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Sample records for acquisition sla research

  1. SLA Research and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    This book discusses how second language acquisition (SLA) research can illuminate language pedagogy, and suggests four main roles for the SLA researcher: developing relevant theories; conducting classroom research; making research accessible to teachers; and facilitating action research. The first chapter outlines a number of different…

  2. Problems in SLA. Second Language Acquisition Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    Second language acquisition has an identity problem. It is a young field struggling to emerge from the parent fields of education and applied linguistics. In this book, the author proposes a way to help second language acquisition develop a systematic and coherent focus using the philosophy of science as the lens. The structure of the book allows…

  3. The Role of Technology in SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Dorothy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this review article for the 20th Anniversary Issue, I look back at research from the last two decades on the role of computer technology in understanding and facilitating second language acquisition (SLA) and forward to what future research might investigate. To be discussed are both how technology has been used to conduct research on SLA…

  4. SCMC for SLA: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauro, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This research synthesis explores the role of synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) for second language acquisition (SLA). Using Hymes' (1971) notion of communicative competence and Canale and Swain's (1980; Canale, 1983) subsequent framework for communicative language teaching, the synthesis examines the research trends, methods, and…

  5. Colloquium--Toward a Reconceptualization of "Language" and "Acquisition" in SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellermann, John; Olsher, David

    2010-01-01

    Held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics Annual Conference, Denver, CO, USA; 21 March 2009. This all-day colloquium was part of an ongoing discussion of ways that methods and frameworks from micro-ethnography, Conversation Analysis (CA), and Vygotskian Sociocultural Theory are re-specifying "language" and "acquisition" from a…

  6. Analytical Review of Universal Grammar (UG) Approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwandy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of Universal Grammar (UG) approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA). This paper is significant as the sources for teacher or researcher of the second language since this elaboration is deeply focusing on the use of UG on SLA. The method used in this academic writing is inductive method of…

  7. Epistemological Diversity and Moral Ends of Research in Instructed SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore epistemological diversity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) from the perspective that obtains if we examine the moral ends of research, and we ask: In what ways does epistemological diversity relate to enhancing the social value and educational relevance of the research generated by the instructed SLA…

  8. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. Sisseton Milbank Railroad... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  9. Second Language Acquisition: Research and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the past several decades and highlights the ways in which it has retained its original applied and linguistic interests and enhanced them by addressing questions about acquisition processes. After discussing disciplinary contexts (SLA research and applied…

  10. Some Problems with Falsification: An Illustration From SLA Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the claim that successful second-language acquisition (SLA) is the result of social, psychological, and affective factors; the argument that this claim has been falsified is untenable. Exploration of behavioral, psychological, and biological constructs to generate new formulations is a more productive approach to SLA theory building than…

  11. Web-Based Elicitation Tasks in SLA Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoun, Dalila

    2000-01-01

    Studied second language acquisition (SLA) designed with Web-based elicitation tasks to obtain greater internal and external validity. Tested the acquisition of the properties subsumed under the verb movement parameter and the null subject parameter by English native speakers enrolled in college French. (Author/VWL)

  12. The Disciplinary Constraints of SLA and TESOL: Additive Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    For over 15 years now, various commentators have highlighted the 'monolingual bias' inherent in SLA and TESOL research, which invariably constructs bi/multilingualism in deficit terms. In contrast, these critics have advocated an additive bilingual approach to SLA and TESOL, albeit, not as yet to any great effect. In this paper, I explore why so…

  13. From Theory to Research: Contextual Predictors of "Estar + Adjective" and the Study of the SLA of Spanish Copula Choice--A Response to Woolsey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of social vs. cognitive approaches to the study of second language acquisition (SLA) has engendered considerable debate in the field. For instance, the recent "Modern Language Journal" Focus Issue (Lafford, 2007a) reviewed the ongoing debate between scholars espousing socially- and cognitively-grounded approaches to SLA research and…

  14. Psycholinguistic Techniques and Resources in Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a survey of current psycholinguistic techniques relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) research is presented. I summarize many of the available methods and discuss their use with particular reference to two critical questions in current SLA research: (1) What does a learner's current knowledge of the second language (L2)…

  15. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  16. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  17. A Meta-Synthesis of Empirical Research on the Effectiveness of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huifen

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis reports the results of a systematic synthesis of primary studies on the effectiveness of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in second language acquisition (SLA) for the period 2000-2012. By extracting information on 21 features from each primary study, this meta-analysis intends to summarize the CMC research literature for…

  18. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  19. Multimedia CALL: Lessons To Be Learned from Research on Instructed SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that some design features and evaluation criteria for multimedia computer assisted language learning (CALL) might be developed on the basis of hypotheses about ideal conditions for second language acquisition (SLA). Outlines a relevant theory of SLA and enumerates the hypotheses it implies for ideal conditions such as input saliency,…

  20. Beyond Poverty: Engaging with Input in Generative SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Tom; Unsworth, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    A generative approach to language acquisition is no different from any other in assuming that target language input is crucial for language acquisition. This discussion note addresses the place of input in generative second language acquisition (SLA) research and the perception in the wider field of SLA research that generative SLA…

  1. Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

  2. "New" Mainstream SLA Theory: Expanded and Enriched

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Deters, Ping

    2007-01-01

    How have the ideas raised by Firth and Wagner (1997) influenced the construction of second language acquisition (SLA) theories? In this article, we take the position that prior to and since 1997, there was and has been a notable increase in SLA research and theory that prioritizes sociocultural and contextual factors in addition to acknowledging…

  3. Sociolinguistic Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Research: 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses sociolinguistically oriented research on second language acquisition (SLA) in the decade since Firth and Wagner (1997). Over the last 10 years, substantial progress has been made in developing a model of the sociolinguistic processes that inform second language acquisition. This model is supported by empirical evidence on…

  4. Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

  5. Seeking New Bases for SLA Research: Looking to Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that cognitive science, a field that draws on research in linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and computer science, might provide better explanations of student behavior in the classroom than mainstream second-language acquisition research. An attempt is made to show how research from cognitive science might offer explanations for what…

  6. Processing Perspectives in SLA Research and Their Compatibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienemann, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    Truscott and Sharwood-Smith's (henceforth T&SS's) paper offers an interesting set of hypotheses about one possible processing perspective in research on language acquisition. What is striking about this exposition of their model is that it ignores almost entirely the context of previous research on this issue. Embedding their exposition in its…

  7. Statistical Literacy among Applied Linguists and Second Language Acquisition Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Lavolette, Elizabeth; Spino, Le Anne; Papi, Mostafa; Schmidtke, Jens; Sterling, Scott; Wolff, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of statistical knowledge in applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research has been emphasized in recent publications. However, the last investigation of the statistical literacy of applied linguists occurred more than 25 years ago (Lazaraton, Riggenbach, & Ediger, 1987). The current study undertook a partial…

  8. Lessons for WAC/WID from Language Learning Research: Multicompetence, Register Acquisition, and the College Writing Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Navarro, Nela

    2011-01-01

    This article is a collaboration between WAC/WID and second language acquisition (SLA) specialists. It examines alternate disciplinary notions of the place of writing among other skills and adapts concepts from SLA theory and pedagogy with the goal of providing new interdisciplinary options for WAC/WID research and classroom practice.

  9. To Think Aloud or Not to Think Aloud: The Issue of Reactivity in SLA Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several studies in SLA (e.g., for discourse, Alanen, 1995; Leow, 2001b; Rott, 1999; for problem-solving tasks, Leow, 1998a, 1998b, 2000, 2001a; Rosa & Leow, in press a, in press b; Rosa & O'Neill, 1999) have addressed the operationalization and measurement of attention (and awareness) in their research methodology. Studies have employed…

  10. Accounting for Context and Experience in German (L2) Language Acquisition: A Critical Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Alene

    2004-01-01

    With its focus on simplification universals, developmental orders, teachability, and functional-grammatical bases for acquisition, the well-known research on German (L2) language acquisition has contributed much to SLA research in general. At the same time, sociolinguistic investigations focus squarely on the difficult social conditions that…

  11. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  12. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  13. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition in Germany (2006-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrent, Sigrid; Doff, Sabine; Marx, Nicole; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Our overview of current dissertation work at German universities has identified four main strands of research interest within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). The 38 Ph.D. theses reviewed here were all read between 2006 and 2009 and fall into the subject areas of: foreign language (FL) teaching in primary school, Content and…

  14. Ames Research Center Shear Tests of SLA-561V Heat Shield Material for Mars-Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael; Tran, Huy; Henline, William; Cartledge, Alan; Hui, Frank; Tran, Duoc; Zimmerman, Norm

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of arc-jet testing at Ames Research Center on behalf of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the development of the Mars-Pathfinder heat shield. The current test series evaluated the performance of the ablating SLA-561V heat shield material under shear conditions. In addition, the effectiveness of several methods of repairing damage to the heat shield were evaluated. A total of 26 tests were performed in March 1994 in the 2 in. X 9 in. arc-heated turbulent Duct Facility, including runs to calibrate the facility to obtain the desired shear stress conditions. A total of eleven models were tested. Three different conditions of shear and heating were used. The non-ablating surface shear stresses and the corresponding, approximate, non-ablating surface heating rates were as follows: Condition 1, 170 N/m(exp 2) and 22 W/cm(exp 2); Condition 2, 240 N/m(exp 2) and 40 W/cm(exp 2); Condition 3, 390 N/m(exp 2) and 51 W/cm(exp 2). The peak shear stress encountered in flight is represented approximately by Condition 1; however, the heating rate was much less than the peak flight value. The peak heating rate that was available in the facility (at Condition 3) was about 30 percent less than the maximum value encountered during flight. Seven standard ablation models were tested, of which three models were instrumented with thermocouples to obtain in-depth temperature profiles and temperature contours. An additional four models contained a variety of repair plugs, gaps, and seams. These models were used to evaluated different repair materials and techniques, and the effect of gaps and construction seams. Mass loss and surface recession measurements were made on all models. The models were visually inspected and photographed before and after each test. The SLA-561 V performed well; even at test Condition 3, the char remained intact. Most of the resins used for repairs and gap fillers performed poorly. However, repair plugs made of SLA-561V performed

  15. Teaching Second Language Acquisition Courses: Views from New Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta J.; Beglar, David

    2004-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) courses are a perennial feature of graduate level teacher preparation programs in Applied Linguistics and TESOL. While there has been recent interest in exploring the interfaces of second language acquisition research and classroom teaching (Ellis, 1997), the teaching of SLA courses at the university level is…

  16. Factors Influencing Oral Corrective Feedback Provision in the Spanish Foreign Language Classroom: Investigating Instructor Native/Nonnative Speaker Status, SLA Education, & Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has been a critical area of second language acquisition (SLA) research for decades and while findings suggest interactional feedback can facilitate SLA, the extent of its influence can vary depending on a number of factors, including the native language of those involved in communication. Although studies have…

  17. SLA and the Emergence of Creoles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the emergence of creoles presupposes naturalistic SLA, current SLA scholarship does not shed much light on the development of creoles with regard to the population-internal mechanisms that produce normalization and autonomization from the creoles' lexifiers. This is largely due to the fact that research on SLA is focused on individuals…

  18. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Bill; Lee, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Research on second language acquisition (SLA) and research on foreign language learning (FLL), often regarded as different and separate fields of inquiry, are compared in a brief review of literature. Perceptions about the scopes and characteristics of the research are examined. Concerns about the relationship between SLA research and theory and…

  20. The Foreign TA Problem from an Acquisition-Theoretic Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, Josh

    1987-01-01

    Relates research on second language acquisition (SLA) and research on the language problems of foreign teaching assistants (TAs) and their remediation. SLA research has not yet addressed specific data on the proficiency level needed for effective foreign TAs. Research needs are outlined. (Author/LMO)

  1. Overview of Theories of Language Learning and Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    The field of second language acquisition (SLA) developed from the study of second language teaching, and includes the study of the learning setting, learner variables, the nature of the target language and the learner native language, and the reasons for language learning. Much SLA research to date focuses on one or another of these dimensions…

  2. Role of Focus-on-Form Instruction, Corrective Feedback and Uptake in Second Language Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afitska, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…

  3. The CALL-SLA Interface: Insights from a Second-Order Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Ziegler, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and second language acquisition (SLA) has been studied both extensively, covering numerous subdomains, and intensively, resulting in hundreds of primary studies. It is therefore no surprise that CALL researchers, as in other areas of applied linguistics, have turned in recent…

  4. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  5. Reflecting on the Cognitive-Social Debate in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Firth and Wagner's (1997) call for a more socially and contextually situated view of second language acquisition (SLA) research has generated a great deal of discussion and debate, a summary of which is offered in this reflective commentary. Given the individualistic, cognitive origin of the SLA field, such controversy is entirely understandable.…

  6. Language Learning in Mindbodyworld: A Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent research in cognitive science, interaction, and second language acquisition (SLA), I describe a sociocognitive approach to SLA. This approach adopts a "non-cognitivist" view of cognition: Instead of an isolated computational process in which input is extracted from the environment and used to build elaborate internal…

  7. On the Plausibility of Second Language Acquisition Models: An Experimental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhady, Hossein

    During the past ten years, research on second language acquisition (SLA) has expanded; at the same time, different models and hypotheses have been proposed to explain and account for the processes underlying SLA. Four models seem to be dominant at the present time: (1) the monitor model, which distinguishes between implicit or unconscious language…

  8. Review Article. SLA Theory Building: "Letting All the Flowers Bloom!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a postmodernist critical analysis of the second language acquisition (SLA) theory-building literature as primarily represented in the writings of Beretta, Crookes, Eubank, Gregg, Long, and Schumann. Argues that there is no foundational reason to grant privileged status to the modernist view of SLA espoused by these scholars. (67…

  9. New Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas…

  10. Relativization Strategies in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzi, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the process of acquisition of relative clauses in second language (L2) Italian. Despite the fact that linguistic research clearly evidences a distinction between restrictive relative clauses and non-restrictive relative clauses, second language acquisition studies have so far investigated the acquisition of relative clauses…

  11. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  12. Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency from the Perspective of Psycholinguistic Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towell, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter, which is written from the perspective of psycholinguistic SLA research, is to establish a possible relationship between representations, processes and mechanisms of second language learning and knowledge as defined from within psycholinguistic SLA on the one hand, and the more behavioural performance outcomes such as…

  13. Introduction to "Beliefs about SLA Revisited"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelos, Ana Maria Ferreira; Kalaja, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this second special issue of System on "Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition (SLA)" held by learners and/or teachers of foreign languages in a variety of contexts all over the world, and it compares and contrasts the empirical studies included in the issue. In sharp contrast to the first special…

  14. Second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. Commentary: The Promise of Digital Scholarship in SLA Research and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Sally Sieloff

    2007-01-01

    Although digital scholarship is now well established in academia, there is no consensus about how it should be evaluated for tenure and promotion. Is digital publication acceptable as a way to disseminate research? Is the digital medium appropriate for conducting research? To what degree does creating digital materials--from research instruments…

  16. Quantitative Research Methods, Study Quality, and Outcomes: The Case of Interaction Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Gass, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article constitutes the first empirical assessment of methodological quality in second language acquisition (SLA). We surveyed a corpus of 174 studies (N = 7,951) within the tradition of research on second-language interaction, one of the longest and most influential traditions of inquiry in SLA. Each report was coded for methodological…

  17. Linking CALL and SLA: Using the IRIS Database to Locate Research Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zöe; Marsden, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To establish an evidence base for future computer-assisted language learning (CALL) design, CALL research needs to move away from CALL versus non-CALL comparisons, and focus on investigating the differential impact of individual coding elements, that is, specific features of a technology which might have an impact on learning (Pederson, 1987).…

  18. Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

  19. On the Nature of Interaction in SLA: A Philosophical Stream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Shakouri, Nima

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long grappled with situating the stance of interaction in SLA, but it is only recently that interaction has begun to receive consideration from SLA quarters. Delving into the nature of interaction and the prerequisite of interaction in real world, in general, and in classroom, in particular, the authors hold that based on…

  20. Taking a Social Turn for the Worse: The Language Socialization Paradigm for Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a number of researchers in the field of second language acquisition have voiced discontent regarding the tendency of second language acquisition (SLA) research to be conducted within a framework of cognitive science (Firth and Wagner, 1997; Atkinson, 2002; Johnson, 2004). Watson-Gegeo (2004) expresses this same discontent, and…

  1. Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.; Beckett, Tracy G.

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) research informed by sociocultural theory (henceforth, SCT) began in earnest with the publication of Frawley & Lantolf's (1985) article on L2 (second language) discourse (described in the timeline proper). Since then, well over 300 journal articles, book chapters and doctoral dissertations have appeared in the…

  2. Using Architectures for Research, Development, and Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    GIG context. A System Interface Description (SV-1) for JCC(X) is provided in Figure 6-23. DIA NOC/ TELEPORT High Speed Satellite Links Satellite... teleports , commercial SATCOM, .. Standards & Services Integration & Interoperability Translation/conversion, acquisition, flexibility trade-offs Bandwidth...Dickerson received a Ph.D. in mathematics from Purdue University in 1980, where his research in quantum electrodynamics produced the first mathematically

  3. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  4. Social and Cognitive Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie, Ed.; Morris, Frank, Ed.; Anderson, Michael E., Ed.; Klee, Carol A., Ed.; Tarone, Elaine, Ed.

    This edited volume includes the following chapters: "Three Kinds of Sociolinguistics and SLA: A Psycholinguistic Perspective" (Dennis R. Preston); "Getting Serious about Language Play: Language Play, Interlanguage Variation, and Second Language Acquisition" (Elaine Tarone); "Oppositional Talk and the Acquisition of Modality in L2 English" (Tom…

  5. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Participants Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250 000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Findings to date Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Future plans Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20 000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume

  6. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  7. The Role of Turkish Lessons and Reflective Practice in Teaching SLA as Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-­Moody, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether foreign language lessons coupled with engaging learners in reflective practice facilitates a deeper understanding of second language acquisition (SLA) course content. During this semester-­long SLA course, 14 graduate students were taught eight Turkish lessons for 25 minutes at the beginning of each class. As a…

  8. The Influence of SLA Training in Curricular Design among Teachers in Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg; Bikowski, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on how language teachers in preparation integrate key concepts from second language acquisition (SLA) theory into CALL curricular design. The need for language teachers who have had SLA coursework to receive orientation to student-centered learning in a CALL context has been identified previously (Kessler, 2010). This research…

  9. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  10. Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how connectionism might expand its role in second language acquisition (SLA) theory by showing how some symbolic models of bilingual and second language lexical memory can be reduced to a biologically realistic (i.e., neurally plausible) connectionist model. This integration or hybridization of the two models follows the…

  11. SLA at 100: Conference Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    When School Library Association (SLA) convenes its annual conference in Washington, DC, June 14-17, 2009, the association will be celebrating its 100th birthday. This occasion allows for grand gestures--the SLA Salutes! Awards and Leadership Reception will be held in the Library of Congress's Great Hall. The conference also draws upon Washington…

  12. SLA — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SLA, or Src-like-adaptor, is an adaptor protein involved in negative regulation of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by direct association. SLA is also involved in the negative regulation of positive selection and mitosis of T-cells.

  13. Lexical Learning in Second Language Acquisition: Optionality in the Numeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere suggests that second language acquisition (SLA) researchers should pay more attention to the distribution of a given feature in source and target languages, using the distribution of [plural] in English, Chinese and Korean to illustrate. I argue that the distribution of [definite] in English shows a similar complexity, and that this has…

  14. Recent Progress on the Stretched Lens Array (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Markl; McDanal, A. J.; Piszczor, Michael; George, Patrick; Eskenazi, Michael; Botke, Matthew; Edwards, David; Hoppe, David; Brandhorst, Henry

    2005-01-01

    At the last Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference, SPRAT XVII, held during the fateful week of 9/11/01, our team presented a paper on the early developments related to the new Stretched Lens Array (SLA), including its evolution from the successful SCARLET array on the NASA/JPL Deep Space 1 spacecraft. Within the past two years, the SLA team has made significant progress in the SLA technology, including the successful fabrication and testing of a complete four-panel prototype solar array wing (Fig. 1). The prototype wing verified the mechanical and structural design of the rigid-panel SLA approach, including multiple successful demonstrations of automatic wing deployment. One panel in the prototype wing included four fully functional photovoltaic receivers, employing triple-junction solar cells.

  15. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning and Teaching in Poland (2006-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdzial-Szelest, Krystyna; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 doctoral dissertations on second language acquisition (SLA), English language learning and teaching submitted in Poland in the years 2006-2010. The theses were selected for review on the basis of the recommendations of Ph.D. supervisors from leading Polish universities and they are divided into six groups: learner autonomy,…

  16. An Empirical Research of Chinese Learners' Acquisition of the English Article System--Based on Syntactic Misanalysis Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Shi

    2013-01-01

    In the field of applied linguistics, the English article is the acknowledged teaching and learning difficulty and receives lots of attention in second language acquisition (SLA). This paper, based on the Syntactic Misanalysis Account (SMA) advocated by Trenkic in which L2 articles are analyzed as adjectives by L2ers, proposes the English article…

  17. Implications of Second Language Acquisition Theory for Business English Teaching in Current China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Muchun, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) as a sub-branch of applied linguistics has been researched by Chinese and foreign scholars for over 40 years, but few researches have been done on its implications for Business English teaching which needs more language teaching theories to support. This paper makes a review of related studies, and puts forward a…

  18. SLA-aware Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yih Leong; Perrott, Ron; Harmer, Terence J.; Cunningham, Christina; Wright, Peter; Kennedy, John; Edmonds, Andy; Bayon, Victor; Maza, Jacek; Berginc, Gregor; Hadalin, Primož

    The management of infrastructure resources in a large-scale environment such as Grid Computing is a challenging task and places significant demands on resource discovery, scheduling and the underlying communication channels. The fulfillment of the business goals and service quality in such an environment requires an infrastructure to cope with changes in demand and infrastructure performance. In this paper, we propose an abstract service-oriented framework for SLA-aware dynamic resource management. The framework provides selfmanaging, self-configuration and self-healing strategies in order to support autonomic and ambient service management. We study an SLA negotiation process at the infrastructure resource layer, live migration for resource re-provisioning, a multi-layer architecture framework to monitor infrastructure resources and a harmonized interface to access arbitrary sources of infrastructure resources based on SLA requirements. Resource usage will be optimized according to the provider policies and SLA requirements.

  19. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Issue 72.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    demonstrated technology maturity) curve exhibits a gradual-to- exponential growth (TRL 1 to TRL 4). After entering Milestone A (i.e., Technology...Standard Practices in Defense Acquisition Alex Miller and Joshua L. Ray Taming the Hurricane of Acquisition Cost Growth —Or at Least Predicting It...Featured Research p. 84 Taming the Hurricane of Acquisition Cost Growth —Or at Least Predicting It Capt Allen J. DeNeve

  20. The Case to Widen Defence Acquisition Research Paradigms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    can be conducted Key issues associated with changes in acquisition practices Acquisition will become increasingly dependent on social science...military have been outsourced to the privately owned defence industrial base (DIB). This change has seen a movement away from procurement to... changes raises the question: Are the traditional research methodologies previously employed to examine procurement phenomena adequate for modern

  1. Second Language Acquisition Research: Staking Out the Territory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    1991-01-01

    Documents 20 years of second-language acquisition research, highlighting two subthemes involving the alternate broadening and narrowing of research perspectives and predicting that the next phase of research will unite the historically distinct research foci on learning and the learner. (209 references) (CB)

  2. Establishing an Empirical Link between Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and SLA: A Meta-Analysis of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huifen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interactionist and socio-cultural theories, tools provided in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments have long been considered able to create an environment that shares many communicative features with face-to-face communication. Over the past two decades, researchers have employed a variety of strategies to examine the…

  3. Conceptualizing Pronunciation as Part of Translingual/Transcultural Competence: New Impulses for SLA Research and the L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Mareike

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to reconceptualize pronunciation teaching and learning according to the tenets of the 2007 MLA Report and its call for translingual/transcultural competence. The critical discussion of current teaching and research practices shows that the realm of pronunciation has benefitted little from debates on intercultural language…

  4. The Simulation-Based Acquisition Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Joseph G., Piplani , Lalit K ., and Roop, Richard 0., "Systems Acquisition Manager’s Guide for the Use of Models and Simulations," Defense Systems...Principal Advisor: David F. Matthews Associate Advisor: Michael L . McGinnis Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...Andrew J. DiMarco Approved by::___ David F. Matthews, Thesis Advisor Michael L . McGinnis, Associate Advisor 7 Reuben T/ Harris

  5. A Strategy for Defense Acquisition Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    attention focused on revising business standards in the wake of the collapse of Enron and WorldCom, scandals are not limited to the private sector...Wind,” bribery and corruption scandal of the late 1980’s, to the recent scandal involving former Air Force acquisitions chief Darleen Druyun and The...and investigators may help catch occasional cases of intentional wrongdoing, as was the case during the C-17 and “Ill Wind” scandals of the 1980s

  6. English Native Speakers' L2 Acquisition of the Spanish Clitic Se

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of the Spanish clitic se by English native speakers in passive, middle, and impersonal constructions. Little research has been done on this topic in SLA within a UG framework (Bayona, 2005; Bruhn de Garavito, 1999). VanPatten (2004) proposed the Processing Instruction (PI) model arguing for the necessity of…

  7. A Place for Second Language Acquisition in Teacher Development and in Teacher Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolitho, Rod

    If teacher education is to train second language teachers to be principled practitioners, it is essential to resist the attraction of panaceas and recipe-type solutions to instructional problems, and to promote teachers' better understanding of what constitutes successful language learning. Second language acquisition (SLA) research, both applied…

  8. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  9. Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Second Language Acquisition Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David, Ed.

    This book considers the question of whether, or to what extent, a critical period limits the acquisition of a first language as well as a second language acquired postpubertally. The diversity of opinion on this question is represented in this volume. It is a question that has been approached by researchers working in linguistic theory, evolution…

  10. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

  11. A data acquisition system for marine and ecological research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a self-contained portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research. The compact lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing. Currently undergoing component performance upgrading, the prototype system has been utilized in several environmental science investigations associated with air pollution investigations and weather modification and is currently being used for marine data acquisition.

  12. The Acquisition of Case in Spanish Pronominal Object Clitics in English-Speaking College-Level L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michael Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) of Spanish pronominal object clitics (POCs) has been a topic of research with regards to clitic placement (Houston, 1997; Lee, 1987; LoCoco, 1987; VanPatten, 1984; and VanPatten & Houston 1998), acquiring specific dialectal norms (Geeslin, Garcia-Amaya, Hasler-Barker, Henriksen, & Killam, 2010), and…

  13. Explicit Knowledge and Learning in SLA: A Cognitive Linguistics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr, Karen

    2010-01-01

    SLA researchers agree that explicit knowledge and learning play an important role in adult L2 development. In the field of cognitive linguistics, it has been proposed that implicit and explicit knowledge differ in terms of their internal category structure and the processing mechanisms that operate on their representation in the human mind. It has…

  14. Acquisition Research for Design and Service Enterprises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-02

    personnel and test equipment. To use the language from the previous paragraph, demand is king, and the budget (a type of profit) is the primary...previously, it is possible to use commercial integer programming solvers, with appropriate reformulations , to attempt to solve this problem; research...MIP solver using classification and reformulation . Management Science, 48(12), 1587–1602. Yanmei, L., Jiangsheng, S., Sujian, L., & Weimin, L

  15. Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The state of second language acquisition research, particularly that which is classroom-oriented, is examined in a review of 50 empirical investigations undertaken over the last 25 years. The studies were analyzed according to the following dimensions: the environment in which the data were collected (classroom, naturalistic, simulated classroom,…

  16. Art and Science in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Expands on Ochsner's (1979) call for a "bilingual" attitude toward second language acquisition research. Suggests work be viewed as science and art in order to better understand what we do and how we do it. Argues that theorists use artistic and scientific devices in building theories, and consumers of those theories use aesthetic and…

  17. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 2, Issue 69

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Adeldeji Badiru This article is primarily a research-provoking exposition against the management approach used in the 2013 government furlough program...professionals engaged in the acquisition decision process must have extensive knowledge of the relationship between government ownership of technical data... government , academic, and industrial sectors. The purpose of conducting research in these areas is to provide solid, empirically based findings to create a

  18. An intelligent data acquisition system for fluid mechanics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E. R.; Zilliac, G.; Fukunishi, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel data acquisition system for use with wind-tunnel probe-based measurements, which incorporates a degree of specific fluid dynamics knowledge into a simple expert system-like control program. The concept was developed with a rudimentary expert system coupled to a probe positioning mechanism operating in a small-scale research wind tunnel. The software consisted of two basic elements, a general-purpose data acquisition system and the rulebased control element to take and analyze data and supplying decisions as to where to measure, how many data points to take, and when to stop. The system was validated in an experiment involving a vortical flow field, showing that it was possible to increase the resolution of the experiment or, alternatively, reduce the total number of data points required, to achieve parity with the results of most conventional data acquisition approaches.

  19. The Acculturation Model: The Theory and Its Implications for Classroom Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbott, Ann; And Others

    This paper argues that instruction can play a significant role in second language acquisition (SLA) and that the acculturation process can, to some extent, take place in the second language classroom as well as the naturalistic setting. J. H. Schumann's acculturation model of SLA contends that learners will succeed in SLA only to the extent they…

  20. 1982 Federal Acquisition Research Symposium, Integrating Theory and Experience: The Acquisition Research Connection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-07

    Not Personal (Desk Top) Mini Computers for Procurement Personnel?" David A. Webb Q-103 BANQUET ADDRESS R.1 AWARDS s , ATTENDEES VI 11...response to these directives, it is necessary that all person involved in the acquisition process understand pertinent concepts and be able to use...but also on the development of methods by which the persons who are responsible for a program can most effectively provide input for the analysis

  1. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  2. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  3. The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    This book is about the prospect of a social turn in the field of second language acquisition (SLA), in particular, that part of SLA that is devoted to the input-interaction-output (IIO) model. The book is intended to critically examine some of the basic notions and assumptions that underpin this model and to suggest a more interdisciplinary and…

  4. The Value of SLA Main Theories on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in Vocational Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Renyu

    2008-01-01

    Along with the development of linguistic science, the second language acquisition (SLA) has become an independent subject. Its theory is widely accepted and applied to the foreign language-teaching field. The mark theory, the mother tongue transfer theory, language input theory, cultural introject theory and so on have important enlightenment and…

  5. Phrase Frequency, Proficiency and Grammaticality Interact in Non-Native Processing: Implications for Theories of SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shantz, Kailen

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on a self-paced reading experiment in which native and non-native speakers of English read sentences designed to evaluate the predictions of usage-based and rule-based approaches to second language acquisition (SLA). Critical stimuli were four-word sequences embedded into sentences in which phrase frequency and grammaticality…

  6. Dynamic SLA Negotiation in Autonomic Federated Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubach, Pawel; Sobolewski, Michael

    Federated computing environments offer requestors the ability to dynamically invoke services offered by collaborating providers in the virtual service network. Without an efficient resource management that includes Dynamic SLA Negotiation, however, the assignment of providers to customer's requests cannot be optimized and cannot offer high reliability without relevant SLA guarantees. We propose a new SLA-based SERViceable Metacomputing Environment (SERVME) capable of matching providers based on QoS requirements and performing autonomic provisioning and deprovisioning of services according to dynamic requestor needs. This paper presents the SLA negotiation process that includes on-demand provisioning and uses an object-oriented SLA model for large-scale service-oriented systems supported by SERVME. An initial reference implementation in the SORCER environment is also described.

  7. A Research on Second Language Acquisition and College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Changyu

    2009-01-01

    It was in the 1970s that American linguist S.D. Krashen created the theory of "language acquisition". The theories on second language acquisition were proposed based on the study on the second language acquisition process and its rules. Here, the second language acquisition process refers to the process in which a learner with the…

  8. Research on knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Bruce G.

    1987-01-01

    Research in knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition performed at Knowledge Systems Lab. is summarized. The major goal of the research was to develop flexible, effective methods for representing the qualitative knowledge necessary for solving large problems that require symbolic reasoning as well as numerical computation. The research focused on integrating different representation methods to describe different kinds of knowledge more effectively than any one method can alone. In particular, emphasis was placed on representing and using spatial information about three dimensional objects and constraints on the arrangement of these objects in space. Another major theme is the development of robust machine learning programs that can be integrated with a variety of intelligent systems. To achieve this goal, learning methods were designed, implemented and experimented within several different problem solving environments.

  9. Density of Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…

  10. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  11. Airloads research study. Volume 1: Flight test loads acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, M. D.; Feltz, T. F.; Olsen, A. D., Jr.; Smith, D. B.; Wildermuth, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    The acquisition of B-1 aircraft flight loads data for use in subsequent tasks of the Airloads Research Study is described. The basic intent is to utilize data acquired during B-1 aircraft tests, analyze these data beyond the scope of Air Force requirements, and prepare research reports that will add to the technology base for future large flexible aircraft. Flight test data obtained during the airloads survey program included condition-describing parameters, surface pressures, strain gage outputs, and loads derived from pressure and strain gauges. Descriptions of the instrumentation, data processing, and flight load survey program are included. Data from windup-turn and steady yaw maneuvers cover a Mach number range from 0.7 to 2.0 for a wing sweep position of 67.5 deg.

  12. Chaos/Complexity Science and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the similarities between the science of chaos/complexity and second language acquisition (SLA). Notes that chaos/complexity scientists focus on how disorder yields to order and on how complexity arises in nature. Points out that the study of dynamic, complex nonlinear systems is meaningful in SLA as well. (78 references) (Author/CK)

  13. Second Language Acquisition, Teacher Education and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Various positions regarding the Second Language Acquisition (SLA)-Language Pedagogy (LP) nexus have been advanced. Taking these as a starting point, this article will examine the nature of the SLA/LP relationship both more generally and more concretely. First, it will place the debates evident in the different positions regarding the relationship…

  14. The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Catherine J., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    This handbook provides an integrated discussion of key issues in second language acquisition (SLA). The 24 chapters include the following: (1) "The Scope of Inquiry and the Goals of SLA" (Catherine J. Doughty and Michael H. Long); (2) "On the Nature of Interlanguage Representation: Universal Grammar in the Second Language"…

  15. 76 FR 14562 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... 52 RIN 9000-AL50 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research AGENCY... interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement section 826, Market Research... items engages in market research as necessary before making purchases. DATES: Effective Date: April...

  16. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research... Assistants § 700.326 The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition). The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition) is responsible for: (a)...

  17. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research... Assistants § 700.326 The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition). The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition) is responsible for: (a)...

  18. First Language Transfer in Second Language Writing: An Examination of Current Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Khaled; Nassaji, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    First language (L1) transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA), and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1…

  19. Bilingualism/Second-Language Research and the Assessment of Oral Proficiency in Minority Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges that researchers working in the fields of bilingualism and second-language acquisition (SLA) and in the field of language testing face in developing comparable and culturally and cognitively appropriate data collection and language assessment tools for bilingual children from rural minority-language…

  20. An Overview of Mixed-Effects Statistical Models for Second Language Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnings, Ian

    2012-01-01

    As in any field of scientific inquiry, advancements in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) rely in part on the interpretation and generalizability of study findings using quantitative data analysis and inferential statistics. While statistical techniques such as ANOVA and t-tests are widely used in second language research, this review…

  1. Skill acquisition in tennis: research and current practice.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Crespo, Miguel; Lay, Brendan; Berry, Jason

    2007-02-01

    Common to most tennis players is the desire to improve performance. Equipped with the necessary motivation, these players can spend countless hours rehearsing tennis' skills under the guidance of a coach. Often, these practices feature repetitious hitting, with little consideration given to the actual context in which the game's skills are expressed. Alternatively, training sessions that amount to little more than poorly structured game-play, devoid of any specific goals or objectives, are also discernible. Either way, player learning and long-term performance are unlikely to be optimised. So, where tennis coaches have long relied on certain instructional approaches and types of practices to enhance player performance, their efficacy is uncertain. Indeed, a growing body of research suggests that players stand to benefit from the earlier introduction of variable and random practices and feedback that is more intrinsic in nature rather than time-honoured overly prescriptive coaching. This review considers contemporary skill acquisition research in relation to current tennis coaching practice.

  2. Second Language Acquisition Research and Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, S. Pit

    1985-01-01

    Discusses second language acquisition, the importance of comprehensible input to this acquisition, and the inadequacy of the theory of language interference as an explanation for errors in second language speech. The role of the teacher in the language classroom and the "procedural syllabus" are described. (SED)

  3. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  4. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches.

  5. Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.

    1991-01-01

    Monthly progress reports for September 1990 to January 1991 are given. Topics that are briefly covered include problem solving and learning taxonomies, knowledge acquisition techniques, software design, air traffic control, and space shuttle flight control.

  6. Study Quality in SLA: A Cumulative and Developmental Assessment of Designs, Analyses, Reporting Practices, and Outcomes in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2011-01-01

    I began this study with two assumptions. Assumption 1: Study quality matters. If the means by which researchers design, carry out, and report on their studies lack in rigor or transparency, theory and practice are likely to be misguided or at least decelerated. Assumption 2 is an implication of Assumption 1: Quality should be measured rather than…

  7. Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA): A pathfinder for space-based laser altimetry and lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack; Blair, Bryan; Cavanaugh, John; Garvin, James

    1995-01-01

    objectives for the STS-72 mission center on the acquisition of sample data sets for land topography and vegetation height, waveform digitizer performance, and verification of data acquisition algorithms. The operational concept of SLA is illustrated in Fig. 1 where a series of 100 m footprints stretch in a profile of Earth surface topography along the nadir track of the Space Shuttle. The location of SLA as a dual canister payload on the Hitchhiker Bridge Assembly in Bay 12 of the Space Shuttle Endeavor can also be noted in this figure. Full interpretation of the SLA range measurement data set requires a 1 m knowledge of the Orbiter trajectory and better than 0.1 deg knowledge of Orbiter pointing angle. These ancillary data sets will be acquired during the STS-72 mission with an on-board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, K-band range and range-rate tracking of the Orbiter through TDRSS, and use of on-board inertial measurement units and star trackers. Integration and interpretation of all these different data sets as a pathfinder investigation for accurate determination of Earth surface elevation is the overall science of the SLA investigation.

  8. Driver performance data acquisition system for ergonomics research

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Goodman, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    A portable ergonomics data acquisition system consisting of state-of-the-art hardware being designed is described here. It will be employed to record driver, vehicle, and environment parameter data from a wide range of vehicles and trucks. The system will be unobtrusive to the driver and inconspicuous to the outside world. It will have three modes of data gathering and provide for extended periods of data collection. Modularity, flexibility, and cost will be key drivers in the development effort. The ergonomics data acquisition system project is being conducted in two phases--a feasibility study and a development, construction, and validation phase.

  9. The Comparative Method of Language Acquisition Research: A Mayan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and…

  10. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying levels of…

  11. Linguistic Diversity in First Language Acquisition Research: Moving beyond the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Barbara F.; Forshaw, William; Nordlinger, Rachel; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The field of first language acquisition (FLA) needs to take into account data from the broadest typological array of languages and language-learning environments if it is to identify potential universals in child language development, and how these interact with socio-cultural mechanisms of acquisition. Yet undertaking FLA research in remote…

  12. Second Language Acquisition Studies. Series on Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kathleen M., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 16 papers covers theoretical issues and research on interlanguage development and second language acquisition variables. Among the specific topics addressed are: morpheme group interactions, acquisition of complex sentences in English as a second language, uniformity in interlanguage development, Spanish-English basilang,…

  13. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  14. Automated Acquisition, Cataloging, and Circulation in a Large Research Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Merle N.; And Others

    This report describes automated procedures now in use for book acquisition, and book and document cataloging and circulation, in the library at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore. The purpose of the automation is to increase frequency and accuracy of record updatings, decrease the time required to maintain records, improve the formats of the…

  15. Research on the Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of second language acquisition based on the social-psychology of acculturation, including factors in social, affective, personality, cognitive, biological, aptitude, personal, input, and instructional areas. Studies which test this model are reviewed and evaluated. (Author/CB)

  16. A research of a high precision multichannel data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ling-na; Tang, Xiao-ping; Yan, Wei

    2013-08-01

    The output signals of the focusing system in lithography are analog. To convert the analog signals into digital ones which are more flexible and stable to process, a desirable data acquisition system is required. The resolution of data acquisition, to some extent, affects the accuracy of focusing. In this article, we first compared performance between the various kinds of analog-to-digital converters (ADC) available on the market at the moment. Combined with the specific requirements (sampling frequency, converting accuracy, numbers of channels etc) and the characteristics (polarization, amplitude range etc) of the analog signals, the model of the ADC to be used as the core chip in our hardware design was determined. On this basis, we chose other chips needed in the hardware circuit that would well match with ADC, then the overall hardware design was obtained. Validation of our data acquisition system was verified through experiments and it can be demonstrated that the system can effectively realize the high resolution conversion of the multi-channel analog signals and give the accurate focusing information in lithography.

  17. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Aligining Acquisition Strategy and Software Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    CMU /SEI-2010-TN-018: “Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems“ 8 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review...occur for a given AQA  Created acquisition strategy tactics associated with AQAs *Results published in SEI TN CMU /SEI-2013-TN-026: “Results in...published in SEI TN CMU /SEI-2014-TN-019: “A Method for Aligning Acquisition Strategies and Software Architectures“ 12 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review

  18. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  19. On Evaluating Arguments for Special Nativism in Second Language Acquisition Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates arguments advanced in favor of special nativism in second-language acquisition (SLA). The article considers the following claims: Universal Grammar (UG) is the null hypothesis; any theory of SLA needs a theory of grammar; and showing that interlanguage grammars are underdetermined by the available input implies that UG must be accessible…

  20. Utility of Krashen's Five Hypotheses in the Saudi Context of Foreign Language Acquisition/Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Gulnaz, Fahmeeda; Ijaz, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the paradigm that has dominated the discipline of language teaching is the SLA theory and Krashen's five hypotheses which are still proving flexible to accommodate earlier reforms. This paper reviews second language acquisition (SLA) theory to establish an understanding of its role in the EFL/ESL classrooms. Other areas…

  1. The research of data acquisition system for Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao; Guo, Pan; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Chen, Wenbo

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectrometer has been widely used as an identification tool for analyzing material structure and composition in many fields. However, Raman scattering echo signal is very weak, about dozens of photons at most in one laser plus signal. Therefore, it is a great challenge to design a Raman spectrum data acquisition system which could accurately receive the weak echo signal. The system designed in this paper receives optical signals with the principle of photon counter and could detect single photon. The whole system consists of a photoelectric conversion module H7421-40 and a photo counting card including a field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip and a PCI9054 chip. The module H7421-40 including a PMT, an amplifier and a discriminator has high sensitivity on wavelength from 300nm to 720nm. The Center Wavelength is 580nm which is close to the excitation wavelength (532nm), QE 40% at peak wavelength, Count Sensitivity is 7.8*105(S-1PW-1) and Count Linearity is 1.5MHZ. In FPGA chip, the functions are divided into three parts: parameter setting module, controlling module, data collection and storage module. All the commands, parameters and data are transmitted between FPGA and computer by PCI9054 chip through the PCI interface. The result of experiment shows that the Raman spectrum data acquisition system is reasonable and efficient. There are three primary advantages of the data acquisition system: the first one is the high sensitivity with single photon detection capability; the second one is the high integrated level which means all the operation could be done by the photo counting card; and the last one is the high expansion ability because of the smart reconfigurability of FPGA chip.

  2. Advanced Video Data-Acquisition System For Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Geoffrey; Richwine, David M.; Hass, Neal E.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced video data-acquisition system (AVDAS) developed to satisfy variety of requirements for in-flight video documentation. Requirements range from providing images for visualization of airflows around fighter airplanes at high angles of attack to obtaining safety-of-flight documentation. F/A-18 AVDAS takes advantage of very capable systems like NITE Hawk forward-looking infrared (FLIR) pod and recent video developments like miniature charge-couple-device (CCD) color video cameras and other flight-qualified video hardware.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (7th), Acquisition Research: Creating Synergy for Informed Change 12-13 May 2010. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    date, the shortest service was by Godwin, who served 12 months (September 1986–September 1987), and the longest service was by Jacques Gansler, who... Pinto (Eds.), The Wiley guide to project organization & project management competencies (pp. 143-167). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley...defense acquisition research program. In D.P. Slevin, J.K. Pinto & D.I. Cleland (Eds.), The frontiers of project management research (pp. xii

  4. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 4, Issue 75, October 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    clearly and concisely, how their work affects this community. At the same time, do not take an overly scholarly approach in either content or language ...Huckabee Acquisition Challenge: The Importance of Incompressibility in Comparing Learning Curve Models Capt Justin R. Moore, USAF, John J. Elshaw... CONTENTS | Featured Research A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University October 2015 Vol. 22 No. 4 ISSUE 75 p. Est 364 ablishing the Technical

  5. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  6. Class and SLA: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how class might be brought to the fore as an identity inscription in studies of second language learning, alongside other identity inscriptions such as gender, ethnicity and national identity, which have been the focus of rather more research. It begins by clarifying what is meant by class through a brief discussion of the…

  7. Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the research was on the development of a problem solving taxonomy that can support and direct the knowledge engineering process during the development of an intelligent tutoring system. The results of the research are necessarily general. Being only a small initial attempt at a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, the process has had to be bootstrapped and the results can only provide pointers to further, more formal research designs.

  8. Second Language Acquisition Notes and Topics, Numbers 1 through 5. A Newsletter for Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco State Univ., CA.

    The first five issues of the "SLANT" Newsletter for researchers in second language acquisition are included. Highlights include: (1) a bibliography on theories of second language learning by Larry Selinker, (2) descriptions of research in progress in England, and (3) the syllabus for the diploma in applied lingusitics at the University…

  9. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  10. Environmental Uncertainty and External Resource Acquisition: Implications for a Developing Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    External resource acquisition was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology…

  11. Distributed Acquisition for Geomagnetic Research (DAGR) for SmallSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zesta, E.; Bonalsky, T. M.; Wendel, D. E.; Simpson, D. G.; Beach, T. L.; Allen, L.; Clavier, O.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements are a fundamental, key parameter measurement for any space weather application, particularly for tracking the electromagnetic energy input in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere system and for high latitude dynamics governed by the large-scale field-aligned currents. The full characterization of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere coupled system necessitates measurements with higher spatial/temporal resolution and from multiple locations simultaneously. This becomes extremely challenging in the current state of shrinking budgets. Traditionally, including a science-grade magnetometer in a mission necessitates very costly integration and design (sensor on long boom) and imposes magnetic cleanliness restrictions on all components of the bus and payload. Recent advances in Smallsat and Cubesat developments offer a pathway for the proliferation of measurements. However, the Cubesat bus is a small volume in which to include all traditional bus components and payload, and the low cost of such programs makes the acquisition of clean Geomagnetic field observations a challenge. This work presents our approach of combining multiple sensitive onboard sensors with an innovative algorithm approach that enables high quality magnetic field measurements in Cubesats.

  12. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  13. Implementation of a versatile research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner.

    PubMed

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a versatile, open-architecture research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner. The open architecture will allow researchers and clinicians to rapidly develop applications and move them relatively easy to the clinic. The system consists of a standard PC equipped with a camera link and an ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface. The ultrasound scanner is an easy-to-use imaging device that is capable of generating high-quality images. In addition to supporting the acquisition of multiple data types, such as B-mode, M-mode, pulsed Doppler, and color flow imaging, the machine provides users with full control over imaging parameters such as transmit level, excitation waveform, beam angle, and focal depth. Beamformed RF data can be acquired from regions of interest throughout the image plane and stored to a file with a simple button press. For clinical trials and investigational purposes, when an identical image plane is desired for both an experimental and a reference data set, interleaved data can be captured. This form of data acquisition allows switching between multiple setups while maintaining identical transducer, scanner, region of interest, and recording time. Data acquisition is controlled through a graphical user interface running on the PC. This program implements an interface for third-party software to interact with the application. A software development toolkit is developed to give researchers and clinicians the ability to utilize third-party software for data analysis and flexible manipulation of control parameters. Because of the advantages of speed of acquisition and clinical benefit, research projects have successfully used the system to test and implement their customized solutions for different applications. Three examples of system use are presented in this paper: evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamformation, transverse

  14. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) for marine and ecological research from aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The efforts of researchers at Mississippi State University to utilize space-age technology in the development of a self-contained, portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research are presented. The compact, lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing.

  15. Enhancing cricket batting skill: implications for biomechanics and skill acquisition research and practice.

    PubMed

    Portus, Marc R; Farrow, Damian

    2011-11-01

    This review synthesises the biomechanical and skill acquisition/sport expertise literature focused on the skill of cricket batting. The literature is briefly reviewed and the major limitations, challenges, and suggested future research directions are outlined. This is designed to stimulate researchers to enhance the understanding of cricket batting biomechanics and skill acquisition and in turn assist cricket coaches develop efficacious batting skill development programmes. An interdisciplinary approach between biomechanists and skill acquisition specialists is advocated to further knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms of cricket batting expertise. Issues such as skill measurement, practice design, ball machines, skill transfer, the impact of Twenty/20 cricket, video simulation, and skill decomposition are discussed. The ProBatter ball machine systems are introduced along with suggestions for best practice approaches for coaches when designing batting skill development programmes.

  16. The Missing Link in Vision and Governance: Foreign Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire J.

    1987-01-01

    Foreign language acquisition research (concerned with the theoretical and practical issues related to socialization into and literacy in another language and culture) can help integrate language, literature, and culture in foreign language departments because it draws on insights gained from such diverse fields as anthropology, sociology,…

  17. 77 FR 47797 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... aside acquisitions for research and development, when there is also a reasonable expectation, as a... expectation of obtaining from small businesses the best scientific and technological sources consistent with...)(3), to clarify that for R&D small business set-asides, there must be a reasonable expectation...

  18. The Use of Web Questionnaires in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rosemary; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    The present article focuses on data collection through web questionnaires, as opposed to the traditional pen-and-paper method for research in second language acquisition and bilingualism. It is argued that web questionnaires, which have been used quite widely in psychology, have the advantage of reaching out to a larger and more diverse pool of…

  19. Hit or Miss, or Missing: The Role of Second Language Acquisition Research in Language Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jamie

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses how the syllabus for language teacher training in German has evolved and considers what direction foreign language teacher training might take if it were to follow the cue of "Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and appropriate the research agenda of second-language acquisition studies. (Contains 51 references.) (JL)

  20. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  1. The Syntactic Positions of Adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zi-hong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of linguistic universal and Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the paper discusses the acquisition of syntactic positions of adverbs in English. According to the data collected, the paper concludes that what adult learners acquire about adverbs is the distinction of different adverbs and the different scopes they take.…

  2. Acquisition of a Modular, Multi-laser, Raman-AFM Instrument for Multdisciplinary Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-28

    vapor deposition on copper foils. The four lasers range from the blue to 785 nm and provides a unique handle to determine excitation dependence of...Acquisition of a Modular, Multi- laser , Raman- AFM Instrument for Multdisciplinary Research A four- laser , confocal Raman/Atomic Force Scanning... laser , Raman-AFM Instrument for Multdisciplinary Research Report Title A four- laser , confocal Raman/Atomic Force Scanning microscope (Raman-AFM

  3. [Computers in biomedical research II: experimental control, data acquisition and storage].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, P; Vivaldi, E

    2001-09-01

    During the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the use of computers in biomedical research. In particular, the use of these instruments in experimental control, as well as in the acquisition and storage of experimental data, has become universal. The current capacity of these machines enables the precise manipulation of many experimental variables and allows for very fast acquisition of data. In this article, we discuss the fundamentals of small personal computers and its use in experimental control and data acquisition. Further, we discuss technical aspects related to the management of measurement instrument's control and their technical limitations. Electrical recordings from the cerebral cortex are used as examples to illustrate the different aspect included in this article.

  4. The comparative method of language acquisition research: a Mayan case study.

    PubMed

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and is especially useful in drawing attention to variation in contexts of use across languages. This article uses the Comparative Method to analyze the acquisition of verb suffixes in two Mayan languages: K'iche' and Yucatec. Mayan status suffixes simultaneously mark distinctions in verb transitivity, verb class, mood, and clause position. Two-year-old children acquiring K'iche' and Yucatec Maya accurately produce the status suffixes on verbs, in marked distinction to the verbal prefixes for aspect and agreement. We find evidence that the contexts of use for the suffixes differentially promote the children's production of cognate status suffixes in K'iche' and Yucatec.

  5. On the Danger of Exogenous Theory in CA-for-SLA: A Response to Hellermann and Cole (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Within the growing body of work that is sometimes labeled CA-for-SLA, there is a need for more research with longitudinal data. Hellermann and Cole (2009) provide a valuable contribution in this area. However, in doing so, they also make use of an exogenous theory of learning, situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger 1991), and its associated…

  6. An interaction between Sla1p and Sla2p plays a role in regulating actin dynamics and endocytosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Campbell W; Dewar, Hilary; Warren, Derek T; Costa, Rosaria; Satish, Nilima; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2003-06-15

    The importance of a dynamic actin cytoskeleton for facilitating endocytosis has been recognised for many years in budding yeast and is increasingly recognised in mammalian cells. However, the mechanism for actin recruitment and the role it plays in endocytosis is unclear. Here we show the importance of two yeast proteins in this process. We demonstrate that Sla1p and Sla2p interact in vitro and in vivo and that this interaction is mediated by the central domain of Sla2p, which includes its coiled-coil region, and by a domain of Sla1p between residues 118 and 361. Overexpression of the interacting fragment of Sla1p causes reduced fluid-phase endocytosis and, interestingly, defects in subsequent trafficking to vacuoles. We show that Sla2p is required for the polarised localisation of Sla1p in cells but not for its cortical localisation or for its overlapping localisation with actin. Generation of an Deltasla1Deltasla2 double mutant demonstrates that Sla2p is likely to act upstream of Sla1p in endocytosis, whereas sensitivity to latrunculin-A suggests that the proteins have opposite effects on actin dynamics. We propose that Sla2p recruits Sla1p to endocytic sites. Sla1p and its associated protein Pan1p then regulate actin assembly through interactions with Arp2/3 and Arp2/3-activating proteins Abp1p and Las17/Bee1p.

  7. Research and design of portable photoelectric rotary table data-acquisition and analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dawei; Yang, Xiufang; Han, Junfeng; Yan, Xiaoxu

    2015-02-01

    Photoelectric rotary table as the main test tracking measurement platform, widely use in shooting range and aerospace fields. In the range of photoelectric tracking measurement system, in order to meet the photoelectric testing instruments and equipment of laboratory and field application demand, research and design the portable photoelectric rotary table data acquisition and analysis system, and introduces the FPGA device based on Xilinx company Virtex-4 series and its peripheral module of the system hardware design, and the software design of host computer in VC++ 6.0 programming platform and MFC package based on class libraries. The data acquisition and analysis system for data acquisition, display and storage, commission control, analysis, laboratory wave playback, transmission and fault diagnosis, and other functions into an organic whole, has the advantages of small volume, can be embedded, high speed, portable, simple operation, etc. By photoelectric tracking turntable as experimental object, carries on the system software and hardware alignment, the experimental results show that the system can realize the data acquisition, analysis and processing of photoelectric tracking equipment and control of turntable debugging good, and measurement results are accurate, reliable and good maintainability and extensibility. The research design for advancing the photoelectric tracking measurement equipment debugging for diagnosis and condition monitoring and fault analysis as well as the standardization and normalization of the interface and improve the maintainability of equipment is of great significance, and has certain innovative and practical value.

  8. Extension and Validation of Research on Acquisition and Retention of Cognitive versus Perceptually Oriented Training Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Roseann Mikos and Robert J. Casey, Jr.Canyon Research Group, Inc. No and John Lockhart Army Research Institute ARI FIELD UNIT AT FORT BLISS. TEXAS C2l...Training Materials *. .EFOR.I.N ORG. REPORT NuNsEN 7 AUTMORI’s) | CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBEI-, Roseann Mikos Robert J. Casey, Jr. MDA903-79-C-0270 John...ON ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF COGNITIVE VERSUS PERCEPTUALLY ORIENTED TRAINING MATERIALS Roseann Mikos and Robert J. Casey, Jr. Canyon Research

  9. Research in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Papers of the Los Angeles Second Language Acquisition Research Forum. Issues In Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarcella, Robin C., Ed.; Krashen, Stephen D., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "The Theoretical and Practical Relevance of Simple Codes in Second Language Acquisition" (Krashen); (2) "Talking to Foreigners versus Talking to Children: Similarities and Differences" (Freed); (3) "The Levertov Machine" (Stevick); (4) "Acquiring a Second Language when You're Not the Underdog" (Edelsky and…

  10. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 23, Number 3, Issue 78, July 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    scholarly approach in either content or language . Format Please submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author- date-page number form of...July 2016 Vol. 23 No. 3 | ISSUE 78 TRANSITIONING to the Future Article List ARJ Extra Application of System and Integration Readiness Levels to... CONTENTS | Featured Research A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University July 2016 Vol. 23 No. 3 ISSUE 78 p. 274 Tailoring a Large Organization’s

  11. Second Language Acquisition by Low-Literate Learners: An Understudied Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescent and adult L2 learners in language classrooms, both in the US and other countries, have little or no alphabetic print literacy. Language teachers may turn to SLA research for assistance, yet almost all research on oral SLA has focused on educated, highly-literate learners (Bigelow & Tarone 2004; Tarone, Bigelow & Hansen 2009). The…

  12. Apercu de certains developpements recents des recherches sur l'acquisition du langage (Recent Developments in Language Acquisition Research)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoz-Proux, Michelle

    1975-01-01

    The goal of this article is to give a survey of the literature and theoretical trends relevant to language acquisition. Developments in the fields of psychology, psycholinguistics, sociology, sociolinguistics and in various interdisciplinary studies are discussed. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  13. 32 CFR 700.326 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management of acquisition programs; (c) All aspects of the acquisition process within the Department of the Navy; (d) All acquisition policy, including technology base and advanced technology development, procurement, competition, contracts and business management, logistics, product integrity, and education...

  14. Presence of SLA and Ia-like antigen on boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, M; Fellous, M; Wiels, J; Renard, C; Lecointre, J; du Mesnil du Buisson, F; Dausset, J

    1978-04-01

    Several parameters for serological tests on boar spermatozoa were studied, and a reliable technique was developed and employed. Using SLA (the MHC system in pig) genotyped boars, and specific reagents, SLA and Ia-like antigens were demonstrated on the sperm using both the cytotoxic and the absorption test. No SLA activity was detected in the seminal fluid.

  15. Research of aerial imaging spectrometer data acquisition technology based on USB 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junze; Wang, Yueming; He, Daogang; Yu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    With the emergence of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) platform for aerial imaging spectrometer, research of aerial imaging spectrometer DAS(data acquisition system) faces new challenges. Due to the limitation of platform and other factors, the aerial imaging spectrometer DAS requires small-light, low-cost and universal. Traditional aerial imaging spectrometer DAS system is expensive, bulky, non-universal and unsupported plug-and-play based on PCIe. So that has been unable to meet promotion and application of the aerial imaging spectrometer. In order to solve these problems, the new data acquisition scheme bases on USB3.0 interface.USB3.0 can provide guarantee of small-light, low-cost and universal relying on the forward-looking technology advantage. USB3.0 transmission theory is up to 5Gbps.And the GPIF programming interface achieves 3.2Gbps of the effective theoretical data bandwidth.USB3.0 can fully meet the needs of the aerial imaging spectrometer data transmission rate. The scheme uses the slave FIFO asynchronous data transmission mode between FPGA and USB3014 interface chip. Firstly system collects spectral data from TLK2711 of high-speed serial interface chip. Then FPGA receives data in DDR2 cache after ping-pong data processing. Finally USB3014 interface chip transmits data via automatic-dma approach and uploads to PC by USB3.0 cable. During the manufacture of aerial imaging spectrometer, the DAS can achieve image acquisition, transmission, storage and display. All functions can provide the necessary test detection for aerial imaging spectrometer. The test shows that system performs stable and no data lose. Average transmission speed and storage speed of writing SSD can stabilize at 1.28Gbps. Consequently ,this data acquisition system can meet application requirements for aerial imaging spectrometer.

  16. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) Photovoltaic Concentrator Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Stretched Lens Array (SLA) photovoltaic concentrator has evolved, under a NASA contract, from a concept with small component demonstrators to operational array hardware that is ready for space validation testing. A fully-functional four panel SLA solar array has been designed, built and tested. This paper will summarize the focus of the hardware development effort, discuss the results of recent testing conducted under this program and present the expected performance of a full size 7kW array designed to meet the requirements of future space missions.

  17. A multiband radiometer and data acquisition system for remote sensing field research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Robinson, B. F.; Dewitt, D. P.; Silva, L. F.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    Specifications are described for a recently developed prototype multispectral data acquisition system which consists of multiband radiometer with 8 bands between 0.4 and 12.5 micrometers and a data recording module to record data from the radometer and ancillary sources. The systems is adaptable to helicopter, truck, or tripod platforms, as well as hand-held operation. The general characteristics are: (1) comparatively inexpensive to acquire, maintain and operate; (2) simple to operate and calibrate; (3) complete with data hardware and software; and (4) well documented for use by researchers. The instrument system is to be commercially available and can be utilized by many researchers to obtain large numbers of accurate, calibrated spectral measurements. It can be a key element in improving and advancing the capability for field research in remote sensing.

  18. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S. E.; McLauglin, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  19. SLA Annual Salary Survey and Workplace Study, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, John, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The Special Libraries' Association (SLA) has conducted salary surveys since 1967, triennially from 1967 to 1990, biennially from 1990 to 1996 and annually from 1997 forward. The objectives of the annual Salary Survey are to: (1) Collect and analyze systematic, accurate information about the salaries of special librarians and information…

  20. SLA Annual Salary Survey and Workplace Study, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, John, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Libraries' Association (SLA) has conducted salary surveys since 1967, triennially from 1967 to 1990, biennially from 1990 to 1996 and annually from 1997 forward. The objectives of the annual Salary Survey are to: (1) Collect and analyze systematic, accurate information about the salaries of special librarians and information…

  1. Acquisition of Mechanically Assisted Spark Plasma Sintering System for Advanced Research and Education on Functionally Graded Hybrid Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    March 14, 2012 Final Progress Report September 15, 2010 - December 14, 2011 ACQUISITION OF MECHANICALLY ASSISTED SPARK PLASMA SINTERING SYSTEM FOR...Instrumentation Program (DURIP) Project titled, “Acquisition of Mechanically Assisted Spark Plasma Sintering System for Advanced Research and Education...at developing facilities for pressure-assisted fabrication of hybrid materials by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of metallic and ceramic powders to

  2. The Development of Theories of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a relatively new field of enquiry. Before the late 1960s, educators did write about L2 learning, but very much as an adjunct of language teaching pedagogy, underpinned by behaviourism, the then-dominant learning theory in psychology. In this view, the task facing learners of foreign languages was to rote-learn…

  3. Semantics-Syntax Correspondences in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffs, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines knowledge of semantics-syntax correspondences in second-language acquisition (SLA) within the Principles and Parameters framework. A parameter of semantic structure is used to investigate change of state locatives and "psychological" verbs. Results indicate that for some learners, first-language influence persists until advanced stages of…

  4. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Second Language and Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang Leimbigler, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    This article iterates the results of integrating literacy into SLA (Second Language Acquisition) from a constructivist's perspective in preparing syllabi, pedagogical activities and testing. The observation of Mandarin-learning students' performance and conversations with them suggest that introducing certain vocabulary, expressions and…

  5. Profile of middle school students on scientific literacy achievements by using scientific literacy assessments (SLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmatullah, Arif; Diana, Sariwulan; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.

    2016-02-01

    Along with the development of science and technology, the basic ability to read, write and count is not enough just to be able to survive in the modern era that surrounded by the products of science and technology. Scientific literacy is an ability that might be added as basic ability for human in the modern era. Recently, Fives et al. developed a new scientific literacy assessment for students, named as SLA (Scientific Literacy Assessment). A pilot study on the achievements of scientific literacy of middle school students in Sumedang using SLA was conducted to investigate the profile scientific literacy achievement of 223 middle school students in Sumedang, and compare the outcomes between genders (159 girls and 64 boys) and school accreditation (A and B) using a quantitative method with descriptive research-school survey. Based on the results, the average achievement of scientific literacy Sumedang middle school students is 45.21 and classified as the low category. The five components of scientific literacy, which is only one component in the medium category, namely science motivation and beliefs, and the four other components are in the low and very low category. Boys have higher scientific literacy, but the differences not statistically significant. Student's scientific literacy in an accredited school is higher than B, and the differences are statistically significant. Recommendation for further are: involve more research subjects, add more number of questions for each indicator, and conduct an independent research for each component.

  6. The Invisibility of SLA Theory in Mainstream Creole Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouse, Rex A.

    2010-01-01

    This review article argues that contemporary mainstream second language acquisition research has extremely little, if any, impact on current scholarship in creole linguistics. After a promise of an active synergy between the two subfields 30 years ago, genuine engagement slowed to a virtual stop by the mid-1980s as both fields continued to develop…

  7. Identification of peptides from foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class I swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) alleles, SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L E; Harndahl, M; Nielsen, M; Patch, J R; Jungersen, G; Buus, S; Golde, W T

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of the peptide-binding specificity of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II molecules is critical to the understanding of adaptive immune responses of swine toward infectious pathogens. Here, we describe the complete binding motif of the SLA-2*0401 molecule based on a positional scanning combinatorial peptide library approach. By combining this binding motif with data achieved by applying the NetMHCpan peptide prediction algorithm to both SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401, we identified high-affinity binding peptides. A total of 727 different 9mer and 726 different 10mer peptides within the structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), strain A24 were analyzed as candidate T-cell epitopes. Peptides predicted by the NetMHCpan were tested in ELISA for binding to the SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401 major histocompatibility complex class I proteins. Four of the 10 predicted FMDV peptides bound to SLA-2*0401, whereas five of the nine predicted FMDV peptides bound to SLA-1*0401. These methods provide the characterization of T-cell epitopes in response to pathogens in more detail. The development of such approaches to analyze vaccine performance will contribute to a more accelerated improvement of livestock vaccines by virtue of identifying and focusing analysis on bona fide T-cell epitopes.

  8. Multi-channel pre-beamformed data acquisition system for research on advanced ultrasound imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chris C P; Yu, Alfred C H; Salimi, Nazila; Yiu, Billy Y S; Tsang, Ivan K H; Kerby, Benjamin; Azar, Reza Zahiri; Dickie, Kris

    2012-02-01

    The lack of open access to the pre-beamformed data of an ultrasound scanner has limited the research of novel imaging methods to a few privileged laboratories. To address this need, we have developed a pre-beamformed data acquisition (DAQ) system that can collect data over 128 array elements in parallel from the Ultrasonix series of research-purpose ultrasound scanners. Our DAQ system comprises three system-level blocks: 1) a connector board that interfaces with the array probe and the scanner through a probe connector port; 2) a main board that triggers DAQ and controls data transfer to a computer; and 3) four receiver boards that are each responsible for acquiring 32 channels of digitized raw data and storing them to the on-board memory. This system can acquire pre-beamformed data with 12-bit resolution when using a 40-MHz sampling rate. It houses a 16 GB RAM buffer that is sufficient to store 128 channels of pre-beamformed data for 8000 to 25 000 transmit firings, depending on imaging depth; corresponding to nearly a 2-s period in typical imaging setups. Following the acquisition, the data can be transferred through a USB 2.0 link to a computer for offline processing and analysis. To evaluate the feasibility of using the DAQ system for advanced imaging research, two proof-of-concept investigations have been conducted on beamforming and plane-wave B-flow imaging. Results show that adaptive beamforming algorithms such as the minimum variance approach can generate sharper images of a wire cross-section whose diameter is equal to the imaging wavelength (150 μm in our example). Also, planewave B-flow imaging can provide more consistent visualization of blood speckle movement given the higher temporal resolution of this imaging approach (2500 fps in our example).

  9. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 19, Number 3, Issue 63, July 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    commonality? • Which additional contract terms such as payment pro- visions or intellectual property considerations improve acquisition outcomes in the... property , and other provisions to develop acquisition strategies that best implement commonality. Definitions To understand the interaction between...affects the family. • They share information and intellectual property between the variants. However, the extent to which the acquisition structures

  10. Note: Programmable data acquisition system for research measurements from meteorological radiosondes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Nicoll, K A; Lomas, A G

    2012-03-01

    A programmable data acquisition system to allow novel use of meteorological radiosondes for atmospheric science measurements is described. In its basic form it supports four analogue inputs at 16 bit resolution, and up to two further inputs at lower resolution, configurable instead for digital instruments. It also provides multiple instrument power supplies (+8 V, +16 V, +5 V, and -8 V) from the 9 V radiosonde battery. During a balloon flight encountering air temperatures from +17 °C to -66 °C, the worst case voltage drift in the 5 V unipolar digitisation circuitry was 20 mV. The system liberates a new range of low cost atmospheric research measurements, by utilising radiosondes routinely launched internationally for weather forecasting purposes. No additional receiving equipment is required. Comparisons between the specially instrumented and standard meteorological radiosondes show negligible effect of the additional instrumentation on the standard meteorological data.

  11. Contributions of the Study of Japanese as a Second language to our General Understanding of Second Language Acquisition and the Definition of Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2003-01-01

    Reviews three books on the acquisition of Japanese as a second language: "Second Language Acquisition Process in the Classroom" by A.S. Ohta;"The Acquisition of Grammar by Learners of Japanese" (English translation of title), by H. Noda, K. Sakoda, K. Shibuya, and N. Kobayashi; and "The Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language," B. K. Kanno,…

  12. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Design specifications. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow driver performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During Phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volume 2 presents the related appendices. Volume three (this report) displays the design specifications developed for DASCAR during the ``develop design requirements and specifications for a portable driver performance data acquisition system`` task. Design specifications were assembled for each DASCAR element. The specifications were prepared in sufficient detail to allow a third party to use them to design, develop, procure, and subsequently construct the data acquisition system. This report also covers the background to the program.

  13. Lexical Processing and Organization in Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Guiding Future Research

    PubMed Central

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between two languages in the early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. PMID:26866430

  14. Lexical processing and organization in bilingual first language acquisition: Guiding future research.

    PubMed

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between 2 languages in early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  16. The Associations between Language Aptitude and Second Language Grammar Acquisition: A Meta-Analytic Review of Five Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a meta-analysis that synthesizes the empirical research on the role of language aptitude in second language grammar acquisition. A total of 33 study reports were identified including 17 predictive studies that investigated the correlations between aptitude and ultimate L2 attainment and 16 interactional studies that examined the…

  17. Fostering Language Acquisition in Daycare Settings: What Does the Research Tell Us? Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The ways in which children learn a language--be it their mother tongue or their second language--can have a strong influence on their success in school. Researchers in linguistics and early child development have tried to determine the factors that can help and hinder language acquisition in young children, with some conflicting results. In this…

  18. Some Implications of Research in Second Language Acquisition for Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Linda

    On the continuum along which theories of first and second language acquisition are located, the two extremes represent the classic controversy of nature (nativist) vs. nurture (environmentalist), while those in the middle view language acquisition as a result of a more or less balanced interaction between innate capacities and linguistic…

  19. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition in Wales (2003-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tess

    2010-01-01

    An objective selection protocol identified 25 Ph.D. theses from Welsh universities in the period 2003-2008 which are relevant to the field of second language acquisition. Most of these fall into three broad subject areas: language in school, acquisition and assessment of spoken language, and lexical issues. The last of these encompasses the…

  20. The Data Acquisition and Control Systems of the Jet Noise Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, B. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The features of the data acquisition and control systems of the NASA Langley Research Center's Jet Noise Laboratory are presented. The Jet Noise Laboratory is a facility that simulates realistic mixed flow turbofan jet engine nozzle exhaust systems in simulated flight. The system is capable of acquiring data for a complete take-off assessment of noise and nozzle performance. This paper describes the development of an integrated system to control and measure the behavior of model jet nozzles featuring dual independent high pressure combusting air streams with wind tunnel flow. The acquisition and control system is capable of simultaneous measurement of forces, moments, static and dynamic model pressures and temperatures, and jet noise. The design concepts for the coordination of the control computers and multiple data acquisition computers and instruments are discussed. The control system design and implementation are explained, describing the features, equipment, and the experiences of using a primarily Personal Computer based system. Areas for future development are examined.

  1. Research on the design of surface acquisition system of active lap based on FPGA and FX2LP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongshen; Li, Xiaojin; Fan, Bin; Zeng, Zhige

    2014-08-01

    In order to research the dynamic surface shape changes of active lap during the processing, this paper introduces a dynamic surface shape acquisition system of active lap using FPGA and USB communication. This system consists of high-precision micro-displacement sensor array, acquisition board, PC computer composition, and acquisition circuit board includes six sub-boards based on FPGA, a hub-board based on FPGA and USB communication. A sub-board is responsible for a number of independent channel sensors' data acquisition; hub-board is responsible for creating encoder simulation tools to active lap deformation control system with location information, sending synchronization information to latch the sensor data in all of the sub-boards for a time, while addressing the sub-boards to gather the sensor data in each sub-board one by one and transmitting all the sensor data together with location information via the USB chip FX2LP to the host computer. Experimental results show that the system is capable of fixing the location and speed of active lap, meanwhile the control of surface transforming and dynamic surface data acquisition at a certain location in the processing is implemented.

  2. Instrumentation Acquisition for Research and Education in Additive Manufacturing and Advanced Material Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-18

    Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Final Report, Instrument acquisition, Selective Laser Melting REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Description 1 Renishaw AM 250 Selective Laser Melting Machine Renishaw $585,305 This vendor was selected for purchase due to lower acquisition... selective laser melting of Tefenol – D giant magnetostricitve material. Terfenol‐D has the advantage of achieving magnetostriction comparable

  3. Defense Acquisition Research Journal (ARJ). Volume 22, Number 3, Issue 74, July 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    Fitzgerald Defense Contract Audit Agency Mr. Richard T. Ginman Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy Mr. Andre J. Gudger Office of...results reveal excessively optimistic overrun projections throughout the life of the examined contracts despite project type and the military... monetary returns falls short. The featured book in this issue’s Defense Acquisition Professional Reading List is Richard Whittle’s The Dream Machine

  4. The Development and Validation of the Science Learning Assessment (SLA): A Measure of Kindergarten Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samarapungavan, Ala; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen; French, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Science Learning Assessment (SLA) is an individually administered, instructionally sensitive science assessment for kindergarten students. The SLA is a 24-item objective test, broken down into two subtests. The Scientific Inquiry Processes subtest consists of 9 items designed to measure young children's functional understanding of the nature…

  5. Molecular characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes in outbred pig populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune, disease and vaccine responses. Thus, understanding how SLA gene polymorphism affects immunity, especially in outbred pig populations with a diverse genetic background, requires accu...

  6. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SWINE LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN (SLA) CLASS I GENES IN OUTBRED PIG POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and in transplantation. Study of SLA influence requires accurate and effective typing methods. We developed a simple and rapid method to t...

  7. The Survival of Inflectional Morphology in French-Related Creoles: The Role of SLA Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Angelika; Veenstra, Tonjes

    2003-01-01

    In traditional classifications of languages by inflectional subsystems, both creole languages and the results of untutored SLA (interlanguages) are classified as isolating. We focus on remnants of verbal inflectional morphology in French-related creoles and ask: (a) Can the properties of verbal morphology be attributed to SLA, and (b) what does…

  8. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE SWINE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX, THE SLA COMPLEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  9. UPDATE ON SLA GENES AND THEIR IMPACT ON IMMUNE AND DISEASE INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  10. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  11. EUROPE 1992: Catalyst for Change in Defense Acquisition. Report of the DSMC 1989-1990 Military Research Fellows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Gansler of The Analytic Science industries fascinating, it is a broadening Corporation and Professor Steven exercise that can provide researchers with...Management College Hans-Jurgen Peters Ft. Belvoir, VA Radio and Radar Systems Division Siemens AG Walter LaBerge Unterschleissheim, FRG Acquisition...Management College Defense Systems Management College Ft. Belvoir, VA Ft. Belvoir, VA Steven C. Wheelwright Michael E. Porter Professor Professor

  12. Acquisition of a Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope to Enhance Research and Teaching Capabilities in the STEM Fields at Howard University

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    Teaching Capabilities in the STEM Fields at Howard University The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Report: Acquisition of a Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope to Enhance Research and Teaching Capabilities in the STEM Fields at Howard University...ETR-1 have been implicated in myotonic muscular dystrophy when mutated. Recently, ETR- 1 was identified in a large -scale C. elegans RNAi suppressor

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (2nd), Acquisition Research: The Foundation for Innovation, Held in Monterey, California on 18-19 May 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    reflect the constructs identified by Kock (1999) and Kock and Murphy (2001) based on grounded-theory research investigations ( Glaser & Strauss, 1967...259-279. Galbraith, J. (1977). Organizational design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Glaser , B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded... Glaser & Strauss, 1967). However, limitations of field research are also known well (Campbell & Stanley, 1973) and are particularly severe in the

  14. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  15. Students and the News: Patterns of Knowledge and Acquisition. Research Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Weber, Larry J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the news acquisition habits of students and their knowledge of the news. Differences in the performance of males and females were compared. Two thousand, eighth- and eleventh-grade students from four school districts in Virginia were administered a current events test and asked to respond to questions…

  16. The Effectiveness of the Comprehension Hypothesis: A Review on the Current Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…

  17. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 2, Issue 66, July 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Agency to address institutional and systemic obstacles to maxi - mize reutilization. Some of the lessons learned herein may be useful to all the...5 8 2012 2017 5 A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil 138 Defense ARJ, July 2013, Vol. 20 No. 2: 128–153 shorter—4

  18. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 3, Issue 67, October 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    cycle. Randall and his col- leagues (2010) found: [that the] integrator acts as the network entrepreneur, bun- dling knowledge and capital resources...Termination OPORD Execution Plan Phases Le ve l o f M ilit ar y E �o rt Notional Operation Plan Phases LEGEND A Publication of the Defense Acquisition

  19. 75 FR 34277 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-007, Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... indefinite-delivery indefinite-quantity (ID/IQ) task or delivery order for a noncommercial item in excess of... an ID/IQ task or delivery order for noncommercial items in excess of the simplified acquisition... ID/IQ contract or the award of any task or delivery order if the information is still...

  20. Acquisition and Analysis of NASA Ames Sunphotometer Measurements during SAGE III Validation Campaigns and other Tropospheric and Stratospheric Research Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1251 provided funding from April 2001 through December 2003 for Mr. John Livingston of SRI International to collaborate with NASA Ames Research Center scientists and engineers in the acquisition and analysis of airborne sunphotometer measurements during various atmospheric field studies. Mr. Livingston participated in instrument calibrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, pre-mission hardware and software preparations, acquisition and analysis of sunphotometer measurements during the missions, and post-mission analysis of data and reporting of scientific findings. The atmospheric field missions included the spring 2001 Intensive of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003) experiment, and the winter 2003 Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II).

  1. Symbiotic Gesture and the Sociocognitive Visibility of Grammar in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Eton; Okada, Hanako; Nishino, Takako; Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    This article argues for the embodied and environmentally embedded nature of second language acquisition (SLA). Through fine-grained analysis of interaction using Goodwin's (2003a) concept of "symbiotic gesture"--gesture coupled with its rich environmental context to produce complex social action--we illustrate how a tutor, learner, and grammar…

  2. Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for Grammar Activity Sequencing and Design in Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…

  3. Saying What We Mean: Making a Case for "Language Acquisition" to Become "Language Development"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    As applied linguists know very well, how we use language both constructs and reflects our understanding. It is therefore important that we use terms that do justice to our concerns. In this presentation, I suggest that a more apt designation than "multilingual" or "second language acquisition" (SLA) is "multilingual"…

  4. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Jee Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition (SLA), "comprehensible input" (Krashen, 1985) has been considered a critical factor to help learners acquire foreign and second languages (L2). From this perspective, the notion of extensive or free voluntary reading (Day & Bamford, 1998; Krashen, 1993) has emerged that L2 learners should be given more…

  5. Implicit and Explicit Corrective Feedback and the Acquisition of L2 Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod; Loewen, Shawn; Erlam, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews previous studies of the effects of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on SLA, pointing out a number of methodological problems. It then reports on a new study of the effects of these two types of corrective feedback on the acquisition of past tense -ed. In an experimental design (two experimental groups and a control…

  6. Re-Assembling Formal Features in Second Language Acquisition: Beyond Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, Lardiere's discussion of features is compared with the use of features in constraint-based theories, and it is argued that constraint-based theories might offer a more elegant account of second language acquisition (SLA). Further evidence is reported to question the accuracy of Chierchia's (1998) Nominal Mapping Parameter.…

  7. The Linguistic Landscape as an Additional Source of Input in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the role that the linguistic landscape, in the sense of all the written language in the public space, can have in second language acquisition (SLA). The linguistic landscape has symbolic and informative functions and it is multimodal, because it combines visual and printed texts, and multilingual, because it uses several…

  8. The Acquisition of Phrasal Verbs through Cognitive Linguistic Approach: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Linguistics has been applied in SLA in order improve the learning/acquisition process of foreign/second language. This quasi-experimental study was conducted to find the impact of the Cognitive Linguistics on learning/ acquiring the Phrasal Verbs among EFL learners at intermediate level. In this study the orientational metaphors were…

  9. Input, Triggering and Poverty of the Stimulus in the Second Language Acquisition of Japanese Passives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    This article adopts an input perspective in examining a poverty-of-the stimulus (POS) learning situation in second language acquisition (SLA). Analysis of grammaticality judgement data from 81 English-speaking and 85 Chinese-speaking learners of Japanese isolates triggering input that informed English learners of subtle semantic properties of the…

  10. Research of Data Acquisition and Analysis System for Internal Combustion Engine Based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. H.; Tian, X. L.; Cheng, P.; Chang, X.; Dou, W. J.

    2006-10-01

    In the paper, the structure, working principle, functions and characteristics of an data acquisition and analysis system for internal combustion engines (I.C. engine) based on DSP is introduced. The DSP can not only acquire and analyze the data alone, also can work with the PC together to form data acquisition and analysis system with high speed and large memory. The system takes advantages of TMS320F2812's plenty of peripherals on chip, becomes small and easy for installation. USB technique is used to translate data between DSP and PC in high speed, so the system's real time processing is proved very much. It is proved that the designed system can acquire and analyze the steady and transient parameters of the I.C. engine very well.

  11. Research on remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition method in AutoCAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Guangtong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The remote sensing image has been widely used in AutoCAD, but AutoCAD lack of the function of remote sensing image processing. In the paper, ObjectARX was used for the secondary development tool, combined with the Image Engine SDK to realize remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition in AutoCAD, which provides critical technical support for AutoCAD environment remote sensing image processing algorithms.

  12. Air Force Manpower, Personnel, and Training (MPT) in Systems Acquisition Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Weapon System Acquisition Planning and Specialty Structuring (Draft Informal Technical Information). Prepared for AFHRL/MODM. San Antonio, TX: Metrica ...Antonio, TX: Metrica , Inc. Driskill, W.E., Weismuller, J.J. & Hageman, D.C. (1989). Initial Procedures for Providing Weapon System-Specific Data. Final...Report for AFHRL. San Antonio, TX: Metrica , Inc. Driskill, W.E., Weismuller, J.J. & Staley, M.R. (1987, October). Task Identification and Evaluation

  13. Competition as an Acquisition Strategy: Impact of Competitive Research and Development on Procurement Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    more capable and costly than needed. It may be a matter of designing parts so as to avoid costly materials or shapes that are difficult to produce...volume production methods may not be used) and with the acquisition of materials and components 12 from other vendors. This experience permits better...exotic materials or technologies, which would have tended to increase unit coat. The lightweight approach was adopted in order to gain performance as well

  14. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research

    PubMed Central

    Campagnola, Luke; Kratz, Megan B.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multiphoton microscopy, intrinsic imaging, and calcium imaging. The system is highly modular, which facilitates the addition of new devices and functionality. The modules included with ACQ4 provide for rapid construction of acquisition protocols, live video display, and customizable analysis tools. Position-aware data collection allows automated construction of image mosaics and registration of images with 3-dimensional anatomical atlases. ACQ4 uses free and open-source tools including Python, NumPy/SciPy for numerical computation, PyQt for the user interface, and PyQtGraph for scientific graphics. Supported hardware includes cameras, patch clamp amplifiers, scanning mirrors, lasers, shutters, Pockels cells, motorized stages, and more. ACQ4 is available for download at http://www.acq4.org. PMID:24523692

  15. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research.

    PubMed

    Campagnola, Luke; Kratz, Megan B; Manis, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multiphoton microscopy, intrinsic imaging, and calcium imaging. The system is highly modular, which facilitates the addition of new devices and functionality. The modules included with ACQ4 provide for rapid construction of acquisition protocols, live video display, and customizable analysis tools. Position-aware data collection allows automated construction of image mosaics and registration of images with 3-dimensional anatomical atlases. ACQ4 uses free and open-source tools including Python, NumPy/SciPy for numerical computation, PyQt for the user interface, and PyQtGraph for scientific graphics. Supported hardware includes cameras, patch clamp amplifiers, scanning mirrors, lasers, shutters, Pockels cells, motorized stages, and more. ACQ4 is available for download at http://www.acq4.org.

  16. A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, S.; Atwood, C.; Bell, P.; Blacker, T. D.; Dey, S.; Fisher, D.; Fisher, D. A.; Genalis, P.; Gorski, J.; Harris, A.; Hill, K.; Hurwitz, M.; Kendall, R. P.; Meakin, R. L.; Morton, S.; Moyer, E. T.; Post, D. E.; Strawn, R.; Veldhuizen, D. v.; Votta, L. G.; Wynn, S.; Zelinski, G.

    2008-07-01

    In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a 360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution of CREATE are based on the 'lessons learned' from case studies of large-scale computational science and engineering projects. The case studies stress the importance of a stable, close-knit development team; a focus on customer needs and requirements; verification and validation; flexible and agile planning, management, and development processes; risk management; realistic schedules and resource levels; balanced short- and long-term goals and deliverables; and stable, long-term support by the program sponsor. Since it began in FY2008, the CREATE program has built a team and project structure, developed requirements and begun validating them, identified candidate products, established initial connections with the acquisition programs, begun detailed project planning and development, and generated the initial collaboration infrastructure necessary for success by its multi-institutional, multidisciplinary teams.

  17. Implicit Learning in SLA and the Issue of Internal Validity: A Response to Leung and Williams's (2011) "The Implicit Learning of Mappings between Forms and Contextually Derived Meanings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Hama, Mike

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing theoretical, empirical, and methodological debate in the SLA field as to whether unawareness plays a role during attention to or processing of new incoming second language (L2) data. Indeed, studies that have methodologically addressed the construct of unawareness in their research designs offer both empirical support (e.g.,…

  18. Theoretical bases for research on the acquisition of social sex-roles by children of lesbian mothers.

    PubMed

    Nungesser, L G

    1980-01-01

    The present study, which examines the socialization effects of lesbian mothers upon their children, begins with a discussion of the classification and measurement of sex-typed behaviors. Theories from developmental, behavioral, and social psychology are applied, in order to distinguish between the acquisition of sex-typed behaviors and the actual performance of those behaviors. The conditions affecting the modeling process are also discussed. Lesbian lifestyles and values are explored through a review of several descriptive studies of lesbian mothers. Finally, an application of theoretical models is presented to determine the socialization effects on the children. A theoretical base is provided for suggested experimental research.

  19. Armstrong Flight Research Center Flight Test Capabilities and Opportunities for the Applications of Wireless Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.

  20. A sophisticated, multi-channel data acquisition and processing system for high frequency noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Bridges, James

    1992-01-01

    A sophisticated, multi-channel computerized data acquisition and processing system was developed at the NASA LeRC for use in noise experiments. This technology, which is available for transfer to industry, provides a convenient, cost-effective alternative to analog tape recording for high frequency acoustic measurements. This system provides 32-channel acquisition of microphone signals with an analysis bandwidth up to 100 kHz per channel. Cost was minimized through the use of off-the-shelf components. Requirements to allow for future expansion were met by choosing equipment which adheres to established industry standards for hardware and software. Data processing capabilities include narrow band and 1/3 octave spectral analysis, compensation for microphone frequency response/directivity, and correction of acoustic data to standard day conditions. The system was used successfully in a major wind tunnel test program at NASA LeRC to acquire and analyze jet noise data in support of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program.

  1. Drawing and Emerging Research: The Acquisition of Experiential Knowledge through Drawing as a Methodological Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda; Riley, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes the activity of drawing as a methodological strategy within a university research context. It is illustrated with examples from one of the authors' (Roberts) practice-based PhD research. The paper argues that drawing as a research method can be validated in a manner akin to the more established research methods associated…

  2. Analyzing the Acquisition Stages of Negation in L2 German: Support for UG in Adult SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaselli, Alessandra; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that a Universal Grammar (UG)-based analysis for the three stages of NEG-placement is not only possible, but in fact provides independent support for UG-based analyses of the developmental sequence found in first-language Romance language and second-language German verb placement. (41 references) (GLR)

  3. Escort: A data acquisition and display system to support research testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Primarily designed to acquire data at steady state test conditions, the system can also monitor slow transients such as those generated in moving to a new test condition. The system configuration makes use of a microcomputer at the test site which acts as a communications multiplexer between the measurement and display devices and a centrally located minicomputer. A variety of measurement and display devices are supported using a modular approach. This allows each system to be configured with the proper combination of devices to meet the specific test requirements, while still leaving the option to add special interfaces when needed. Centralization of the minicomputer improves utilization through sharing. The creation of a pool of minis to provide data acquisition and display services to a variable number of running tests also offers other important advantages.

  4. SLA-constrained service selection for minimizing costs of providing composite cloud services under stochastic runtime performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Tsai, Mu-Jung; Lu, Sin-Ji; Hung, Chun-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Composite cloud services based on the methodologies of Software as a Service and Service-Oriented Architecture are transforming how people develop and use software. Cloud service providers are confronting the service selection problem when composing composite cloud services. This paper deals with an important type of service selection problem, minimizing the total cost of providing a composite cloud service with respect to the constraints of service level agreement (SLA). Two types of SLA are considered in the study: per-request-based SLA and ratio-based SLA. We present three service selection approaches for dynamic cloud environments where services' performance might vary with time. The first two are iterative compound approaches for per-request-based SLA and the third approach is a one-step method for ratio-based SLA based on the Chebyshev's theorem and nonlinear programming. Experimental results show that our approaches outperform the previous method significantly in terms of total cost reduction.

  5. Entre dicho y hecho ...: An Assessment of the Application of Research from Second Language Acquisition and Related Fields to the Creation of Spanish CALL Materials for Lexical Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Lafford, Peter A.; Sykes, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Despite the problems presented by lexical errors in second language (L2) communication, most computer assisted language learning (CALL) programs tend to focus on the acquisition of grammar points rather than on the development of the L2 lexicon. In addition, CALL vocabulary tasks are typically limited in scope and mechanical in nature, covering…

  6. Acquisition of a High Performance Computing Instrument for Big Data Research and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-03

    data to satellites or ground stations. Reconfigurable computing systems or systems that combine onboard processors with one or more FPGAs offer...for big data research and education at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&T). This instrument will promote innovation and...translational big data research at NCA&T. It will make NCA&T (a land grant HBCU) a strong player in big data research and education. The research

  7. 78 FR 48331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Release of Fundamental Research Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Regulation Supplement: Release of Fundamental Research Information (DFARS Case 2012-D054) AGENCY: Defense... relating to the release of fundamental research information. This rule was previously published as part of... fundamental research projects and not safeguarding. This rule was initiated to implement guidance provided...

  8. Bad Influence?--An Investigation into the Purported Negative Influence of Foreign Domestic Helpers on Children's Second Language English Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…

  9. Sequencing in SLA: Phonological Memory, Chunking, and Points of Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that much of language acquisition is sequence learning and that the resultant long-term knowledge base of language sequences serves as the database for grammar acquisition. The article also proposes mechanisms to analyze sequence information that result in knowledge of underlying grammar. (184 references) (Author/CK)

  10. "Et in Amygdala Ego"?: UG, (S)LA, and Neurobiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubank, Lynn; Gregg, Kevin R.

    1995-01-01

    John Schumann and colleagues have argued for a neurobiological perspective on language acquisition that denies a role for a specifically linguistic mental module of the sort proposed by, for example, N. Chomsky (1986). This report challenges this perspective by offering evidence that such a mental module must be involved in the acquisition of…

  11. The research and application of multi-biometric acquisition embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shichao; Liu, Tiegen; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The identification technology based on multi-biometric can greatly improve the applicability, reliability and antifalsification. This paper presents a multi-biometric system bases on embedded system, which includes: three capture daughter boards are applied to obtain different biometric: one each for fingerprint, iris and vein of the back of hand; FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is designed as coprocessor, which uses to configure three daughter boards on request and provides data path between DSP (digital signal processor) and daughter boards; DSP is the master processor and its functions include: control the biometric information acquisition, extracts feature as required and responsible for compare the results with the local database or data server through network communication. The advantages of this system were it can acquire three different biometric in real time, extracts complexity feature flexibly in different biometrics' raw data according to different purposes and arithmetic and network interface on the core-board will be the solution of big data scale. Because this embedded system has high stability, reliability, flexibility and fit for different data scale, it can satisfy the demand of multi-biometric recognition.

  12. On the Scope of Second Language Acquisition Research: "The Learner Variety" Perspective and Beyond--A Response to Klein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Responds to a previous article that suggests the second-language-acquisition acquisition field has failed to realize academic respectability. Offers an overview of some of the more positive advances in the discipline. Concludes by calling for a whole systems approach to the study of second language acquisition. (Author/JL)

  13. State Education Agencies' Acquisition and Use of Research Knowledge for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massell, Diane; Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, state education agencies (SEAs) have been given considerable responsibilities for improving low-performing schools and for adopting research-based practices in doing so. Yet we know little about how and where these organizations search for, select, and use research and other kinds of evidence. We examined these questions…

  14. An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

  15. Information Technology in Critical Care: Review of Monitoring and Data Acquisition Systems for Patient Care and Research

    PubMed Central

    De Georgia, Michael A.; Kaffashi, Farhad; Jacono, Frank J.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a broad consensus that 21st century health care will require intensive use of information technology to acquire and analyze data and then manage and disseminate information extracted from the data. No area is more data intensive than the intensive care unit. While there have been major improvements in intensive care monitoring, the medical industry, for the most part, has not incorporated many of the advances in computer science, biomedical engineering, signal processing, and mathematics that many other industries have embraced. Acquiring, synchronizing, integrating, and analyzing patient data remain frustratingly difficult because of incompatibilities among monitoring equipment, proprietary limitations from industry, and the absence of standard data formatting. In this paper, we will review the history of computers in the intensive care unit along with commonly used monitoring and data acquisition systems, both those commercially available and those being developed for research purposes. PMID:25734185

  16. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  17. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): An Ultra-Light Photovoltaic Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ONeill, Mark J.; Pisczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.

    2002-10-01

    A high-performance, ultralight, photovoltaic concentrator array is being developed for space power. The stretched lens array (SLA) uses stretched-membrane, silicone Fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight onto triple-junction photovoltaic cells. The cells are mounted to a composite radiator structure. The entire solar array wing, including lenses, photovoltaic cell flex circuits, composite panels, hinges, yoke, wiring harness, and deployment mechanisms, has a mass density of 1.6 kg/sq.m. NASA Glenn has measured 27.4% net SLA panel efficiency, or 375 W/sq.m. power density, at room temperature. At GEO operating cell temperature (80 C), this power density will be 300 W/sq.m., resulting in more than 180 W/kg specific power at the full wing level. SLA is a direct ultralight descendent of the successful SCARLET array on NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution from SCARLET to SLA, summarizes the SLA's key features, and provides performance and mass data for this new concentrator array.

  18. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): An Ultra-Light Photovoltaic Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, Mark J.; Pisczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    A high-performance, ultralight, photovoltaic concentrator array is being developed for space power. The stretched lens array (SLA) uses stretched-membrane, silicone Fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight onto triple-junction photovoltaic cells. The cells are mounted to a composite radiator structure. The entire solar array wing, including lenses, photovoltaic cell flex circuits, composite panels, hinges, yoke, wiring harness, and deployment mechanisms, has a mass density of 1.6 kg/sq.m. NASA Glenn has measured 27.4% net SLA panel efficiency, or 375 W/sq.m. power density, at room temperature. At GEO operating cell temperature (80 C), this power density will be 300 W/sq.m., resulting in more than 180 W/kg specific power at the full wing level. SLA is a direct ultralight descendent of the successful SCARLET array on NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution from SCARLET to SLA, summarizes the SLA's key features, and provides performance and mass data for this new concentrator array.

  19. The Acquisition of Serial Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire survey of large research libraries on procedures and special problems in serials acquisitions. Cooperative programs are discussed, including the Latin American Cooperative Acquisitions Program and the National Serials Data Program. (JS)

  20. New Funding Opportunity: Tissue Purchase Order Acquisitions - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expanding its basic and translational research programs that rely heavily on sufficient availability of high quality, well annotated biospecimens suitable for use in genomic and proteomic studies. The NCI’s overarching goal with such programs is to improve the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer.

  1. Diverse Multilingual Researchers Contribute Language Acquisition Components to an Integrated Model of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Robert Dean

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based outcomes in the literature have caused adjustments in neuro-psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives that indicate a need for a current model of education. Implications from research suggest the new model of education should use a multilingual framework: L3 enhances and reinforces L2 and L1, if L2 and L1 are supported. The…

  2. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  3. Researching the Effects of Frame-Focused Instruction on Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, Elena; Burmistrova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In the context of globalization, the research of innovative teaching methods and techniques becomes relevant. The traditional teaching approach where the training of practice material is preceded by rule-presentation (explanation + mechanical form-oriented practice) does not meet the requirements of constantly developing rational language…

  4. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 4, Issue 71, October 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Research Journal is “…All Others Must Bring Data.” It derives from the famous quote by American management consultant W. Edwards Deming, “In God we...Network traffic data must be collected and prepared for analysis to support real -time queries and in-depth discovery. Ideally, traffic data are...tolerance intervals. De Gryze, Langhans, and Vandebroek (2007) indicated practical guidelines to calculate and use tolerance intervals in real

  5. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 4, Issue 75, October 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-20

    affects this community. At the same time, do not take an overly scholarly approach in either content or language . Format Please submit your...Importance of Incompressibility in Comparing Learning Curve Models Capt Justin R. Moore, USAF, John J. Elshaw, Adedeji B. Badiru, and Lt Col Jonathan...GonzalezManager Multimedia Assistant Noelia Gamboa The C3 GroupEditing, Design, and Layout Schatz Publishing Group CONTENTS | Featured Research A Publication of

  6. Defense Acquisition Research Journal: Strengthening Cost Consciousness, Professionalism, and Technical Excellence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Robert M. Barclay, USAF (Ret.), and Scott Morton Catalysts of Military Innovation: A Case Study of Defense Biometrics COL Glenn Voelz, USA #eVALUate...CH PA PER COMPETIT IO N 2010 ACS 2ndplace Featured Research p. 178 Catalysts of Military Innovation: A Case Study of Defense Biometrics COL Glenn...Voelz, USA This article examines the catalysts of military tech- nology innovation, using a case study of defense biometrics. p. 202 #eVALUate

  7. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms.

  8. State Education Agencies' Acquisition and Use of Research Knowledge in School Improvement Strategies. CPRE Research Report # RR-77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol; Massell, Diane; Fink, Ryan; Francis, Anthony Tuf

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, state education agencies (SEAs) have been given considerably more responsibilities for directing and guiding the improvement of low-performing schools. At the same time, federal policies strongly pressed SEAs to use research to design these supports. Very few studies have explored the SEA as an organization, or its role in…

  9. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 4, Issue 60, October 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Defense ARJ and AT&L Online Defense ARJ and AT&L will become online -only publications for individual subscribers later in 2011. If you would like...address to notify us if you change your e-mail address. Be Ready for Defense ARJ and AT&L Online Defense ARJ and AT&L will become online -only...includ- ing military personnel) are encouraged to compete and are eligible for cash awards unless the paper was researched or written as part of

  10. Aspects of Reading Acquisition; Proceedings of the Annual Hyman Blumberg Symposium on Research in Early Childhood Education (5th, Johns Hopkins University, Nov. 13-14, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.

    Papers collected in this volume were presented at the Fifth Annual Blumberg Symposium on Research in Early Childhood Education, held at Johns Hopkins University in 1974. Selections include "Alexia" (D. Frank Benson), "Young Children's Expectations for Reading" (Doris R. Entwisle), "Relations between Acquisition of…

  11. Experimental Designs in Sentence Processing Research: A Methodological Review and User's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Gregory D.; Jegerski, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of Clahsen and Felser's (2006) keynote article on grammatical processing in language learners, the online study of sentence comprehension in adult second language (L2) learners has quickly grown into a vibrant and prolific subfield of SLA. As online methods begin to establish a foothold in SLA research, it is important…

  12. Acquisition of a High-resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for Cosmochemical and Geochemical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of our research in this program is to develop new techniques for the analysis of volatile trace elements in very small samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in preparation for samples returned by the Stardust mission. The instrument that will serve as the basis of our experiments is the ELEMENT2 high-resolution ICP-MS. We have spent the past year designing the laboratory to house this instrument as well as space to store and prepare samples returned by the Stardust mission. Unfortunately, the location that we had initially selected for the instrument turned out to be insufficient for our needs. This was determined almost eight months into the first year of our funding cycle, after extensive work including the production of engineering drawings. However, during this time the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory was selected to lead Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission. As a result of this award LPL purchased a new, 50,000 square foot building. We have acquired 1400 square feet of laboratory space in this new facility. Four-hundred square feet will be used for a class-100 clean room. This area is designated for storage and preparation of extraterrestrial materials. The additional 1000 square feet will house the ELEMENT2 ICP-MS and peripheral devices. This is an enormous amount of space for this instrument, but it provides plenty of room for expansion in the future. The ICP-MS and the clean room facilities have been purchased. The instrument has been delivered. The startup time for this instrument is relatively short and we expect to be collecting our first data by mid-summer.

  13. Improving Data Collection and Analysis Interface for the Data Acquisition Software of the Spin Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Curatolo, Ben S.; Woike, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    In jet engines, turbines spin at high rotational speeds. The forces generated from these high speeds make the rotating components of the turbines susceptible to developing cracks that can lead to major engine failures. The current inspection technologies only allow periodic examinations to check for cracks and other anomalies due to the requirements involved, which often necessitate entire engine disassembly. Also, many of these technologies cannot detect cracks that are below the surface or closed when the crack is at rest. Therefore, to overcome these limitations, efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center are underway to develop techniques and algorithms to detect cracks in rotating engine components. As a part of these activities, a high-precision spin laboratory is being utilized to expand and conduct highly specialized tests to develop methodologies that can assist in detecting predetermined cracks in a rotating turbine engine rotor. This paper discusses the various features involved in the ongoing testing at the spin laboratory and elaborates on its functionality and on the supporting data system tools needed to enable successfully running optimal tests and collecting accurate results. The data acquisition system and the associated software were updated and customized to adapt to the changes implemented on the test rig system and to accommodate the data produced by various sensor technologies. Discussion and presentation of these updates and the new attributes implemented are herein reported

  14. Measuring Explicit and Implicit Knowledge: A Psychometric Study in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebadi, Mandana Rohollahzadeh; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Saad, Mohd Rashid Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Lack of valid means of measuring explicit and implicit knowledge in acquisition of second language is a concern issue in investigations of explicit and implicit learning. This paper endeavors to validate the use of four tests (i.e., Untimed Judgment Grammatical Test, UJGT; Test of Metalinguistic Knowledge, TMK; Elicited Oral Imitation Test, EOIT;…

  15. Using Blogs: Authentic Material and Ranking Quality for SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppens, Xulian; Rico, Mercedes; Agudo, J. Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Exposure real life language experiences forms an integral part of the acquisition process. Authentic materials--those derived from the culture of the target language rather than specially produced for language learners--increase the relevance of the learning experience by reusing texts taken directly from the target culture. Web 2.0 technologies…

  16. A Neurobiological Basis for SLA and First Language Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bode, Stella

    The two-part paper examines the neurobiological processes of synapse overproduction, synapse elimination, and issues of language acquisition and attrition. The first part consists of diagrams and notes explaining some basic terms and concepts of neurobiology: cortex; white matter; neuron; synapse; synaptogenesis; and development and organization…

  17. SLA: A Time for New Initiatives-- CI Division Formed, Fundraising Goal Set, Certification Coming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMattia, Susan; Blumenstein, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Several initiatives were announced at the Special Libraries Association (d.b.a. SLA) conference, June 4-9, at the Gaylord Opryland Hotel in Nashville. A petition drive resulted in formation of a Competitive Intelligence (CI) Division from the former CI Section of the Leadership and Management Division. The board encouraged the member-driven…

  18. Up to the Challenge: SLA Commits to New Tools and Techniques to Ace Old Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    According to conference co-chair Ty Webb, this year's Special Libraries Association (SLA) conference theme, "Climb to New Heights," challenges the info pro to "accept challenges by creating innovative solutions." To meet that need, conference programming, which runs June 3-6 in Denver, includes SYNERGY sessions, which are based on the…

  19. Cationic liposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) plus CpG ODNs induce protection against murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Heravi Shargh, Vahid; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Firouzmand, Hengameh; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible due to the fact that individuals cured from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are protected from further infection. First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites reached to phase 3 clinical trials but failed to show enough efficacies mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, an efficient liposomal protein-based vaccine against Leishmania major infection was developed using soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) as a first generation vaccine and cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane was used as a cationic lipid to prepare the liposomes due to its intrinsic adjuvanticity. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in 2-week intervals, with Lip-SLA-CpG, Lip-SLA, SLA + CpG, SLA, or HEPES buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge and spleen parasite loads were assessed, and the immune responses were evaluated by determination of IFN-γ and IL-4 levels of cultured splenocytes, and IgG subtypes. The group of mice that received Lip-SLA-CpG showed a significantly smaller footpad swelling, lower spleen parasite burden, higher IgG2a antibody, and lower IL-4 level compared to the control groups. It is concluded that cationic liposomes containing SLA and CpG ODNs are appropriate to induce Th1 type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis.

  20. Acquisition Research Topics Catalog.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    expected to increase; if the weapon is models depend upon various types of being phased out, demand for the computational techniques to reach related EOQ...being able to identify these assets, we could Topic: Inventory Model Simulation establish inventory levels based upon Requirements specific product ...eseloresorce reuird fo th prducion management approaches and techniques to resources required for the production minimize loss and damage to Government and

  1. Input Quality Matters: Some Comments on Input Type and Age-Effects in Adult SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In accord with the general program of researching factors relating to ultimate attainment and maturational constraints in adult language acquisition, this commentary highlights the importance of input differences in amount, type, and setting between naturalistic and classroom learners of an L2. It is suggested that these variables are often…

  2. The Role of Discursive Features in SLA Modeling and Grammatical Frequency--A Response to Cheng, Lu and Giannakouros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Initial studies on the acquisition of two Spanish copulas, "ser" and "estar", emerged from a research agenda exploring whether second language (L2) development was driven by universal mechanisms manifested in stages rather than an accumulation of entities (Rutherford, 1987). Concerning the Spanish copulas, the stages of acquisition through which…

  3. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.

  4. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination.

  5. Doing "Not" Being a Foreign Language Learner: English as a "Lingua Franca" in the Workplace and (Some) Implications for SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to shift the focus on "learning" away from the traditional locus of inquiry in SLA--the L2 classroom--in order to extend the SLA empirical database, and by so doing extend and broaden our understanding of what it means to learn and use (in mutually reinforcing and enlightening ways) an additional, or second,…

  6. Contextual Change After Fear Acquisition Affects Conditioned Responding and the Time Course of Extinction Learning—Implications for Renewal Research

    PubMed Central

    Sjouwerman, Rachel; Niehaus, Johanna; Lonsdorf, Tina B.

    2015-01-01

    Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear) memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF) paradigms (in particular renewal), involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g., in ABC and ABA renewal). Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e., renewal). Thus, the possibility of a general effect of context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied. Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36) was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149), while measuring physiological (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle) measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e., contextual switch after extinction). Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects. PMID:26696855

  7. Acquisition Research: Creating Synergy for Informed Change. Proceedings of the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (4th) Held in Monterey, California on 16-17 May 2007. Volume 1: Wednesday Sessions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    different names: e-marketplaces, e-markets, Internet exchanges, Net marketplaces, and B2B portals. Classification of Exchanges There are numerous ways of...buyer-side solution with buyer biases. It is the most prevalent form of Internet -based B2B . A good example of the benefits of collaborative commerce is...Optimal Inventory Policy for Two-echelon Remanufacturing................. 338 B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

  8. On the determination of ENVISAT SLA analytical covariance functions and correlation with climate indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Vergos, Georgios S.; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 80's remote sensing of the Earth's oceans with satellite altimetry offered an abundance of sea surface height measurements. The availability of instantaneous variations of the sea surface is crucial to both oceanographic and geodetic applications, so that, through combination with GOCE and GRACE gradiometric and range-rate data of the Earth's gravity field, new frontiers are envisaged. The latter refer to the estimation of sea level and dynamic ocean topography trends as well as to monitoring the dynamic ocean environment and climate change through rigorous heterogeneous data combination. In related studies, even though the data combination and processing strategies have been carried out carefully with proper control, error propagation through analytical data variance-covariance matrices has been given little attention. This is of importance since it can provide reliable estimates of the output signal error within an optimal operator used in physical geodesy, i.e., least squares collocation. In this study, the raw data used are Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) values from ENVISAT for the entire duration of the satellite mission (2002-2011). Along-track records of the SLA have been used both to derive linear trends of the SLA variation in the area under study and come to some conclusions on the Mediterranean variability at short scales. Moreover, results on the determination of analytical covariance functions for the sea level anomalies in the Mediterranean Sea are presented, using for their estimation 2nd and 3rd order Gauss-Markov models and exponential ones. Conclusions based on prediction errors with LSC are drawn, while evidence of the cyclo-stationarity of the SLA is deduced. The covariance functions estimated are then employed to investigate possible correlations with climate change indices over the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Oscillation Index-SOI, North Atlantic Oscillation-NAO index and Mediterranean Oscillation Index-MOI) and conclude on climate

  9. R+WFQ: a novel SLA-supported packet fair queueing algorithm for OLT scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Junni; Qi, Shijie; Song, Yingxiong; Lin, Rujian

    2005-02-01

    To implement both fairness and priority scheduling in OLT scheduler, this paper proposes a SLA-supported packet fair queueing algorithm named R+WFQ. It employs WFQ discipline to serve high-priority sessions and Round Robin discipline to transmit low-priority sessions in free moments existed in traditional WFQ. Computer simulation results as well as theoretic analysis show that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance in terms of the implementation complexity, fairness and delay properties.

  10. Stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printing of oral modified-release dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Goyanes, Alvaro; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of stereolithography (SLA) to fabricate drug-loaded tablets with modified-release characteristics. The SLA printer creates solid objects by using a laser beam to photopolymerise monomers. In this work polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as a monomer and diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide was used as a photo-initiator. 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) were selected as model drugs. Tablets were successfully printed and formulations with different properties were fabricated by adding polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG 300) to the printing solution. The loading of paracetamol and 4-ASA in the printed tablets was 5.69% and 5.40% respectively. In a realistic dynamic dissolution simulation of the gastrointestinal tract, drug release from the tablets was dependent on the composition of the formulations, but independent of dissolution pH. In conclusion SLA 3DP technology allows the manufacture of drug loaded tablets with specific extended-release profiles. In the future this technology could become a manufacturing technology for the elaboration of oral dosage forms, for industrial production or even for personalised dose.

  11. User's manual for the Langley Research Center 14- by 22- foot subsonic tunnel static data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orie, Nettie M.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Static Data Acquisition System (SDAS) components primarily responsible for acquiring data at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are the NEFF 620/600 Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and the PSI 780B electronically scanned pressure (ESP) measurement system. A 9250 Modcomp computer is used to process the signal, to do all aerodynamic calculation, and to control the output of data. All of the tasks required to support a wind tunnel investigation are menu driven. The purpose of this report is to acquaint users of this system with the wide range of capabilities that exist with the available hardware and software and provide them with the proper procedures to follow when setting up or running individual tests.

  12. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  13. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA, Langley Research Center Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.; Kindle, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms were extended through the purchase and integration of other hardware and the implementation of improved software. An operational manual for the current system is presented. Hardware and peripheral device registers are outlined only as an aid in debugging any DAS problems which may arise.

  14. g-PRIME: A Free, Windows Based Data Acquisition and Event Analysis Software Package for Physiology in Classrooms and Research Labs.

    PubMed

    Lott, Gus K; Johnson, Bruce R; Bonow, Robert H; Land, Bruce R; Hoy, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    We present g-PRIME, a software based tool for physiology data acquisition, analysis, and stimulus generation in education and research. This software was developed in an undergraduate neurophysiology course and strongly influenced by instructor and student feedback. g-PRIME is a free, stand-alone, windows application coded and "compiled" in Matlab (does not require a Matlab license). g-PRIME supports many data acquisition interfaces from the PC sound card to expensive high throughput calibrated equipment. The program is designed as a software oscilloscope with standard trigger modes, multi-channel visualization controls, and data logging features. Extensive analysis options allow real time and offline filtering of signals, multi-parameter threshold-and-window based event detection, and two-dimensional display of a variety of parameters including event time, energy density, maximum FFT frequency component, max/min amplitudes, and inter-event rate and intervals. The software also correlates detected events with another simultaneously acquired source (event triggered average) in real time or offline. g-PRIME supports parameter histogram production and a variety of elegant publication quality graphics outputs. A major goal of this software is to merge powerful engineering acquisition and analysis tools with a biological approach to studies of nervous system function.

  15. Prioritizing Acquisition Pathways in the State Level Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Chantell L.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory; Pilat, Joseph F.

    2012-06-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards has launched a project to further develop the State-level concept for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of safeguards activities. In order to further evolve the safeguards system an emphasis is placed on integrating inspection-related activities and the State evaluation process to draw safeguards conclusions in the most efficient way. The credible implementation of acquisition pathway analysis is central to the success of the IAEA's State-level concept. NNSA's Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is sponsoring Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to produce a study that will examine the use of acquisition pathway analysis in: (1) Developing a State-specific, State-level approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP); (2) Maximizing the utility of the physical model; and (3) Supporting resource allocation decisions through a pathway prioritization. To deal with the challenge of developing an effective and efficient SLA, this study looks at: (1) Prioritizing proliferation pathways based on an assessment of a State's capabilities and assumed proliferation strategies; and (2) Relevant State behavior (e.g., transparency, cooperation, etc.) while avoiding subjective judgments about States themselves. The study makes use of case studies and concrete examples in order to illustrate how new concepts and approaches will be implemented, and how they may differ from more traditional safeguards approaches.

  16. Autonomous Robot Skill Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Research. ix ABSTRACT AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SKILL ACQUISITION MAY 2011 GEORGE DIMITRI KONIDARIS B.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND B.Sc. Hons., UNIVERSITY...OF THE WITWATERSRAND M.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Directed by: Professor Andrew G. Barto Among the most

  17. Telecommunications and data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  18. Knowledge Acquisition in Observational Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    This paper presents findings from research on knowledge acquisition in observational astronomy to demonstrate the kinds of intuitive models children form and to show how these models influence the acquisition of science knowledge. Sixty children of approximate ages 6, 9, and 12 were given a questionnaire to investigate their knowledge of the size,…

  19. Acquisition Policies. SPEC Kit 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of acquisition materials from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) acquisition policies from Brigham Young University, Iowa State University, and the University of Cincinnati; (2) book selection policies from the University of Nebraska Undergraduate Library and Georgetown University; (3) an…

  20. Investment and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    The article argues that Norton Peirce's (1995) concept of a language learner's investment should figure centrally in how instructors address the needs of adult learners in ESL classrooms. Investment is discussed in relation to second language acquisition research that addresses the role of social factors in second language acquisition. The article…

  1. Infusing Motor Learning Research Into Neurorehabilitation Practice: A Historical Perspective With Case Exemplar From the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program

    PubMed Central

    Winstein, Carolee; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Blanton, Sarah R.; Wolf, Lois B.; Wishart, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    This special interest article provides a historical framework with a contemporary case example that traces the infusion of the science of motor learning into neurorehabilitation practice. The revolution in neuroscience provided the first evidence for learning-dependent neuroplasticity and presaged the role of motor learning as critical for restorative therapies after stroke. The scientific underpinnings of motor learning have continued to evolve from a dominance of cognitive or information processing perspectives to a blend with neural science and contemporary social-cognitive psychological science. Furthermore, advances in the science of behavior change have contributed insights into influences on sustainable and generalizable gains in motor skills and associated behaviors, including physical activity and other recovery-promoting habits. For neurorehabilitation, these insights have tremendous relevance for the therapist–patient interactions and relationships. We describe a principle-based intervention for neurorehabilitation termed the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program that we developed. This approach emphasizes integration from a broad set of scientific lines of inquiry including the contemporary fields of motor learning, neuroscience, and the psychological science of behavior change. Three overlapping essential elements—skill acquisition, impairment mitigation, and motivational enhancements—are integrated. PMID:24828523

  2. Mergers + acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  3. A Social and Cognitive Approach to Affect in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Jennifer; White, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Affective factors in language learning have long attracted attention. While research findings indicate substantial links between affect and achievement, further inquiry into the role and contribution of affect in language learning has been limited by a narrow focus on single emotions and on the disruptive effects of emotion. Drawing on social…

  4. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  5. Induction of protection against leishmaniasis in susceptible BALB/c mice using simple DOTAP cationic nanoliposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA).

    PubMed

    Firouzmand, Hengameh; Badiee, Ali; Khamesipour, Ali; Heravi Shargh, Vahid; Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Abbasi, Azam; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-12-01

    A suitable adjuvant and delivery system are needed to develop an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. To induce a Th1 type of response and protection in BALB/c mice against Leishmania major infection, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) nanoliposomes bearing an intrinsic adjuvanticity, were used as an antigen delivery system and immunoadjuvant for soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA). DOTAP liposomes containing different concentrations of SLA were prepared by using lipid film method followed by sonication. The prepared vesicles showed a diameter of about 100nm, a positive zeta potential and approximately 70% encapsulation efficiency of SLA. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in a 3-week interval with different concentrations of liposomal SLA (12.5, 25, and 50μg of SLA/50μl/mice), free SLA and as well as free liposome. The group of mice received 50μg of SLA in DOTAP-nanoliposomes showed a significantly (p<0.001) smaller footpad swelling and the lowest spleen and footpad parasite burden after the challenge. This group also showed the highest IFN-γ production compared to the other groups, lower IL-4 level and higher IgG2a antibody titer. Taken together, the results indicated that simple DOTAP nanoliposome containing 1μg/μl SLA are appropriate delivery systems to induce a Th1 type of immune response and protection against L. major infection in BALB/c mice.

  6. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  7. Testing of SLA-561V in NASA-Ames' Turbulent Flow Duct with Augmented Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Kornienko, Robert S.; Radbourne, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of Mars Science Laboratory s (MSL) heatshield development program, SLA-561 was tested in NASA Ames Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD) Facility. For these tests, the TFD facility was modified to include a ceramic plate located in the wall opposite to the test model. Normally the TFD wall opposite to the test model is water-cooled steel. Installing a noncooled ceramic plate allows the ceramic to absorb convective heating and radiate the energy back to the test model as the plate heats up. This work was an effort to increase the severity of TFD test conditions. Presented here are the results from these tests.

  8. Acquisition of Books and Pamphlets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lawrence S.

    1970-01-01

    Acquisitions of current printed works in the research library is a complex process because of the proliferation of publishers and publications in all subject areas. Cooperation among the librarian, subject specialist, and dealers is necessary. (JS)

  9. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting. PMID:24860518

  10. Studies in Filipino Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresita V.

    Very little research has been done on first or second language acquisition in the Philippines. Most second language learning studies cited in the literature concern acquisition of English in English-speaking communities, and most American studies of Filipino language acquisition are superficial, consisting primarily of morpheme analysis. The…

  11. Acquisition of Novel Perceptual Categories in a Third Language: The Role of Metalinguistic Awareness and Feature Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogoi, Divya Verma

    2009-01-01

    Many factors that contribute towards the perception of second language (L2) sounds and the subsequent establishment of L2 phonetic categories have been the focus of past research. However, learning a third language, unlike SLA, may be influenced by additional factors attributed to the presence of two language systems in a bilingual instead of one…

  12. Prediction of Altered 3′- UTR miRNA-Binding Sites from RNA-Seq Data: The Swine Leukocyte Antigen Complex (SLA) as a Model Region

    PubMed Central

    Endale Ahanda, Marie-Laure; Fritz, Eric R.; Estellé, Jordi; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Madsen, Ole; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Beraldi, Dario; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Hume, David A.; Rowland, Robert R. R.; Lunney, Joan K.; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Reecy, James M.; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The SLA (swine leukocyte antigen, MHC: SLA) genes are the most important determinants of immune, infectious disease and vaccine response in pigs; several genetic associations with immunity and swine production traits have been reported. However, most of the current knowledge on SLA is limited to gene coding regions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of a large number of protein-coding genes in metazoans, and are suggested to play important roles in fine-tuning immune mechanisms and disease responses. Polymorphisms in either miRNAs or their gene targets may have a significant impact on gene expression by abolishing, weakening or creating miRNA target sites, possibly leading to phenotypic variation. We explored the impact of variants in the 3′-UTR miRNA target sites of genes within the whole SLA region. The combined predictions by TargetScan, PACMIT and TargetSpy, based on different biological parameters, empowered the identification of miRNA target sites and the discovery of polymorphic miRNA target sites (poly-miRTSs). Predictions for three SLA genes characterized by a different range of sequence variation provided proof of principle for the analysis of poly-miRTSs from a total of 144 M RNA-Seq reads collected from different porcine tissues. Twenty-four novel SNPs were predicted to affect miRNA-binding sites in 19 genes of the SLA region. Seven of these genes (SLA-1, SLA-6, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, SLA-DOA, SLA-DOB and TAP1) are linked to antigen processing and presentation functions, which is reminiscent of associations with disease traits reported for altered miRNA binding to MHC genes in humans. An inverse correlation in expression levels was demonstrated between miRNAs and co-expressed SLA targets by exploiting a published dataset (RNA-Seq and small RNA-Seq) of three porcine tissues. Our results support the resource value of RNA-Seq collections to identify SNPs that may lead to altered miRNA regulation

  13. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Interaction: A Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The interaction approach to second language acquisition (SLA) suggests that changes that occur during conversation facilitate second language development by providing learners with opportunities to receive modified comprehensible input and interactional feedback, to produce output, and to notice gaps between their interlanguage and the target…

  14. Integrated data acquisition system for medical device testing and physiology research in compliance with good laboratory practices.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Steven C; Woolard, Cary; Drew, Guy; Unger, Lauren; Gillars, Kevin; Ewert, Dan; Gray, Laman; Pantalos, George

    2004-01-01

    In seeking approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical trial evaluation of an experimental medical device, a sponsor is required to submit experimental findings and support documentation to demonstrate device safety and efficacy that are in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). The objective of this project was to develop an integrated data acquisition (DAQ) system and documentation strategy for monitoring and recording physiological data when testing medical devices in accordance with GLP guidelines mandated by the FDA. Data aquisition systems were developed as stand-alone instrumentation racks containing transducer amplifiers and signal processors, analog-to-digital converters for data storage, visual display and graphical user-interfaces, power conditioners, and test measurement devices. Engineering standard operating procedures (SOP) were developed to provide a written step-by-step process for calibrating, validating, and certifying each individual instrumentation unit and the integrated DAQ system. Engineering staff received GLP and SOP training and then completed the calibration, validation, and certification process for the individual instrumentation components and integrated DAQ system. Eight integrated DAQ systems have been successfully developed that were inspected by regulatory affairs consultants and determined to meet GLP guidelines. Two of these DAQ systems were used to support 40 of the pre-clinical animal studies evaluating the AbiCor artificial heart (ABIOMED, Danvers, MA). Based in part on these pre-clinical animal data, the AbioCor clinical trials began in July 2001. The process of developing integrated DAQ systems, SOP, and the validation and certification methods used to ensure GLP compliance are presented in this article.

  15. [Experimental research on heart rate variability analysis with application of acquisition system of R peak of electrocardiosignal based on sound card].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Jia, Xiaoning; Shen, Dai; Zhou, Peng

    2013-08-01

    This study designed an audio signal acquisition system to achieve real-time detection of R peak for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, substituting ECG-specific data acquisition board with sound card. It is proved that the R peak with low frequency can be gathered by sound card. The comparison with PowerLab signal acquisition system has shown that the acquisition system of R peak could accurately detect the R peak. The R peak detected by sound card and PowerLab signal acquisition system completely overlap each other, while RR intervals has no difference. The HRV analysis was accurate and reliable with the RR interval from sound card. This low cost, high performance, strong compatibility and easy upgraded acquisition system of R peak compared with the traditional data acquisition board has the value of practical uses and might have broad applications in the future.

  16. More on the Effects of Explicit Information in Instructed SLA: A Partial Replication and a Response to Fernandez (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Nicholas; Culmana, Hillah; VanPattena, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The role of explicit information (EI) as an independent variable in instructed SLA is largely underresearched. Using the framework of processing instruction, however, a series of offline studies has found no effect for EI (e.g., Benati, 2004; Sanz & Morgan-Short, 2004; VanPatten & Oikkenon, 1996). Fernandez (2008) presented two online experiments…

  17. Task Type and Reactivity of Verbal Reports in SLA: A First Look at a L2 Task Other than Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the frequency with which verbal reports are used in SLA to gather data on learners' cognitive processes (e.g., Bowles, 2003, 2004; Mackey, Gass, & McDonough, 2000; Rosa & Leow, 2004a, 2004b), only two studies (Bowles & Leow, 2005; Leow & Morgan-Short, 2004) have investigated verbal reports' reactivity (i.e., whether they alter cognitive…

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, E W; Wang, Y B; Shuai, K G; Gao, F; Bai, Y J; Cheng, Y; Xiong, X L; Zheng, Y F; Wei, S C

    2011-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of titanium surfaces sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA) plus further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment for dental implant application. Pure titanium disks were mechanically polished as control surface (Ti-control) and then sandblasted with large-grit corundum and acid etched (SLA). Further chemical modifications were conducted using alkali and heat treatment (ASLA) and hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment (HSLA) alternatively. The surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle and roughness measurements. Further evaluation of surface bioactivity was conducted by MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition on the sample surfaces. After insertion in the beagle's mandibula for a specific period, cylindrical implant samples underwent micro-CT examination and then histological examination. It was found that ASLA and HSLA surfaces significantly increased the surface wettability and MC3T3-E1 cell attachment percentage, ALP activity and the quality of calcium deposition in comparison with simple SLA and Ti-control surfaces. Animal studies showed good osseointegration of ASLA and HSLA surfaces with host bone. In conclusion, ASLA and HSLA surfaces enhanced the bioactivity of the traditional SLA surface by integrating the advantages of surface topography, composition and wettability.

  19. Attitudine Linguistica e Acquisizione della Competenza. Un Progetto di Ricerca (Linguistic Aptitude and Acquisition of Competence. A Research Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    1982-01-01

    Subjects were 45 Italians who were studying English as a second language. They were administered the Modern Language Aptitude Test and a cloze test and were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their language study. The researcher then analyzed the interrelationships among the subjects' linguistic aptitude, language study history, and level…

  20. [Genetic diversity based on swine leukocyte antigen complex mi-crosatellites(SLA-MS) in five pig populations].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Rong-Hui; Li, Hua; Zuo, Qi-Zhen; Li, Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity of swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA) was studied among Guangdong local pigs, Huanan wild boars (S.s. chirodontus) and introduced pigs, which aimed at providing a theoretical foundation for further pig anti-disease resistance breeding. Pietrain pigs, Duroc pigs, Large black-white pigs, Lantang pigs, and Huanan wild boars were genotyped by employing 18 microsatellites in swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA-MS). The result showed that the average diversity in SLA II was higher (He=0.628, PIC=0.581) than that in SLA I (He=0.530, PIC=0.474) and in SLA III (He=0.526, PIC=0.458). The molecular diversity indices (MDI) of Huanan wild boars was the highest(0.716), followed by Lantang pigs (0.614), Large black-white pigs (0.559), Pietrain pigs (0.550) and Duroc pigs (0.507). As a whole, the genetic diversity of Huanan wild boars was the highest over Guangdong native pigs and introduced pigs. Large black-white pigs and Duroc pigs had ever happened a severe bottleneck by comparison with the Garza-Williamson index (GWI) in Huanan wild boar. From the genetic distance, one clade was that Lantang pigs were first clustered with Huanan wild boar, and then grouped together with Large black-white pigs; another clade was that Pietrain pigs were independently clustered with Duroc pigs in the NJ tree. The results would establish the foundation for pig conservation of germplasm resource, disease resistance breeding, and multiplicative strains.

  1. SLA Developmental Stages and Teachers' Assessment of Written French: Exploring Direkt Profil as a Diagnostic Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granfeldt, Jonas; Ågren, Malin

    2014-01-01

    One core area of research in Second Language Acquisition is the identification and definition of developmental stages in different L2s. For L2 French, Bartning and Schlyter (2004) presented a model of six morphosyntactic stages of development in the shape of grammatical profiles. The model formed the basis for the computer program Direkt Profil…

  2. Processes Asunder: Acquisition & Planning Misfits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    St ra te gy Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t PROCESSES ASUNDER: ACQUISITION & PLANNING MISFITS BY CHÉRIE A. SMITH Department of Army Civilian DISTRIBUTION...Asunder: Acquisition & Planning Misfits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Chérie A. Smith 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT PROCESSES ASUNDER: ACQUISITION & PLANNING

  3. Introduction to Nanotechnology for Defense Environment, Health & Safety (EHS) and Research Professionals in Support of the Acquisition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    www.denix.osd.mil/MERIT Ultra fine particles ~50 1713- Ramazzini described black 197 4- First GMO lung disease mouse created by Jaenisch Diesel...exhaust Engineered NP _____ _,.? • GMO Technology 1985- Oberdorster described inhalation toxicity of Ti02 2003-lssue recognized by EPA, NIOSH...other agencies 2004- California pass broad ban on GMO products Growing Body of EHS Research Far-reaching implications or singular exceptions

  4. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Kinetic Systems and Langley Research Center determined that high speed CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) data acquisition systems could significantly improve Langley's ARTS (Advanced Real Time Simulation) system. The ARTS system supports flight simulation R&D, and the CAMAC equipment allowed 32 high performance simulators to be controlled by centrally located host computers. This technology broadened Kinetic Systems' capabilities and led to several commercial applications. One of them is General Atomics' fusion research program. Kinetic Systems equipment allows tokamak data to be acquired four to 15 times more rapidly. Ford Motor company uses the same technology to control and monitor transmission testing facilities.

  5. An Acquisition Guide for Executives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide covers the following subjects; What is Acquisition?, Purpose and Primary Functions of the Agency’s Acquisition System, Key Organizations in Acquisitions, Legal Framework, Key Players in Acquisitions, Acquisition Process, Acquisition Thresholds

  6. Acquisition and Development of a Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Monitoring and Surveillance Testbed for Future Battlefield Communications Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: During the funding period, a set of state-of-the-art software defined radio platforms are acquired, including 10 NI USRP...2932 (400MHz~4.4GHz + GPS Clock) Software Radio Kit, 3 NI USRP-2942R (400MHZ~4.4GHz with KINTEX-7 FPGA), and 3 NI USRP-2952R (400MHZ~4.4GHZ with GPS...These software defined radio platforms provide the much needed infrastructure support for cognitive radio research. In addition, a commercial grade

  7. Development of ceramic-reinforced photopolymers for SLA 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ji Sun; Park, Tae-Wan; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-06-01

    Al2O3 ceramic-reinforced photopolymer samples for SLA 3D printing technology were prepared using a silane coupling agent (VTES, vinyltriethoxysilane). Depending on the method used to coat the VTES onto the ceramic surface, the dispersion of ceramic particles in the photopolymer solution was remarkably improved. SEM, TEM and element mapping images showed Al2O3 particles well wrapped with VTES along with well-distributed Al2O3 particles overall on the cross-sectional surfaces of 3D-printed objects. The tensile properties (stress-strain curves) of 3D-printed objects of the ceramic-reinforced photopolymer were investigated as a function of the Al2O3 ceramic content when it ranged from 0 to 20 wt%. The results demonstrate that an Al2O3 ceramic content of 15 wt% resulted in enhanced tensile characteristics.

  8. Using Student Choice to Increase Students' Knowledge of Research Methodology, Improve Their Attitudes toward Research, and Promote Acquisition of Professional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Christina L.; Stroud, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Students often approach their research methods course with dread typically because of the broad and abstract nature of the content. In the study presented here, we introduced a variety of student-driven, content-specific assignments that allowed for a more active learning experience when compared to the typical research methods course. Providing a…

  9. Analyzing the Structure of Air Force Space Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    51 viii III. CASE STUDY APPLICATION ...............................................................................53 A. CHAPTER...discussed throughout this research paper . Acquisition Arm is defined as the entity in charge of the acquisition of space assets and systems. Air...phase Evolutionary Acquisition or Single Step to Full Capability FRP Decision Review FOC LRIP/ IOT &E Design Readiness Review Pre-Systems Acquisition

  10. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  11. Liposomal SLA co-incorporated with PO CpG ODNs or PS CpG ODNs induce the same protection against the murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shargh, Vahid Heravi; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Iman; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-06-06

    First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites with or without adjuvants have reached phase 3 trial and failed to show enough efficacy mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (PS CpG) or nuclease-sensitive phosphodiester CpG ODNs (PO CpG) were used as adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Due to the susceptibility of PO CpG to nuclease degradation, an efficient liposomal delivery system was developed to protect them from degradation. 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as a cationic lipid was used because of its unique adjuvanticity and electrostatic interaction with negatively charged CpG ODNs. To evaluate the role of liposomal formulation in protection rate and enhanced immune response, BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with liposomal soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) co-incorporated with PO CpG (Lip-SLA-PO CpG), Lip-SLA-PS CpG, SLA+PO CpG, SLA+PS CpG, SLA or buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge, parasite loads, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and the IgG subtypes were evaluated. The groups of mice receiving Lip-SLA-PO CpG or Lip-SLA-PS CpG showed a high protection rate compared with the control groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in immune response generation between mice immunized with PS CpG and the group receiving PO CpG when incorporated into the liposomes. The results suggested that liposomal form of PO CpG might be used instead of PS CpG in future vaccine formulations as an efficient adjuvant.

  12. Video Recording in Ethnographic SLA Research: Some Issues of Validity in Data Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews visual anthropology, educational anthropology, and ethnographic filmmaking literature on questions concerning collection of valid video recorded data in the second language context. Examines h an interaction should be video recorded, who should be video recorded, and who should do the recording. Examples illustrate the kinds of research…

  13. Prevalence of M75 Streptococcus pyogenes Strains Harboring slaA Gene in Patients Affected by Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tordini, Giacinta; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; De Luca, Andrea; Ruggiero, Paolo; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2017-01-01

    Recently we reported an association between pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and Group A streptococcus (GAS) sub-acute chronic tonsil colonization. We showed that GAS may contribute to tonsil hyperplasia via a streptolysin O (SLO)-dependent cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) production, which can trigger T and B cell proliferation. In the present study, we characterized the GAS strains isolated from pediatric OSAS patients in comparison with a panel of age and sex matched GAS strains unrelated to OSAS, but isolated in the same area and during the same period ranging from 2009 to 2013. We found that slaA gene, previously reported to be associated to CysLTs production pathway, was significantly associated to GAS OSAS strains. Moreover, the most numerous group (32%) of the GAS OSAS strains belonged to M75 type, and 6 out of 7 of these strains harbored the slaA gene. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) experiments demonstrated that the clone emm75/ST49/ smeZ, slaA was associated to OSAS cases. In conclusion, we found an association between slaA gene and the GAS OSAS strains, and we showed that the clone emm75/ST49 harboring genes smeZ and slaA was exclusively isolated from patients affected by OSAS, thus suggesting that this genotype might be associated to the pathogenesis of OSAS, although further studies are needed to elucidate the possible role of SlaA in tonsil hypertrophy development. PMID:28293224

  14. Assessment of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  16. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  17. Acquisition of a Nanoindenter for Studying Mechanical Properties of Nanomaterials, Supporting Future Research in Robotics and Enhancing Research-Related Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-14

    from the start of the project to the date of this printing . List the papers, including journal references, in the following categories: 10.00 12/06...Number: ...... ...... Scientific Progress FINAL REPORT ============ I. All items of equipment actually acquired MFP- 3D -SA AFM-based...Nanoindenter and Components: $168,521.00 Manufacture: Asylum Research, an Oxford Instruments Company. Santa Barbara, CA 93117, United States. MFP- 3D -SA

  18. Comparison of removal torques between laser-treated and SLA-treated implant surfaces in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-Seok; Li, Lin-Jie

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare removal torques and surface topography between laser treated and sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) treated implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Laser-treated implants (experimental group) and SLA-treated implants (control group) 8 mm in length and 3.4 mm in diameter were inserted into both sides of the tibiae of 12 rabbits. Surface analysis was accomplished using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; Hitachi S-4800; Japan) under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Surface components were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Rabbits were sacrificed after a 6-week healing period. The removal torque was measured using the MGT-12 digital torque meter (Mark-10 Co., Copiague, NY, USA). RESULTS In the experimental group, the surface analysis showed uniform porous structures under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Pore sizes in the experimental group were 20-40 mm and consisted of numerous small pores, whereas pore sizes in the control group were 0.5-2.0 mm. EDS analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. The mean removal torque in the laser-treated and the SLA-treated implant groups were 79.4 Ncm (SD = 20.4; range 34.6-104.3 Ncm) and 52.7 Ncm (SD = 17.2; range 18.7-73.8 Ncm), respectively. The removal torque in the laser-treated surface implant group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=.004). CONCLUSION In this study, removal torque values were significantly higher for laser-treated surface implants than for SLA-treated surface implants. PMID:25177474

  19. Defense Acquisition Workforce Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Acquisition , Technology & Logistics, 2000). PBSA “involves acquisition strategies, methods, and techniques that describe and communicate measurable ... Acquisition Workforce Distribution of DoD Workforce and Attrition Rates Seperation Rates Distribution of Workforce by Years of Service 38 A final issue... measurement . 14 Provisions within the IMPROVE Act demand greater accountability from the acquisition workforce, improve financial management, expand

  20. Basic Skills Resource Center. A Review of the Literature on the Acquisition of English as a Second Language: The Potential for Research Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    This limited focus has left the more pervasive concerns in language acquisition such as syntax and sociolinguistic competence largely uninvestigated...used to develop linguistic and sociolinguistic competence include mnemonics (Levin, 1981), transfer (Corder, 1981; Ventriglia, 1982), and self

  1. Models, Attention, and Awareness in SLA: A Response to Simard and Wong's "Alertness, Orientation, and Detection: The Conceptualization of Attentional Functions in SLA."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Reacts to a response by Simard and Wong (2001) to Tomlin and Villa's (1994) discussion of a model that postulates a fine-grained analysis of attention for second language acquisition and the prediction that awareness at the level of detection is not crucial for further processing of second or foreign language data. (Author/VWL)

  2. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): A Low-Risk, Cost-Effective Array Offering Wing-Level Performance of 180 W/KG and 300 W/M2 at 300 VDC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, Mark; Piszczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.; Lyons, Valerie J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At IECEC 2001, our team presented a paper on the new stretched lens array (SLA), including its evolution from the successful SCARLET array on the NASA/JPL Deep Space 1 spacecraft. Since that conference, the SLA team has made significant advances in the SLA technology, including component-level improvements, array-level optimization, space environment exposure testing, and prototype hardware fabrication and evaluation. This paper describes the evolved version of the SLA, highlighting recent improvements in the lens, solar cell, photovoltaic receiver, rigid panel structure, and complete solar array wing.

  3. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  4. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  5. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  6. Studies in First and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; Hastings, Ashley J., Ed.

    Papers presented at a 1977 symposium on language acquisition held at the University of Wisconsin/Milwaukee are included. Contents are as follows: "Assumptions, Methods and Goals in Language Acquisition Research" (Sheldon); "The Mother as LAD: Interaction between Order and Frequency of Parental Input and Child Production"…

  7. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  8. Genetic study of interactions between the cytoskeletal assembly protein sla1 and prion-forming domain of the release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, P A; Newnam, G P; Steenbergen, J N; Chernoff, Y O

    1999-01-01

    Striking similarities between cytoskeletal assembly and the "nucleated polymerization" model of prion propagation suggest that similar or overlapping sets of proteins may assist in both processes. We show that the C-terminal domain of the yeast cytoskeletal assembly protein Sla1 (Sla1C) specifically interacts with the N-terminal prion-forming domain (Sup35N) of the yeast release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in the two-hybrid system. Sla1C and several other Sup35N-interacting proteins also exhibit two-hybrid interactions with the poly-Gln-expanded N-proximal fragment of human huntingtin, which promotes Huntington disease-associated aggregation. The Sup35N-Sla1C interaction is inhibited by Sup35N alterations that make Sup35 unable to propagate the [PSI(+)] state and by the absence of the chaperone protein Hsp104, which is essential for [PSI] propagation. In a Sla1(-) background, [PSI] curing by dimethylsulfoxide or excess Hsp104 is increased, while translational readthrough and de novo [PSI] formation induced by excess Sup35 or Sup35N are decreased. These data show that, in agreement with the proposed function of Sla1 during cytoskeletal formation, Sla1 assists in [PSI] formation and propagation, but is not required for these processes. Sla1(-) strains are sensitive to some translational inhibitors, and some sup35 mutants, obtained in a Sla1(-) background, are sensitive to Sla1, suggesting that the interaction between Sla1 and Sup35 proteins may play a role in the normal function of the translational apparatus. We hypothesize that Sup35N is involved in regulatory interactions with intracellular structural networks, and [PSI] prion may be formed as a by-product of this process. PMID:10471702

  9. Crystal structure of swine major histocompatibility complex class I SLA-1 0401 and identification of 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nianzhi; Qi, Jianxun; Feng, Sijia; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaocheng; Chen, Rong; Li, Qirun; Chen, Zhaosan; Li, Xiaoying; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

    2011-11-01

    The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1 0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV(NW9); NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (Ebola(AY9); ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide-SLA-1 0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1 0401 is that Arg(156) has a "one-ballot veto" function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIV(NW9) and Ebola(AY9) bind SLA-1 0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are "featured" peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1 0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A 0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1 0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide-SLA-1 0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation.

  10. Crystal Structure of Swine Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I SLA-1*0401 and Identification of 2009 Pandemic Swine-Origin Influenza A H1N1 Virus Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope Peptides ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nianzhi; Qi, Jianxun; Feng, Sijia; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaocheng; Chen, Rong; Li, Qirun; Chen, Zhaosan; Li, Xiaoying; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1*0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIVNW9; NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (EbolaAY9; ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide–SLA-1*0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1*0401 is that Arg156 has a “one-ballot veto” function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIVNW9 and EbolaAY9 bind SLA-1*0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are “featured” peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1*0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A*0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1*0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide–SLA-1*0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation. PMID:21900158

  11. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for Collection and Conversion of Infrared Laser Light: 45% Efficiency Demonstrated for Near-Term 800 W/kg Space Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark; Howell, Joe; Fikes, John; Fork, Richard; Phillips, Dane; Aiken, Dan; McDanal, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 2% years, our team has been developing a unique photovoltaic concentrator array for collection and conversion of infrared laser light. This laser-receiving array has evolved from the solar-receiving Stretched Lens Array (SLA). The laser-receiving version of SLA is being developed for space power applications when or where sunlight is not available (e.g., the eternally dark lunar polar craters). The laser-receiving SLA can efficiently collect and convert beamed laser power from orbiting spacecraft or other sources (e.g., solar-powered lasers on the permanently illuminated ridges of lunar polar craters). A dual-use version of SLA can produce power from sunlight during sunlit portions of the mission, and from beamed laser light during dark portions of the mission. SLA minimizes the cost and mass of photovoltaic cells by using gossamer-like Fresnel lenses to capture and focus incoming light (solar or laser) by a factor of 8.5X, thereby providing a cost-effective, ultra-light space power system.

  12. Response Latency as a Function of Training Method, Information Level, Acquisition, and Overlearning. Learning Research and Development Center Reprint Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Wilson A.; Glaser, Robert.

    Response latency was studied as a measure of associative strength or degree of learning and possible basis for instructional decision making in computer-assisted instruction. Latency was investigated in a paired-associate task as a function of training procedure and information transmission requirements during acquisition and overlearning. The…

  13. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, K.L.

    THIS PAPER IS A STUDY OF A CHILD'S EARLIEST PRETRANSFORMATIONAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES. A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS (1) THAT SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION OCCURS THROUGH THE TESTING OF HYPOTHESES REFLECTING THE INITIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACQUISITION MECHANISM AND THE LANGUAGE DATA TO WHICH THE CHILD IS EXPOSED, AND (2) THAT…

  14. Observations of the Earth's topography from the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA): Laser-pulse Echo-recovery measurements of terrestrial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J.; Bufton, J.; Blair, J.; Harding, D.; Luthcke, S.; Frawley, J.; Rowlands, D.

    Meter-precision topographic measurements of a diverse suite of terrestrial surfaces have been accomplished from Earth orbit using the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) instrument flown aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in January of 1996. Over three million laser pulses were directed at the Earth by the SLA system during its ∼ 80 hours of nadir-pointing operation at an orbital altitude of 305 km (+/- 10 km). Approximately 90% of these pulses resulted in valid range measurements to ocean, land, and cloud features. Of those which were fired at land targets, 57% resulted in valid surface ranges, the remainder being cloud tops, false alarms, or missed shots. The SLA incorporated an electronic echo-recovery system into a pulsed, time-of-flight laser altimeter instrument in order to capture and characterize the vertical structure within each 100 m diameter surface footprint. The echoes recorded by SLA demonstrate aspects of the vertical structure of the nearly ubiquitous vegetation cover on the planet, as well as sensitivity to local slopes, surface reflectivity, and vertical ruggedness. With a vertical resolution of 0.75 m and horizontal sampling at 0.7 km length scales, SLA provides a new form of high vertical accuracy topographic data for studying problems related to the dynamics of the Earth's surface. Assessment of the error budget associated with the SLA experiment suggests that ∼2.8 m (RMS) precision was achieved for ranging measurements to oceanic surfaces, for which there are over 700,000 examples. With the availability of a precision radial orbit and post-flight Shuttleattitude information, a mid-latitude (+ 28.5° to -28.5°), georeferenced database of topographic ground control point elevations has been achieved using SLA data, consisting of ∼ 344,000 land measurements. Each of these measurements is geolocated to within 1-2 SLA footprints (100-200 m) on the Earth's surface, with vertical errors that approach the limits of resolution (0.75 m) of the

  15. Near Real Time SLA and SST products during 2-years of MFS pilot project: processing, analysis of the variability and of the coupled patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Larnicol, G.; D'Acunzo, E.; Santoleri, R.; Marullo, S.; Le Traon, P. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Near Real Time (NRT) operational products developed from satellite data (AVHRR, Topex/Poseidon, Ers-2) in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project (MFSPP, autumn 1998-autumn 2000) are described and compared to delayed time products over the Mediterranean sea. MFSPP SLA and SST data are then discussed in the general context of the Mediterranean circulation, showing the interannual variability of the fields and identifying recurrent or anomalous features at mesoscale/sub-basin scales. Finally, MFSPP data are used to test, on a regional (Mediterranean) context, a multivariate method to identify coupled modes of variability, consisting in the SVD of the covariance between SST and SLA.

  16. The Acquisition of Joint Programs: The Implications of Interdependencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    in the acquisition arena and the search is on for a clearer understand- ing of how various acquisition strategies either support or impede joint...quarterly Selected Acquisition Reports (SAR) and Defense Acquisition Executive Summary reports. The follow- ing section provides the findings of the...experience and knowledge towards earn- ing his doctorate in Public Administra- tion starting in the fall of 2007. SEI Research Affiliate 2316 Chapel

  17. Immunoliposomes containing Soluble Leishmania Antigens (SLA) as a novel antigen delivery system in murine model of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Faeze; Talesh, Ghazal Alipour; Parooie, Maryam; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Saberi, Zahra; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Development of new generation of vaccines against leishmaniasis requires adjuvants to elicit the type and intensity of immune response needed for protection. The coupling of target-specific antibodies to the liposomal surface to create immunoliposomes has appeared as a promising way in achieving a liposome active targeting. In this study, immunoliposomes were prepared by grafting non-immune mouse IgG onto the liposomal surface. The influence of active targeted immunoliposomes on the type and intensity of generated immune response against Leishmania was then investigated and compared with that of liposomes and control groups which received either SLA or HEPES buffer alone. All formulations contained SLA and were used to immunize the mice in the left hind footpad three times in 3-week intervals. Evaluation of lesion development and parasite burden in the foot and spleen after challenge with Leishmania major, evaluation of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ), and titration of IgG isotypes were carried out to assess the type of generated immune response and the extent of protection. The results indicated that liposomes might be effective adjuvant systems to induce protection against L. major challenge in BALB/c mice, but stronger cell mediated immune responses were induced when immunoliposomes were utilized. Thus, immune modulation using immunoliposomes might be a practical approach to improve the immunization against L. major.

  18. Ultrasonic Scanner Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    2002-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of ULTRASONIC SCANNER CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION. Rather than try to summarize all this research I have enclosed research papers and reports which were completed with the hnding provided by the grant. These papers and reports are listed below:

  19. Second-Language Acquisition and Foreign Lanquage Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Rosario C., Ed.

    This volume presents two papers synthesizing current research in second-language acquisition and reactions to these papers from the point of view of researchers in foreign language learning. The introduction by Rosario Gingras provides an overview of the research in second-language acquisition as it applies to foreign language teaching. A…

  20. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    acquisition and development of software-reliant systems . Novak has more than 25 years of experience with real-time embedded software product development...Problem Poor acquisition program performance inhibits military performance by depriving the warfighter of critical systems to achieve mission...objectives • Delayed systems withhold needed capabilities • Wasted resources drain funding needed for new systems Acquisitions fail for both technical

  1. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  2. Counterpoint Piece: The Case for Variety in Corrective Feedback Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy; Ranta, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Goo and Mackey (this issue) outline several apparent design flaws in studies that have compared the impact of different types of corrective feedback (CF). Furthermore, they argue that SLA researchers should stop comparing recasts to other types of CF because they are inherently different kinds of phenomena. Our response to their article addresses…

  3. A Functional Characterisation of a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species: Growth and Nitrogen Acquisition Rates, Leaf Traits and Ecological Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species. PMID:25789485

  4. A functional characterisation of a wide range of cover crop species: growth and nitrogen acquisition rates, leaf traits and ecological strategies.

    PubMed

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species.

  5. The Effectiveness of Corrective Feedback in SLA: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shaofeng

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of corrective feedback in second language acquisition. By establishing a different set of inclusion/exclusion criteria than previous meta-analyses and performing a series of methodological moves, it is intended to be an update and complement to previous meta-analyses. Altogether 33 primary…

  6. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  7. SLA 2002: Putting Knowledge to Work. Papers Presented at the Special Libraries Association Conference (Los Angeles, California, June 9-12, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the following papers from the 2002 Special Libraries Association Conference: (1) "Competencies for the 21st Century Information Professional: Translating the SLA Competencies into Business Competencies" (Sue Henczel); (2) "Compromises along the Way: Balancing Speed to Market with Sustainability While…

  8. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  9. Dynamic FLIR Target Acquisition. Phase I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-02

    conditions set up by the operational utilization of FLIR systems, will allow the data generated on perceptual processes to be directly applied to...variables affecting acquisition, and the definition of a study program on basic perceptual processes which have application to the operational world... processes under these conditions of image dynamics, it was decided to concentrate the research efforts on studying the observer’s target acquisition

  10. Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong

    2013-01-01

    A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

  11. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  12. A Risk Management Model for the Federal Acquisition Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    risk management in the acquisition process. This research explains the Federal Acquisition Process and each of the 78 tasks to be completed by the CO...and examines the concepts of risk and risk management . This research culminates in the development of a model that identifies prevalent risks in the...contracting professionals is used to gather opinions, ideas, and practical applications of risk management in the acquisition process, and refine the model

  13. The Role of the Second Language in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Germanic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardel, Camilla; Falk, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe…

  14. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3×10(16) ions/cm(2) was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity.

  15. Language Acquisition: The Age Factor. Multilingual Matters 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, David

    This book provides an overview of research and thinking on age-related dimensions of language acquisition, intended for students, researchers, and educators with some experience in linguistics and applied linguistics. The first chapter introduces the variety of issues associated with age and language acquisition. Chapter 2 examines the evidence…

  16. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  17. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  18. Acquisitions for Area Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert D.

    1970-01-01

    Common policies, practices, and trends in acquisitions in the complex field of area studies, including the weak structure of the book trade, the lack of bibliographic control, and current cooperative efforts. (JS)

  19. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  20. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  1. Army Acquisition Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    analysis on the lessons learned. Acquisition Lessons Learned Portal (ALLP) and Lessons Learned Collection CAALL has established the ALLP as the...PEOs) and their project offices, as well as the broader acquisition community. The primary function of the portal is to allow easy input and retrieval...download- able form that can be completed offline and then uploaded to the portal . This allows the form to be filled out and distrib- uted through

  2. Acquisition Support Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    Feedback from direct support and community learning improves ASP practices & SEI technologies © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 6 ASP...the acquisition infrastructure throughout the DoD, Federal Agency and other acquirer communities . © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 3...Seminars • Tailored learning via Acquisition Communities of Practice • Army, Navy, Air Force, Defense and Intel Agencies • Software Collaborator’s Network

  3. 15 CFR 921.31 - Supplemental acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Reserve Designation and Subsequent Operation § 921.31 Supplemental acquisition and development awards. After National Estuarine Research Reserve designation, and as specified in the approved management plan, a coastal...

  4. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC).

  5. A Study of the Constraints Affecting Resumption in Turkish and Mandarin Chinese Relative Clauses, and the Transfer of These Constraints to English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitz, John

    2012-01-01

    Odlin (2003) observes that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the importance of L1 transfer in second-language acquisition (henceforth SLA). To test whether L1 transfer is a significant factor in SLA of English relative clauses (RCs), an English-language acceptability judgment task (AJT) with a four-point rating scale was…

  6. Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPS) and Major Automated Information System (MAIS) Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-05

    ACQUISITION STRATEGY 32 C2.8. SUPPORT STRATEGY 34 DoD 5000.2-R, April 5, 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 C2.9. BUSINESS STRATEGY 40 C3. CHAPTER 3 TEST AND...AL1.1.110. PA&E Program Analysis and Evaluation AL1.1.111. PAUC Program Acquisition Unit Cost AL1.1.112. PBBE Performance-Based Business Environment...Simulation-Based Acquisition AL1.1.132. SBIR Small Business Innovation Research AL1.1.133. SEI Software Engineering Institute AL1.1.134. SSAA System

  7. SLA-PGN-primed dendritic cell-based vaccination induces Th17-mediated protective immunity against experimental visceral leishmaniasis: a crucial role of PKCβ.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Junaid Jibran; Majumder, Saikat; Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Biswas, Satabdi; Parveen, Shabina; Majumdar, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Emergence of drug resistance during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major obstacle imposed during successful therapy. An effective vaccine strategy against this disease is therefore necessary. Our present study exploited the SLA (soluble leishmanial antigen) and PGN (peptidoglycan) stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) as a suitable vaccine candidate during experimental VL. SLA-PGN-stimulated DCs showed a significant decrease in hepatic and splenic parasite burden, which were associated with increased production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-17. Elevated level of IL-17 was accompanied with the generation of more Th17 cells. Further studies on DC provided the evidence that these SLA-PGN-stimulated DCs played an important role in providing necessary cytokines such as IL-6, IL-23 and TGF-β for the generation of Th17 cells. Interestingly, inhibition of protein kinase C-β (PKCβ) in DCs led to decreased production of Th17 polarizing cytokines, causing reduction of the Th17 population size. Altogether, our finding highlighted the important role of DC-based PKCβ in regulation of the function and generation of Th17 cells.

  8. The yeast dynamin-related GTPase Vps1p functions in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton via interaction with Sla1p.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianwen; Cai, Mingjie

    2004-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the function of the large GTPase dynamin in endocytosis in mammalian cells may comprise a modulation of actin cytoskeleton. The role of dynamin in actin cytoskeleton organization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has remained undefined. In this report, we found that one of the yeast dynamin-related proteins, Vps1p, is required for normal actin cytoskeleton organization. At both permissive and non-permissive temperatures, the vps1 mutants exhibited various degrees of phenotypes commonly associated with actin cytoskeleton defects: depolarized and aggregated actin structures, hypersensitivity to the actin cytoskeleton toxin latrunculin-A, randomized bud site selection and chitin deposition, and impaired efficiency in the internalization of membrane receptors. Over-expression of the GTPase mutants of vps1 also led to actin abnormalities. Consistent with these actin-related defects, Vps1p was found to interact physically, and partially co-localize, with the actin-regulatory protein Sla1p. The normal cellular localization of Sla1p required Vps1p and could be altered by over-expression of a region of Vps1p that was involved in the interaction with Sla1p. The same region also promoted mis-sorting of the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y upon over-expression. These findings suggest that the functions of the dynamin-related protein Vps1p in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and vacuolar protein sorting are probably related to each other.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General report on audit of acquisition of scientific research at Ames Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Department awards grants and cooperative agreements and contracts to sponsor scientific research at colleges and universities. Compared to cooperative agreements, contracts, particularly management and operating contracts, often impose duplicative and/or unnecessary administrative and compliance burdens on a college or university. Since the Department bears the cost of those additional burdens, the authors audited the cost effectiveness of the Department`s sponsorship of research at Ames Laboratory under a management and operating contract with Iowa State University. The research conducted at Ames is of the type that Congress intended to be sponsored by assistance agreements, rather than contracts. Moreover, they found the contract for managing and operating Ames Laboratory caused micromanagement and unnecessary costs, most of which could have been avoided with a cooperative agreement. However, after completion of the field work, the Department announced initiatives to reduce or eliminate some compliance and oversight burdens associated with management and operating contracts, but did not opt to sponsor research under cooperative agreements. The authors are unable to determine the monetary impact because the initiatives have not been implemented. Nevertheless, they continue to believe that cooperative agreements, having fewer unique bureaucratic requirements, offer the potential for reducing administrative overhead.

  10. Effects of High Fidelity Simulation on Knowledge Acquisition, Self-Confidence, and Satisfaction with Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using the Solomon-Four Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Rachel Mattson

    2013-01-01

    High Fidelity Simulation is a teaching strategy that is becoming well-entrenched in the world of nursing education and is rapidly expanding due to the challenges and demands of the health care environment. The problem addressed in this study is the conflicting research results regarding the effectiveness of HFS for students' knowledge acquisition…

  11. Scientifically Based Reading Research Strategies in the Preschool Classroom: An Investigation into Quality Early Childhood Reading Practices and Literacy Acquisition in One Northern Michigan Early Reading First Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Yvonne Donohoe

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research has emerged to support the concept of providing early childhood education as a quality investment for our children, unlocking early potential and creating lasting impacts related to school success and beyond. Several landmark studies indicated that a quality education targeted at our youngest learners has the ability to…

  12. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3) The... time during the acquisition process if cancellation is determined to be in the best interest of...

  13. 75 FR 14057 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40: Introduction, Small Entity... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense...

  14. The telecommunications and data acquisition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implemention, and operations is documented. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  15. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are presented. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and its associated Ground Communications Facility (GCF) in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations.

  16. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This publication, one of a series formerly titled The Deep Space Network (DSN) Progress Report, documents DSN progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  17. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operation is discussed. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  18. Linguistic Perspectives from Spanish Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark, Ed.; Koike, Dale April, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers reporting research on Spanish second language learning include: "Discourse Features of Spanish Oral Production at the Novice Level" (Rebecca Jo Bearden); "A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency" (Dale April Koike, Fanny Hinojosa); "Acquisition of Spanish Definite Articles by English-Speaking Learners of…

  19. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This publication, one of a series formerly titled The Deep Space Network Progress Report, documents DSN progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. In addition, developments in earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  20. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is documented. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  1. A Connectionist Approach to Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizardi, Luis O.

    This paper attempts to synthesize how biological-nativist theories emerged as a response to logical and empirical flaws in behaviorist learning theories, and how in turn, recent research findings in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience and Connectionist models of language acquisition are questioning the present innatist framework. As a result of…

  2. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  3. Extensive Reading in Enhancing Lexical Chunks Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereyra, Nilsa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…

  4. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. Activities of the Deep Space Network and its associated Ground Communications Facility in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations are reported in space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy.

  5. Assess the Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    The Critical Period Hypothesis aims to investigate the reason for significant difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition. Over the past few decades, researchers carried out a series of studies to test the validity of the hypothesis. Although there were certain limitations in these studies, most of their results…

  6. 15 CFR 921.21 - Initial acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section; (3) Preparing the final management plan; and (4) Initial management costs, e.g., for... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Acquisition, Development and Preparation of the Final Management Plan § 921.21 Initial acquisition and development...

  7. 15 CFR 921.21 - Initial acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) of this section; (3) Preparing the final management plan; and (4) Initial management costs, e.g., for... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Acquisition, Development and Preparation of the Final Management Plan § 921.21 Initial acquisition and development...

  8. 15 CFR 921.21 - Initial acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) of this section; (3) Preparing the final management plan; and (4) Initial management costs, e.g., for... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Acquisition, Development and Preparation of the Final Management Plan § 921.21 Initial acquisition and development...

  9. 15 CFR 921.21 - Initial acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) of this section; (3) Preparing the final management plan; and (4) Initial management costs, e.g., for... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Acquisition, Development and Preparation of the Final Management Plan § 921.21 Initial acquisition and development...

  10. 15 CFR 921.21 - Initial acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) of this section; (3) Preparing the final management plan; and (4) Initial management costs, e.g., for... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Acquisition, Development and Preparation of the Final Management Plan § 921.21 Initial acquisition and development...

  11. Can Production Precede Comprehension in L2 Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila

    2015-01-01

    So far, the comprehension and production language modes have typically been studied separately in generative second language acquisition research, with the focus shifting from one to the other. This article revisits the asymmetric relationship between comprehension and production by examining the second language (L2) acquisition of the noun phrase…

  12. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  13. Automated Acquisitions in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Results from a 1978 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey on planning for, and conversion to automated acquisitions systems, and the effects of such systems on library operations and use, organization and staffing, and management information, indicate that 38 of 77 responding libraries had instituted some kind of automated acquisitions.…

  14. Foreign-Grammar Acquisition while Watching Subtitled Television Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lommel, Sven; Laenen, Annouschka; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2006-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that watching a subtitled foreign movie (i.e. foreign language in the soundtrack and native language in the subtitles) leads to considerable foreign-language vocabulary acquisition; however, acquisition of the grammatical rules has failed to emerge. Aims: The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the…

  15. The Ubiquity of Frequency Effects in First Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Kidd, Evan; Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    This review article presents evidence for the claim that frequency effects are pervasive in children's first language acquisition, and hence constitute a phenomenon that any successful account must explain. The article is organized around four key domains of research: children's acquisition of single words, inflectional morphology, simple…

  16. First Language/Second Language: Acquisition, Writing, and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Diana M.

    Scholars from varied disciplines--first language (L1) acquisition, second language (L2) acquisition, composition research, and cognitive psychology--have found a high level of permeability in their search for more effective classroom models of writing instruction. Among the most influential work in this area has been Stephen Krashen's theory of L2…

  17. Language Acquisition and the Neurosciences: Towards a More Integrative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bob; Schumann, John

    1992-01-01

    Selected neurobiological terminology is clarified in this paper, which also highlights neurobiological information relevant to language acquisition research, discusses the neural plausibility of cognitive models of language acquisition, and illustrates the difference between abstract characterizations of learner behavior and mechanisms that cause…

  18. Coordinating Council. Seventh Meeting: Acquisitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The theme for this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting was Acquisitions. In addition to NASA and the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) presentations, the report contains fairly lengthy visuals about acquisitions at the Defense Technical Information Center. CASI's acquisitions program and CASI's proactive acquisitions activity were described. There was a presentation on the document evaluation process at CASI. A talk about open literature scope and coverage at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics was also given. An overview of the STI Program's Acquisitions Experts Committee was given next. Finally acquisitions initiatives of the NASA STI program were presented.

  19. Data Acquisition Backend

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr., Charles L.; Ezell, N. Dianne Bull; Roberts, Michael

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to summarize the development and testing of the data acquisition module portion of the Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) system developed at ORNL. The proposed system has been presented in an earlier report [1]. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [2].

  20. Surviving mergers & acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Diane L

    2002-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are never easy to implement. The health care landscape is a minefield of failed mergers and uneasy alliances generating great turmoil and pain. But some mergers have been successful, creating health systems that benefit the communities they serve. Five prominent leaders offer their advice on minimizing the difficulties of M&As.

  1. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  2. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  3. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  4. Image Acquisition Context

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, W. Dean; Bray, Bruce; Brown, Nicolas; Mori, Angelo Rossi; Spackman, Kent A.; Golichowski, Alan; Jones, Robert H.; Korman, Louis; Dove, Brent; Hildebrand, Lloyd; Berg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To support clinically relevant indexing of biomedical images and image-related information based on the attributes of image acquisition procedures and the judgments (observations) expressed by observers in the process of image interpretation. Design: The authors introduce the notion of “image acquisition context,” the set of attributes that describe image acquisition procedures, and present a standards-based strategy for utilizing the attributes of image acquisition context as indexing and retrieval keys for digital image libraries. Methods: The authors' indexing strategy is based on an interdependent message/terminology architecture that combines the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard, the SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine) vocabulary, and the SNOMED DICOM microglossary. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary provides context-dependent mapping of terminology to DICOM data elements. Results: The capability of embedding standard coded descriptors in DICOM image headers and image-interpretation reports improves the potential for selective retrieval of image-related information. This favorably affects information management in digital libraries. PMID:9925229

  5. Development of a rapid in vitro protein refolding assay which discriminates between peptide-bound and peptide-free forms of recombinant porcine major histocompatibility class I complex (SLA-I).

    PubMed

    Oleksiewicz, M B; Kristensen, B; Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A-S; Nielsen, J

    2002-05-01

    The extracellular domains of swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I, major histocompatibility complex protein class I) were cloned and sequenced for two haplotypes (H4 and H7) which do not share any alleles based on serological typing, and which are the most important in Danish farmed pigs. The extracellular domain of SLA-I was connected to porcine beta2 microglobulin by glycine-rich linkers. The engineered single-chain proteins, consisting of fused SLA-I and beta2 microglobulin, were overexpressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Also, variants were made of the single-chain proteins, by linking them through glycine-rich linkers to peptides representing T-cell epitopes from classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). An in vitro refold assay was developed, using a monoclonal anti-SLA antibody (PT85A) to gauge refolding. The single best-defined, SLA-I restricted porcine CD8(+) T-cell epitope currently known is a 9-residue peptide from the polyprotein of CSFV (J. Gen. Virol. 76 (1995) 3039). Based on results with the CSFV epitope and two porcine haplotypes (H4 and H7), the in vitro refold assay appeared able to discriminate between peptide-free and peptide-occupied forms of SLA-I. It remains to be seen whether the rapid and technically very simple in vitro refold assay described here will prove generally applicable for the screening of virus-derived peptides for SLA-I binding.

  6. Production of a Locus- and Allele-Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Characterization of SLA-1*0401 mRNA and Protein Expression Levels in MHC-Defined Microminipigs

    PubMed Central

    Kametani, Yoshie; Ohshima, Shino; Miyamoto, Asuka; Shigenari, Atsuko; Takasu, Masaki; Imaeda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Masafumi; Shiina, Takashi; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Hirayama, Noriaki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ando, Asako

    2016-01-01

    The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents self-developed peptides to specific T cells to induce cytotoxity against infection. The MHC proteins are encoded by multiple loci that express numerous alleles to preserve the variability of the antigen-presenting ability in each species. The mechanism regulating MHC mRNA and protein expression at each locus is difficult to analyze because of the structural and sequence similarities between alleles. In this study, we examined the correlation between the mRNA and surface protein expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-1*0401 after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by Staphylococcus aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We prepared a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a domain composed of Y102, L103 and L109 in the α2 domain. The Hp-16.0 haplotype swine possess only SLA-1*0401, which has the mAb epitope, while other haplotypes possess 0 to 3 SLA classical class I loci with the mAb epitopes. When PBMCs from SLA-1*0401 homozygous pigs were stimulated, the SLA-1*0401 mRNA expression level increased until 24 hrs and decreased at 48 hrs. The kinetics of the interferon regulatory transcription factor-1 (IRF-1) mRNA level were similar to those of the SLA-1*0401 mRNA. However, the surface protein expression level continued to increase until 72 hrs. Similar results were observed in the Hp-10.0 pigs with three mAb epitopes. These results suggest that TSST-1 stimulation induced both mRNA and surface protein expression of class I SLA in the swine PBMCs differentially and that the surface protein level was sustained independently of mRNA regulation. PMID:27760184

  7. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... applications to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. This document makes corrections to the...

  8. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 7.401 Section 7.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations....

  9. Preschool foundations of early reading acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Rvachew, Susan; Savage, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes research on the skills and processes associated with word and text reading acquisition in preschool children and during the first years of school. The aim is to provide an overview that gives a sense of the important milestones in language and literacy acquisition. A comparison of children’s performances against these milestones may thus guide effective intervention for health professionals, parents and other professionals. Also summarized and explored are the role of speech perception and production, grammatical and syntactic skills, and metacognitive skills, including phonological awareness. PMID:19030330

  10. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. Gruppeorganiseret og selvstyret fremmedsprogstilegnelse. Et undervisningseksperiment pa RUC [and] Skolesprogene. Om fremmedsprogenes status og funktion i gymnasiet. ROLIG Papir 22 (Group Organized and Self Managed Foreign Language Acquisition. A Research Project at RUC [and] School Languages. On the Status and Function of Foreign Languages in Secondary Schools. ROLIG Paper 22).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    Two articles highlight different issues on foreign language learning and instruction in Denmark. The first article describes a research project at Roskilde University Center that focuses on group organized and self managed foreign language acquisition. The idea for the project came about as a result of concern over problems related to foreign…

  12. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations. (a...) Financial and operating advantages of alternative types and makes of equipment. (3) Cumulative...

  13. Implicit learning and acquisition of music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly.

  14. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any DoD component sponsoring research involving human subjects— (a) Is responsible for oversight...

  15. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any DoD component sponsoring research involving human subjects— (a) Is responsible for oversight...

  16. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any DoD component sponsoring research involving human subjects— (a) Is responsible for oversight...

  17. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any DoD component sponsoring research involving human subjects— (a) Is responsible for oversight...

  18. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any DoD component sponsoring research involving human subjects— (a) Is responsible for oversight...

  19. Library Research and Statistics. Research on Libraries and Librarianship in 2001; Number of Libraries in the United States and Canada; Highlights of NCES Surveys; Library Acquisition Expenditures, 2000-2001: U.S. Public, Academic, Special, and Government Libraries; LJ Budget Report: The New Wariness; Price Indexes for Public and Academic Libraries; Library Buildings 2001: Keep on Constructin'; Expenditures for Resources in School Library Media Centers, 1999-2000: New Money, Old Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Miller, Marilyn L.; Schontz, Marilyn L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents eight articles that discuss research on libraries and librarianship; number of libraries in the U.S. and Canada; highlights of NCES (National Center for Education Statistics) surveys; library acquisition expenditures; budgets; price indexes; library buildings construction; and expenditures for school library media center resources. (LRW)

  20. Managing Radical Change in Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    some process innovation, acquisition continues to plague the Defense System and constrain battlefield mobility, information, and speed. Following the... System & Acquisition Management,Monterey,CA,93943 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Mark Nissen is Assistant Professor of Information Systems and Acquisition Management at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. He

  1. Locative Terms and Warlpiri Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language specific properties in the acquisition of locative expressions. Some of the claims from literature on the acquisition of locative expressions are discussed and data from the acquisition of Warlpiri are presented and discussed in terms of these claims. (Author/CB)

  2. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  3. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  4. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  5. Materiel Acquisition Handbook. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-26

    Development Center director appoints the IPR chairman. The TPR chairman assenibles the IPR agenda pacl.age, staffs it within AMC, dIevelops the AL.C postion...to execute MADP agenda package recommendations. PPBES reviews must ensure recent materiel acquisition decisions are reflected and * supported. CHANGES... agenda packages must contain a notice that the package includes proposed changes to the requirements document, with supporting rationale as appropriate

  6. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Buying Power 1.0 Figure 2. Better Buying Power 2.0 Figure 3. Better Buying Power 3.0 179 Figure 4. Contract Cost Growth on Highest Risk (Major...Crossing Critical Congressional Cost- Growth Thresholds iv Getting Defense Acquisition Right 67 96 97 184 Table 1. Root...Causes for Major Programs Crossing Critical Con­ gressional Cost- Growth Thresholds or Other Major Problems 185 Figure 8. Planned Length of Active

  7. Defense ADP Acquisition Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    management issues. It also provides broad insight into the nature and causes of problems in the ADP acquisition process and offers several strategies ... strategy planning fails to provide the appropriate mission perspective. Curfent top-down strategic planning does not pro- vide the necessary guidance for the...recommendations presented here are more appropriately labeled strategies for change, rather than specific actions for improvement. (1) There Must Be a

  8. Data acquisition with Masscomp

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.J.

    1988-12-31

    Applications and products for data acquisition and control are abundant. Systems and boards for Apple or IBM products collect, store, and manipulate data up to rates in the 10`s of thousands. These systems may suit your application; if so, it would be good for you to obtain one of these systems. However, if you need speed in the hundreds of thousands of samples per second and you want to store, process, and display data in real time, data acquisition becomes much more complex. Operating system code has to be sufficient to handle the load. A company known as Massachusetts Computer Corporation has modified UNIX operating system code to allow real time data acquisition and control. They call this operating system Real Time Unix, or RTU. They have built a family of computer systems around this operating system with specialized hardware to handle multiple processes and quick communications, which a real time operating system needs to function. This paper covers the basics of an application using a Masscomp 5520 computer. The application is for the KYLE Project Cold Tests in SRL. KYLE is a classified weapons program. The data flow from source to Masscomp, the generic features of Masscomp systems, and the specifics of the Masscomp computer related to this application will be presented.

  9. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  10. The Value of SCMC in SLA: Comments on Lin, Huang & Liou (2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods are often used to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments across studies. However, we are often unaware of how a meta-analysis can provide value to researchers and practitioners. This paper offers a brief commentary on a meta-analysis conducted by Lin, Huang and Liou (2013) in LLT, providing further statistical…

  11. The Relationship between Aptitude and Working Memory: An Instructed SLA Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalçin, Sebnem; Çeçen, Sevdeger; Erçetin, Gülcan

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) as a key component of language aptitude has become a topical issue, with some going so far as to argue that WM can replace language aptitude. Research that specifically investigates the relationship between WM and language aptitude is rather limited. This study explores the determinants of language aptitude, with a focus on WM…

  12. Asthma in changing environments - chances and challenges of international research collaborations between South America and Europe - study protocol and description of the data acquisition of a case-control-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asthma in children is an emerging public health problem in South America. So far, research in this part of the world is limited. This paper presents the methodology and description of the data acquisition of an asthma case-control study conducted in the Central South of Chile. Methods/Design A hospital-based case-control study about asthma (188 cases, 294 controls) in children (6-15 years) was carried out in Valdivia, Chile between November 2008 and December 2009. Data on asthma risk factors were collected by computer-assisted personal interview using validated questions from e.g. ISAAC phase II. Data on household dust exposure (endotoxin, allergen analyses), skin prick tests to most common allergens, stool examinations for parasitic infection, and blood samples (total IgE, genetics) were collected. Additionally, 492 randomly chosen blood donors were recruited in order to assess allele frequencies in the population of Valdivia. Discussion Overall 1,173 participants were contacted. Response was 82% among cases and 65% among controls. Atopic sensitization was high (78% among cases, 47% among controls). Cases had a statistically significantly (p < .0001) increased self-reported 12-month prevalence of symptoms of rhinitis (82% vs. 51%) and wheeze (68% vs. 16%). The study is well placed to address current hypotheses about asthma and its correlates in the South American context. Results of this study might help develop novel, innovative and individualized prevention strategies in countries in transition with respect to the South American context. PMID:20718949

  13. Ability-Growth Interactions in the Acquisition of a Complex Skill: A Spline-Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuelke, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    While investigating how the relationship of abilities and skill acquisition changes over the course of training, researchers have unknowingly obscured the very relationship they sought to examine by relying on analyses that focused on attainment and did not model acquisition. Although more recent approaches have modeled acquisition independently…

  14. Achieving Better Buying Power through Acquisition of Open Architecture Software Systems for Web and Mobile Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-22

    SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Achieving Better Buying Power through Acquisition of Open Architecture Software Systems for Web and Mobile Devices 22...ACQUISITION RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Achieving Better Buying Power through Acquisition of Open Architecture Software Systems for Web ...Policy Naval Postgraduate School Executive Summary Many people within large enterprises rely on up to four Web -based or mobile devices for their

  15. Language Acquisition and the Second/Foreign Language Classroom. Anthology Series 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadtono, Eugenius, Ed.

    A selection of papers on second language learning includes: "Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom" (David Nunan); "A Place for Second Language Acquisition in Teacher Development and in Teacher Education Programmes" (Rod Bolitho); "Dimensions in the Acquisition of Oral Language" (Martin Bygate, Don Porter); "The Learner's…

  16. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  17. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  18. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  19. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  20. How Foreign are ’Foreign’ Speech Sounds? Implications for Speech Recognition and Speech Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Language Speech Sounds. In James, A. & J. Leather (eds.). Sound Patterns in Second Language Acquisition , Foris Publications. ... language acquisition (SLA) research. The This paper reports results from a production study which phonological processes involved when approaching a...se *Telia Research AB, Room B324, S-12386 Farsta, Sweden ABSTRACT field of phonological acquisition, and more specifically, into the field of second

  1. Contractor relationships and inter-organizational strategies in NASA's R and D acquisition process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiltinan, J.

    1976-01-01

    Interorganizational analysis of NASA's acquisition process for research and development systems is discussed. The importance of understanding the contractor environment, constraints, and motives in selecting an acquisition strategy is demonstrated. By articulating clear project goals, by utilizing information about the contractor and his needs at each stage in the acquisition process, and by thorough analysis of the inter-organizational relationship, improved selection of acquisition strategies and business practices is possible.

  2. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, David T.

    1979-01-01

    A data acquisition system capable of resolving transient pulses in the subnanosecond range. A pulse in an information carrying medium such as light is transmitted through means which disperse the pulse, such as a fiber optic light guide which time-stretches optical pulses by chromatic dispersion. This time-stretched pulse is used as a sampling pulse and is modulated by the signal to be recorded. The modulated pulse may be further time-stretched prior to being recorded. The recorded modulated pulse is unfolded to derive the transient signal by utilizing the relationship of the time-stretching that occurred in the original pulse.

  3. Acquisition-Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Don E.; Vann, A. Vernon; Jones, Richard H.; Rew, William E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA Acquisition Management Subsystem (AMS) program integrated NASA-wide standard automated-procurement-system program developed in 1985. Designed to provide each NASA installation with procurement data-base concept with on-line terminals for managing, tracking, reporting, and controlling contractual actions and associated procurement data. Subsystem provides control, status, and reporting for various procurement areas. Purpose of standardization is to decrease costs of procurement and operation of automatic data processing; increases procurement productivity; furnishes accurate, on-line management information and improves customer support. Written in the ADABAS NATURAL.

  4. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  5. HYPERCP data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Luebke, W.R.; Chakravorty, A.

    1997-12-31

    For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data axe acquired from the front-end digitization systems at {approx} 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of {approx} 1 {mu}s per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with {approx_lt}30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates.

  6. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation: A Research Agenda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    presentation • A small country perspective • The swinging pendulum : “From preparedness to deployment to preparedness?” – or “from national defence to PSOs to...history of war The swinging (political) pendulum • A. 200 years of peace – Standing in preparedness • B. Post Cold War – Deployed on PSOs • C

  7. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation - A Research Agenda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    especially in the area of logistics; revolutionary development in the area of Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ); emergence of novel...Hence, new types of missions have to be provided for. As a consequence, new military concepts have to be considered; new ICT is being implemented; and...area of ICT ;  Emergence of new CBPs in business logistics; 2 PPC is the umbrella term used by the

  8. Data-acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned.

  9. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  10. Age of Acquisition and Imageability: A Cross-Task Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetz, Danielle M.; Yates, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has reported an imageability effect on visual word recognition. Words that are high in imageability are recognised more rapidly than are those lower in imageability. However, later researchers argued that imageability was confounded with age of acquisition. In the current research, these two factors were manipulated in a…

  11. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Developments in programs in telecommunication and data acquisition in space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground based radio astronomy are reported. Activities of the deep space network (DSN) and its associated ground communication facility (GCF) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and in operations are outlined. The publication of reports on the application of radio interferometry at microwave frequencies for geodynamic measurements are presented. Implementation and operation for searching the microwave spectrum is reported.

  12. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other agencies through NASA.

  13. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other agencies through NASA.

  14. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA.

  15. The infant's developmental path in phonological acquisition.

    PubMed

    Swingley, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Research on how language acquisition begins has been fragmented both in terms of scientific communities and in terms of the phenomena that are taken to characterize developmental progress. In her article, Marilyn Vihman argues for an integrative approach that takes the child's efforts at speech production as primary, and notes that infants' knowledge of how words sound may accrue over a protracted period developmentally. Here, I briefly discuss how reconceptualization of the process can help integrate perspectives previously at odds.

  16. RDT&E/Acquisition Management Guide. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    personnel and trainirig; logistics; ship maintenance/ 3.4.4 Readiness and Sustainability Appraisal. modernization ; physical security; and research, This...Executive Ao Operational Availability DAE/PE Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE) AP Acquis.tion Plan Procurement Executive (PE) APL Applied Physics ... modernization and known as the Packard Commission (see El. 1). upgrading of the nuclear and chemical weapons Principal functions and responsibilities of the

  17. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MRT4, GRC5, SLA2 and THS1 genes result in defects in mRNA turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, D; Belk, J P; Jacobson, A

    1999-01-01

    In a screen for factors involved in mRNA turnover, four temperature-sensitive yeast strains (ts1189, ts942, ts817, and ts1100) exhibited defects in the decay of several mRNAs. Complementation of the growth and mRNA decay defects, and genetic experiments, revealed that ts1189 is mutated in the previously unknown MRT4 gene, ts942 is mutated in GRC5 (encoding the L9 ribosomal protein), ts817 contains a mutation in SLA2 (encoding a membrane protein), and ts1100 contains a mutation in THS1 (encoding the threonyl-tRNA synthetase). Three of the four mutants (mrt4, grc5, and sla2) were not defective in protein synthesis, suggesting that these strains contain mutations in factors that may play a specific role in mRNA decay. The mRNA stabilization observed in the ths1 strain, however, could be due to the significant drop in translation observed in this mutant at 37 degrees. While the three interesting mutants appear to encode novel mRNA decay factors, at least one could be linked to a previously characterized mRNA decay pathway. The growth and mRNA decay defects of ts942 (grc5) cells were suppressed by overexpression of the NMD3 gene, encoding a protein shown to participate in a two-hybrid interaction with the nonsense-mediated decay protein Upf1p. PMID:10471698

  18. 78 FR 32214 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... of regulations governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land...'s decision to take the land into trust. The Supreme Court has since held that the Quiet Title...

  19. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land in trust. The public... articulating the process for issuing decisions to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. The...

  20. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  1. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  2. DSPS in data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-12-31

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance.

  3. Deepwater seismic acquisition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.

    1996-09-01

    Although truly new technology is not required for successful acquisition of seismic data in deep Gulf of Mexico waters, it is helpful to review some basic aspects of these seismic surveys. Additionally, such surveys are likely to see early use of some emerging new technology which can improve data quality. Because such items as depth imaging, borehole seismic, 4-D and marine 3-component recording were mentioned in the May 1996 issue of World Oil, they are not discussed again here. However, these technologies will also play some role in the deepwater seismic activities. What is covered in this paper are some new considerations for: (1) longer data records needed in deeper water, (2) some pros and cons of very long steamer use, and (3) two new commercial systems for quantifying data quality.

  4. Conceptualizing and Measuring the Impact of Contextual Factors in Instructed SLA--The Role of Language Prominence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex; Schoonjans, Els; Janssens, Sonja; Welcomme, Aurelie; Schoonheere, Ellen; Pierrard, Michel; Ellen Schoonheere1, Michel Pierrard

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigates the impact of learning context on the L2 acquisition of English by German-speaking pupils. Learning context is operationalized in terms of the relative "prominence" of the L1 and the L2 within the learning context, which in turn reflects the "functional roles" and "domains of use" allocated to the L2…

  5. Universals of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Works on second language acquisition theories, affective variables and communicative competence, and interlanguage were compiled as a result of a symposium on universals of second language acquisition at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The papers include: "On the Variability of Interlangauge Systems" (Elaine Tarone); "Memory, Learning, and…

  6. Microform Developments Related to Acquisitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on significant developments of the recent past in acquisition and control of library microforms. Highlights include reference works essential to acquisition of microforms and microform equipment, microform utilization in libraries, bibliographic control, computer output microfilm (COM) and the Copyright Law, technological developments,…

  7. Markedness and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Byeon, Ja

    1999-01-01

    Discusses whether markedness is at work in second-language acquisition in the same way it is in first-language acquisition when Korean speakers learn English as a second language and English speakers learn Korean as a second language. Results are discussed in terms of no access to universal grammar, partial access to universal grammar, and access…

  8. STIS CCD Target Acquisition Workout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Ron

    1997-07-01

    Following update of STIS flight acquisitions and acq/peak software, redemonstrate the capability to perform point source and peakup acquisitions of a bright target. Then demonstrate ability of the STIS FSW to locate targets more typical of those in the science program.

  9. 48 CFR 207.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 207.401 Section 207.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Acquisition considerations. If the equipment will be leased for more than 60 days, the requiring activity...

  10. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the...

  11. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that...

  12. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition planning. 873.105 Section 873.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT... planning. (a) Acquisition planning is an indispensable component of the total acquisition process. (b)...

  13. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.105 Acquisition... the acquisition of health-care resources consisting of commercial services or the use of medical equipment or space, where the acquisition is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold...

  14. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead...

  15. Digging Out the Root Cause: Nunn-McCurdy Breaches in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    Acquisition Programs Bill Shelton, RAND Corporation Irv Blickstein, RAND Corporation Jerry Sollinger, RAND Corporation Charles Nemfakos, RAND...to become a research sponsor, or to print additional copies of reports, please contact any of the staff listed on the Acquisition Research Program...Out the Root Cause: Nunn-McCurdy Breaches in Major Defense Acquisition Programs Bill Shelton, RAND Corporation Irv Blickstein, RAND Corporation

  16. A Digital Data Acquisition for VANDLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurga, Miguel; Paulauskas, S.; Grzywacz, Robert; Miller, David; Padgett, Stephen; Tan, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Neutron energy measurements can be achieved using time-of-flight (ToF) techniques. A digital data acquisition system was developed for reliable ToF measurements with subnanosecond timing resolution based on digitizers with 10 ns and 4 ns sampling periods using pulse shape analysis algorithms. A validation procedure was developed to confirm the reliability. The response of the algorithm to photomultiplier signals was studied using a specially designed experimental system based on fast plastic scintillators. The presented developments enabled digital data acquisition systems to instrument the recently developed Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low-Energy (VANDLE). This research was sponsored in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FG52-08NA28552 and the Office of Nuclear Physics.

  17. Psychological tools for knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueter, Henry H.; Olson, Judith Reitman

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition is said to be the biggest bottleneck in the development of expert systems. The problem is getting the knowledge out of the expert's head and into a computer. In cognitive psychology, characterizing metal structures and why experts are good at what they do is an important research area. Is there some way that the tools that psychologists have developed to uncover mental structure can be used to benefit knowledge engineers? We think that the way to find out is to browse through the psychologist's toolbox to see what there is in it that might be of use to knowledge engineers. Expert system developers have relied on two standard methods for extracting knowledge from the expert: (1) the knowledge engineer engages in an intense bout of interviews with the expert or experts, or (2) the knowledge engineer becomes an expert himself, relying on introspection to uncover the basis of his own expertise. Unfortunately, these techniques have the difficulty that often the expert himself isn't consciously aware of the basis of his expertise. If the expert himself isn't conscious of how he solves problems, introspection is useless. Cognitive psychology has faced similar problems for many years and has developed exploratory methods that can be used to discover cognitive structure from simple data.

  18. Colony image acquisition and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. X.

    2007-12-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.

  19. Metrical Phonology and SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

  20. Ocean Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.; Cavanaugh, J.; Smith, J.; Esaias, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) is a low cost instrument with potential commercial application. It is easily mounted on a small aircraft and flown over the coastal zone ocean to remotely measure sea surface temperature and three channels of ocean color information. From this data, chlorophyll levels can be derived for use by ocean scientists, fisheries, and environmental offices. Data can be transmitted to shipboard for real-time use with sea truth measurements, ocean productivity estimates and fishing fleet direction. The aircraft portion of the system has two primary instruments: an IR radiometer to measure sea surface temperature and a three channel visible spectro-radiometer for 460, 490, and 520 nm wavelength measurements from which chlorophyll concentration can be derived. The aircraft package contains a LORAN-C unit for aircraft location information, clock, on-board data processor and formatter, digital data storage, packet radio terminal controller, and radio transceiver for data transmission to a ship. The shipboard package contains a transceiver, packet terminal controller, data processing and storage capability, and printer. Both raw data and chlorophyll concentrations are available for real-time analysis.