodies in sera. The presence of anti-SLA/LP showed a significant female preponderance in type 1 and 2 AIH patients (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.003, respectively), and was significantly correlated with a lower age at diagnosis (p = 0.05) in type 1 AIH patients. In conclusion, anti-SLA/LP antibodies in pediatric patients are associated with both type 1 and 2 AIH.

  7. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Interaction: A Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The interaction approach to second language acquisition (SLA) suggests that changes that occur during conversation facilitate second language development by providing learners with opportunities to receive modified comprehensible input and interactional feedback, to produce output, and to notice gaps between their interlanguage and the target…

  8. Using Student Choice to Increase Students' Knowledge of Research Methodology, Improve Their Attitudes toward Research, and Promote Acquisition of Professional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Christina L.; Stroud, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Students often approach their research methods course with dread typically because of the broad and abstract nature of the content. In the study presented here, we introduced a variety of student-driven, content-specific assignments that allowed for a more active learning experience when compared to the typical research methods course. Providing a…

  9. Increased sialyl Lewis A expression and fucosyltransferase activity with acquisition of a high metastatic capacity in a colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yamada, N; Chung, Y S; Takatsuka, S; Arimoto, Y; Sawada, T; Dohi, T; Sowa, M

    1997-01-01

    A human colon cancer cell line, OCUC-LM1(LM), was established from a liver metastasis in our laboratory. Intrasplenic injection of LM into nude mice was repeated three and five times, and the daughter cell lines were designated as LM-H3 and LM-H5 respectively. The level of sialyl Lewis A (SLA) in the supernatant of LM-H3 and LM-H5 was 3 and 4.5 times higher than that of LM respectively. Flow cytometric analysis of SLA expression showed that the peak channel for LM was 113; for LM-H3, 126; and for LM-H5, 146. The mean fluorescence intensity of LM was 102.3 +/- 43.5; for LM-H3, 126.2 +/- 28.4; and for LM-H5, 144.8 +/- 23.4. In endothelial cell adhesion assays, the percentages of adherent LM-H3 and LM-H5 cells were significantly higher than for LM. The activity of alpha1-->4 fucosyltransferase was higher in LM-H3 and LM-H5 than in LM, but there was no difference in alpha2-->3 sialyltransferase activities for type 1 chain among the cell lines. Our results suggest that SLA expression is associated with acquisition of a high capacity for liver metastasis of colon cancer; increased SLA expression is due mainly to increased fucosyltransferase activity.

  10. Prediction of altered 3'- UTR miRNA-binding sites from RNA-Seq data: the swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA) as a model region.

    PubMed

    Endale Ahanda, Marie-Laure; Fritz, Eric R; Estellé, Jordi; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Madsen, Ole; Groenen, Martien A M; Beraldi, Dario; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Hume, David A; Rowland, Robert R R; Lunney, Joan K; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Reecy, James M; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    THE SLA (swine leukocyte antigen, MHC: SLA) genes are the most important determinants of immune, infectious disease and vaccine response in pigs; several genetic associations with immunity and swine production traits have been reported. However, most of the current knowledge on SLA is limited to gene coding regions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of a large number of protein-coding genes in metazoans, and are suggested to play important roles in fine-tuning immune mechanisms and disease responses. Polymorphisms in either miRNAs or their gene targets may have a significant impact on gene expression by abolishing, weakening or creating miRNA target sites, possibly leading to phenotypic variation. We explored the impact of variants in the 3'-UTR miRNA target sites of genes within the whole SLA region. The combined predictions by TargetScan, PACMIT and TargetSpy, based on different biological parameters, empowered the identification of miRNA target sites and the discovery of polymorphic miRNA target sites (poly-miRTSs). Predictions for three SLA genes characterized by a different range of sequence variation provided proof of principle for the analysis of poly-miRTSs from a total of 144 M RNA-Seq reads collected from different porcine tissues. Twenty-four novel SNPs were predicted to affect miRNA-binding sites in 19 genes of the SLA region. Seven of these genes (SLA-1, SLA-6, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, SLA-DOA, SLA-DOB and TAP1) are linked to antigen processing and presentation functions, which is reminiscent of associations with disease traits reported for altered miRNA binding to MHC genes in humans. An inverse correlation in expression levels was demonstrated between miRNAs and co-expressed SLA targets by exploiting a published dataset (RNA-Seq and small RNA-Seq) of three porcine tissues. Our results support the resource value of RNA-Seq collections to identify SNPs that may lead to altered miRNA regulation patterns.

  11. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  12. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  13. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  14. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  15. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  16. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, E W; Wang, Y B; Shuai, K G; Gao, F; Bai, Y J; Cheng, Y; Xiong, X L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C

    2011-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of titanium surfaces sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA) plus further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment for dental implant application. Pure titanium disks were mechanically polished as control surface (Ti-control) and then sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA). Further chemical modifications were conducted using alkali and heat treatment (ASLA) and hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment (HSLA) alternatively. The surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle and roughness measurements. Further evaluation of surface bioactivity was conducted by MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition on the sample surfaces. After insertion in the beagle's mandibula for a specific period, cylindrical implant samples underwent micro-CT examination and then histological examination. It was found that ASLA and HSLA surfaces significantly increased the surface wettability and MC3T3-E1 cell attachment percentage, ALP activity and the quality of calcium deposition in comparison with simple SLA and Ti-control surfaces. Animal studies showed good osseointegration of ASLA and HSLA surfaces with host bone. In conclusion, ASLA and HSLA surfaces enhanced the bioactivity of the traditional SLA surface by integrating the advantages of surface topography, composition and wettability.

  18. More on the Effects of Explicit Information in Instructed SLA: A Partial Replication and a Response to Fernandez (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Nicholas; Culmana, Hillah; VanPattena, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The role of explicit information (EI) as an independent variable in instructed SLA is largely underresearched. Using the framework of processing instruction, however, a series of offline studies has found no effect for EI (e.g., Benati, 2004; Sanz & Morgan-Short, 2004; VanPatten & Oikkenon, 1996). Fernandez (2008) presented two online experiments…

  19. Task Type and Reactivity of Verbal Reports in SLA: A First Look at a L2 Task Other than Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the frequency with which verbal reports are used in SLA to gather data on learners' cognitive processes (e.g., Bowles, 2003, 2004; Mackey, Gass, & McDonough, 2000; Rosa & Leow, 2004a, 2004b), only two studies (Bowles & Leow, 2005; Leow & Morgan-Short, 2004) have investigated verbal reports' reactivity (i.e., whether they alter cognitive…

  20. cDNA cloning and genetic polymorphism of the swine major histocompatibility complex (SLA) class II DMA gene.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Kawata, H; Murakami, T; Shigenari, A; Shiina, T; Sada, M; Tsuji, T; Toriu, A; Nakanishi, Y; Mitsuhashi, T; Sekikawa, K; Inoko, H

    2001-04-01

    cDNA clones corresponding to the swine histocompatibility complex (SLA: swine leucocyte antigen)-DM alpha chain were isolated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the third exon in the human HLA-DMA gene as a probe. Amino acid comparative analysis revealed that these clones were more closely related to the bovine and human DMA genes than to the other swine class II genes alpha chain genes, DRA, DQA and DOA. These results suggest that the SLA-DMA gene is expressed and may function, like HLA-DM, as an important modulator in class II restricted antigen processing in swine. Furthermore, based on the sequences and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) patterns in the SLA-DMA gene, no allelic variation was recognized in the second exon, but five allelic variations were recognized in the third exon in five different breeds of swine. These DMA alleles were defined by variation at four nucleotide positions. Two of these alleles resulted in an amino acid substitution. These results suggest that SLA-DMA has little polymorphism as observed in HLA-DMA and mouse H2-Ma.

  1. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  2. Analysis of gene expression patterns by microarray hybridization in blood mononuclear cells of SLA-DRB1 defined Canadian Yorkshire pigs

    PubMed Central

    Nino-Soto, Maria I; Jozani, Razi Jafari; Bridle, Byram; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2008-01-01

    Background The Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) system encodes molecules for self-nonself discrimination and is associated with immune responses and disease resistance. Three lines of pigs defined by their SLA-DRB1 alleles were developed at the University of Guelph for xenotransplantation and immune response studies. The aim of this project was to explore the potential association between defined SLA-DRB1 alleles and gene transcriptional patterns of other immune-related genes in blood mononuclear cells. Findings Three SLA-DRB1 alleles were characterized using a RT-PCR-based sequencing method. The loci represented included a new allele, DRB1*04ns01. Next, microarray heterologous (bovine-porcine) hybridization together with qPCR were used to explore differential gene expression between SLA-DRB1-defined groups. Microarray analysis showed significant (p < 0.01) differential expression for 5 genes, mostly related to inflammation. Genes varied according to the comparison analyzed. Further testing with qPCR revealed the same trend of differential expression for 4 of the genes, although statistical significance was reached for only one. Conclusion A new SLA-DRB1 allele was characterized. A potential association was found between SLA-DRB1 alleles and inflammation-related genes. However, the influence of other genes cannot be ruled out. These preliminary findings agree with other studies linking MHC haplotypes and inflammation processes, including autoimmune disease. The study provides an initial view of the biological interactions between the SLA complex and other immune-related genes. Future studies will focus on characterization of SLA-haplotypes associated with these particular alleles and the dynamics of the immune response to antigenic challenges. PMID:18710484

  3. Application of high-resolution, massively parallel pyrosequencing for estimation of haplotypes and gene expression levels of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yuki F; Ando, Asako; Tanaka, Keiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Ozaki, Yuki; Uenishi, Hirohide; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Shiina, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    The swine is an important animal model for allo- and xeno-transplantation donor studies, which necessitates an extensive characterization of the expression and sequence variations within the highly polygenic and polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) region. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is potentially an effective new 2ndGen method for simultaneous high-throughput genotyping and detection of SLA class I gene expression levels. In this study, we compared the 2ndGen method using the Roche Genome Sequencer 454 FLX with the conventional method using sub-cloning and Sanger sequencing to genotype SLA class I genes in five pigs of the Clawn breed and four pigs of the Landrace breed. We obtained an average of 10.4 SLA class I sequences per pig by the 2ndGen method, consistent with the inheritance data, and an average of only 6.0 sequences by the conventional method. We also performed a correlation analysis between the sequence read numbers obtained by the 2ndGen method and the relative expression values obtained by quantitative real-time PCR analysis at the allele level. A significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.899, P < 0.01) was observed between the sequence read numbers and the relative quantitative values for the expressed classical SLA class I genes SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, suggesting that the sequence read numbers closely reflect the gene expression levels in white blood cells. Overall, five novel class I sequences, different haplotype-specific expression patterns and a splice variant for one of the SLA class I genes were identified by the 2ndGen method at greater efficiency and sensitivity than the conventional method.

  4. Low frequency of anti-SLA/LP autoantibody in Japanese adult patients with autoimmune liver diseases: analysis with recombinant antigen assay.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Yumi; Kitazawa, Eriko; Kawaguchi, Naomi; Kato, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Imai, Erika; Fujikawa, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Schlumberger, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    Anti-soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas (SLA/LP) autoantibody has been proposed to be one of the autoantibodies characterizing autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Recently, one of the autoantigens to anti-SLA/LP was identified as a UGA suppressor tRNA-associated protein. Although the function of this protein remains unknown, the recombinant protein has been prokaryotically expressed. Using this protein as an antigen, a recombinant immunoassay for anti-SLA/LP autoantibody has been established and the frequency and significance of this autoantibody have been discussed in European countries. So, in the present study, we investigated anti-SLA/LP autoantibodies in Japanese patients with autoimmune liver diseases using the recombinant antigen ELISA and Western blot assay. Seventy-five patients with AIH type 1, 5 with AIH type 2, 46 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 10 with primary sclerosing cholangitis, 47 with chronic hepatitis C, 48 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 3 with cryptogenic hepatitis, and 40 normal controls were the subjects of the present study. Anti-SLA/LP autoantibodies were detected in only 5 of 75 (6.7%) patients with AIH type 1, but in none of the other 159 patients or 40 normal controls. The clinicopathologic features of anti-SLA/LP-positive AIH type 1, including carriers of HLA DR locus variations, were not significantly different from anti-SLA/LP-negative patients except for the mortality rate. Anti-SLA/LP autoantibody was detected at a low frequency in Japanese patients with AIH type 1 and did not significantly influence clinical features. However, since it has high disease-specificity to AIH type 1, further analysis of SLA/LP may contribute to help clarify the pathogenesis of AIH type 1.

  5. Rehabilitation of irradiated patients with chemically modified and conventional SLA implants: five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nack, C; Raguse, J-D; Stricker, A; Nelson, K; Nahles, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological parameters of standard SLA surface implants compared to chemically modified hydrophilic SLActive implants in irradiated patients after the initial 12-month loading period up to 5 years. Twenty patients with a mean age of 61·1 years were treated with dental implants after ablative surgery and radio-chemotherapy of oral cancer. All patients were non-smokers. The placement of 102 implants (50 SLA, 52 SLActive) was performed bilaterally according to a split-mouth design. Mean crestal bone changes were evaluated using standardised orthopantomographies and clinical parameters. Data were analysed using a Kaplan-Meier curve, Mann-Whitney U-test and two-factorial non-parametric analysis. The average observation period was 60 months. The amount of bone loss at the implant shoulder of SLA implants was mesial and distal 0·7 mm. The SLActive implants displayed a bone loss of mesial 0·6 mm as well as distal 0·7 mm after 5 years. Two SLA implants were lost before loading. One patient lost five implants due to recurrence of a tumour. The overall cumulative 12-month, 3-year and 5-year survival rate of SLA implants was 92%, 80% and 75·8% and of SLActive implants 94·2%, 78·8% and 74·4%, respectively. Eighteen implants were considered lost because the patients had died. Sandblasted acid-etched implants with or without a chemically modified surface can be used in irradiated patients with a high predictability of success. Lower implant survival rates in patients with irradiated oral cancer may be associated with systemic effects rather than peri-implantitis.

  6. [Genetic diversity based on swine leukocyte antigen complex mi-crosatellites(SLA-MS) in five pig populations].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Rong-Hui; Li, Hua; Zuo, Qi-Zhen; Li, Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity of swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA) was studied among Guangdong local pigs, Huanan wild boars (S.s. chirodontus) and introduced pigs, which aimed at providing a theoretical foundation for further pig anti-disease resistance breeding. Pietrain pigs, Duroc pigs, Large black-white pigs, Lantang pigs, and Huanan wild boars were genotyped by employing 18 microsatellites in swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA-MS). The result showed that the average diversity in SLA II was higher (He=0.628, PIC=0.581) than that in SLA I (He=0.530, PIC=0.474) and in SLA III (He=0.526, PIC=0.458). The molecular diversity indices (MDI) of Huanan wild boars was the highest(0.716), followed by Lantang pigs (0.614), Large black-white pigs (0.559), Pietrain pigs (0.550) and Duroc pigs (0.507). As a whole, the genetic diversity of Huanan wild boars was the highest over Guangdong native pigs and introduced pigs. Large black-white pigs and Duroc pigs had ever happened a severe bottleneck by comparison with the Garza-Williamson index (GWI) in Huanan wild boar. From the genetic distance, one clade was that Lantang pigs were first clustered with Huanan wild boar, and then grouped together with Large black-white pigs; another clade was that Pietrain pigs were independently clustered with Duroc pigs in the NJ tree. The results would establish the foundation for pig conservation of germplasm resource, disease resistance breeding, and multiplicative strains.

  7. Effects of Er: YAG laser irradiation on wettability, surface roughness, and biocompatibility of SLA titanium surfaces: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ayobian-Markazi, Nader; Karimi, Mohammadreza; Safar-Hajhosseini, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er: YAG) laser has been introduced as an effective method in the decontamination of implant surfaces. Data concerning the effects of the Er: YAG laser on the biological and surface properties of titanium are conflicting. Cellular behavior is greatly affected by surface properties, including composition, roughness, wettability, and morphology of the titanium surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the Er: YAG laser on the biocompatibility, surface roughness, and wettability of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces. Twenty-one SLA titanium disks were irradiated by the Er: YAG laser at a pulse energy of 100 mJ, with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz under water irrigation for 1 min. Cell viability, surface roughness, and wettability alterations were evaluated. Thirteen nonirradiated SLA disks were used as the control groups. Human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells were seeded onto the disks in culture media. Cell viability was evaluated using the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The surface roughness and wettability of the test and control groups were measured using profilometer and tensiometer devices, respectively. A significantly higher cell viability rate was observed in the test group (p = 0.032). The surface roughness was significantly reduced in the test group compared with the control group (p = 0.008). The surface wettability was significantly higher in the test group (p = 0.004). Within the limits of this study, the application of the Er: YAG laser with the previously described properties did not appear to have adverse effects on the biocompatibility of the SLA titanium surfaces. Application of this laser decreased the surface roughness and increased the wettability of the SLA titanium surfaces.

  8. Development of ceramic-reinforced photopolymers for SLA 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ji Sun; Park, Tae-Wan; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-06-01

    Al2O3 ceramic-reinforced photopolymer samples for SLA 3D printing technology were prepared using a silane coupling agent (VTES, vinyltriethoxysilane). Depending on the method used to coat the VTES onto the ceramic surface, the dispersion of ceramic particles in the photopolymer solution was remarkably improved. SEM, TEM and element mapping images showed Al2O3 particles well wrapped with VTES along with well-distributed Al2O3 particles overall on the cross-sectional surfaces of 3D-printed objects. The tensile properties (stress-strain curves) of 3D-printed objects of the ceramic-reinforced photopolymer were investigated as a function of the Al2O3 ceramic content when it ranged from 0 to 20 wt%. The results demonstrate that an Al2O3 ceramic content of 15 wt% resulted in enhanced tensile characteristics.

  9. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Chung, Sung-Min; Lee, In-Seop; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 degrees C and 450 degrees C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  10. Liposomal SLA co-incorporated with PO CpG ODNs or PS CpG ODNs induce the same protection against the murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shargh, Vahid Heravi; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Iman; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-06-01

    First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites with or without adjuvants have reached phase 3 trial and failed to show enough efficacy mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (PS CpG) or nuclease-sensitive phosphodiester CpG ODNs (PO CpG) were used as adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Due to the susceptibility of PO CpG to nuclease degradation, an efficient liposomal delivery system was developed to protect them from degradation. 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as a cationic lipid was used because of its unique adjuvanticity and electrostatic interaction with negatively charged CpG ODNs. To evaluate the role of liposomal formulation in protection rate and enhanced immune response, BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with liposomal soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) co-incorporated with PO CpG (Lip-SLA-PO CpG), Lip-SLA-PS CpG, SLA+PO CpG, SLA+PS CpG, SLA or buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge, parasite loads, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and the IgG subtypes were evaluated. The groups of mice receiving Lip-SLA-PO CpG or Lip-SLA-PS CpG showed a high protection rate compared with the control groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in immune response generation between mice immunized with PS CpG and the group receiving PO CpG when incorporated into the liposomes. The results suggested that liposomal form of PO CpG might be used instead of PS CpG in future vaccine formulations as an efficient adjuvant. PMID:22465747

  11. Liposomal SLA co-incorporated with PO CpG ODNs or PS CpG ODNs induce the same protection against the murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shargh, Vahid Heravi; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Iman; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-06-01

    First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites with or without adjuvants have reached phase 3 trial and failed to show enough efficacy mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (PS CpG) or nuclease-sensitive phosphodiester CpG ODNs (PO CpG) were used as adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Due to the susceptibility of PO CpG to nuclease degradation, an efficient liposomal delivery system was developed to protect them from degradation. 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as a cationic lipid was used because of its unique adjuvanticity and electrostatic interaction with negatively charged CpG ODNs. To evaluate the role of liposomal formulation in protection rate and enhanced immune response, BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with liposomal soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) co-incorporated with PO CpG (Lip-SLA-PO CpG), Lip-SLA-PS CpG, SLA+PO CpG, SLA+PS CpG, SLA or buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge, parasite loads, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and the IgG subtypes were evaluated. The groups of mice receiving Lip-SLA-PO CpG or Lip-SLA-PS CpG showed a high protection rate compared with the control groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in immune response generation between mice immunized with PS CpG and the group receiving PO CpG when incorporated into the liposomes. The results suggested that liposomal form of PO CpG might be used instead of PS CpG in future vaccine formulations as an efficient adjuvant.

  12. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  13. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the motivation for Universal Grammar (UG), as assumed in the principles and parameters framework of generative grammar (Chomsky, 1981), focusing on the logical problem of first-language acquisition and the potential role of UG in second-language acquisition. Recent experimental research regarding the second-language status of the…

  14. Methodological Questions in Studying Consonant Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper…

  15. Studies in First and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; Hastings, Ashley J., Ed.

    Papers presented at a 1977 symposium on language acquisition held at the University of Wisconsin/Milwaukee are included. Contents are as follows: "Assumptions, Methods and Goals in Language Acquisition Research" (Sheldon); "The Mother as LAD: Interaction between Order and Frequency of Parental Input and Child Production" (Forner); "Stress…

  16. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  17. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  18. The Acquisition of L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

  19. Oestrous synchronization, ovarian superovulation and intraspecific transfers from a closed breeding colony of inbred SLA miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Arlaud, J J; Baker, L; Williams, R L; French, A J

    2010-12-01

    The inbred SLA miniature pig is a unique animal model developed for organ transplantation studies and pre-clinical experimental purposes. Reported oestrous synchronization and superovulation treatments were examined in two SLA haplotypes (AA and DD) to allow collection of embryos for both practical embryo transfer and experimental technologies from a closed breeding colony. Pre-puberal miniature pigs were poor responders to oestrous synchronization treatments, while post-puberal sows were equivalent to commercial sows. Following superovulation, the ovulation number (corpora .hemorrhagica) was higher (p < 0.05) in the cycling sows when compared with non-cycling sows. Ovulations were equivalent to commercial pre-puberal gilts and non-cycling sows (p > 0.05). No difference in ovulation number between haplotypes was observed, which differs from the previous report (DD>AA). Collection of zygotes for pronuclear injection was the highest in the non-cycling post-puberal miniature pig group (p < 0.05), although significantly lower when compared with the commercial pig treatment groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia in our colony was equivalent to rates observed in commercial pigs. Pronuclear visualization following centrifugation was the highest in the non-cycling miniature sow group and approximates to about 25% of ovulations and about half the rate observed in the commercial pigs (50%). Miniature pig embryos transferred between SLA haplotypes and transfer of DD embryos to commercial pigs resulted in live births at a higher efficiency than previously reported. This study demonstrates the feasibility of undertaking assisted reproductive technologies in a closed breeding colony of inbred SLA miniature pigs without compromise to the breeding programmes.

  20. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): A Low-Risk, Cost-Effective Array Offering Wing-Level Performance of 180 W/KG and 300 W/M2 at 300 VDC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, Mark; Piszczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.; Lyons, Valerie J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At IECEC 2001, our team presented a paper on the new stretched lens array (SLA), including its evolution from the successful SCARLET array on the NASA/JPL Deep Space 1 spacecraft. Since that conference, the SLA team has made significant advances in the SLA technology, including component-level improvements, array-level optimization, space environment exposure testing, and prototype hardware fabrication and evaluation. This paper describes the evolved version of the SLA, highlighting recent improvements in the lens, solar cell, photovoltaic receiver, rigid panel structure, and complete solar array wing.

  1. VAPA, an innovative "virus-acquisition phenotyping assay" opens new horizons in research into the vector-transmission of plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Martinière, Alexandre; Macia, Jean-Luc; Bagnolini, Guillaume; Jridi, Chiraz; Bak, Aurélie; Blanc, Stéphane; Drucker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Host-to-host transmission--a key step in plant virus infection cycles--is ensured predominantly by vectors, especially aphids and related insects. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of virus acquisition, which is critical to vector-transmission, might help to design future virus control strategies, because any newly discovered molecular or cellular process is a potential target for hampering viral spread within host populations. With this aim in mind, an aphid membrane-feeding assay was developed where aphids transmitted two non-circulative viruses [cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and turnip mosaic virus] from infected protoplasts. In this assay, virus acquisition occurs exclusively from living cells. Most interestingly, we also show that CaMV is less efficiently transmitted by aphids in the presence of oryzalin--a microtubule-depolymerising drug. The example presented here demonstrates that our technically simple "virus-acquisition phenotyping assay" (VAPA) provides a first opportunity to implement correlative studies relating the physiological state of infected plant cells to vector-transmission efficiency.

  2. VAPA, an innovative "virus-acquisition phenotyping assay" opens new horizons in research into the vector-transmission of plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Martinière, Alexandre; Macia, Jean-Luc; Bagnolini, Guillaume; Jridi, Chiraz; Bak, Aurélie; Blanc, Stéphane; Drucker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Host-to-host transmission--a key step in plant virus infection cycles--is ensured predominantly by vectors, especially aphids and related insects. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of virus acquisition, which is critical to vector-transmission, might help to design future virus control strategies, because any newly discovered molecular or cellular process is a potential target for hampering viral spread within host populations. With this aim in mind, an aphid membrane-feeding assay was developed where aphids transmitted two non-circulative viruses [cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and turnip mosaic virus] from infected protoplasts. In this assay, virus acquisition occurs exclusively from living cells. Most interestingly, we also show that CaMV is less efficiently transmitted by aphids in the presence of oryzalin--a microtubule-depolymerising drug. The example presented here demonstrates that our technically simple "virus-acquisition phenotyping assay" (VAPA) provides a first opportunity to implement correlative studies relating the physiological state of infected plant cells to vector-transmission efficiency. PMID:21853093

  3. SLA-Driven Adaptive Resource Management for Web Applications on a Heterogeneous Compute Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Waheed; Dailey, Matthew; Carrera, David

    Current service-level agreements (SLAs) offered by cloud providers make guarantees about quality attributes such as availability. However, although one of the most important quality attributes from the perspective of the users of a cloud-based Web application is its response time, current SLAs do not guarantee response time. Satisfying a maximum average response time guarantee for Web applications is difficult due to unpredictable traffic patterns, but in this paper we show how it can be accomplished through dynamic resource allocation in a virtual Web farm. We present the design and implementation of a working prototype built on a EUCALYPTUS-based heterogeneous compute cloud that actively monitors the response time of each virtual machine assigned to the farm and adaptively scales up the application to satisfy a SLA promising a specific average response time. We demonstrate the feasibility of the approach in an experimental evaluation with a testbed cloud and a synthetic workload. Adaptive resource management has the potential to increase the usability of Web applications while maximizing resource utilization.

  4. Crystal structure of swine major histocompatibility complex class I SLA-1 0401 and identification of 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nianzhi; Qi, Jianxun; Feng, Sijia; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaocheng; Chen, Rong; Li, Qirun; Chen, Zhaosan; Li, Xiaoying; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

    2011-11-01

    The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1 0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV(NW9); NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (Ebola(AY9); ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide-SLA-1 0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1 0401 is that Arg(156) has a "one-ballot veto" function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIV(NW9) and Ebola(AY9) bind SLA-1 0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are "featured" peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1 0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A 0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1 0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide-SLA-1 0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation.

  5. Genetic study of interactions between the cytoskeletal assembly protein sla1 and prion-forming domain of the release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, P A; Newnam, G P; Steenbergen, J N; Chernoff, Y O

    1999-01-01

    Striking similarities between cytoskeletal assembly and the "nucleated polymerization" model of prion propagation suggest that similar or overlapping sets of proteins may assist in both processes. We show that the C-terminal domain of the yeast cytoskeletal assembly protein Sla1 (Sla1C) specifically interacts with the N-terminal prion-forming domain (Sup35N) of the yeast release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in the two-hybrid system. Sla1C and several other Sup35N-interacting proteins also exhibit two-hybrid interactions with the poly-Gln-expanded N-proximal fragment of human huntingtin, which promotes Huntington disease-associated aggregation. The Sup35N-Sla1C interaction is inhibited by Sup35N alterations that make Sup35 unable to propagate the [PSI(+)] state and by the absence of the chaperone protein Hsp104, which is essential for [PSI] propagation. In a Sla1(-) background, [PSI] curing by dimethylsulfoxide or excess Hsp104 is increased, while translational readthrough and de novo [PSI] formation induced by excess Sup35 or Sup35N are decreased. These data show that, in agreement with the proposed function of Sla1 during cytoskeletal formation, Sla1 assists in [PSI] formation and propagation, but is not required for these processes. Sla1(-) strains are sensitive to some translational inhibitors, and some sup35 mutants, obtained in a Sla1(-) background, are sensitive to Sla1, suggesting that the interaction between Sla1 and Sup35 proteins may play a role in the normal function of the translational apparatus. We hypothesize that Sup35N is involved in regulatory interactions with intracellular structural networks, and [PSI] prion may be formed as a by-product of this process. PMID:10471702

  6. Reconstruction of a swine SLA-I protein complex and determination of binding nonameric peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-Shan; Fang, Qin-Mei; Li, Yun-Gang; Li, Xin-Sheng; Hao, Hui-Fang; Xia, Chun

    2006-10-15

    No experimental system to date is available to identify viral T-cell epitopes in swine. In order to reconstruct the system for identification of short antigenic peptides, the swine SLA-2 gene was linked to the beta(2)m gene via (G4S)3, a linker encoding a 15-amino acid glycine-rich sequence (G4S)3, using splicing overlap extension-PCR (SOE-PCR). The maltose binding protein (MBP)-SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m fusion protein was expressed and purified in a pMAL-p2X/Escherichia coli TB1 system. The purified MBP-SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m protein was cleaved by factor Xa protease, and further purified by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. The conformation of the SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m protein was determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. In addition, the refolded SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m protein was used to bind three nonameric peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O subtype VP1. The SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m-associated peptides were detected by mass spectrometry. The molecular weights and amino acid sequences of the peptides were confirmed by primary and secondary spectra, respectively. The results indicate that the SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m was 41.6kDa, and its alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn, and random coil by CD estimation were 78 aa, 149 aa, 67 aa, and 93 aa, respectively. SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m protein was able to bind the nonameric peptides derived from the FMDV VP1 region: 26-34 (RRQHTDVSF) and 157-165 (RTLPTSFNY). The experimental system demonstrated that the reconstructed SLA-2-(G4S)3-beta(2)m protein complex can be used to identify nonameric peptides, including T-cell epitopes in swine.

  7. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  8. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for Collection and Conversion of Infrared Laser Light: 45% Efficiency Demonstrated for Near-Term 800 W/kg Space Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark; Howell, Joe; Fikes, John; Fork, Richard; Phillips, Dane; Aiken, Dan; McDanal, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 2% years, our team has been developing a unique photovoltaic concentrator array for collection and conversion of infrared laser light. This laser-receiving array has evolved from the solar-receiving Stretched Lens Array (SLA). The laser-receiving version of SLA is being developed for space power applications when or where sunlight is not available (e.g., the eternally dark lunar polar craters). The laser-receiving SLA can efficiently collect and convert beamed laser power from orbiting spacecraft or other sources (e.g., solar-powered lasers on the permanently illuminated ridges of lunar polar craters). A dual-use version of SLA can produce power from sunlight during sunlit portions of the mission, and from beamed laser light during dark portions of the mission. SLA minimizes the cost and mass of photovoltaic cells by using gossamer-like Fresnel lenses to capture and focus incoming light (solar or laser) by a factor of 8.5X, thereby providing a cost-effective, ultra-light space power system.

  9. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  10. Ultrasonic Scanner Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    2002-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of ULTRASONIC SCANNER CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION. Rather than try to summarize all this research I have enclosed research papers and reports which were completed with the hnding provided by the grant. These papers and reports are listed below:

  11. Genomic sequence analysis of the 238-kb swine segment with a cluster of TRIM and olfactory receptor genes located, but with no class I genes, at the distal end of the SLA class I region.

    PubMed

    Ando, Asako; Shigenari, Atsuko; Kulski, Jerzy K; Renard, Christine; Chardon, Patrick; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2005-12-01

    Continuous genomic sequence has been previously determined for the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I region from the TNF gene cluster at the border between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III and class I regions to the UBD gene at the telomeric end of the classical class I gene cluster (SLA-1 to SLA-5, SLA-9, SLA-11). To complete the genomic sequence of the entire SLA class I genomic region, we have analyzed the genomic sequences of two BAC clones carrying a continuous 237,633-bp-long segment spanning from the TRIM15 gene to the UBD gene located on the telomeric side of the classical SLA class I gene cluster. Fifteen non-class I genes, including the zinc finger and the tripartite motif (TRIM) ring-finger-related family genes and olfactory receptor genes, were identified in the 238-kilobase (kb) segment, and their location in the segment was similar to their apparent human homologs. In contrast, a human segment (alpha block) spanning about 375 kb from the gene ETF1P1 and from the HLA-J to HLA-F genes was absent from the 238-kb swine segment. We conclude that the gene organization of the MHC non-class I genes located in the telomeric side of the classical SLA class I gene cluster is remarkably similar between the swine and the human segments, although the swine lacks a 375-kb segment corresponding to the human alpha block.

  12. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  13. Quick Ride: Acquisition Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    Quick Ride is an outgrowth of rapid spacecraft acquisition. It provides a variety of low-cost, short lead time satellite rides for science instruments. Task order contracts with commercial firms will permit placing a order within 30 days. Secondary objectives include a demonstration of a FAR Part 12 commercial acquisition and the exploration of the use of on-ramps.

  14. DOT and SLA stationary and time-varying analytical covariance functions for LSC-based heterogeneous data combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergos, Georgios S.; Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Tziavos, Ilias N.; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N.; Tzanou, Eleni A.

    2014-05-01

    With the availability of an abundance of earth observation data from satellite altimetry missions as well as those from the GOCE satellite, monitoring of the sea level variations and the determination of functionals of the Earth's gravity field are gaining increased importance. One of the main issues of heterogeneous data combination with stochastic methods is the availability of appropriate data and error covariance and cross-covariance matrices. The latter needs to be determined for all input data within a LSC-based combination scheme based on some analytical global covariance function models, which interconnect observations and signals to be predicted. Given the availability of altimetric sea surface heights, GOCE observations of the second-order derivatives of the Earth's potential, geoid height variations from GRACE and marine gravity anomalies, one can employ all such available information within LSC to estimate the mean dynamic ocean topography (DOT) as well as its dynamic, i.e., time-varying part. In this work, we present some analytical covariance function models for the DOT in the Mediterranean Sea based on empirical values from altimetry- and GOCE-derived DOT. Various options for the analytical models are tested, from exponential to the well-known Gauss-Markov ones, along with a model similar to the Tscherning and Rapp model for the Earth's gravity field. All available covariance function model choices are tested within a LSC-based prediction scheme in order to conclude on the one that provides the most rigorous results in terms of prediction error. Moreover, modifications of the standard stationary covariance functions are investigated in order to determine time-varying analytical models which are used to model the sea level anomaly (SLA) and DOT variability within the entire Mediterranean Basin. The analysis is carried out over a period of 5 years (2008-2013), during which Jason-2 SLA data are employed in order to derive analytical covariance functions

  15. A functional characterisation of a wide range of cover crop species: growth and nitrogen acquisition rates, leaf traits and ecological strategies.

    PubMed

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species. PMID:25789485

  16. A functional characterisation of a wide range of cover crop species: growth and nitrogen acquisition rates, leaf traits and ecological strategies.

    PubMed

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species.

  17. A Functional Characterisation of a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species: Growth and Nitrogen Acquisition Rates, Leaf Traits and Ecological Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species. PMID:25789485

  18. STIS target acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  19. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  20. Immunoliposomes containing Soluble Leishmania Antigens (SLA) as a novel antigen delivery system in murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Faeze; Talesh, Ghazal Alipour; Parooie, Maryam; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Saberi, Zahra; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Development of new generation of vaccines against leishmaniasis requires adjuvants to elicit the type and intensity of immune response needed for protection. The coupling of target-specific antibodies to the liposomal surface to create immunoliposomes has appeared as a promising way in achieving a liposome active targeting. In this study, immunoliposomes were prepared by grafting non-immune mouse IgG onto the liposomal surface. The influence of active targeted immunoliposomes on the type and intensity of generated immune response against Leishmania was then investigated and compared with that of liposomes and control groups which received either SLA or HEPES buffer alone. All formulations contained SLA and were used to immunize the mice in the left hind footpad three times in 3-week intervals. Evaluation of lesion development and parasite burden in the foot and spleen after challenge with Leishmania major, evaluation of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ), and titration of IgG isotypes were carried out to assess the type of generated immune response and the extent of protection. The results indicated that liposomes might be effective adjuvant systems to induce protection against L. major challenge in BALB/c mice, but stronger cell mediated immune responses were induced when immunoliposomes were utilized. Thus, immune modulation using immunoliposomes might be a practical approach to improve the immunization against L. major.

  1. Acquisition signal transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An encoded information transmitter which transmits a radio frequency carrier that is amplitude modulated by a constant frequency waveform and thereafter amplitude modulated by a predetermined encoded waveform, the constant frequency waveform modulated carrier constituting an acquisition signal and the encoded waveform modulated carrier constituting an information bearing signal, the acquisition signal providing enhanced signal acquisition and interference rejection favoring the information bearing signal. One specific application for this transmitter is as a distress transmitter where a conventional, legislated audio tone modulated signal is transmitted followed first by the acquisition signal and then the information bearing signal, the information bearing signal being encoded with, among other things, vehicle identification data. The acquistion signal enables a receiver to acquire the information bearing signal where the received signal is low and/or where the received signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio in an environment where there are multiple signals in the same frequency band as the information bearing signal.

  2. Defense acquisition programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The continuing instability in the overall defense budget and the recent changes in Eastern Europe are forcing DOD and the military services to reexamine the need, priority, and annual funding levels for many weapon system acquisition programs. GAO reviewed six weapon system acquisition programs that DOD was scheduled to make an acquisition milestone decision on during fiscal year 1991. Under milestone authorization, up to five years funding can be approved to cover the entire acquisition phase for either full-scale development or full-rate production. This report examines the Non-Line-of-Sight Missile, the Light Helicopter, the MK-50 Torpedo, the Sensor Fuzed Weapon, the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Class 2 Terminals.

  3. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  4. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  5. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  6. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  7. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  8. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  9. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  10. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  11. Language Acquisition: The Age Factor. Multilingual Matters 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, David

    This book provides an overview of research and thinking on age-related dimensions of language acquisition, intended for students, researchers, and educators with some experience in linguistics and applied linguistics. The first chapter introduces the variety of issues associated with age and language acquisition. Chapter 2 examines the evidence…

  12. Abilities and Skill Acquisition: A Latent Growth Curve Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Wittmann, Werner W.; Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between abilities and skill acquisition has been the subject of numerous controversies in psychology. However, while most researchers implicitly or explicitly accept the idea that abilities and skill acquisition should be related, empirical research has failed to provide evidence for a consistently strong correlation between the…

  13. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the swine major histocompatibility complex molecule SLA-1*1502.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaocheng; Qi, Jianxun; Zhang, Nianzhi; Li, Qirun; Yin, Chunsheng; Chen, Rong; Gao, Feng; Xia, Chun

    2011-05-01

    In order to illustrate the structure of the swine MHC class I (SLA-I) molecule and to evaluate the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the ternary complex of the SLA-I molecule termed SLA-1*1502 with β(2)-microglobulin and the CTL epitope TMPPGFELY (PRRSV-NSP9(TY9)) derived from PRRSV nonstructural protein 9 (residues 198-206) was assembled and crystallized. The crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 66.1, b = 74.1, c = 98.6 Å; it contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.74 Å(3) Da(-1) and 55.17%, respectively. The results will be helpful in obtaining insight into the structural basis of the presentation of viral epitopes by SLA-I.

  14. Enhanced bone forming ability of SLA-treated Ti coated with a calcium phosphate thin film formed by e-beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongil; Choi, Seong-Ho; Chung, Sung-Min; Li, Long-Hao; Lee, In-Seop

    2010-08-01

    With an electron-beam evaporation process, a calcium phosphate (Ca-P) thin film of approximately 500 nm thick was deposited on sand blasted with large grits and acid etched (SLA) Ti without changing the typical morphology of the SLA surface. Dissolution behavior was investigated by measuring the amount of dissolved phosphate ions with ion chromatography after immersing the SLA Ti sample coated with a Ca-P film in 1 ml de-ionized water maintained at 37 degrees C for different periods of soaking time, and the surface morphology was observed with field emission scanning electron microscopy. The amount of phosphate ions increased quickly right after immersion but began to decrease after 2 days of immersion by redeposition with Ca ions as apatite, and the amount of biomimetic apatite increased with the extended soaking time. The Saos-2 cell was more attached on the coated surface, and the in vivo evaluation was that the Ca-P deposited SLA implant greatly improved the new bone formation ability.

  15. SLA 2002: Putting Knowledge to Work. Papers Presented at the Special Libraries Association Conference (Los Angeles, California, June 9-12, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the following papers from the 2002 Special Libraries Association Conference: (1) "Competencies for the 21st Century Information Professional: Translating the SLA Competencies into Business Competencies" (Sue Henczel); (2) "Compromises along the Way: Balancing Speed to Market with Sustainability While Delivering Knowledge…

  16. The "O" Word: Issues in Outsourcing. Professional Associations React to the Challenge. Interviews with SLA's David Bender and AIIP's Jane Miller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    The executive director of the Special Libraries Association (SLA) and the president of the Association of Independent Information Professionals (AIIP) answer questions about outsourcing information services. Relevant policy, vendor-client relationships, managerial considerations, and effects on libraries are discussed. Two sidebars offer 19…

  17. Trypanosoma brucei spliced leader RNA maturation by the cap 1 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase and SLA1 H/ACA snoRNA pseudouridine synthase complex.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Jesse R; Mittra, Bidyottam; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Wohlschlegel, James A; Sturm, Nancy R; Campbell, David A

    2009-03-01

    Kinetoplastid flagellates attach a 39-nucleotide spliced leader (SL) upstream of protein-coding regions in polycistronic RNA precursors through trans splicing. SL modifications include cap 2'-O-ribose methylation of the first four nucleotides and pseudouridine (psi) formation at uracil 28. In Trypanosoma brucei, TbMTr1 performs 2'-O-ribose methylation of the first transcribed nucleotide, or cap 1. We report the characterization of an SL RNA processing complex with TbMTr1 and the SLA1 H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) particle that guides SL psi(28) formation. TbMTr1 is in a high-molecular-weight complex containing the four conserved core proteins of H/ACA snoRNPs, a kinetoplastid-specific protein designated methyltransferase-associated protein (TbMTAP), and the SLA1 snoRNA. TbMTAP-null lines are viable but have decreased SL RNA processing efficiency in cap methylation, 3'-end maturation, and psi(28) formation. TbMTAP is required for association between TbMTr1 and the SLA1 snoRNP but does not affect U1 small nuclear RNA methylation. A complex methylation profile in the mRNA population of TbMTAP-null lines indicates an additional effect on cap 4 methylations. The TbMTr1 complex specializes the SLA1 H/ACA snoRNP for efficient processing of multiple modifications on the SL RNA substrate.

  18. Developmental Issues in Interlanguage Pragmatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele; Schmidt, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Profiles interlanguage pragmatics as an area of inquiry in second-language acquisition (SLA) research by reviewing existing studies with a focus on learning, examining research findings in interlanguage pragmatics shedding light on basic questions in SLA, exploring cognitive and social-psychological theories illuminating aspects of pragmatic…

  19. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  20. Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong

    2013-01-01

    A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

  1. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC).

  2. Multi-echo acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Posse, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of fMRI was paralleled early on by the adaptation of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) methods to quantify water relaxation changes during brain activation. This review describes the evolution of multi-echo acquisition from high-speed MRSI to multi-echo EPI and beyond. It highlights milestones in the development of multi-echo acquisition methods, such as the discovery of considerable gains in fMRI sensitivity when combining echo images, advances in quantification of the BOLD effect using analytical biophysical modeling and interleaved multi-region shimming. The review conveys the insight gained from combining fMRI and MRSI methods and concludes with recent trends in ultra-fast fMRI, which will significantly increase temporal resolution of multi-echo acquisition. PMID:22056458

  3. Effects of High Fidelity Simulation on Knowledge Acquisition, Self-Confidence, and Satisfaction with Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using the Solomon-Four Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Rachel Mattson

    2013-01-01

    High Fidelity Simulation is a teaching strategy that is becoming well-entrenched in the world of nursing education and is rapidly expanding due to the challenges and demands of the health care environment. The problem addressed in this study is the conflicting research results regarding the effectiveness of HFS for students' knowledge acquisition…

  4. Data acquisition command interface using VAX/VMS DCL

    SciTech Connect

    Poore, R.V.; Barrus, D.M.; Cort, G.; Goldstone, J.A.; Miller, L.B.; Nelson, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    The user interface to a data acquisition system is being developed at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research Facility using the VAX/VMS command language interface DCL. Commands are being implemented which provide for system initialization and control functions and FASTBUS diagnostics. The data acquisition system incorporates the concept of a data acquisition ''state'' (running, halted, etc.) where a certain subset of input commands is allowed.

  5. Plasticity in above- and belowground resource acquisition traits in response to single and multiple environmental factors in three tree species.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Bellingham, Peter J; Lyver, Philip O'B; Bonner, Karen I; Wardle, David A

    2013-04-01

    Functional trait plasticity is a major component of plant adjustment to environmental stresses. Here, we explore how multiple local environmental gradients in resources required by plants (light, water, and nutrients) and soil disturbance together influence the direction and amplitude of intraspecific changes in leaf and fine root traits that facilitate capture of these resources. We measured population-level analogous above- and belowground traits related to resource acquisition, i.e. "specific leaf area"-"specific root length" (SLA-SRL), and leaf and root N, P, and dry matter content (DMC), on three dominant understory tree species with contrasting carbon and nutrient economics across 15 plots in a temperate forest influenced by burrowing seabirds. We observed similar responses of the three species to the same single environmental influences, but partially species-specific responses to combinations of influences. The strength of intraspecific above- and belowground trait responses appeared unrelated to species resource acquisition strategy. Finally, most analogous leaf and root traits (SLA vs. SRL, and leaf versus root P and DMC) were controlled by contrasting environmental influences. The decoupled responses of above- and belowground traits to these multiple environmental factors together with partially species-specific adjustments suggest complex responses of plant communities to environmental changes, and potentially contrasting feedbacks of plant traits with ecosystem properties. We demonstrate that despite the growing evidence for broadly consistent resource-acquisition strategies at the whole plant level among species, plants also show partially decoupled, finely tuned strategies between above- and belowground parts at the intraspecific level in response to their environment. This decoupling within species suggests a need for many species-centred ecological theories on how plants respond to their environments (e.g. competitive/stress-tolerant/ruderal and

  6. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3×10(16) ions/cm(2) was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity.

  7. Merger and acquisition medicine.

    PubMed

    Powell, G S

    1997-01-01

    This discussion of the ramifications of corporate mergers and acquisitions for employees recognizes that employee adaptation to the change can be a long and complex process. The author describes a role the occupational physician can take in helping to minimize the potential adverse health impact of major organizational change.

  8. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  9. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  10. First Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eve V.

    This book examines children's acquisition of a first language, the stages they go through, and how they use language as they learn. There are 16 chapters in 4 parts. After chapter 1, "Acquiring Languages: Issues and Questions," Part 1, "Getting Started," offers (2) "In Conversation with Children," (3) "Starting on Language: Perception," (4) "Early…

  11. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  12. Data Acquisition Backend

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr., Charles L.; Ezell, N. Dianne Bull; Roberts, Michael

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to summarize the development and testing of the data acquisition module portion of the Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) system developed at ORNL. The proposed system has been presented in an earlier report [1]. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [2].

  13. Image Acquisition Context

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, W. Dean; Bray, Bruce; Brown, Nicolas; Mori, Angelo Rossi; Spackman, Kent A.; Golichowski, Alan; Jones, Robert H.; Korman, Louis; Dove, Brent; Hildebrand, Lloyd; Berg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To support clinically relevant indexing of biomedical images and image-related information based on the attributes of image acquisition procedures and the judgments (observations) expressed by observers in the process of image interpretation. Design: The authors introduce the notion of “image acquisition context,” the set of attributes that describe image acquisition procedures, and present a standards-based strategy for utilizing the attributes of image acquisition context as indexing and retrieval keys for digital image libraries. Methods: The authors' indexing strategy is based on an interdependent message/terminology architecture that combines the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard, the SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine) vocabulary, and the SNOMED DICOM microglossary. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary provides context-dependent mapping of terminology to DICOM data elements. Results: The capability of embedding standard coded descriptors in DICOM image headers and image-interpretation reports improves the potential for selective retrieval of image-related information. This favorably affects information management in digital libraries. PMID:9925229

  14. Trends in data acquisition instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanar, George J.

    1993-10-01

    Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including BNL, FNAL, CERN, SLAC, etc., as well as LeCroy Corporation's 26 year history in the field of physics research instrumentation. Finally, instrumentation needs for the next generation of high energy, hadron colliders including the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be reviewed and compared to current technologies.

  15. Coordinating Council. Seventh Meeting: Acquisitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The theme for this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting was Acquisitions. In addition to NASA and the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) presentations, the report contains fairly lengthy visuals about acquisitions at the Defense Technical Information Center. CASI's acquisitions program and CASI's proactive acquisitions activity were described. There was a presentation on the document evaluation process at CASI. A talk about open literature scope and coverage at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics was also given. An overview of the STI Program's Acquisitions Experts Committee was given next. Finally acquisitions initiatives of the NASA STI program were presented.

  16. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. Activities of the Deep Space Network and its associated Ground Communications Facility in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations are reported in space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy.

  17. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is documented. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  18. A Connectionist Approach to Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizardi, Luis O.

    This paper attempts to synthesize how biological-nativist theories emerged as a response to logical and empirical flaws in behaviorist learning theories, and how in turn, recent research findings in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience and Connectionist models of language acquisition are questioning the present innatist framework. As a result of…

  19. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This publication, one of a series formerly titled The Deep Space Network Progress Report, documents DSN progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. In addition, developments in earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  20. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This publication, one of a series formerly titled The Deep Space Network (DSN) Progress Report, documents DSN progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  1. Linguistic Perspectives from Spanish Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark, Ed.; Koike, Dale April, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers reporting research on Spanish second language learning include: "Discourse Features of Spanish Oral Production at the Novice Level" (Rebecca Jo Bearden); "A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency" (Dale April Koike, Fanny Hinojosa); "Acquisition of Spanish Definite Articles by English-Speaking Learners of…

  2. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operation is discussed. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  3. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  4. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are presented. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and its associated Ground Communications Facility (GCF) in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations.

  5. The telecommunications and data acquisition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implemention, and operations is documented. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  6. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... the full address. In proposed rule FR Doc. 2013-12708, published in the issue of May 29, 2013, make...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions...

  7. The roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast proliferation and differentiation on SLA and SLActive titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying-Xin; Du, Juan; Si, Mi-Si; Mo, Jia-Ji; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2013-03-01

    Chemical modification to produce a hydrophilic microrough titanium (Ti) implant surface has been shown to increase osseointegration compared with microrough topography alone. This study aimed to investigate the roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in response to surface microroughness and hydrophilicity. Ti disks were manufactured to present different surface morphologies: a smooth pretreatment surface (PT), a rough hydrophobic surface that was sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA), and an SLA surface with the same roughness that was chemically modified to possess high wettability/hydrophilicity (SLActive/modSLA). MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on these substrates with or without LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, and their behaviors, including cell viability (MTT colorimetric assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteogenic genes expression of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway proteins. The results showed that a decrease in osteoblast proliferation associated with the Ti surfaces (SLActive > SLA > PT) correlated with an increase in activity of the osteogenic differentiation markers ALP. The peak of ALP activity appeared earlier at 7 days for the SLActive surfaces compared with the SLA and PT surfaces. Osteoblast proliferation, as well as the level of p-Akt, was significantly inhibited by LY294002 in all three Ti surfaces. The top value of ALP activity was increased with the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway while the time of the peak appeared was not advanced. The expression levels of OPN and OCN were upregulated by the effect of surface roughness and hydrophilicity, which were further enhanced by LY294002. In conclusion, osteogenic responses to SLActive surface were moderately better than the SLA surface and protein expression studies indicated that PI3K/Akt signaling activation may be

  8. A Study of the Constraints Affecting Resumption in Turkish and Mandarin Chinese Relative Clauses, and the Transfer of These Constraints to English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitz, John

    2012-01-01

    Odlin (2003) observes that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the importance of L1 transfer in second-language acquisition (henceforth SLA). To test whether L1 transfer is a significant factor in SLA of English relative clauses (RCs), an English-language acceptability judgment task (AJT) with a four-point rating scale was…

  9. Genetic Diversity and mRNA Expression of Porcine MHC Class I Chain-Related 2 (SLA-MIC2) Gene and Development of a High-Resolution Typing Method.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Hailu; Le, MinhThong; Dinka, Hunduma; Nguyen, DinhTruong; Choi, Hojun; Cho, Hyesun; Choi, Minkyeung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jin-Ki; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Park, Chankyu

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure and function of MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes in the pig genome have not been well characterized, and show discordance in available data. Therefore, we have experimentally characterized the exon-intron structure and functional copy expression pattern of the pig MIC gene, SLA-MIC2. We have also studied the genetic diversity of SLA-MIC2 from seven different breeds using a high-resolution genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT) method. Our results showed that the SLA-MIC2 gene has a similar molecular organization as the human and cattle orthologs, and is expressed in only a few tissues including the small intestine, lung, and heart. A total of fifteen SLA-MIC2 alleles were identified from typing 145 animals, ten of which were previously unreported. Our analysis showed that the previously reported and tentatively named SLA-MIC2*05, 07, and 01 alleles occurred most frequently. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.26 to 0.73 among breeds. The number of alleles of the SLA-MIC2 gene in pigs is somewhat lower compared to the number of alleles of the porcine MHC class I and II genes; however, the level of heterozygosity was similar. Our results indicate the comprehensiveness of using genomic DNA-based typing for the systemic study of the SLA-MIC2 gene. The method developed for this study, as well as the detailed information that was obtained, could serve as fundamental tools for understanding the influence of the SLA-MIC2 gene on porcine immune responses.

  10. Genetic Diversity and mRNA Expression of Porcine MHC Class I Chain-Related 2 (SLA-MIC2) Gene and Development of a High-Resolution Typing Method

    PubMed Central

    Dinka, Hunduma; Nguyen, DinhTruong; Choi, Hojun; Cho, Hyesun; Choi, Minkyeung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jin-Ki; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Park, Chankyu

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure and function of MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes in the pig genome have not been well characterized, and show discordance in available data. Therefore, we have experimentally characterized the exon-intron structure and functional copy expression pattern of the pig MIC gene, SLA-MIC2. We have also studied the genetic diversity of SLA-MIC2 from seven different breeds using a high-resolution genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT) method. Our results showed that the SLA-MIC2 gene has a similar molecular organization as the human and cattle orthologs, and is expressed in only a few tissues including the small intestine, lung, and heart. A total of fifteen SLA-MIC2 alleles were identified from typing 145 animals, ten of which were previously unreported. Our analysis showed that the previously reported and tentatively named SLA-MIC2*05, 07, and 01 alleles occurred most frequently. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.26 to 0.73 among breeds. The number of alleles of the SLA-MIC2 gene in pigs is somewhat lower compared to the number of alleles of the porcine MHC class I and II genes; however, the level of heterozygosity was similar. Our results indicate the comprehensiveness of using genomic DNA-based typing for the systemic study of the SLA-MIC2 gene. The method developed for this study, as well as the detailed information that was obtained, could serve as fundamental tools for understanding the influence of the SLA-MIC2 gene on porcine immune responses. PMID:26305091

  11. Acquisition of Simple and Complex Knowledge; A Knowledge Gap Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Heron, Judy; Sligo, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses university students' acquisition of simple and complex knowledge, in exploring whether the knowledge gap hypothesis (KGH) with its origins in community-based research into people's informal learning from mass media, provides insights into students' acquisition and retention of information. The KGH posits that attempts to…

  12. Can Production Precede Comprehension in L2 Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila

    2015-01-01

    So far, the comprehension and production language modes have typically been studied separately in generative second language acquisition research, with the focus shifting from one to the other. This article revisits the asymmetric relationship between comprehension and production by examining the second language (L2) acquisition of the noun phrase…

  13. Computational Modeling for Language Acquisition: A Tutorial with Syntactic Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Lisa S.; Sprouse, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Given the growing prominence of computational modeling in the acquisition research community, we present a tutorial on how to use computational modeling to investigate learning strategies that underlie the acquisition process. This is useful for understanding both typical and atypical linguistic development. Method: We provide a general…

  14. Assess the Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    The Critical Period Hypothesis aims to investigate the reason for significant difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition. Over the past few decades, researchers carried out a series of studies to test the validity of the hypothesis. Although there were certain limitations in these studies, most of their results…

  15. The Ubiquity of Frequency Effects in First Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Kidd, Evan; Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    This review article presents evidence for the claim that frequency effects are pervasive in children's first language acquisition, and hence constitute a phenomenon that any successful account must explain. The article is organized around four key domains of research: children's acquisition of single words, inflectional morphology, simple…

  16. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  17. Foreign-Grammar Acquisition while Watching Subtitled Television Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lommel, Sven; Laenen, Annouschka; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2006-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that watching a subtitled foreign movie (i.e. foreign language in the soundtrack and native language in the subtitles) leads to considerable foreign-language vocabulary acquisition; however, acquisition of the grammatical rules has failed to emerge. Aims: The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the…

  18. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. Capturing the Dynamics of Second Language Development via Learner Corpus Research: A Very Long Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasko, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This introductory paper highlights the promising potential of learner corpora to facilitate investigations of the developmental processes underlying L2 learning. It offers a critical discussion of the aspects in which the disciplines of learner corpus (LC) research and SLA would benefit from closer interdisciplinary engagement and introduces the…

  20. Preschool foundations of early reading acquisition.

    PubMed

    Rvachew, Susan; Savage, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The present paper describes research on the skills and processes associated with word and text reading acquisition in preschool children and during the first years of school. The aim is to provide an overview that gives a sense of the important milestones in language and literacy acquisition. A comparison of children's performances against these milestones may thus guide effective intervention for health professionals, parents and other professionals. Also summarized and explored are the role of speech perception and production, grammatical and syntactic skills, and metacognitive skills, including phonological awareness. PMID:19030330

  1. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  2. Implicit learning and acquisition of music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly. PMID:23060126

  3. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  4. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  5. Real-time forecasting at weekly timescales of the SST and SLA of the Ligurian Sea with a satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ÁLvarez, A.; Orfila, A.; Tintoré, J.

    2004-03-01

    Satellites are the only systems able to provide continuous information on the spatiotemporal variability of vast areas of the ocean. Relatively long-term time series of satellite data are nowadays available. These spatiotemporal time series of satellite observations can be employed to build empirical models, called satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) systems, to forecast certain aspects of future ocean states. SOFT systems can predict satellite-observed fields at different timescales. The forecast skill of SOFT systems forecasting the sea surface temperature (SST) at monthly timescales has been extensively explored in previous works. In this work we study the performance of two SOFT systems forecasting, respectively, the SST and sea level anomaly (SLA) at weekly timescales, that is, providing forecasts of the weekly averaged SST and SLA fields with 1 week in advance. The SOFT systems were implemented in the Ligurian Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea). Predictions from the SOFT systems are compared with observations and with the predictions obtained from persistence models. Results indicate that the SOFT system forecasting the SST field is always superior in terms of predictability to persistence. Minimum prediction errors in the SST are obtained during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, the biggest differences between the performance of SOFT and persistence models are found during summer and autumn. These changes in the predictability are explained on the basis of the particular variability of the SST field in the Ligurian Sea. Concerning the SLA field, no improvements with respect to persistence have been found for the SOFT system forecasting the SLA field.

  6. SLA-PGN-primed dendritic cell-based vaccination induces Th17-mediated protective immunity against experimental visceral leishmaniasis: a crucial role of PKCβ.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Junaid Jibran; Majumder, Saikat; Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Biswas, Satabdi; Parveen, Shabina; Majumdar, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Emergence of drug resistance during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major obstacle imposed during successful therapy. An effective vaccine strategy against this disease is therefore necessary. Our present study exploited the SLA (soluble leishmanial antigen) and PGN (peptidoglycan) stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) as a suitable vaccine candidate during experimental VL. SLA-PGN-stimulated DCs showed a significant decrease in hepatic and splenic parasite burden, which were associated with increased production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-17. Elevated level of IL-17 was accompanied with the generation of more Th17 cells. Further studies on DC provided the evidence that these SLA-PGN-stimulated DCs played an important role in providing necessary cytokines such as IL-6, IL-23 and TGF-β for the generation of Th17 cells. Interestingly, inhibition of protein kinase C-β (PKCβ) in DCs led to decreased production of Th17 polarizing cytokines, causing reduction of the Th17 population size. Altogether, our finding highlighted the important role of DC-based PKCβ in regulation of the function and generation of Th17 cells.

  7. Modulation of human gingival fibroblast adhesion, morphology, tyrosine phosphorylation, and ERK 1/2 localization on polished, grooved and SLA substratum topographies.

    PubMed

    Kokubu, Eitoyo; Hamilton, Douglas W; Inoue, Takashi; Brunette, Donald M

    2009-12-01

    Attachment of connective tissue to dental implants, which is influenced by surface topography, is an important determinant of implant success. Approaches employed to alter topography include acid etching or blasting to produce roughened surfaces, and production of precisely defined topographies using microfabrication techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of polished, microgrooved, and sand-blasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) topographies on fibroblast adhesion, morphology, activation, and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and localization. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) spread on all tested surfaces within 2 h, and topography influenced the pattern of phosphotyrosine localization. Fibrillar adhesion formation was prominent in HGFs cultured on microgrooves and SLA at 24 h compared with smooth. No significant difference in ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was observed at 2 or 24 h, but nuclear localization depended on culture time and substratum topography. Nuclear localization of ERK 1/2 occurred at 2 h on polished surfaces, but was not evident at 1 week. In contrast, cells on SLA and grooved surfaces did not exhibit nuclear localization of ERK 1/2 at early times, but did at 1 week. The results of this study suggest that rough and microfabricated topographies influence fibroblast adhesion and intracellular signaling through focal adhesion/integrin-dependent mechanisms in a time-dependent manner.

  8. Prospective comparative study of tapered implants with SLA surfaces in the maxillary posterior area according to 3- and 6-month loading time.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Min-Jung; Yun, Pil-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate clinical outcomes of sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA)-surfaced tapered implants when early loaded in partially edentulous spaces in the maxilla. SLA-surfaced implants were placed in participants in the maxillary posterior edentulous area. At the time of definitive restoration, participants were allocated either to group 1 (3-month loading group) or group 2 (6-month loading group). A total of 36 participants (18 people [35 implants] in group 1 and 18 [33 implants] in group 2) were analyzed. Clinical outcomes, including survival rate and peri-implant parameters such as marginal bone loss were measured 1 year after loading. The survival rate was 97.0% in group 1 and 100% in group 2. Marginal bone loss was 0.22 ± 0.34 mm in group 1 and 0.17 ± 0.25 mm in group 2 at 1 year after loading (P = .488). There were no significant differences between groups in keratinized mucosal width (P = .206), Plaque Index (P = .677), or Gingival Index (P = .558). With adequate remaining bone height and primary implant stability achieved, the 3-month early loading of SLA-surface tapered implants may be a viable choice when restoring posterior maxillary edentulous areas.

  9. SLaP mapper: a webserver for identifying and quantifying spliced-leader addition and polyadenylation site usage in kinetoplastid genomes.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Gluenz, Eva; Carrington, Mark; Kelly, Steven

    2014-09-01

    The Kinetoplastida are a diverse and globally distributed class of free-living and parasitic single-celled eukaryotes that collectively cause a significant burden on human health and welfare. In kinetoplastids individual genes do not have promoters, but rather all genes are arranged downstream of a small number of RNA polymerase II transcription initiation sites and are thus transcribed in polycistronic gene clusters. Production of individual mRNAs from this continuous transcript occurs co-transcriptionally by trans-splicing of a ∼39 nucleotide capped RNA and subsequent polyadenylation of the upstream mRNA. SLaP mapper (Spliced-Leader and Polyadenylation mapper) is a fully automated web-service for identification, quantitation and gene-assignment of both spliced-leader and polyadenylation addition sites in Kinetoplastid genomes. SLaP mapper only requires raw read data from paired-end Illumina RNAseq and performs all read processing, mapping, quality control, quantification, and analysis in a fully automated pipeline. To provide usage examples and estimates of the quantity of sequence data required we use RNAseq obtained from two different library preparations from both Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana to show the number of expected reads that are obtained from each preparation type. SLaP mapper is an easy to use, platform independent webserver that is freely available for use at http://www.stevekellylab.com/software/slap. Example files are provided on the website.

  10. Asthma in changing environments - chances and challenges of international research collaborations between South America and Europe - study protocol and description of the data acquisition of a case-control-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asthma in children is an emerging public health problem in South America. So far, research in this part of the world is limited. This paper presents the methodology and description of the data acquisition of an asthma case-control study conducted in the Central South of Chile. Methods/Design A hospital-based case-control study about asthma (188 cases, 294 controls) in children (6-15 years) was carried out in Valdivia, Chile between November 2008 and December 2009. Data on asthma risk factors were collected by computer-assisted personal interview using validated questions from e.g. ISAAC phase II. Data on household dust exposure (endotoxin, allergen analyses), skin prick tests to most common allergens, stool examinations for parasitic infection, and blood samples (total IgE, genetics) were collected. Additionally, 492 randomly chosen blood donors were recruited in order to assess allele frequencies in the population of Valdivia. Discussion Overall 1,173 participants were contacted. Response was 82% among cases and 65% among controls. Atopic sensitization was high (78% among cases, 47% among controls). Cases had a statistically significantly (p < .0001) increased self-reported 12-month prevalence of symptoms of rhinitis (82% vs. 51%) and wheeze (68% vs. 16%). The study is well placed to address current hypotheses about asthma and its correlates in the South American context. Results of this study might help develop novel, innovative and individualized prevention strategies in countries in transition with respect to the South American context. PMID:20718949

  11. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  12. 75 FR 51416 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 202, 212, and 234 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... interim rule that amended the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

  13. Smart Acquisition EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, K.; Schaffer, B.; Vaughan, G.; Wang, P.; Bleloch, A. L.; Brydson, R.; Brown, A.

    2010-07-01

    Electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging in aberration-corrected electron microscopes are powerful techniques to determine the chemical composition and structure of materials at atomic resolution. We have implemented Smart Acquisition, a flexible system of scanning transmission electron microsocpy (STEM) beam position control and EELS collection, on two aberration-corrected dedicated cold field emission gun (FEG) STEMs located at SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratory. This allows the collection of EEL spectra from spatially defined areas with a much lower electron dose possible than existing techniques such as spectrum imaging.

  14. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  15. HYPERCP data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Luebke, W.R.; Chakravorty, A.

    1997-12-31

    For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data axe acquired from the front-end digitization systems at {approx} 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of {approx} 1 {mu}s per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with {approx_lt}30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates.

  16. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, David T.

    1979-01-01

    A data acquisition system capable of resolving transient pulses in the subnanosecond range. A pulse in an information carrying medium such as light is transmitted through means which disperse the pulse, such as a fiber optic light guide which time-stretches optical pulses by chromatic dispersion. This time-stretched pulse is used as a sampling pulse and is modulated by the signal to be recorded. The modulated pulse may be further time-stretched prior to being recorded. The recorded modulated pulse is unfolded to derive the transient signal by utilizing the relationship of the time-stretching that occurred in the original pulse.

  17. Acquisition-Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Don E.; Vann, A. Vernon; Jones, Richard H.; Rew, William E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA Acquisition Management Subsystem (AMS) program integrated NASA-wide standard automated-procurement-system program developed in 1985. Designed to provide each NASA installation with procurement data-base concept with on-line terminals for managing, tracking, reporting, and controlling contractual actions and associated procurement data. Subsystem provides control, status, and reporting for various procurement areas. Purpose of standardization is to decrease costs of procurement and operation of automatic data processing; increases procurement productivity; furnishes accurate, on-line management information and improves customer support. Written in the ADABAS NATURAL.

  18. First language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Goodluck, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current approaches to first language acquisition, arguing in favor of the theory that attributes to the child an innate knowledge of universal grammar. Such knowledge can accommodate the systematic nature of children's non-adult linguistic behaviors. The relationships between performance devices (mechanisms for comprehension and production of speech), non-linguistic aspects of cognition, and child grammars are also discussed. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 47-54 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.95 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... compliance with 32 CFR Part 219, Protection of Human Subjects; and (b) Must have a Human Research Protection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any...

  20. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... compliance with 32 CFR Part 219, Protection of Human Subjects; and (b) Must have a Human Research Protection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any...

  1. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... compliance with 32 CFR Part 219, Protection of Human Subjects; and (b) Must have a Human Research Protection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any...

  2. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... compliance with 32 CFR Part 219, Protection of Human Subjects; and (b) Must have a Human Research Protection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any...

  3. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... compliance with 32 CFR Part 219, Protection of Human Subjects; and (b) Must have a Human Research Protection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any...

  4. Production of a Locus- and Allele-Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Characterization of SLA-1*0401 mRNA and Protein Expression Levels in MHC-Defined Microminipigs

    PubMed Central

    Kametani, Yoshie; Ohshima, Shino; Miyamoto, Asuka; Shigenari, Atsuko; Takasu, Masaki; Imaeda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Masafumi; Shiina, Takashi; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Hirayama, Noriaki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ando, Asako

    2016-01-01

    The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents self-developed peptides to specific T cells to induce cytotoxity against infection. The MHC proteins are encoded by multiple loci that express numerous alleles to preserve the variability of the antigen-presenting ability in each species. The mechanism regulating MHC mRNA and protein expression at each locus is difficult to analyze because of the structural and sequence similarities between alleles. In this study, we examined the correlation between the mRNA and surface protein expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-1*0401 after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by Staphylococcus aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We prepared a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a domain composed of Y102, L103 and L109 in the α2 domain. The Hp-16.0 haplotype swine possess only SLA-1*0401, which has the mAb epitope, while other haplotypes possess 0 to 3 SLA classical class I loci with the mAb epitopes. When PBMCs from SLA-1*0401 homozygous pigs were stimulated, the SLA-1*0401 mRNA expression level increased until 24 hrs and decreased at 48 hrs. The kinetics of the interferon regulatory transcription factor-1 (IRF-1) mRNA level were similar to those of the SLA-1*0401 mRNA. However, the surface protein expression level continued to increase until 72 hrs. Similar results were observed in the Hp-10.0 pigs with three mAb epitopes. These results suggest that TSST-1 stimulation induced both mRNA and surface protein expression of class I SLA in the swine PBMCs differentially and that the surface protein level was sustained independently of mRNA regulation. PMID:27760184

  5. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  6. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  7. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  8. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  9. 48 CFR 1034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... “lock in”. (b) The acquisition strategy shall be approved by a chartered interdisciplinary acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 1034... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 1034.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) A...

  10. 48 CFR 1034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... “lock in”. (b) The acquisition strategy shall be approved by a chartered interdisciplinary acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 1034... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 1034.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) A...

  11. Knowledge acquisition and visualization for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Noah; Meehan, Stephen; Herzenberg, Leonore A; Das, Amar K

    2007-10-11

    The TreeTableWidget is a user interface component that allows instances in a knowledge-base to be sorted on the value of one or more of its attributes. Any combination of attributes can be sorted simultaneously by assigning a precedence to each sort. This results in a hierarchy of attributes such that instances can be grouped and visualized according to shared attribute values in a tree view. The resulting tree provides a mechanism to navigate and edit a large number of instances based on attribute values. The component is available as a Protégé slot-widget plug-in.

  12. Language Acquisition and the Second/Foreign Language Classroom. Anthology Series 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadtono, Eugenius, Ed.

    A selection of papers on second language learning includes: "Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom" (David Nunan); "A Place for Second Language Acquisition in Teacher Development and in Teacher Education Programmes" (Rod Bolitho); "Dimensions in the Acquisition of Oral Language" (Martin Bygate, Don Porter); "The Learner's…

  13. Data-acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned.

  14. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  15. 77 FR 39125 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    .... DATES: Effective Date: June 29, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amy G. Williams, telephone... at 76 FR 44293 on July 25, 2011, to address acquisitions using competitive procedures in which only... research/industry communication. In 2008, the Office of Management and Budget and Office of...

  16. Contractor relationships and inter-organizational strategies in NASA's R and D acquisition process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiltinan, J.

    1976-01-01

    Interorganizational analysis of NASA's acquisition process for research and development systems is discussed. The importance of understanding the contractor environment, constraints, and motives in selecting an acquisition strategy is demonstrated. By articulating clear project goals, by utilizing information about the contractor and his needs at each stage in the acquisition process, and by thorough analysis of the inter-organizational relationship, improved selection of acquisition strategies and business practices is possible.

  17. Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners. PMID:19031192

  18. SNAP: Simulating New Acquisition Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfeld, Louis E.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation models of acquisition processes range in scope from isolated applications to the 'Big Picture' captured by SNAP technology. SNAP integrates a family of models to portray the full scope of acquisition planning and management activities, including budgeting, scheduling, testing and risk analysis. SNAP replicates the dynamic management processes that underlie design, production and life-cycle support. SNAP provides the unique 'Big Picture' capability needed to simulate the entire acquisition process and explore the 'what-if' tradeoffs and consequences of alternative policies and decisions. Comparison of cost, schedule and performance tradeoffs help managers choose the lowest-risk, highest payoff at each step in the acquisition process.

  19. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other agencies through NASA.

  20. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Developments in programs in telecommunication and data acquisition in space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground based radio astronomy are reported. Activities of the deep space network (DSN) and its associated ground communication facility (GCF) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and in operations are outlined. The publication of reports on the application of radio interferometry at microwave frequencies for geodynamic measurements are presented. Implementation and operation for searching the microwave spectrum is reported.

  1. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA.

  2. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other agencies through NASA.

  3. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  4. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  5. DSPS in data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-12-31

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance.

  6. AIROscope stellar acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Parra, G. T.; Hedlund, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The acquisition system which operates in conjunction with a balloon-borne TV system, boresighted to a telescope is described. It has two main functions, a star field monitor and an offset star tracker. The design of the system was strongly influenced by the TV camera, which uses the same interlaced scanning system as is employed in commercial television broadcasting. To reduce power and bandwidth requirements, the star field information transmitted in our system consists only of the horizontal and vertical coordinates of each star and its brightness. As a star field monitor the system provides video thresholding, camera blemish suppression, coordinate digitization in 3 axes, circuity to recognize as single star the dispersed video signals resulting from one star overlapping adjacent scanning lines and storage of all signals for readout by the telemetry at appropriate times.

  7. Theories of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  8. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...: Comments on the proposed rule published May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32214) must be received by September 3, 2013... 25 CFR 151.12 (78 FR 32214). The proposed rule would remove procedural requirements that are no...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions...

  9. Lexical Acquisition and Acquisition of Initial Voiceless Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Interaction between lexical acquisition and acquisition of initial voiceless stops (VSs) was studied in two normally developing children by acoustically examining token-by-token accuracy of initial VS targets in different lexical items. Tokens representing the emergence of accurate VS production were restricted to certain words, largely old words…

  10. Age of Acquisition and Imageability: A Cross-Task Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetz, Danielle M.; Yates, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has reported an imageability effect on visual word recognition. Words that are high in imageability are recognised more rapidly than are those lower in imageability. However, later researchers argued that imageability was confounded with age of acquisition. In the current research, these two factors were manipulated in a…

  11. The Value of SCMC in SLA: Comments on Lin, Huang & Liou (2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods are often used to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments across studies. However, we are often unaware of how a meta-analysis can provide value to researchers and practitioners. This paper offers a brief commentary on a meta-analysis conducted by Lin, Huang and Liou (2013) in LLT, providing further statistical…

  12. The Relationship between Aptitude and Working Memory: An Instructed SLA Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalçin, Sebnem; Çeçen, Sevdeger; Erçetin, Gülcan

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) as a key component of language aptitude has become a topical issue, with some going so far as to argue that WM can replace language aptitude. Research that specifically investigates the relationship between WM and language aptitude is rather limited. This study explores the determinants of language aptitude, with a focus on WM…

  13. New online signature acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulefki, Adel; Mostefai, Messaoud; Abbadi, Belkacem; Djebrani, Samira; Bouziane, Abderraouf; Chahir, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    We present a nonconstraining and low-cost online signature acquisition system that has been developed to enhance the performances of an existing multimodal biometric authentication system (based initially on both voice and image modalities). A laboratory prototype has been developed and validated for an online signature acquisition.

  14. Nucleotide sequencing analysis of the swine 433-kb genomic segment located between the non-classical and classical SLA class I gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Shigenari, Atsuko; Ando, Asako; Renard, Christine; Chardon, Patrick; Shiina, Takashi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Yasue, Hiroshi; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2004-01-01

    Genome analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen ( SLA) region is needed to obtain information on the MHC genomic sequence similarities and differences between the swine and human, given the possible use of swine organs for xenotransplantation. Here, the genomic sequences of a 433-kb segment located between the non-classical and classical SLA class I gene clusters were determined and analyzed for gene organization and contents of repetitive sequences. The genomic organization and diversity of this swine non-class I gene region was compared with the orthologous region of the human leukocyte antigen ( HLA) complex. The length of the fully sequenced SLA genomic segment was 433 kb compared with 595 kb in the corresponding HLA class I region. This 162-kb difference in size between the swine and human genomic segments can be explained by indel activity, and the greater variety and density of repetitive sequences within the human MHC. Twenty-one swine genes with strong sequence similarity to the corresponding human genes were identified, with the gene order from the centromere to telomere of HCR - SPR1 - SEEK1 - CDSN - STG - DPCR1 - KIAA1885 - TFIIH - DDR - IER3 - FLOT1 - TUBB - KIAA0170 - NRM - KIAA1949 - DDX16 - FLJ13158 - MRPS18B - FB19 - ABCFI - CAT56. The human SEEK1 and DPCR1 genes are pseudogenes in swine. We conclude that the swine non-class I gene region that we have sequenced is highly conserved and therefore homologous to the corresponding region located between the HLA-C and HLA-E genes in the human.

  15. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numbering acquisitions. 304.7001 Section 304.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Acquisition Instrument Identification Numbering System 304.7001 Numbering acquisitions....

  16. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 434.004 Section 434.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 434.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) The...

  17. 48 CFR 1034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 1034... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 1034.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) A program manager's acquisition strategy written at the system or investment level in accordance with FAR...

  18. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY,...

  19. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead...

  20. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead...