Science.gov

Sample records for acquisition trade agreements

  1. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Regulation (FAR) to incorporate increased thresholds for application of the World Trade Organization... application of the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as... Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General...

  2. 78 FR 37695 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... 9000-AM43 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama AGENCY: Department of... interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Panama Trade...-discriminatory treatment of eligible products and services from Panama. DATES: Effective Date: June 21, 2013....

  3. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 RIN 0750-AH69 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY:...

  4. 78 FR 80379 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80379-80381] [FR Doc No: 2013-31151] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... (78 FR 76700), the United States Trade Representative published new procurement thresholds. The United... and Remedies (DEC 2013) * * * * * [FR Doc. 2013-31151 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  5. 78 FR 79620 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 79620-79621] [FR Doc No: 2013-30792] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisitions Regulations System... FR 76700, December 18, 2013): Supply contract Construction Trade agreement (equal to or contract... removing ``$202,000'' and adding ``$204,000'' in its place. [FR Doc. 2013-30792 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45...

  6. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY: Defense... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive the applicability of the Buy American... United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive the applicability of the...

  7. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the...

  8. 78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032) AGENCY: Defense... (DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement... products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective date: March 28, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  9. 75 FR 66680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-New Thresholds (DFARS 2009-D040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--New Thresholds (DFARS 2009-D040) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...) to incorporate increased thresholds for application of the World Trade Organization Government... change. II. Executive Order 12866 This rule was not subject to Office of Management and Budget...

  10. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  11. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  12. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  13. 77 FR 56739 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration... Korea Free Trade Agreement. For DoD, it only covers the non-defense items listed at Defense Federal...] [Pages 56739-56740] [FR Doc No: 2012-22574] [[Page 56739

  14. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements....

  15. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements....

  16. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements....

  17. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements....

  18. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements....

  19. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Required To Implement Statutes or Executive Orders--Commercial Items (MAR 2012) * * * * * (b) * * * -- (27) 52.222-19, Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (MAR 2012) (E.O. 13126). * * * * * -- (41) 52.225-5, Trade Agreements (MAR 2012) (19 U.S.C. 2501, et seq., 19 U.S.C. 3301 note). * * * * *...

  20. 77 FR 30359 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... (ii), by removing ``Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding ``Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica'' in its place; and 0 b. In paragraph (a) in the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country'' removing ``Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica'' and...

  1. 77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... same as for the Bahrain FTA, Dominican Republic-Central American FTA, Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and... Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding the words ``Chile, Colombia, Costa... (b) by removing from the table heading ``CAFTA-DR, Chile'' and adding ``CAFTA- DR, Colombia...

  2. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  3. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  4. 48 CFR 18.118 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.118 Section 18.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.118 Trade...

  5. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  6. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  7. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  8. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  9. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  10. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  11. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  12. 78 FR 18344 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0130, Buy American Act--Free Trade...

  13. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Peru AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), ] and National... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective... rule added Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country''. The...

  14. 75 FR 38689 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-040, Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Administration (NASA). ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Civilian Agency Acquisition.... Regulatory Flexibility Act The Councils do not expect this interim rule to have a significant economic impact... expected impact of this rule on small entities. The Councils will also consider comments from...

  15. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...). Therefore, new alternates are required for the provision and clause for acquisition of photovoltaic devices....225-7017, Photovoltaic Devices (MAY 2012) (Section 846 of Pub. L. 111-383). (13)(i) ------ 252.225... adding, in alphabetical order, the definition of ``Korean photovoltaic device''; 0 d....

  16. 77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... EXECUTIVE ORDERS--COMMERCIAL ITEMS (MAR 2012)''. 2. On page 12936 in Sec. 52.222-19, in the second column...--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (MAR 2012) (E.O. 13126).'' 3. On page 12936 in Sec. 52.225-5, in the... Agreements (MAR 2012) (19 U.S.C. 2501, et seq., 19 U.S.C. 3301 note).'' 4. On Page 12936 in Sec. 52.213-4,...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7020 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade Agreements... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7020 Trade Agreements Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(5), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate (JAN 2005) (a) Definitions....

  18. 48 CFR 52.225-6 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade Agreements....225-6 Trade Agreements Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(c)(2), insert the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate (JAN 2005) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  19. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... national interest waiver under 19 U.S.C. 2512(b)(2) is granted on a case-by-case basis. Except as delegated in paragraphs (c)(i)(A) and (B) of this section, submit any request for a national interest waiver to... Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  20. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... national interest waiver under 19 U.S.C. 2512(b)(2) is granted on a case-by-case basis. Except as delegated in paragraphs (c)(i)(A) and (B) of this section, submit any request for a national interest waiver to... Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  1. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement on Trade in... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.407 Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Under the authority of Section 303 of the Trade Agreements Act, the U.S. Trade Representative...

  2. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement on Trade in... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.407 Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Under the authority of Section 303 of the Trade Agreements Act, the U.S. Trade Representative...

  3. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement on Trade in... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.407 Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Under the authority of Section 303 of the Trade Agreements Act, the U.S. Trade Representative...

  4. 48 CFR 225.401-70 - End products subject to trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Metalworking machinery 35 Service and trade equipment 36 Special industry machinery (except 3690) 37... trade agreements. 225.401-70 Section 225.401-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION...

  5. 48 CFR 225.401-70 - End products subject to trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Metalworking machinery 35 Service and trade equipment 36 Special industry machinery (except 3690) 37... trade agreements. 225.401-70 Section 225.401-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION...

  6. 48 CFR 225.401-70 - End products subject to trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Metalworking machinery 35 Service and trade equipment 36 Special industry machinery (except 3690) 37... trade agreements. 225.401-70 Section 225.401-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION...

  7. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION 3025.7002-3 Specific application of trade agreements. (a) For covered items entitled to non-discriminatory treatment under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO GPA), or any... trade agreements. 3025.7002-3 Section 3025.7002-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  8. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION 3025.7002-3 Specific application of trade agreements. (a) For covered items entitled to non-discriminatory treatment under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO GPA), or any... trade agreements. 3025.7002-3 Section 3025.7002-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  9. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION 3025.7002-3 Specific application of trade agreements. (a) For covered items entitled to non-discriminatory treatment under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO GPA), or any... trade agreements. 3025.7002-3 Section 3025.7002-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  10. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION 3025.7002-3 Specific application of trade agreements. (a) For covered items entitled to non-discriminatory treatment under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO GPA), or any... trade agreements. 3025.7002-3 Section 3025.7002-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  11. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  12. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  13. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  14. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  15. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  16. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance....

  17. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance....

  18. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance....

  19. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance....

  20. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance....

  1. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific application of trade agreements. 3025.7002-3 Section 3025.7002-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-discriminatory treatment under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO GPA), or...

  2. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  3. Trade agreements on know-how discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A.

    1983-10-01

    Under the conditions of the present scientific and technical revolution the thirst for possessing advanced production experience and knowledge has led to a significant increase in the number of agreements on the transmission of know-how as compared with license agreements, whose objects are patented scientific and technical achievements. As a rule, the All-Union Litsenzintorg Association concludes agreements on the transmission of know-how in the USSR. A number of other foreign trade associations also conclude such agreements. In accordance with their charters operations are performed for the transmission of know-how, when the latter form an integral part of agreements on the export or import of goods based on the products list of these associations. An analysis of the terms of agreements on the transmission of know-how shows that the rights and duties of the parties to the agreement coincide in large measure with the rights and duties of the licensor and licensee according to the license agreement.

  4. 48 CFR 18.119 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Use of patented technology under the North American Free...

  5. 48 CFR 18.120 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.120 Section 18.120 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.120 Use of patented technology under the North American Free...

  6. 48 CFR 18.120 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.120 Section 18.120 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.120 Use of patented technology under the North American Free...

  7. 48 CFR 18.120 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.120 Section 18.120 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.120 Use of patented technology under the North American Free...

  8. 48 CFR 18.120 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.120 Section 18.120 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.120 Use of patented technology under the North American Free...

  9. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Final rule effective November 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER... Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please refer to that document for further background information....

  10. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective October 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER..., the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement...

  11. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  12. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  13. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  14. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  15. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  16. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES... partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

  17. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    arguments related to the pending proposed U.S.- Colombia Free Trade Agreement (CFTA): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or...trade agreement (CFTA) argue against it on three points: (1) the high rate of violence against trade unionists in Colombia; (2) the lack of adequate...punishment for the perpetrators of that violence ; and (3) weak Colombian enforcement of International Labor Organization (ILO) core labor standards and

  18. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-21

    willing to locate in a former banana plantation. Two initiatives were controversial: a six-year moratorium on collective bargaining rights and the... Sheets : U.S.-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement, April 19, 2011. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement Congressional Research Service 31

  19. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 30, 2007, the United States and the Republic of Korea...

  20. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Final rule...

  1. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2010) (a) Definitions....

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As...

  4. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal...

  5. Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Follow-on bilateral agreements with the United States brought investment and swift growth in exports. When Carlos Salinas de Gortari was elected...Free Trade Agreement (FTA), 5 President Salinas , joined Canadian Prime Minister Mulroney and U.S. President Bush in formally proposing the North...Mexico had completed negotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. President Bush, Prime Minister Mulroney, and President Salinas signed the

  6. Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-23

    Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP). The TPP is a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. The TPP, which...3 Obama Administration Policy and Recent Developments ............................................................5 Economic ...current and prospective members the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP). The TPP is a free trade agreement that includes nations

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (MAY 2012)...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (NOV 2009)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (JUN 2011)...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (OCT 2013)...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (AUG 2013)...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  13. The North American Free Trade Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-25

    that would have continued 3 Carlos Salinas de Gortari , Interview, NEW PERSPECTIVES QUARTERLY, Winter 1991, pp. 4-9. 4 Various authors presenting...vast US and Canadian consumer markets and to attract badly needed foreign capital. In this sense, the agreement is the crown jewel in President Salinas ...President Salinas recognizes the importance of the agreement as a means to consolidate gains made to date, thereby providing the "permanence

  14. EPA/USDA Water Quality Trading Partnership Agreement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The document details an agreement between the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency on collaboration efforts to establish viable water quality credit trading markets.

  15. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  16. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  17. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    PubMed

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition.

  18. Documents about Measurement Competency Under Acquisition Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These document convey EPA policy requiring that organizations generating environmental data under Agency-funded acquisitions submit documentation of their competency, which may include participation in applicable certification and/or accreditation programs

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(9)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (NOV...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (JUN...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(9)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (NOV...

  2. The Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-26

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Proposed U.S.- Malaysia Free Trade 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...This report addresses the proposed U.S.- Malaysia free trade agreement (FTA). It provides an...legislative procedures to be followed if the proposed FTA is presented to Congress for approval. The proposed U.S.- Malaysia FTA is of interest to Congress

  3. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines. PMID:16710551

  4. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-05-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

  5. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...This rule amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations on an interim basis to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of...

  6. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...This rule amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations on an interim basis to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of...

  7. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trading partner agreements. 162.915 Section 162.915 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... abuse. (b) Add any data elements or segments to the maximum defined data set. (c) Use any code or...

  8. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trading partner agreements. 162.915 Section 162.915 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED...) Add any data elements or segments to the maximum defined data set. (c) Use any code or data...

  9. The U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    compulsory adherence to select multilateral environmental agreements, new pharmaceutical intellectual property rights provisions intended to facilitate...intellectual property rights chapters would be made pursuant to future congressional input. These changes were agreed to and the FTA was signed in time to...FTA also consummates understandings on telecommunications, services trade, government procurement, investment, and intellectual property rights . The

  10. The North American Free Trade Agreement. Headline Series No. 299.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, George W.

    This document discusses the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as a debate over the wisdom of opening the southern United States border to the free flow of goods and services between the United States and Mexico. The book is divided into six chapters. The first is a basic introduction to the development of the idea of a free trade…

  11. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28214] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... existing information collection: 1651-0117. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of...

  12. Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2014-06-01

    New trade agreements affect how governments can regulate for health both within health systems and in addressing health protection, promotion and social determinants of health in other policies. It is essential that those responsible for health understand the impacts of these trade negotiations and agreements on policy space for health at a national and local level. While we know more about implications from negotiations concerning intellectual property rights and trade in goods, this paper provides a screening checklist for less-discussed areas of domestic regulation, services, investment and government procurement. As implications are likely to differ on the basis of the organization and structures of national health systems and policy priorities, the emphasis is on finding out key provisions as well as on how exemptions and exclusions can be used to ensure policy space for health.

  13. Health services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services.

    PubMed Central

    Adlung, R.; Carzaniga, A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for trade in health services has expanded rapidly in recent decades. More efficient communication systems have helped to reduce distance-related barriers to trade; rising incomes and enhanced information have increased the mobility of patients; and internal cost pressures have led various governments to consider possibilities for increased private participation. As yet, however, health services have played only a modest role in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is possible that Members of the World Trade Organization have been discouraged from undertaking access commitments by the novelty of the Agreement, coordination problems between relevant agencies, widespread inexperience in concepts of services trade, a traditionally strong degree of government involvement in the health sector, and concerns about basic quality and social objectives. However, more than five years have passed since GATS entered into force, allowing hesitant administrations to familiarize themselves with its main elements and its operation in practice. The present paper is intended to contribute to this process. It provides an overview of the basic structure of GATS and of the patterns of current commitments in health services and of limitations frequently used in this context. The concluding section discusses possibilities of pursuing basic policy objectives in a more open environment and indicates issues that may have to be dealt with in current negotiations on services. PMID:11357215

  14. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  15. Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-10

    may lead to an eventual FTA. The United States has signed Trade and Investment Framework Agreements with Ghana, Liberia, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria ... Leather -28,829 -9,515 -24,769 -10,068 (...continued) 29 The estimates for job losses in...1,314 Mining -3,251 27 504 -44 Food -3,452 353 -756 542 Textiles -6,028 -109 810 -32 Apparel -16,804 -211 619 -129 Leather 620 202 207 -8 Wood

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American-Free Trade... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American—Free Trade...

  17. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NAFTA applies to this acquisition. Unless otherwise specified, NAFTA applies to all items in the... Contracting Officer has determined that NAFTA and the Israeli Trade Act apply to this acquisition....

  18. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contracting Officer has determined that NAFTA applies to this acquisition. Unless otherwise specified, NAFTA... determined that NAFTA and the Israeli Trade Act apply to this acquisition. Unless otherwise specified,...

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determined that NAFTA applies to this acquisition. Unless otherwise specified, NAFTA applies to all items in... determined that NAFTA and the Israeli Trade Act apply to this acquisition. Unless otherwise specified,...

  20. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    PubMed

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  1. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican Nursing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses’ security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services. PMID:20595330

  2. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) final injury determination in Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Mexico (NAFTA...

  3. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) final injury determination in Large Diameter Line Pipe and Tube from Mexico (NAFTA Secretariat...

  4. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20230, (202)...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUN 2012) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2012) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2012) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  8. The high price of "free" trade: U.S. trade agreements and access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Gleeson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The United States' pursuit of increasingly TRIPS-Plus levels of intellectual property protection for medicines in bilateral and regional trade agreements is well recognized. Less so, however, are U.S. efforts through these agreements to influence and constrain the pharmaceutical coverage programs of its trading partners. Although arguably unsuccessful in the Australia- U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), the U.S. nevertheless succeeded in its bilateral FTA with South Korea (KORUS) in establishing prescriptive provisions pertaining to the operation of coverage and reimbursement programs for medicines and medical devices, which have the potential to adversely impact future access in that country. More recently, draft texts leaked from the current Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations show that U.S. objectives include not only AUSFTA-Plus and KORUS-Plus IP provisions but also ambitious inroads into the domestic health programs of its TPPA partners. This highlights the apparent conflict between trade goals - pursued through multilateral legal instruments to promote economic "health"- and public health objectives, such as the development of treatments for neglected diseases, the pursuit of efficiency and equity in priority setting, and the procurement of medicines at prices that reflect their therapeutic value and facilitate affordable access.

  9. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda.

  10. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda. PMID:26270018

  11. 76 FR 71617 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    .../trade-topics/services-investment/telecom-e-commerce/section-1377-review for recent reviews); and (7... ] opportunities for telecommunications products or services, e.g., the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services... telecommunications trade agreements with the United States other than FTAs, e.g., Mutual Recognition Agreements...

  12. 77 FR 37948 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Lists for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Settlement Lists for U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) With Australia, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, and... United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement (``USAFTA''), the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion... agreement in force between the United States and Colombia (the ``Parties''). The CTPA sets out...

  13. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  14. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  15. 77 FR 14265 - To Implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation 1. On June 30, 2007, the United States entered into the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (the ``Agreement''). The Congress approved the Agreement in section 101(a) of the United States-Korea Free...

  16. Improving regulatory capacity to manage risks associated with trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Walls, Helen L; Smith, Richard D; Drahos, Peter

    2015-03-21

    Modern trade negotiations have delivered a plethora of bilateral and regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs), which involve considerable risk to public health, thus placing demands on governments to strengthen administrative regulatory capacities in regard to the negotiation, implementation and on-going management of PTAs. In terms of risk management, the administrative regulatory capacity requisite for appropriate negotiation of PTAs is different to that for the implementation or on-going management of PTAs, but at all stages the capacity needed is expensive, skill-intensive and requires considerable infrastructure, which smaller and poorer states especially struggle to find. It is also a task generally underestimated. If states do not find ways to increase their capacities then PTAs are likely to become much greater drivers of health inequities. Developing countries especially struggle to find this capacity. In this article we set out the importance of administrative regulatory capacity and coordination to manage the risks to public health associated with PTAs, and suggest ways countries can improve their capacity.

  17. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA... to the Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel dated...: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution...

  18. 77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota... Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates. DATES: Effective Date: October 31... United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement (the ``Agreement''). Congress approved the Agreement...

  19. A Marxist Analysis of the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikowski, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). There are many WTO Agreements, but TRIPS is likely to have significant implications for areas such as information, education and libraries. The article provides an overview of TRIPS in general. Various intellectual…

  20. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20230,...

  1. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section..., NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20230, (202)...

  2. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section...: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution...

  3. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th...

  4. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section...: Valerie Dees, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution...

  5. The General Agreement on Trade in Services and Educational Services: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangas, Jim; Calderon, Angel J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the implications for higher education of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) negotiations towards the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS; see http://www.wto.org/) from the perspective of Australian educational institutions.

  6. 76 FR 13436 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... of the Secretary National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements...), as amended (5 U.S.C. App. 2), the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), and the Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements, the Secretary of Labor has determined that...

  7. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Settlement Rosters for the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA''), the Dominican Republic-Central America.... These agreements include the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic-Central... (202) 395-7305 (for the U.S.-Chile FTA and U.S.-Peru TPA), Leigh Bacon, Associate General Counsel,...

  8. Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Potential Employment Effects: Analysis of Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-11

    do not make any assumptions concerning potential changes in the exchange rate of the dollar as a result of a trade agreement. In addition, the...of a comprehensive multilateral agreement. In addition, such models do not account for changes in exchange rates , since such effects were considered...to be neutral in a large multi-country trade agreement. Movements in exchange rates , however, could have an important impact on trade patterns that

  9. Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. is rapidly negotiating a raft of new regional and bilateral trade agreements. The most recent agreement, with Central America, [was to] come before Congress for a vote as soon as late May. There is growing concern that international trade agreements threaten health care and the health of communities. . . . The Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), developed by CPATH which planned a campaign around the issues, analyzes key provisions from the perspective of public health and suggests reframing the trade debate in terms of health.

  10. Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-15

    International Trade. Cambridge, The MIT Press, 1990; Romer , Paul M. Capital, Labor, and Productivity. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics...1990. Washington, the Brookings Institution. p. 337-367; Romer , Paul M. Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy...trade encourages specialization, the production gains from trade also mean that consumers are offered CRS-11 19 Krugman, Paul R. Rethinking

  11. 75 FR 54352 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ..., Australia, Morocco, Bahrain, Jordan, Oman, and Peru. These agreements involve collection of data elements... agreements with Oman and Peru. Type of Review: Extension (with change). Affected Public:...

  12. [The Free Trade Agreement and environmental health in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Peña, P; Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, C; Zurutuza-Fernández, R; Jiménez-González, O

    1993-01-01

    This work offers an overview of the state of the art and future state of environmental health in our country from a viewpoint of the impact of the commercial opening established in the Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the USA, and Canada. In the first section of this work, we analyze the expected economic changes resulting from the implementation of the FTA and foretells the way in which those changes will influence the present environmental and epidemiologic profiles of this country in the medium and long term. The main changes predicted by the analysis are, in the epidemiologic context, the acceleration of the transference of occupational, consumption, environmental and population risks, characteristic of industrialized countries, to the country's polarized epidemiologic profile; and, in the environmental context, a transition consisting of a broadening and composition of the spectrum of pollutants, including and important lagging of bacteriologic control. The second section offers an analysis of the predicted response capacity facing the new environmental risk dynamics in the country, encompassing regulation, normativeness and enforcement of environmental and consumer protection, as well as obstacles found in health services to the implementation of surveillance, detection and treatment of health damages caused by environmental factors. The analysis of the organized social response to these problems discloses a relative flexibility of the normativeness and enforcement functions in comparison with our northern neighbors, a paramount factor for the possible transference of environmental risks, as well as the informational and research deficiency about environmental issues, basic elements for sustaining environmental health in the country, aiming at speeding up the development and transference of technologies for prevention, detection and management of environmental risks in the country, drawing upon the systematization of our experience and that of our neighbors

  13. 78 FR 19566 - Request for Comments Concerning Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...) notified Congress of the Administration's intention to enter into negotiations for a Transatlantic Trade... substantial increase in transatlantic trade and investment. Before initiating such negotiations, the Trade Act.... Background The decision to launch negotiations for a TTIP agreement follows a year-long exploratory...

  14. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Decision of Panel. SUMMARY: On December 5, 2012, the NAFTA Chapter...

  15. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-CDA-2008-1904-02. The binational panel affirmed in part and...

  16. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Decision of Panel. SUMMARY: On August 6, 2013, the NAFTA Chapter...

  17. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Injury to a U.S. Industry (NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2008-1904-04). The binational...

  18. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... from Mexico, NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2007-1904-01. The binational panel affirmed in...

  19. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Decision of Panel. SUMMARY: On October 25, 2012, the NAFTA Chapter...

  20. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Mexico (NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2008-1904-04). The binational panel upheld in part...

  1. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Mexico, NAFTA Secretariat File Number USA-MEX-2007-1904-01. The binational panel affirmed in part...

  2. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... requirement concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Duty Deferral. This request for comment... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: NAFTA Duty Deferral. OMB Number: 1651-0071. Abstract: The provisions of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by...

  3. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  4. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...- Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Bahrain FTA), Chapter 9 of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Chile FTA), Chapter 9 of the Dominican Republic-Central American-United States Free Trade..., Chapter 9 of the U.S.-Chile FTA, Chapter 9 of DR-CAFTA, Chapter 9 of the U.S.-Morocco FTA, Chapter 10...

  5. 77 FR 12933 - Federal Acquisition Regulation: Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... (NASA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD, GSA, and NASA are issuing a final rule amending the Federal... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs... Governmentwide Policy. Therefore, DoD, GSA, and NASA amend 48 CFR parts 22, 25, and 52 as set forth below: 0...

  6. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates of quota eligibility. DATES..., the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  7. Global trade requirements and compliance with World Trade Organization agreements: the role of tracing animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Beers, P T

    2001-08-01

    The use of a measure incorporating traceability that directly or indirectly affects international trade is permitted under the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, provided that the measure is applied in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. These provisions state that the measure must be necessary, scientifically justified, no more trade restrictive than required and consistent with the appropriate level of protection of the importing country. If requested, importing countries are required to assess claims by exporting countries regarding an alternative measure(s) providing an equivalent level of protection or with regard to regionalisation.

  8. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...This rule amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations on an interim basis to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion...

  9. 77 FR 15943 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...This rule amends the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations on an interim basis to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Korea Free Trade...

  10. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-08

    does not dIsplay a currently valid 0MB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3...security goals. A review of the U.S. trade policy , and its nesting with the National Security Strategy, demonstrates how President Barack Obama’s...SUBJECT TERMS Economic policy , trade, national security, Trans-Pacific Partnership, China, Asia-Pacific 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18

  11. 48 CFR 2419.803-70 - Procedures for simplified acquisitions under the partnership agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for simplified acquisitions under the partnership agreement. 2419.803-70 Section 2419.803-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... partnership agreement. (a) HUD contracting officers may use the procedures of FAR part 13 and HUDAR part...

  12. 3 CFR 8783 - Proclamation 8783 of March 6, 2012. To Implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement 8783 Proclamation 8783 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8783 of March 6, 2012 Proc. 8783 To Implement the United States-Korea Free Trade AgreementBy the... the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”). The Congress approved the Agreement...

  13. 75 FR 70770 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    .../telecom-e-commerce/section-1377-review for recent reviews); and (7) Whether any measures or practices... telecommunications products or services, e.g., the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services, including the... agreements with the United States other than FTAs, e.g., Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs) for...

  14. Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-29

    mutually recognized labor laws (Article 29). By comparison, all provisions relating to commercial operations are enforceable under the NAFTA. Furthermore...including that a Party agrees to “not fail to effectively enforce its labor laws ... in a manner affecting trade” (Article 6.4). Under the Jordan agreement... labor laws are defined as U.S. internationally recognized worker rights. Technically under the agreement, all labor provisions and commercial

  15. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-22

    10 Summary of Trade Negotiations and the Proposed U.S.-Panama FTA........................................ 11 Market Access...political arrangement, Panama has declined to join the Central American Common Market , relying instead on the canal and the large U.S. economy as its...second largest export market with a 30.5% export share, but accounts for only 6.5% of Panamanian imports. The Latin American countries collectively

  16. The public health implications of world trade negotiations on the general agreement on trade in services and public services.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Allyson M; Price, David

    2003-09-27

    Trade ministries from the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) 144 member states are presently deciding which public services to open to foreign competition under the complex liberalisation rules of the general agreement on trade in services (GATS). A frequent criticism of the WTO system is that it reduces national autonomy over public policy. However, respect for national sovereignty is asserted in the GATS treaty. Here, we examine claims made by the WTO and others that GATS exempts public services and does not require their privatisation. We discuss trade treaty processes that can subject public services to commercial rules, the treaty's flexibility with respect to national autonomy, and the effect of GATS in situations in which national autonomy is not protected. We conclude that national autonomy over health policy is not preserved under GATS, and that accordingly, there is a role for international standards that protect public services from the adverse effect of trade and market forces.

  17. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  18. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel review...

  19. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review...

  20. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA... requiring employment of a person in a professional capacity consistent with NAFTA Chapter 16 Annex...

  1. Proposed EU-India free trade agreement could impede manufacture of generic HIV drugs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    Medical experts are warning that an international trade agreement being brokered between the European Union (EU) and India could greatly restrict the access of people living with HIV in the developing world to life-saving antiretroviral medication.

  2. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    8 Sector -Specific Issues and the KORUS FTA................................................................................9...International Trade Commission (USITC). U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral Effects. Investigation No. TA...countries view this “voluntary private- sector ” arrangement as a transitional step intended to improve Korean consumer confidence in U.S. beef. (See

  3. 78 FR 55135 - Request for Comments on Additional Participants in Trade in Services Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... intention to enter into negotiations for a Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) with an initial group of 20... negotiations progress to include others who share our ambitious goals. This expansion will help further U.S... participants to join the negotiations. The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is...

  4. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    .... SUMMARY: The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) has concluded negotiations on a... with a group of trading partners, has concluded negotiations on a proposed agreement to strengthen... negotiations included: Australia, Canada, the European Union (EU) represented by the European Commission...

  5. 78 FR 20137 - Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade Agreement Rules.... 3313), the Commission instituted investigation No. TA-103-027, Probable Economic Effect of Certain... provide advice on the probable economic effect of the proposed modifications on U.S. trade under the...

  6. The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): Why You Need To Be Concerned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacter, Noel

    2002-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services gives priority to international commercial interests, and unless this trend is countered, public policy authority for education will shift to the World Trade Organization. While the Canadian government has stated that public education systems are not negotiable, the exclusion provisions it bases that…

  7. 77 FR 13153 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... of the Secretary National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements... of the National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements (``Committee... discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of the Free Trade Agreements, technical...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Tanzania, Togo..., Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Curacao, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti... agreement with the United States in which both countries agree to remove barriers to purchases of...

  9. TDFs and Trade: The U.S.-Canada Free-Trade Agreement from a Transborder Data Flow Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutenbeck, Jeffrey B.

    This paper examines the potential impacts of the comprehensive free-trade agreement negotiated by the United States and Canada in 1987 on transborder data flow between the two countries. An introductory overview of transborder data flow (TDFs) is followed by a discussion of how TDFs have been dealt with by both the United States and Canada to…

  10. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States... Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES: February 14, 2011: Deadline for filing written statements... provisions relating to the passenger vehicle sector. In its request letter, the Committee requested that...

  11. 17 CFR 270.5b-3 - Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Refunded Securities. (5) NRSRO means any nationally recognized statistical rating organization, as... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying securities. 270.5b-3 Section...

  12. Europe’s Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-22

    under the GATT. Many more bilateral and regional agreements are being negotiated—an estimated 60 PTAs in Asia alone—in all parts of the world. The...Access to the EU, HNMINT, February 4, 2010. 56 Business Standard, “India, EU to resume FTA talks next week,” January 22, 2010. 57 Factiva, Accord Fintech ...University Press, 2008 101 Razeen Sally, “Looking East, The European Union’s New FTA Negotiations in Asia ,” October 2007, European Centre for

  13. "Trade creep" and implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement for the United Kingdom National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri; Tritter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The ambitious and comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP/TAFTA) agreement between the European Union and United States is now being negotiated and may have far-reaching consequences for health services. The agreement extends to government procurement, investment, and further regulatory cooperation. In this article, we focus on the United Kingdom National Health Service and how these negotiations can limit policy space to change policies and to regulate in relation to health services, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and health industries. The negotiation of TTIP/TAFTA has the potential to "harmonize" more corporate-friendly regulation, resulting in higher costs and loss of policy space, an example of "trade creep" that potentially compromises health equity, public health, and safety concerns across the Atlantic.

  14. 75 FR 64390 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on... applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... meet the eligibility requirements should be selected. Adherence to the NAFTA Code of Conduct...

  15. 77 FR 56233 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... of the Secretary National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements...), as amended, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA) gives notice of a meeting of the National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements...

  16. [General Agreement on Trade in Services and its implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Umaña-Peña, Román; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Due to the economic importance of the service sector and its trade potential, in 1995 the World Trade Organization (WTO) launched the General Agreement on Trade in Services with the objective of liberalizing trade in services worldwide and of establishing rules and disciplines to regulate it. Until now, the Agreement has produced few case laws on its rules and some of them are in the process of being developed, which makes the Agreement ambiguous and hampers accurate forecasting of its implications. Nevertheless, some analysts consider that certain characteristics and rules represent a threat to the funding mechanisms of public services and to the sovereignty of governments to generate their own rules. Moreover, the Agreement would lead to irreversible formalization of commitments, without the possibility of returning to previous conditions in the case of failure of the market and/or private participation. In addition, the Agreement acts against exclusive monopolies and providers and to a certain extent this will affect subsidies to local providers. The ability of the European Communities Court of Justice to enforce the implementation of competitive measures in public services has produced uncertainty because of the implications for health services. The Spanish Agreement with the WTO contains many questions that remain open, representing an opportunity for the participation of the health sector in the next negotiation rounds.

  17. 48 CFR 25.406 - Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Israeli Trade Act. 25.406... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.406 Israeli Trade Act. Acquisitions of supplies by most agencies are covered by the Israeli Trade Act, if the estimated value of the acquisition is $50,000 or...

  18. Health Preemption Behind Closed Doors: Trade Agreements and Fast-Track Authority

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies’ influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. “Fast-track authority,” in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests. PMID:25033124

  19. Health preemption behind closed doors: trade agreements and fast-track authority.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies' influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. "Fast-track authority," in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests.

  20. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements.

  1. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-01-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs’ interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  2. The Acquisition of Tense and Agreement by Early Child Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the acquisition of tense and agreement morphology by child L2 learners in an early stage of language acquisition. The objectives of this study are twofold. The first is to observe the development of verb inflections and syntactic competence over time from an early stage by Chinese child L2 learners of English. The…

  3. Le Carte Blanc or La Carte Blanche? Bilingual Children's Acquisition of French Adjective Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marchak, Kristan

    2011-01-01

    Because of less exposure to either language, bilingual children's language acquisition can be delayed relative to monolingual children in domains related to input frequency. This study predicted that the acquisition of gender agreement with adjectives in French would be delayed in bilingual children on a picture description task. The results…

  4. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-20

    Objectives in an FTA ..............................................................................8 Sector -Specific Issues and the KORUS FTA...USITC). U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral Effects. Investigation No. TA-2104-24. USITC Publication 3949...transmit mad cow disease during the processing of cattle less than 30 months old when slaughtered. Both countries view this “voluntary private- sector

  5. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA... NAFTA Professional to the alien or official confirmation of such petition approval, or DHS confirmation... United States requiring employment of a person in a professional capacity consistent with NAFTA...

  6. The Fast Track Trade Agreement: Help or Hurt for the U.S.-Mexico Border Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynda

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the environmental and labor problems associated with the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. A joint environmental plan between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SEDUE (Mexico's EPA equivalent) does not adequately address the problems. Offers recommendations for…

  7. United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

  8. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  9. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA... NAFTA Professional to the alien or official confirmation of such petition approval, or DHS confirmation... United States requiring employment of a person in a professional capacity consistent with NAFTA...

  10. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA... NAFTA Professional to the alien or official confirmation of such petition approval, or DHS confirmation... United States requiring employment of a person in a professional capacity consistent with NAFTA...

  11. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA... NAFTA Professional to the alien or official confirmation of such petition approval, or DHS confirmation... United States requiring employment of a person in a professional capacity consistent with NAFTA...

  12. Language Learning for the 21st Century: Challenges for the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, G. Richard

    1993-01-01

    The American phenomenon of pervasive monolingualism is considered, and potential implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement are described. Five second-language learning/teaching areas are projected: language for specific purposes; obligatory language study; exchange programs; technological advances; and information resources.…

  13. 19 CFR 102.25 - Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 102.25 Section 102.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... properly completed and signed by an authorized official of the Canadian or Mexican government and must...

  14. 19 CFR 102.25 - Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 102.25 Section 102.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... properly completed and signed by an authorized official of the Canadian or Mexican government and must...

  15. 78 FR 76700 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... FTA), Chapter 9 of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (United States-Chile FTA), Chapter 9... FTA, Chapter 9 of the United States-Chile FTA, Chapter 9 of the United States-Colombia FTA, Chapter 9...--$12,721,740. IV. United States-Chile FTA, Chapter 9 A. Central Government Entities Listed in the...

  16. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU-Asia Trade Agreements.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers' agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU's trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU's decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam.

  17. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU–Asia Trade Agreements

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers’ agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU’s trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU’s decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam. PMID:28018131

  18. 77 FR 44063 - Federal Acquisition Regulations; DARPA-New Mexico Tax Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations; DARPA-New Mexico Tax Agreement AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation (FAR) to add the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to the list of agencies that have entered into separate tax agreements with the State of New Mexico (NM). The DARPA-NM...

  19. The North American Free Trade Agreement: Implications for the parties and world oil markets

    SciTech Connect

    Verleger, P.K. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been criticized because it failed to open Mexico`s hydrocarbon reserves to development by private parties. This failure is an economic tragedy. Consumer welfare will clearly be reduced as a consequence. However, the loss is confined to Mexico where economic growth rates may be reduced by as much as one half of one percent per year. Otherwise, the agreement will have insignificant impacts on the world oil market. Future levels of production and prices will be unaffected by the agreement. 24 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation.

  1. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%-3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate...

  4. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... Request for Panel Review with the United States Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article...

  5. 77 FR 26252 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... States Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free...

  6. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade.... filed a First Request for Panel Review with the United States Section of the NAFTA Secretariat...

  7. 78 FR 69518 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19 Roster AGENCY... 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the establishment of a roster... fullest extent practicable, judges and former judges who meet the eligibility requirements should...

  8. 77 FR 66505 - To Implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... effective with respect to goods of Colombia entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and incorporated by reference Publication 4320 of the Commission... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.'' Annexes I and II to that publication included...

  9. 77 FR 66870 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On March 26, 2012,...

  10. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.

  11. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard.

  12. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  13. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade... solicitation entitled “Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act.” (b) The offeror...

  14. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade... American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act.” (b) The offeror certifies that the...

  15. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade... American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act.” (b) The offeror certifies that the...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade... American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act.” (b) The offeror certifies that the...

  17. The Effects of Processing Instruction and Its Components on the Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the relative effects of processing instruction, structured input activities and explicit information on the acquisition of gender agreement in Italian adjectives. Subjects were divided into three groups: the first received processing instruction; the second group structured input only; the third…

  18. Impact of the World Trade Organization TRIPS agreement on the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Supakankunti, S.; Janjaroen, W. S.; Tangphao, O.; Ratanawijitrasin, S.; Kraipornsak, P.; Pradithavanij, P.

    2001-01-01

    The 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) established minimum universal standards in all areas of intellectual property. It is intended to implement these standards globally through a WTO enforcement mechanism. The present article proposes a strategy for alleviating the potentially negative impact of TRIPS in Thailand in relation to the following: purchasers; prescribers and dispensers; producers; products; price control; patent-to-third-party; parallel imports; power of the customer; patentable new drugs; personnel; and prevention policies. The following TRIPS provisions are pertinent to the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand: the limited term of product and process patents; the conditions of protection; and the broad scope for compulsory licensing and enforcement procedures in the national patent system. PMID:11417042

  19. 76 FR 41858 - Petition Under Section 302 on the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement; Decision Not To Initiate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Government of Israel during the negotiation in the 1980s of the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Israel... 1984, during the negotiation of the U.S.-Israel FTA, the Government of Israel misappropriated...

  20. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  1. 78 FR 47813 - In the Matter of Bergamo Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Bergamo Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 2, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate...

  2. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments’ ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  3. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  4. Early acquisition of gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase: starting small.

    PubMed

    Mariscal, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed presents some variations in relation to classical studies. The aim was to obtain a large corpus of NP data which would allow different types of analysis of the children's productions to be carried out. Intra-individual variability in early NP types was analyzed and measured, and an elicitation task for adjectives was used. Results show that the acquisition of NP and gender agreement is a complex process which advances as the children gradually integrate different pieces of evidence: phonological, distributional and functional. The reduction of variability as the grammatical process advances is a key feature for its explanation.

  5. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Frenk, J; Cruz, C

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.

  6. Consequences of the North American Free Trade Agreement for health services: a perspective from Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Frenk, J; Gómez-Dantés, O; Cruz, C; Chacón, F; Hernández, P; Freeman, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purposes of the study were to assess the potential impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on medical care in Mexico and to identify internal measures Mexico could take to increase the benefits and minimize the risks of free trade. METHODS. The dual nature of the health sector is examined; the Mexican, Canadian, and US health care systems are compared; and modes and consequences of international exchange of health services are analyzed. RESULTS. Four issues require immediate attention: accreditation of health care facilities, licensing and certification of professionals, technology assessment, and financial equity. CONCLUSIONS. NAFTA offers opportunities for positive developments in Mexico, provided risks can be anticipated and preventive measures can be taken to avoid negative impacts on the health system. Medical services, like other elements of the Mexican economy, must be modernized to respond to the demands of global competition. The Mexican National Academy of Medicine has recommended to the Mexican government (1) internal strengthening of the Mexican health care system to improve its ability to respond to the new conditions created by NAFTA and (2) a gradual process to facilitate equitable and mutually beneficial interactions among the three countries. PMID:7943476

  7. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora.

  8. Gender Agreement in Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers: The Effects of Age and Context of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Foote, Rebecca; Perpinan, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates knowledge of gender agreement in Spanish L2 learners and heritage speakers, who differ in age and context/mode of acquisition. On some current theoretical accounts, persistent difficulty with grammatical gender in adult L2 acquisition is due to age. These accounts predict that heritage speakers should be more accurate on…

  9. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... 1974, requested that the Commission provide a report containing its advice as to the probable economic... after Malaysia joined the negotiations, the Commission delivered a report to the USTR on January 7, 2011... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of Providing...

  10. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports... those sections of the Commission's report that relate to the advice and assessment of probable economic... COMMISSION U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the...

  11. The Employment Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement: Recommendations and Background Studies. Special Report No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents results of a year-long research program initiated by the National Commission for Employment Policy to research and discuss the employment effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). It contains the letter to the President in which the Commission endorses NAFTA because of its positive employment-creating…

  12. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (b) Article 1709(10) of NAFTA generally requires a user of technology covered by a valid patent to..., NAFTA provides that this requirement for authorization may be waived in situations of national...

  13. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (b) Article 1709(10) of NAFTA generally requires a user of technology covered by a valid patent to..., NAFTA provides that this requirement for authorization may be waived in situations of national...

  14. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (b) Article 1709(10) of NAFTA generally requires a user of technology covered by a valid patent to..., NAFTA provides that this requirement for authorization may be waived in situations of national...

  15. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (b) Article 1709(10) of NAFTA generally requires a user of technology covered by a valid patent to..., NAFTA provides that this requirement for authorization may be waived in situations of national...

  16. 77 FR 64578 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... NAFTA Party. The United States annually renews its selections for the Chapter 19 roster. Applications.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Binational Panel Reviews Under NAFTA Chapter 19 Article 1904 of the NAFTA...

  17. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (b) Article 1709(10) of NAFTA generally requires a user of technology covered by a valid patent to..., NAFTA provides that this requirement for authorization may be waived in situations of national...

  18. A Research Study on the Projected Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Texas Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Albert; And Others

    This report estimates the number of recent immigrant students that would enroll in Texas public schools as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and recommends educational strategies to address the unique needs of recent immigrants. Research approaches included a review of existing research on immigration trends and…

  19. 76 FR 65559 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... NAFTA Party. The United States annually renews its selections for the Chapter 19 roster. Applications...- 9663. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Binational Panel Reviews Under NAFTA Chapter 19 Article 1904 of...

  20. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  1. Toward the Successful Implementation of the North American Free-Trade Agreement: The Integration of Language and Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    This paper examines the need for the integration of language and business studies to enhance successful implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. For college and university graduates to deal effectively with French-Canadian and Mexican business people and consumers, they must be exposed to their languages and their cultures. This…

  2. 78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... of the Secretary Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement..., 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-5303, Washington, DC 20210; phone (202) 693-4873; fax (202) 693.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  3. 77 FR 13951 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...; Introduction; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Small Entity Compliance Guide; Final Rules #0;#0... Chapter 1 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Introduction...

  4. The role of veterinary epidemiology and veterinary services in complying with the World Trade Organization SPS agreement.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Thiermann, A; Kellar, J; Rojas, H; Willeberg, P

    2005-02-01

    The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade (WTO, 1998a). The SPS agreement's main intent is to provide guidelines and provisions to member countries to facilitate trade while taking measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The agreement dictates that all sanitary measures must be scientifically based and not more restrictive than required to avoid the risk identified. The agreement recommends the use of international standards from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Codex Alimentarius (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as the basis for import requirements. If a country chooses to apply more restrictive measures than those in the international standards, it has to justify its position through a risk analysis, thus avoiding the use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as unjustified barriers to trade. More than ever, veterinary services worldwide are faced with having to fulfill a crucial role in protecting their country's animal health status, provide sound surveillance information on the occurrence of diseases within their territories, and conduct scientifically valid risk analyses to establish justified import requirements. During the past two decades, most countries have experienced resource reduction in their veterinary services. The effect of these policies has been severe, in many cases leading to an inability of veterinary services to conduct their disease prevention and control duties. There is a clear inconsistency between the demands placed on veterinary services and the current level of funding and support they are receiving, particularly in

  5. The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-16

    for market access to U.S. firms in most services sectors ; protection of U.S. foreign direct investment in Colombia ; intellectual property rights...give more sensitive sectors longer phase-out periods to allow Colombia more time to adjust to trade liberalization. Sectors receiving the longest phase...8 United States International Trade Commission (USITC), U.S.- Colombia Trade Promotion Agrement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral

  6. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  7. Time efficiency and diagnostic agreement of 2-D versus 3-D ultrasound acquisition of the neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    Romero, Javier M; Madan, Neil; Betancur, Ilda; Ciobanu, Adrian; Murphy, Erin; McCullough, Danielle; Grant, P Ellen

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare acquisition time efficiency and diagnostic agreement of neonatal brain ultrasound (US) scans obtained with a 3-D volume US acquisition protocol and the conventional 2-D acquisition protocol. Ninety-one consecutive premature neonatal brain ultrasound scans were prospectively performed on 59 neonates with the conventional 2-D acquisition protocol. Immediately after the 2-D study, a coronal 3-D ultrasound volume was acquired and later reconstructed into axial and sagittal planes. All 59 neonates were imaged in the neonatal intensive care unit to rule out intracranial hemorrhage. Total time for 2-D and 3-D acquisition protocols was recorded, and a two-tailed t-test was used to determine if study durations differed significantly. One pediatric neuroradiologist reviewed the reformatted 3-D images, tomographic ultrasound images. Results were compared with the clinical interpretation of the 2-D conventional study. The mean scanning time for the 2-D US acquisition protocol was 10.56 min (standard deviation [SD] = 7.11), and that for the 3-D volume US acquisition protocol was 1.48 min (SD = 0.59) (p ≤ 0.001). Inter-observer agreement revealed k values of 0.84 for hydrocephalus, 0.80 for germinal matrix hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage, 0.74 for periventricular leukomalacia and 0.91 for subdural collection, hence near-perfect to substantial agreement between imaging protocols. There was a significant decrease in acquisition time for the 3-D volume ultrasound acquisition protocol compared with the conventional 2-D US protocol (p = <0.001), without compromising the diagnostic quality compared with a conventional 2-D US imaging protocol.

  8. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions. PMID:16209703

  9. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-22

    South Korea’s development and implementation of reimbursement policies, including an appeal process for decisions going against U.S. manufacturers. In...from Japan were banned until 1999.141 Originally the South Korean government promoted the development of a fleet of domestically owned producers, but... South Korea is the seventh-largest trading partner of the United States and the United States is South Korea’s third largest trading partner

  10. 77 FR 4629 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O... harmonizing rules, and of promoting flexibility. This is not a significant regulatory action and, therefore... September 30, 1993. This rule is not a major rule under 5 U.S.C. 804. IV. Regulatory Flexibility Act...

  11. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive... reducing costs, of harmonizing rules, and of promoting flexibility. This is not a significant regulatory.... Regulatory Flexibility Act DoD certifies that this final rule will not have a significant economic impact...

  12. 77 FR 69723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... FTAs ($77,494), and equals the Bahrain, Morocco, Oman, and Peru FTA thresholds for supplies and... Korea FTA 100,000 100,000 7,777,000 Morocco FTA 202,000 202,000 7,777,000 NAFTA: --Canada 25,000 77,494... growth, product, or manufacture of Bahrain, Morocco, Oman, Panama, or Peru; or (2) In the case of...

  13. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... definition for ``Panamanian photovoltaic device''; 0 c. By revising paragraphs (c)(3)and (4). The additions and revisions read as follows: 252.225-7017 Photovoltaic Devices. * * * * * (a) * * * ``Panamanian photovoltaic device'' means an article that-- (i) Is wholly manufactured in Panama; or (ii) In the case of...

  14. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ..., Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA. Because the Colombia FTA construction threshold of $7,777,000... ``Colombia FTA, Chile FTA,'' and adding ``Chile FTA, Colombia FTA,'' in its place. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  15. 77 FR 13952 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: DoD, GSA, and NASA are issuing an interim rule amending the.../or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Deborah...

  16. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ..., Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia..., Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan,...

  17. Testing the Effectiveness of an International Conservation Agreement: Marketplace Forensics and CITES Caviar Trade Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    Background The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. Methodology/Principal Findings We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006–2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995–1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Conclusions/Significance Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing. PMID:22848410

  18. 77 FR 70527 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    .../trade-topics/services-investment/telecom-ecommerce/section-1377-review for recent reviews); and (7...); requirements for access to or use of networks that limit the products or services U.S. suppliers can offer in... exporting or local content, or have caused adverse effects to domestic equipment manufacturers and...

  19. 78 FR 73583 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    .../trade-topics/services-investment/telecom-ecommerce/section-1377-review for recent reviews); and (7...); requirements for access to or use of networks that limit the products or services U.S. suppliers ] can offer in... exporting or local content, or have caused adverse effects to domestic equipment manufacturers and...

  20. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... completed on March 18, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA..., 2013. Ellen M. Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat. BILLING CODE 3510-GT-P...

  1. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... completed on February 8, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA..., 2013. Ellen M. Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat. BILLING CODE 3510-GT-P...

  2. How might North American oil and gas markets have performed with a Free Trade Agreement in 1970?

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, G.C.; Waverman, L.

    1993-12-31

    Deregulation on both sides of the U.S.-Canadian border has made certain aspects of trade agreements largely superfluous in the near term. It is over the longer term that the impact of the NAFTA will become apparent. To grapple with this issue, simulations are attempted of oil and gas trade between the United States and Canada as if the NAFTA had been in place before the first oil price shock of 1973. The simulations suggest substantial additional exports of Canadian oil and gas would have enabled the United States to back out volumes of OPEC oil during the critical years of the late 1970s and early 1980s. This would have served to dampen world oil markets during the years of OPEC ascendancy-not dramatically, but not negligibly either. By promoting closer integration of energy markets, the NAFTA should lead to more cohesive North American responses to any future world oil shocks. 13 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    services sectors ; protection of U.S. foreign direct investment in Colombia ; intellectual property rights protections for U.S. companies; and enforceable...processed products, and dairy products. The United States and Colombia worked to resolve sanitary and phytosanitary barriers to agricultural trade...and expand legitimate opportunities for workers in the Andean countries in alternative export sectors . Table 3. U.S. Imports from Colombia

  4. 75 FR 26822 - In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 26822] [FR Doc No: 2010-11401] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 10, 2010. It appears to...

  5. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-08

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA.

  6. Not All Children Agree: Acquisition of Agreement when the Input Is Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of variable input on the acquisition of grammar. More specifically, we examine the acquisition of the third person singular marker -s on the auxiliary "do" in comprehension and production in two groups of children who are exposed to similar varieties of English but that differ with respect to adult…

  7. Acquisition of Spanish Gender Agreement in Two Learning Contexts: Study Abroad and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelli-Garcia, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the acquisition rate for gender acquisition in Spanish and to show whether individual variability and language contact may affect this rate. The participants were intermediate second language Spanish (first language English) learners in the study abroad and at-home contexts over a 4-month period. The…

  8. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. Design A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. Results In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. Conclusions The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. PMID:27044579

  9. NAFTA and occupational health: a Canadian perspective. North American Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Walker, C

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, health and safety laws are built around three worker rights which are not guaranteed by law in the United States: the right to participate in joint management-worker health and safety committees; the right to know about workplace hazards which requires consultation with the joint committee about the education and training programs; and the right to refuse hazardous work. In the context of NAFTA, health, safety and environmental laws and their enforcement, as well as the workers' compensation system, are all under attack by business leaders who cite the need to deregulate and privatize Canadian institutions in order to harmonize with the United States. The counteroffensive by the trade unions and their allies in the social justice movement is described; the struggle continues.

  10. 77 FR 58098 - Haier America Trading, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Agreement 1. In accordance with the Consumer Product Safety Act, 15 U.S.C. 2051-2089 (``CPSA'') and16 C.F.R... and published in the Federal Register in accordance with the procedures set forth in 16 C.F.R. 1118.20... published in the Federal Register, in accordance with 16 C.F.R. 1118.20(f). 19. Upon the Commission's......

  11. Learning to Look: The Acquisition of Eye Gaze Agreement during the Production of ASL Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robin L.; Emmorey, Karen; Kluender, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In American Sign Language (ASL), native signers use eye gaze to mark agreement (Thompson, Emmorey and Kluender, 2006). Such agreement is unique (it is articulated with the eyes) and complex (it occurs with only two out of three verb types, and marks verbal arguments according to a noun phrase accessibility hierarchy). In a language production…

  12. Second Language Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Explicit and Implicit Training Conditions: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Sanz, Cristina; Steinhauer, Karsten; Ullman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed an artificial language learning paradigm together with a combined behavioral/event-related potential (ERP) approach to examine the neurocognition of the processing of gender agreement, an aspect of inflectional morphology that is problematic in adult second language (L2) learning. Subjects learned to speak and comprehend an artificial language under either explicit (classroomlike) or implicit (immersionlike) training conditions. In each group, both noun-article and noun-adjective gender agreement processing were examined behaviorally and with ERPs at both low and higher levels of proficiency. Results showed that the two groups learned the language to similar levels of proficiency but showed somewhat different ERP patterns. At low proficiency, both types of agreement violations (adjective, article) yielded N400s, but only for the group with implicit training. Additionally, noun-adjective agreement elicited a late N400 in the explicit group at low proficiency. At higher levels of proficiency, noun-adjective agreement violations elicited N400s for both the explicit and implicit groups, whereas noun-article agreement violations elicited P600s for both groups. The results suggest that interactions among linguistic structure, proficiency level, and type of training need to be considered when examining the development of aspects of inflectional morphology in L2 acquisition. PMID:21359123

  13. Second Language Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Explicit and Implicit Training Conditions: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Sanz, Cristina; Steinhauer, Karsten; Ullman, Michael T

    2010-03-01

    This study employed an artificial language learning paradigm together with a combined behavioral/event-related potential (ERP) approach to examine the neurocognition of the processing of gender agreement, an aspect of inflectional morphology that is problematic in adult second language (L2) learning. Subjects learned to speak and comprehend an artificial language under either explicit (classroomlike) or implicit (immersionlike) training conditions. In each group, both noun-article and noun-adjective gender agreement processing were examined behaviorally and with ERPs at both low and higher levels of proficiency. Results showed that the two groups learned the language to similar levels of proficiency but showed somewhat different ERP patterns. At low proficiency, both types of agreement violations (adjective, article) yielded N400s, but only for the group with implicit training. Additionally, noun-adjective agreement elicited a late N400 in the explicit group at low proficiency. At higher levels of proficiency, noun-adjective agreement violations elicited N400s for both the explicit and implicit groups, whereas noun-article agreement violations elicited P600s for both groups. The results suggest that interactions among linguistic structure, proficiency level, and type of training need to be considered when examining the development of aspects of inflectional morphology in L2 acquisition.

  14. A new set of 299 pictures for psycholinguistic studies: French norms for name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, image variability, age of acquisition, and naming latencies.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Peereman, Ronald; Malardier, Nathalie; Méot, Alain; Chalard, Marylène

    2003-02-01

    Pictures are often used as stimuli in studies of perception, language, and memory. Since performances on different sets of pictures are generally contrasted, stimulus selection requires the use of standardized material to match pictures across different variables. Unfortunately, the number of standardized pictures available for empirical research is rather limited. The aim of the present study is to provide French normative data for a new set of 299 black-and-white drawings. Alario and Ferrand (1999) were closely followed in that the pictures were standardized on six variables name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, image variability, and age of acquisition. Objective frequency measures are also provided for themost common names associated with the pictures. Comparative analyses between our results and the norms obtained in other, similar studies are reported. Finally, naming latencies corresponding to the set of pictures were also collected from French native speakers, and correlational/multiple-regression analyses were performed on naming latencies. This new set of standardized pictures is available on the Internet (http://leadserv.u-bourgogne.fr/bases/pictures/) and should be of great use to researchers when they select pictorial stimuli.

  15. Trade-offs in data acquisition and processing parameters for backscatter and scatterer size estimations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Zagzebski, James A

    2010-01-01

    By analyzing backscattered echo signal power spectra and thereby obtaining backscatter coefficient vs. frequency data, the size of subresolution scatterers contributing to echo signals can be estimated. Here we investigate trade-offs in data acquisition and processing parameters for reference phantom-based backscatter and scatterer size estimations. RF echo data from a tissue-mimicking test phantom were acquired using a clinical scanner equipped with linear array transducers. One array has a nominal frequency bandwidth of 5 to 13 MHz and the other 4 to 9 MHz. Comparison of spectral estimation methods showed that the Welch method provided spectra yielding more accurate and precise backscatter coefficient and scatterer size estimations than spectra computed by applying rectangular, Hanning, or Hamming windows and much reduced computational load than if using the multitaper method. For small echo signal data block sizes, moderate improvements in scatterer size estimations were obtained using a multitaper method, but this significantly increases the computational burden. It is critical to average power spectra from lateral A-lines for the improvement of scatterer size estimation. Averaging approximately 10 independent A-lines laterally with an axial window length 10 times the center frequency wavelength optimized trade-offs between spatial resolution and the variance of scatterer size estimates. Applying the concept of a time-bandwidth product, this suggests using analysis blocks that contain at least 30 independent samples of the echo signal. The estimation accuracy and precision depend on the ka range where k is the wave number and a is the effective scatterer size. This introduces a region-of-interest depth dependency to the accuracy and precision because of preferential attenuation of higher frequency sound waves in tissuelike media. With the 5 to 13 MHz, transducer ka ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 for scatterers in the test phantom, which is a favorable range, and the

  16. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, E. L.; Westover, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, the laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The “open border” approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warmwater zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries.

  17. 75 FR 3187 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... adjustment every 5 years of statutory acquisition- related thresholds, except for Davis-Bacon Act, Service... acquisition-related thresholds, except for Davis-Bacon Act, Service Contract Act, and trade agreements... acquisition-related thresholds established by the Davis Bacon Act, the Service Contract Act, or...

  18. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  19. 76 FR 30499 - To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Proclamation 6641 of December 15, 1993, implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with... (the ``NAFTA Act'') (Public Law 103-182, 107 Stat. 2057), incorporated in the HTS the schedule of duty reductions and rules of origin necessary or appropriate to carry out the NAFTA. 13. Section 202 of the...

  20. Higher Education Crossing Borders. A Guide to the Implications of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for Cross-Border Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This Guide examines the different dimensions of cross-border education within the context of General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): the present landscape, opportunities and challenges and the implications for policy and practice in higher education. It is meant for a range of stakeholders: policymakers, senior academic leaders, faculty…

  1. 48 CFR 225.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... using FAR part 12 procedures for the acquisition of commercial items, if the World Trade Organization... apply to all line items in the contract: (1) 252.225-7021, Trade Agreements. (2) 252.225-7036, Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program; or (E) All line items will be acquired using...

  2. Development and application of a model for the analysis of trades between space launch system operations and acquisition costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Michael B.

    2005-12-01

    Early design decisions in the development of space launch systems determine the costs to acquire and operate launch systems. Some sources indicate that as much as 90% of life cycle costs are fixed by the end of the critical design review phase. System characteristics determined by these early decisions are major factors in the acquisition cost of flight hardware elements and facilities and influence operations costs through the amount of maintenance and support labor required to sustain system function. Operations costs are also dependent on post-development management decisions regarding how much labor will be deployed to meet requirements of market demand and ownership profit. The ability to perform early trade-offs between these costs is vital to the development of systems that have the necessary capacity to provide service and are profitable to operate. An Excel-based prototype model was developed for making early analyses of trade-offs between the costs to operate a space launch system and to acquire the necessary assets to meet a given set of operational requirements. The model, integrating input from existing models and adding missing capability, allows the user to make such trade-offs across a range of operations concepts (required flight rates, staffing levels, shifts per workday, workdays per week and per year, unreliability, wearout and depot maintenance) and the number, type and capability of assets (flight hardware elements, processing and supporting facilities and infrastructure). The costs and capabilities of hypothetical launch systems can be modeled as a function of interrelated turnaround times and labor resource levels, and asset loss and retirement. The number of flight components and facilities required can be calculated and the operations and acquisition costs compared for a specified scenario. Findings, based on the analysis of a hypothetical two stage to orbit, reusable, unmanned launch system, indicate that the model is suitable for the

  3. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-05-06

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by:  Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; Locking in Canada's current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it;  Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics.CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada-not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA's provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes.As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada's single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care.

  4. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by: • Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; • Locking in Canada’s current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it; • Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics. CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada—not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA’s provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes. As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada’s single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care. PMID:24885309

  5. Comparing Software Acquisition Models Against Each Other: The Build vs. Buy vs. Rent Trade Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    quality of the technical processes used by this supplier (e.g., CMMI Level 3, ISO 9001 )? Has this supplier done other projects in this application domain...Acquisition Career Management , ASN (RD&A)  Program Executive Officer, SHIPS  Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command  Program Executive Officer...Technology)  Deputy Director, Acquisition Career Management , U.S. Army  Office of Procurement and Assistance Management Headquarters, Department of

  6. California Agribusiness Representatives' Perceptions of the North American Free Trade Agreement with Implications for Globalizing Academic Programs in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, M.

    1997-01-01

    A majority of 56 California agribusiness representatives surveyed were optimistic about the short-term impact of the North American Free Trade Act on agriculture. They remained concerned about trade barriers with Mexico, where little business was being conducted as yet. (SK)

  7. 76 FR 42163 - Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade... to an April 8, 2011 notice announcing a pilot program on the North American Free Trade...

  8. 78 FR 13088 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ..., or statements in response to this notice to Paula Church Albertson, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs...: Paula Church Albertson, Designated Federal Official, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs, Bureau of..., or comments for consideration by the NAC on the agenda listed above should be submitted to...

  9. An Examination of Electronic Links between the Book Trade and Library Acquisitions Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Sharon C.

    Based on interviews and correspondence conducted during 1981, this report describes British library and book trade plans for expansion of their internal order processing systems to include the eventual exchange of data through the use of telecommunications. Comparisons are made between the situation in England and the United States. The report…

  10. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  11. Modeling the carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: Mycorrhizal trade-offs and multipath resistance uptake improve predictions of retranslocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzostek, Edward R.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Phillips, Richard P.

    2014-08-01

    Accurate projections of the future land carbon (C) sink by terrestrial biosphere models depend on how nutrient constraints on net primary production are represented. While nutrient limitation is nearly universal, current models do not have a C cost for plant nutrient acquisition. Also missing are symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi, which can consume up to 20% of net primary production and supply up to 50% of a plant's nitrogen (N) uptake. Here we integrate simultaneous uptake and mycorrhizae into a cutting-edge plant N model—Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN)—that can be coupled into terrestrial biosphere models. The C cost of N acquisition varies as a function of mycorrhizal type, with plants that support arbuscular mycorrhizae benefiting when N is relatively abundant and plants that support ectomycorrhizae benefiting when N is strongly limiting. Across six temperate forested sites (representing arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated stands and 176 site years), including multipath resistance improved the partitioning of N uptake between aboveground and belowground sources. Integrating mycorrhizae led to further improvements in predictions of N uptake from soil (R2 = 0.69 increased to R2 = 0.96) and from senescing leaves (R2 = 0.29 increased to R2 = 0.73) relative to the original model. On average, 5% and 9% of net primary production in arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated forests, respectively, was needed to support mycorrhizal-mediated acquisition of N. To the extent that resource constraints to net primary production are governed by similar trade-offs across all terrestrial ecosystems, integrating these improvements to FUN into terrestrial biosphere models should enhance predictions of the future land C sink.

  12. 78 FR 23954 - U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Effect of Providing Duty- Free Treatment for Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES: May 16, 2013... Commission may also be obtained by accessing its Internet server ( http://www.usitc.gov ). Persons...

  13. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...: Ellen M. Bohon, United States Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue NW...; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the United States of America, regardless of country of origin....

  14. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade..., 2012, GD Affiliates S. de R.L. de C.V. filed a First Request for Panel Review with the United States...-1904-03 to this request. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ellen Bohon, United States Secretary,...

  15. A vegetation management plan for Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site: Final report for interagency agreement number F154910005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This report provides Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site, a small NPS unit on the border of Montana and North Dakota, a framework and reasonable tools for future vegetation management at the site in the context of probable historic, current, and desired future vegetation.

  16. Higher Education and the General [Lack of] Agreement on Trade in Services: From Doha to Hong Kong and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim

    2006-01-01

    What international framework, if any, is higher education subject to in terms of its work, not in the sense of validating its programmes or safeguarding its academic freedom, but in terms of its funding, its operating environment and its stakeholders? Is it viewed as a business in some sense? Is it subject to trade rules and negotiations? All of…

  17. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... before submission of offers. The offeror shall include the information and applicable supporting data... and supporting data in the offer. (c) Evaluation of offers. (1) The Government will evaluate an offer... if this acquisition is conducted by sealed bidding; or (ii) May be accepted if revised...

  18. 75 FR 19168 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-005, Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    .... encourages the use of project labor agreements for large-scale Federal construction projects in order to... agreement, as they may decide appropriate, on large-scale construction projects, where the total cost to the... encouraging the use of project labor agreements on large-scale Federal construction projects: a)...

  19. 75 FR 24584 - Request for Nominations for the Industry Trade Advisory Committees (ITACs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... trade barriers, negotiation of trade agreements, and implementation of existing trade agreements... trade negotiation objectives adequately reflect U.S. commercial and economic interests. Section 135(a)(1... regarding trade barriers, negotiation of trade agreements, and implementation of existing trade...

  20. Evolution of intrinsic growth and energy acquisition rates. I. Trade-offs with swimming performance in Menidia menidia.

    PubMed

    Billerbeck, J M; Lankford, T E; Conover, D O

    2001-09-01

    Latitudinal populations of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, show substantial genetic variation in rates of energy acquistion and allocation. Reared in common environments, silversides from northern latitudes consume more food, grow faster and more efficiently, store more energy, and produce greater quantities of eggs than their southern conspecifics. The persistence of seemingly inferior southern genotypes in the face of ostensibly superior northern genotypes suggest that there are hidden evolutionary trade-offs associated with these elevated acquisition and allocation rates. We tested the hypothesis that rapid growth and high levels of food consumption trade-off against locomotory performance in M. menidia. We compared both aerobic (prolonged and endurance) and anaerobic (burst) swimming capacities between intrinsically fast-growing fish from the north (Nova Scotia, NS) and intrinsically slow-growing fish from the south (South Carolina, SC) and between growth-manipulated phenotypes within each population. We also compared swimming speeds and endurance between fasted and recently fed fish within populations. Maximum prolonged and burst swimming speeds of NS fish were significantly lower than those of SC fish, and swimming speeds of fast-growing phenotypes were lower than those of slow-growing phenotypes within populations. Fed fish had lower burst speeds and less endurance than fasted fish from the same population. Thus, high rates of growth and the consumption of large meals clearly diminish swimming performance, which likely increases vulnerability to predation and decreases survival and relative fitness. The submaximal growth rate of southern M. menidia appears to be adaptive, resulting from balancing selection on rates of somatic growth.

  1. The Application of a Trade Study Methodology to Determine Which Capabilities to Implement in a Test Facility Data Acquisition System Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougal, Kristopher J.

    2008-01-01

    More and more test programs are requiring high frequency measurements. Marshall Space Flight Center s Cold Flow Test Facility has an interest in acquiring such data. The acquisition of this data requires special hardware and capabilities. This document provides a structured trade study approach for determining which additional capabilities of a VXI-based data acquisition system should be utilized to meet the test facility objectives. The paper is focused on the trade study approach detailing and demonstrating the methodology. A case is presented in which a trade study was initially performed to provide a recommendation for the data system capabilities. Implementation details of the recommended alternative are briefly provided as well as the system s performance during a subsequent test program. The paper then addresses revisiting the trade study with modified alternatives and attributes to address issues that arose during the subsequent test program. Although the model does not identify a single best alternative for all sensitivities, the trade study process does provide a much better understanding. This better understanding makes it possible to confidently recommend Alternative 3 as the preferred alternative.

  2. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    PubMed

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  3. 78 FR 28623 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Japan: Advice on the Probable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Commission provide a report containing its advice as to the probable economic effect of providing duty-free... Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for... Including Japan: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports...

  4. 77 FR 29519 - To Implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or after the... initial stage of duty elimination provided for in the Agreement and to provide for future staged... Publication 4320 shall be effective with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for...

  5. Trade-off between oxygen and iron acquisition in bacterial cells at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    The air-liquid interface is a selectively advantageous niche for aerobes due to the accessibility to oxygen. Various species of aerobes form a biofilm-like structure at air-liquid interfaces, known as a pellicle. Although the pellicle is one of the major growth modes of microorganisms, the metabolic features of pellicle cells and the determinative factors for pellicle formation are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the factors affecting pellicle growth by the facultative aerobe Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also examined the gene expression profiles of pellicle cells in order to characterize features of the pellicle lifestyle. A mutant strain deficient in the production of exopolysaccharides displayed poor pellicle-forming ability and a growth disadvantage under static conditions compared with the wild-type strain. Notably, supplementation of culture medium with an alternative electron acceptor, nitrate, led to diminished pellicle formation. Nitrate facilitated the growth of an anaerobic planktonic cell subpopulation that acted as a competitor for iron with the aerobic subpopulation, resulting in the observed pellicle reduction. Transcriptome analysis revealed that pellicle cells were under aerobic and iron-depleted states. Thus, although pellicle formation certainly confers a growth advantage under static conditions, pellicle cells face a nutritional trade-off between oxygen and iron acquisition.

  6. 77 FR 26009 - CoStar Group, Inc., Lonestar Acquisition Sub, Inc., and LoopNet, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Doc No: 2012-10550] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0172] CoStar Group, Inc., Lonestar... Comment part of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ACoStar LoopNet, File No. 111 0172'' on... Commission to consider your comment, we must receive it on or before April 16, 2012. Write ACoStar...

  7. Spanish Gender Agreement under Complete and Incomplete Acquisition: Early and Late Bilinguals' Linguistic Behavior within the Noun Phrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Irma V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores knowledge of Spanish grammatical gender in both comprehension and production by heritage language speakers and second language (L2) learners, with native Spanish speakers as a baseline. Most L2 research has tended to interpret morphosyntactic variability in interlanguage production, such as errors in gender agreement, as…

  8. Impact of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement on India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Babovic, Sonja; Wasan, Kishor M

    2011-03-01

    This is a commentary on how the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement has impacted India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals (ARVs). We provide a systematic review of the issues related to the TRIPS agreement that affects India. This includes discussion around (a) the legal landscape underpinning India as a supplier of generic ARVs; (b) supply of second-line ARVs; and (c) the future of generic drug production in India. The proclamation into force of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property law in India is likely to affect its position as a supplier of affordable ARVs, especially drugs brought to market after 2005. Currently, mechanisms exist for the generic production of almost all ARVs in India, including second-line drugs; however, the manufacture of these drugs by generic pharmaceutical companies may require additional market incentives. Compulsory licensing may emerge as an additional mechanism by which India can provide affordable versions of patented drugs to Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

  9. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  10. Tracking irregular morphophonological dependencies in natural language: evidence from the acquisition of subject-verb agreement in French.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Thierry; Barrière, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Kresh, Sarah; Legendre, Géraldine

    2011-07-01

    This study examines French-learning infants' sensitivity to grammatical non-adjacent dependencies involving subject-verb agreement (e.g., le/les garçons lit/lisent 'the boy(s) read(s)') where number is audible on both the determiner of the subject DP and the agreeing verb, and the dependency is spanning across two syntactic phrases. A further particularity of this subsystem of French subject-verb agreement is that number marking on the verb is phonologically highly irregular. Despite the challenge, the HPP results for 24- and 18-month-olds demonstrate knowledge of both number dependencies: between the singular determiner le and the non-adjacent singular verbal forms and between the plural determiner les and the non-adjacent plural verbal forms. A control experiment suggests that the infants are responding to known verb forms, not phonological regularities. Given the paucity of such forms in the adult input documented through a corpus study, these results are interpreted as evidence that 18-month-olds have the ability to extract complex patterns across a range of morphophonologically inconsistent and infrequent items in natural language.

  11. 78 FR 65220 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Croatia (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country--Croatia (DFARS Case 2013-D031) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to add Croatia as a new designated country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). Croatia joined...

  12. 78 FR 70480 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country-Croatia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Croatia as a new designated country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement... Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country--Croatia AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Orders-- Commercial Items, and 52.213-4, Terms and Conditions--Simplified Acquisitions (Other...

  13. 75 FR 8719 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ....gov . Agreement No.: 011346-020. Title: Israel Trade Conference Agreement. Parties: American President.... Filing Party: Howard A. Levy, Esq.; Chairman; Israel Trade Conference; 80 Wall Street, Suite 1117;...

  14. 75 FR 6397 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ....gov . Agreement No.: 011346-019. Title: Israel Trade Conference Agreement. Parties: A.P. Moller-Maersk..., Esq.; Chairman; Israel Trade Conference; 80 Wall Street, Suite 1117; New York, NY 10005-3602....

  15. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  16. 48 CFR 225.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Trade Agreements, instead of the clause at FAR 52.225-5, Trade Agreements, if the World Trade... contract: (1) 252.225-7021, Trade Agreements. (2) 252.225-7036, Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance...) 252.225-7001, Buy American and Balance of Payments Program. (ii) 252.225-7021, Trade Agreements....

  17. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  18. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  19. Mining agreements III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book cover the following: Forms of mining agreements; Preliminary letter agreements; Acquisition of mineral interests involving securities; Partnership tax treatment in mining agreements; Non-tax consequences of partnerships under state law; Protection against joint venturers' liabilities; Joint venture decision making; Mining royalties; Commingling and unitization provisions; Indemnification and insurance provisions; Area of interest provision; Dispute resolution; and Non-participation and default provisions.

  20. 78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... Background: As requested, the Commission will conduct an investigation and prepare a report containing... (SMEs) since entry into force of the agreement on March 15, 2012. The Commission, to the extent..., and export strategy of U.S. SMEs, as identified by those SMEs, and describing how U.S. SMEs...

  1. 78 FR 45536 - Solera Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Hollander, Inc. (``Hollander''), and Actual Systems both provide YMS to the automotive recycling industry... of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment I. Introduction The Federal Trade... anticompetitive effects of its consummated acquisition of Actual Systems of America, Inc. (``Actual...

  2. 48 CFR 242.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 242.1204 Agreement to recognize a...

  3. 48 CFR 242.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 242.1204 Agreement to recognize a...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart B... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program Pt. 1948, Subpt. B, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1948... purposes when the Grantee determines that the property is no longer for the original purposes. b. When...

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart B... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program Pt. 1948, Subpt. B, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1948... purposes when the Grantee determines that the property is no longer for the original purposes. b. When...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart B... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program Pt. 1948, Subpt. B, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1948... purposes when the Grantee determines that the property is no longer for the original purposes. b. When...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart B... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program Pt. 1948, Subpt. B, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1948... purposes when the Grantee determines that the property is no longer for the original purposes. b. When...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart B... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program Pt. 1948, Subpt. B, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1948... purposes when the Grantee determines that the property is no longer for the original purposes. b. When...

  9. 77 FR 76941 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Poland (DFARS Case 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country--Poland (DFARS Case 2012-D049) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... Republic of Poland as a qualifying country. On August 27, 2011, the U.S. Secretary of Defense signed a new... the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement. II. Publication of This Final Rule...

  10. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade...

  11. Acquisitions for Area Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert D.

    1970-01-01

    Common policies, practices, and trends in acquisitions in the complex field of area studies, including the weak structure of the book trade, the lack of bibliographic control, and current cooperative efforts. (JS)

  12. North American Free Trade Agreement: Mexico`s petroleum sector (Part I and Part II). Joint Hearings before the Subcommittees on International Economic Policy and Trade and Western Hemisphere Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, March 26 and May 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Joint hearings were held on the The North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA): Mexico`s Petroleum Sector. The purpose of this session was to receive a report from the General Accounting Office. The report Mexican Oil: Issues Affecting the Potential U.S. Trade and Development was requested by the Congress to aid in deciding if Oil should be included in the NAFTA. The report included: (1) recent trends in Mexican oil production and exports and the primary factors affecting Mexico`s ability to meet current production and export goals, (2) the views of U.S. oil-producing and oil service contracting companies regarding principal barriers to and potential benefits of U.S. trade with and investment in Mexico`s petroleum sector and the response of Mexican officials to those views, and (3) U.S. government efforts to assist Mexico`s petroleum sector. Prepared statements of government and industry officials were included in the record of the proceedings.

  13. 48 CFR 225.7902 - Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties. 225.7902 Section 225.7902 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Trade Cooperation Treaties. This section implements the Defense Trade Cooperation (DTC) Treaties...

  14. 48 CFR 225.7902 - Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties. 225.7902 Section 225.7902 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Trade Cooperation Treaties. This section implements the Defense Trade Cooperation (DTC) Treaties...

  15. 77 FR 33459 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Agreement and to share the cost of same. Agreement No.: 012173. Title: Hyundai/MOL/APL Asia/Latin America/U... authorizes Hyundai to charter space to MOL and APL in the relevant trade and to authorize the parties...

  16. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519.7010 Section 519.7010 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a)...

  17. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7206 Agreement contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement...

  18. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519.7010 Section 519.7010 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a)...

  19. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519.7010 Section 519.7010 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519.7010 Section 519.7010 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7206 Agreement contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement...

  2. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7206 Agreement contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement...

  3. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7206 Agreement contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement...

  4. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7206 Agreement contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement...

  5. Sustainable Trade: A New Paradigm for World Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanza, Robert; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the environmental impact of the liberalization of trade and calls for the development of a fair and sustainable trading system. Examines the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) for their impact on sustainable trade. (LZ)

  6. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  7. TILMA: The Impact of Domestic Trade Pacts on Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frampton, Caelie

    2008-01-01

    When U.S. presidential hopeful Barack Obama suggested he would reopen the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for negotiation, the ensuing debate demonstrated that international trade agreements are controversial. A new interprovincial trade agreement between British Columbia and Alberta, the Trade, Investment and Labour Mobility Agreement…

  8. 78 FR 75345 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... carriage of cargo in the trade between ports in Chile and U.S. Atlantic Coast ports. Agreement No.: 012235... arrangements in connection with the carriage of cargo in the trade between ports in Chile and U.S. West Coast... the parties to charter space to each other in the trade ports in Chile and United States...

  9. Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-24

    Stern and Rachel Van Dongen, Christian Science Monitor, June 17, 2003. and the Escuela Nacional Sindical (ENS) or National Labor School, a non...of death threats between 2003 and 2007, when murders were lower. Source: Escuela Nacional Sindical (ENS, 2008) Impunity The second main issue of...monthly minimum wage in Colombia, about $205, does not provide sufficient income to purchase a basic market basket of goods for a family of four. In

  10. Free Trade Agreement in Educational Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringler, Marjorie C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the role and purpose of school administrators in international schools and obtain data helpful in redesigning principal preparation programs. An ethnographic case study was designed to obtain perceptions of issues related to leadership, curriculum, teachers, students, and parents in two U.S. accredited…

  11. 15 CFR 2002.2 - Trade Policy Staff Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Staff Committee. 2002.2 Section 2002.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.2 Trade Policy Staff Committee. (a)...

  12. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.1 Trade Policy...

  13. Testing the Value of Silent Super 8MM Single Concept Loop Films as an Aid to the Acquisition of Manipulative Skills in the Machine Trades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, John N.; McNeill, Joseph G.

    1973-01-01

    A study, conducted to determine the effects of silent single concept loop films on student production and teacher dependency for machine trade instruction, is examined and discussed. The results showed no significant effect on student production; however, students' dependency on the teacher was reduced. (DS)

  14. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower…

  15. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (5) Stock issuance costs of open-end regulated investment companies. Amounts paid by an open-end... alternative): An initial public offering; a borrowing of funds; an acquisition by Z of a competitor; and an... authorizes an initial public offering of Y's stock to fund future growth. Y pays $5,000,000 in...

  16. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  17. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  18. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  19. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  20. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  1. Trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  2. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  3. 48 CFR 2831.109 - Advance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Advance agreements. 2831.109 Section 2831.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General Contracting..., and made a part of the contract file. Copies of executed advance agreements will be distributed to...

  4. 2 CFR 200.2 - Acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisition cost. 200.2 Section 200.2 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.2 Acquisition cost. Acquisition...

  5. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  6. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  7. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  8. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  9. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  10. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  11. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  12. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  13. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  14. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... borrowing also includes debt issued in a debt for debt exchange under § 1.1001-3. (10) Writing an option. (b... creation of an intangible described in § 1.263(a)-4 is subject to the rules contained in this section, and... intent, exclusivity agreement, or similar written communication (other than a confidentiality...

  15. 76 FR 38177 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Street, 46th Floor; Los Angeles, CA 90013. Synopsis: The agreement authorizes the parties to charter space in the trade from Vietnam to U.S. West Coast. Agreement No.: 012132. Title: Crowley/King Ocean Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties: Crowley Latin America Services, LLC and King Ocean...

  16. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  17. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  18. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  19. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  20. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  1. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  2. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  3. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  4. Stem tilting in the inter-tropical cactus Echinocactus platyacanthus: an adaptive solution to the trade-off between radiation acquisition and temperature control.

    PubMed

    Herce, M F; Martorell, C; Alonso-Fernandez, C; Boullosa, L F V V; Meave, J A

    2014-05-01

    While plants require radiation for photosynthesis, radiation in warm deserts can have detrimental effects from high temperatures. This dilemma may be solved through plant morphological attributes. In cold deserts, stem tilting keeps reproductive organs warm by increasing radiation interception at the cost of decreased annual light interception. Conversely, little is known about stem tilting in warm deserts. We hypothesised that stem tilting in Echinocactus platyacanthus prevents high temperatures near the apex, where reproduction occurs. The study was conducted in the warm, inter-tropical portion of the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico. We found that cacti preferentially tilted towards the south, which reduced temperatures of reproductive organs during the hot season, but increased total annual near-apex PAR interception. Tilting also maximised reproduction, a likely consequence of temperature control but perhaps also of the difficulty in translocating photosynthates in cacti; therefore, annual energy acquisition near floral meristems may be largely allocated to reproduction. Unlike plants of higher latitudes, in inter-tropical deserts sunlight at noon comes either from the north or the south, depending on the season, and thus stem tilting may more strongly affect total annual radiation received in different portions of the stem. Inter-tropical cacti can synchronise reproduction with irradiance peaks if flowering occurs in a specific (north or south) portion of the stem; also, they effectively solve the conflict between maximising annual PAR interception and minimising temperature at the hottest time of day. Notably, the two inter-tropical cacti in which stem tilting has been studied successfully solve this conflict.

  5. 48 CFR 217.7103-2 - Period of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Period of agreement. 217.7103-2 Section 217.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM.... (c) Cancellation of a master agreement does not affect the rights and liabilities under any job...

  6. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  7. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  8. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods...

  9. 48 CFR 316.770 - Unauthorized types of agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unauthorized types of agreements. 316.770 Section 316.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 316.770 Unauthorized types of agreements....

  10. 48 CFR 1604.7202 - Large Provider Agreement clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Large Provider Agreement... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Large Provider Agreements 1604.7202 Large Provider Agreement clause. The contracting officer will insert the clause...

  11. 48 CFR 1019.202-70-12 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1019.202-70-12 Section 1019.202-70-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1019.202-70-12 Agreement contents. The contents of the agreement will contain: (a) Names...

  12. 48 CFR 552.270-27 - Integrated Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integrated Agreement. 552.270-27 Section 552.270-27 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Integrated Agreement. As prescribed in 570.603, insert the following clause: Integrated Agreement (SEP...

  13. 48 CFR 552.270-27 - Integrated Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integrated Agreement. 552.270-27 Section 552.270-27 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Integrated Agreement. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Integrated Agreement (SEP...

  14. 48 CFR 552.270-27 - Integrated Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integrated Agreement. 552.270-27 Section 552.270-27 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Integrated Agreement. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Integrated Agreement (SEP...

  15. 48 CFR 552.270-27 - Integrated Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integrated Agreement. 552.270-27 Section 552.270-27 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Integrated Agreement. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Integrated Agreement (SEP...

  16. 48 CFR 552.270-27 - Integrated Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integrated Agreement. 552.270-27 Section 552.270-27 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Integrated Agreement. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Integrated Agreement (SEP...

  17. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  18. Global trade in satellites and launch services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives is presented. Written testimony, submittals for the record, and responses to written questions are included. Topics concerning the global trade in satellites and launch services include foreign competition, the China and Russia trade agreements, Commerce licensing on international sales and export, trade control, technology transfer, satellite communications and the economy, satellites and the global information infrastructure, commercial space revenues, and enforcement of trade policies.

  19. World Trade Organization activity for health services.

    PubMed

    Gros, Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?

  20. 77 FR 10743 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Sharing Agreement. Parties: MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company, S.A. and Zim Integrated Shipping Services... trade between countries in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Coast of the United States and Canada....: 201160-003. Title: Marine Terminal Lease and Operating Agreement Between Broward County and...

  1. 78 FR 35270 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... as a single carrier); A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S trading under the name of Maersk Line; China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Company Limited and China Shipping Container Lines Company Limited (operating as.... Synopsis: The amendment deletes Siberia Russia from the geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement...

  2. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  3. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  4. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  5. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  6. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  7. A General Agreement on Higher Education: GATS, Globalization, and Imperialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    Through successive rounds of negotiations, the World Trade Organization (WTO) encourages countries to commit their higher education system to the mandates of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The WTO is an organization committed to the aggressive trade liberalization of services like higher education. This ideology, known as…

  8. 15 CFR 296.8 - Joint venture agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint venture agreement. 296.8 Section 296.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  9. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  10. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  11. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  12. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  13. Integrating Library and Book Trade Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Sharon C.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of increased automation in the book trade and in library acquisitions systems, which will lead to a new type of bookseller-library interface and relationship, notes electronic equipment, library requirements, book-trade response, and design of interactive systems. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  14. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes.

  15. U.S. Trade Policy and the Caribbean: From Trade Preferences to Free Trade Agreements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-22

    Basin countries include Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El...11 Antigua /Barb 3 4 4 13 5 4 6 9 5 Grenada 27 24 7 8 5 6 5 8 7 Dominica 7 5 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 St. Vincent/the Grenadines 9 23 17 4 4 16 2 1 1...33 Srinivasan, T. N. The Costs of Hesitant and Reluctant Globalization: India . p. 31. http://www.econ.yale.edu/ ~srinivas/ and Özden, Caglar and Eric

  16. Problems of Interplanetary and Interstellar Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, John

    2008-01-01

    If and when interplanetary and interstellar trade develops, it will be novel in two respects. First, the distances and time spans involved will reduce all or nearly all trade to the exchange of intangible goods. That threatens the possibility of conducting business in a genuinely common currency and of enforcing debt agreements, especially those involving sovereign debt. Second, interstellar trade suggests trade between humans and aliens. Cultural distance is a probable obstacle to initiating and sustaining such trade. Such exchange also threatens the release of new and potentially toxic memes.

  17. 48 CFR 225.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... commercial items, if the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement applies. (ii) Use the... apply to all line items in the contract: (1) 252.225-7021, Trade Agreements. (2) 252.225-7036, Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program; or (E) All line items will be acquired using...

  18. 48 CFR 1604.7201 - FEHB Program Large Provider Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHB Program Large Provider... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Large Provider Agreements 1604.7201 FEHB Program Large Provider Agreements. The following provisions apply to all...

  19. 48 CFR 1602.170-15 - Large Provider Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 1602.170-15 Section 1602.170-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-15 Large Provider Agreement. (a) Large Provider Agreement means...

  20. 3 CFR - Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... Development Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (the...

  1. 48 CFR 217.7103-6 - Modification of master agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification of master agreements. 217.7103-6 Section 217.7103-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING...

  2. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... distribution worldwide....

  3. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... distribution worldwide....

  4. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... distribution worldwide....

  5. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... distribution worldwide....

  6. 75 FR 18035 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Iraq...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... applicability of the trade agreements (see response to comment 3.a.) Includes a modified definition of ``service... of trade agreements. 4. Definitions relating to sources, products, and services from Iraq or... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. (The definition of ``product from Iraq or Afghanistan''...

  7. 75 FR 13425 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-39; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru. 2008-036 Sakalos. VI Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect... award a single-award task- or delivery-order contract over $100 million does not apply to an architect... applicable trade agreements. Item VI--Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts (FAR Case...

  8. The role of science in international trade law.

    PubMed

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce.

  9. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  11. Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, Ronald; Sanger, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key “trade talk” terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalisation treaties. PMID:16905715

  12. Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2.

    PubMed

    Labonte, Ronald; Sanger, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key "trade talk" terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalization treaties.

  13. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  14. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  15. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  16. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  17. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  18. 48 CFR 1642.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 1642.1204 Agreement to recognize a... various Contracting Officers of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), has entered into Contract...

  19. 48 CFR 1642.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 1642.1204 Agreement to recognize a... various Contracting Officers of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), has entered into Contract...

  20. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  1. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  2. 77 FR 27774 - Kinder Morgan, Inc. and El Paso Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Kinder Morgan, Inc. and El Paso Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent...

  3. 78 FR 48163 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... notice of the filing of the following agreements under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may... Association and New York Shipping Association. Filing Parties: Donato Caruso, Esq.; The Lambos Firm; 303 South... assessment for all house containers within 260 miles, except in the Bermuda trade effective August 1,...

  4. 78 FR 1862 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    .... & Cia.; A.P. Moller- Maersk A/S trading under the name of Maersk Line; China Shipping Container Lines Co... under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments on the agreements to the... Sud Americana de Vapores, S.A.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Dole Ocean Cargo...

  5. 77 FR 76482 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... carrier); A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S trading as Maersk Line; China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Company Limited and China Shipping Container Lines Company Limited (operating as a single carrier); CMA CGM, S.A.; COSCO Container Lines Company Ltd; Evergreen Line Joint Service Agreement; Hanjin...

  6. 78 FR 28596 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ....: 012207. Title: CMA CGM/APL Slot Exchange Agreement, North Europe & Westmed--U.S. Gulf and East Coast... exchange space ] with each other in the trade between the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts on the one hand, and Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Morocco, Malta, Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain on...

  7. 77 FR 16838 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... in the trade between The U.S. West Coast and South Korea. Agreement No.: 012162. Title: Hoegh... from South Korea to the U.S. Atlantic Coast. By order of the Federal Maritime Commission. Dated: March... No.: 011463-007. Title: East Coast of North America to West Coast of South America and...

  8. 78 FR 54646 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    .../America Cruise Ferries, Inc. Space Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties: Crowley Latin America Services, LLC; and America Cruise Ferries, Inc. Filing Party: Marc J. Fink, Esq.; Cozen O'Connor; 1627 I Street... from America Cruise Ferries in the trade between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Dated:...

  9. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  10. Trade treaties and alcohol advertising policy.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ellen

    2005-09-01

    Restrictions on alcohol advertising are vulnerable to challenge under international trade agreements. As countries negotiate new trade treaties and expand the scope of existing ones, the risk of such a challenge increases. While alcohol advertising restrictions normally do not distinguish between foreign and domestic products, this neutral character does not protect them from being challenged under trade rules. The article analyzes four provisions of trade agreements--expropriation, de facto discrimination, market access, and necessity--in relation to the jeopardy they pose for alcohol advertising restrictions. Key cases are reviewed to illustrate how these provisions have been used to either overturn existing advertising restrictions or prevent new ones from coming into force. The article also reports on the mixed results governments have had in trying to justify their regulations to trade panels and the stringent criteria imposed for proving that a regulation is "necessary."

  11. 48 CFR 237.7201 - Educational service agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Educational service... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Educational Service Agreements 237.7201 Educational service agreement. (a) An educational service agreement is not a...

  12. 48 CFR 237.7201 - Educational service agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Educational service... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Educational Service Agreements 237.7201 Educational service agreement. (a) An educational service agreement is not a...

  13. 48 CFR 536.271 - Project labor agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project labor agreements... Construction 536.271 Project labor agreements. (a) Authority. This subpart implements the Presidential memorandum of June 5, 1997, on using project labor agreements (PLAs) on Federal construction projects....

  14. 48 CFR 217.7103-6 - Modification of master agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of master... Master Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103-6 Modification of master agreements. (a) Review each master agreement at least annually before the anniversary of its effective date and revise...

  15. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  16. Gender and Number Agreement in the Oral Production of Arabic Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas; Chakrani, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Heritage language acquisition has been characterized by various asymmetries, including the differential acquisition rates of various linguistic areas and the unbalanced acquisition of different categories within a single area. This paper examines Arabic heritage speakers' knowledge of subject-verb agreement versus noun-adjective agreement with the…

  17. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  18. 48 CFR 25.504-3 - FTA/Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FTA/Israeli Trade Act. 25.504-3 Section 25.504-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.504-3 FTA/Israeli...

  19. Successful associateship agreements.

    PubMed

    Crafton, B C

    1997-08-01

    When evaluating potential associateship agreements, dentists need to recognize and understand how status, noncompete clauses, scheduling and compensation affect the strength of an associateship agreement. Dentists should not enter an associateship agreement without fully understanding the agreement and its obligations or without the help of an accountant and an attorney.

  20. Big yellow taxi, or, unhealthy terms of trade?

    PubMed

    Broom, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    International trade agreements, including the General Agreement on Trade in Services, are central elements of globalization. These agreements are likely to have significant implications for population health in rich nations such as Australia as well as in the developing world. But the technical language of the legal agreements and the comparative secrecy of the negotiations and approval procedures make it difficult for most people to be adequately informed about them. Australian public health academics and practitioners must become better informed and more pro-active in their approach to 'free trade' if Australia's public health infrastructure is to be protected from potential legal erosion.

  1. 77 FR 71780 - U.S. Trade Mission to Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia, The Philippines, Hong Kong...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ..., including but not limited to: Aerospace and aviation, automotive electronics, computer services & software..., the Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS) went into force, becoming our nation's largest Free Trade... Japanese buyers. Best prospect sectors include: Aerospace, computer software,...

  2. Trade in health-related services.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Chanda, Rupa; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2009-02-14

    The supervision of a domestic health system in the context of the trade environment in the 21st century needs a sophisticated understanding of how trade in health services affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy. This notion places a premium on people engaged in the health sector understanding the importance of a comprehensive outlook on trade in health services. However, establishment of systematic comparative data for amounts of trade in health services is difficult to achieve, and most trade negotiations occur in isolation from health professionals. These difficulties compromise the ability of a health system to not just minimise the risks presented by trade in health services, but also to maximise the opportunities. We consider these issues by presenting the latest trends and developments in the worldwide delivery of health-care services, using the classification provided by the World Trade Organization for the General Agreement on Trade in Services. This classification covers four modes of service delivery: cross-border supply of services; consumption of services abroad; foreign direct investment, typically to establish a new hospital, clinic, or diagnostic facility; and the movement of health professionals. For every delivery mode we discuss the present magnitude and pattern of trade, main contributors to this trade, and key issues arising.

  3. 75 FR 23223 - Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    .... Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements. DATES: The meetings are... Federal Officers depending on the level of activity in trade agreement negotiations and/or other...

  4. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by…

  5. Remaking the World in Our Own Image: Australia's Efforts To Liberalise Trade in Education Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBurnie, Grant; Ziguras, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Describes Australia's role in promoting educational trade liberalization through the World Trade Organization's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services. The Australian government is pursuing a diversified approach to educational trade promotion, which includes building confidence in international quality assurance mechanisms and demonstrating…

  6. U.S. Trade Policy: A Selective Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Sarah, Comp.

    1988-01-01

    In February 1987, President Ronald Reagan proposed legislation to improve U.S. international trade in order to decrease the trade deficits. This legislative proposal would: (1) renew authority for negotiating agreements to remove trade barriers; (2) reduce self-imposed export barriers; (3) improve existing U.S. trade remedy laws; (4) overhaul…

  7. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... officer or a contracting officer at the VA National Acquisition Center or the Denver Acquisition and Logistics Center may sign an interagency agreement if the dollar threshold is within the contracting...

  8. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officer or a contracting officer at the VA National Acquisition Center or the Denver Acquisition and Logistics Center may sign an interagency agreement if the dollar threshold is within the contracting...

  9. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... officer or a contracting officer at the VA National Acquisition Center or the Denver Acquisition and Logistics Center may sign an interagency agreement if the dollar threshold is within the contracting...

  10. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... officer or a contracting officer at the VA National Acquisition Center or the Denver Acquisition and Logistics Center may sign an interagency agreement if the dollar threshold is within the contracting...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7020 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...,” “qualifying country end product,” “South Caucasus/Central and South Asian (SC/CASA) state,” “South Caucasus/Central and South Asian (SC/CASA) state end product,” and “U.S.-made end product” have the meanings given... that are U.S.-made, qualifying country, SC/CASA state, or designated country end products unless—...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cases, bracelets, and straps) of whatever type, including, but not limited to, mechanical, quartz digital, or quartz analog, if such watches or watch parts contain any material that is the product of...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cases, bracelets, and straps) of whatever type, including, but not limited to, mechanical, quartz digital, or quartz analog, if such watches or watch parts contain any material that is the product of...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cases, bracelets, and straps) of whatever type, including, but not limited to, mechanical, quartz digital, or quartz analog, if such watches or watch parts contain any material that is the product of...

  15. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in a Caribbean Basin country into a new and different article of commerce with a name, character, or... of duty apply (i.e., Afghanistan, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam); and (4) Certain of the... commerce with a name, character, or use distinct from that of the article or articles from which it...

  16. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... intellectual property rights; strengthening the development and enforcement of labor and environmental laws and... for which, like goods originating in Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Chile, Morocco, El Salvador, Guatemala... the United States by a resident of Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Chile, Morocco, El Salvador,...

  17. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-13

    13 Market Access...Common Market , relying instead on the canal and the large U.S. economy as its economic anchors. Panama has had a fully dollarized monetary system since...exports and 29.1% of its imports (see Figure 2). The EU is the second largest export market with a 20.7% export share, but accounts for only 6.4% of

  18. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-08

    significant advantage internationally in its ability to leverage its domestic markets in order to achieve market access for U.S. businesses in partner nations...positions the U.S. at a significant advantage internationally in its ability to leverage its domestic markets in order to achieve market access for U.S...knowledge and technology, and generally to reap the benefit of economic growth gained through increased efficiencies and market access. Economists

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in a Caribbean Basin country into a new and different article of commerce with a name, character, or..., Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali,...

  20. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in a Caribbean Basin country into a new and different article of commerce with a name, character, or..., Djibouti, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati... another country, has been substantially transformed in an FTA country into a new and different article...