Science.gov

Sample records for acquisition trade agreements

  1. 78 FR 37695 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    .... The Office of the United States Trade Representative negotiates the treaties, which are then... 9000-AM43 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama AGENCY: Department of... interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Panama...

  2. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the...

  3. 77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding the words ``Chile, Colombia, Costa... CAFTA-DR (Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El 77,494 77,494 7,777,000 Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and...) removing from the definition ``Free Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and...

  4. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... applicability of the Buy American statute (41 U.S.C. chapter 83) for some foreign supplies and construction... (DFARS 252.225-7017 and 252.225-7018) and the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of... (c) of DFARS 252.225-7036, Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program...

  5. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

  6. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  7. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  8. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  9. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  10. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Councils published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 74 FR... 74 FR 28426 on June 15, 2009, is adopted as a final rule without change. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-S ... 9000-AL23 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman,...

  11. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...

  12. 77 FR 30359 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... (ii), by removing ``Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding ``Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica'' in its place; and 0 b. In paragraph (a) in the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country'' removing ``Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica'' and...

  13. 77 FR 56739 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... the small American business owners' chances to compete, because of lower minimum wage in Korea. The... March 7, 2012 (77 FR 13952), to implement the Free Trade Agreement with the Republic of Korea, which... interim rule amending 48 CFR parts 4, 25, and 52, which was published in the Federal Register at 77...

  14. 78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... interim rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 31536 on May 29, 2012, to implement the United States... 252, which was published at 77 FR 31536 on May 29, 2012, is adopted as a final rule without change... Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032) AGENCY:...

  15. 77 FR 13952 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Trade Agreement country end products (other than Bahrainian, Korean, Moroccan, Omani, or Peruvian end... Bahrainian, Korean, Moroccan, Omani, or Peruvian End Products) or Israeli End Products: LINE ITEM NO. COUNTRY..., Korean, Moroccan, Omani, or Peruvian end product'' in paragraph (a) of the basic clause; and...

  16. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade...

  17. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  18. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  19. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  20. 48 CFR 18.118 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.118 Section 18.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.118 Trade...

  1. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  2. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  3. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  4. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  5. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  6. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  7. 77 FR 4629 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... January 30, 2012 Part II Department of Defense Defense Acquisitions Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212, 225, 231, et al. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplements; Final Rules and Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisitions Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 RIN 0750-AH50 Defense...

  8. 77 FR 69723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...-- Waiver of the applicability of the Buy American statute (41 U.S.C. chapter 83) for some foreign supplies..., Office of Governmentwide Acquisition Policy, Office of Acquisition Policy, Office of Governmentwide Policy. Therefore, DoD, GSA, and NASA amend 48 CFR parts 25 and 52 as set forth below: 0 1. The...

  9. 78 FR 79620 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... thresholds in the Federal Register (78 FR 76700, December 18, 2013): Supply contract Construction Trade... Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua)..... Chile FTA 79,507 7,864,000 Colombia FTA...

  10. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Register at 77 FR 68699 on November 16, 2012, to implement the United States--Panama Trade... rule under DFARS Case 2011-D046 (76 FR 78858, December 20, 2011). List of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 252... interim rule amending 48 CFR part 252, which was published at 77 FR 68699 on November 16, 2012, is...

  11. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...D, GSA, and NASA published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 27548 on May 10, 2012...) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). The comment period closed on July 9, 2012. No comments were received on the... multiple locations in the FAR. The Colombia FTA covers acquisition of supplies and services equal to...

  12. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    .... chapter 83) for some foreign supplies and construction materials from Panama; and Applicability of... Supplement part 225, Foreign Acquisition, and related clauses, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act... issued as an interim rule under DFARS Case 2011-D046 (76 FR 78858, December 20, 2011). VI....

  13. 48 CFR 225.401-70 - End products subject to trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Metalworking machinery 35 Service and trade equipment 36 Special industry machinery (except 3690) 37... trade agreements. 225.401-70 Section 225.401-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION...

  14. 48 CFR 225.401-70 - End products subject to trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Metalworking machinery 35 Service and trade equipment 36 Special industry machinery (except 3690) 37... trade agreements. 225.401-70 Section 225.401-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION...

  15. 78 FR 18344 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...--Israeli Trade Act Certificate. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43081, on July 23... Register at 77 FR 43081, on July 23, 2012. One respondent submitted public comments on the extension of the... other products, as provided for by law and treaty. Comment: The respondent commented that the agency...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act. 52.225-3 Section 52.225-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-3 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade...

  17. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  18. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  19. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  20. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  1. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  2. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate. 52.225-4 Section 52.225-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free...

  3. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate. 52.225-4 Section 52.225-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free...

  4. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  5. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009)...

  6. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009)...

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009)...

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009)...

  9. Trade agreements on know-how discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A.

    1983-10-01

    Under the conditions of the present scientific and technical revolution the thirst for possessing advanced production experience and knowledge has led to a significant increase in the number of agreements on the transmission of know-how as compared with license agreements, whose objects are patented scientific and technical achievements. As a rule, the All-Union Litsenzintorg Association concludes agreements on the transmission of know-how in the USSR. A number of other foreign trade associations also conclude such agreements. In accordance with their charters operations are performed for the transmission of know-how, when the latter form an integral part of agreements on the export or import of goods based on the products list of these associations. An analysis of the terms of agreements on the transmission of know-how shows that the rights and duties of the parties to the agreement coincide in large measure with the rights and duties of the licensor and licensee according to the license agreement.

  10. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. 25.407 Section 25.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION..., Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Macao, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,...

  11. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  12. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  13. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  14. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  15. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  16. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  17. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective October 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER..., the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement...

  18. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES... partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2010) (a) Definitions....

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As...

  1. 2 CFR 176.90 - Acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak...; (ix) United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement; and (x) United States-Singapore Free...

  2. 2 CFR 176.90 - Acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak...; (ix) United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement; and (x) United States-Singapore Free...

  3. 2 CFR 176.90 - Acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak...; (ix) United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement; and (x) United States-Singapore Free...

  4. 2 CFR 176.90 - Acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak...; (ix) United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement; and (x) United States-Singapore Free...

  5. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Final rule...

  6. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition... Buy American Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (MAY 2014) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item,” “construction material,” “designated country...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (JUN 2011)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (MAY 2012)...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (NOV 2009)...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (AUG 2013)...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (OCT 2013)...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... citations affecting 252.225-7021, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... United Kingdom); (ii) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia,...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... citations affecting 252.225-7021, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids...); (ii) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www...); (ii) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa...

  19. 48 CFR 225.7704-1 - Applicability of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7704-1 Applicability of trade agreements. As authorized by... of DoD, of products and services from SC/CASA states in direct support of operations in Afghanistan....

  20. 48 CFR 225.7704-1 - Applicability of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7704-1 Applicability of trade agreements. As authorized by... of DoD, of products and services from SC/CASA states in direct support of operations in Afghanistan....

  1. The NII and the New World Trade Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Oliver

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the new General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Topics discussed include the reduction or elimination of tariffs on NII products; protection of copyrighted works; unresolved trade issues, including the European telecommunications market; standards; and privacy and…

  2. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  3. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    PubMed

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. PMID:24074216

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(9)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (NOV...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (JUN...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(9)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (NOV...

  7. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquisition plus the estimated residual value of the leased equipment at the conclusion of the contemplated... the WTO GPA or an FTA, calculate the estimated acquisition value as follows: (i) If a fixed-term contract of 12 months or less is contemplated, use the total estimated value of the acquisition. (ii) If...

  8. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acquisition plus the estimated residual value of the leased equipment at the conclusion of the contemplated... the WTO GPA or an FTA, calculate the estimated acquisition value as follows: (i) If a fixed-term contract of 12 months or less is contemplated, use the total estimated value of the acquisition. (ii) If...

  9. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquisition plus the estimated residual value of the leased equipment at the conclusion of the contemplated... the WTO GPA or an FTA, calculate the estimated acquisition value as follows: (i) If a fixed-term contract of 12 months or less is contemplated, use the total estimated value of the acquisition. (ii) If...

  10. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Trading away our health?

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Schram, Ashley; Labonté, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    There is long-standing interest by the public health community in the potential implications of trade and investment agreements for public health. Our commentary highlights the main pathways by which the Trans-Pacific Partnerships (TPP), a comprehensive trade and investment agreement currently under negotiation, might undermine population health (based on analysis of and commentary about leaked chapters of the TPP), and calls for a more transparent and health-sensitive TPP negotiation process. We argue that use of comprehensive health impact assessments could be helpful in identifying how the potentially serious health consequences of the TPP and similar future international trade and investment agreements can be avoided, minimized or mitigated. PMID:26285198

  11. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-05-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

  12. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines. PMID:16710551

  13. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... information on how to make claims under these free trade agreements by going to http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov... following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and... collection be extended with a change to the burden hours. This document is published to obtain comments...

  14. The North American Free Trade Agreement. Headline Series No. 299.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, George W.

    This document discusses the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as a debate over the wisdom of opening the southern United States border to the free flow of goods and services between the United States and Mexico. The book is divided into six chapters. The first is a basic introduction to the development of the idea of a free trade…

  15. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru... chapter 98 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS) effected by...

  16. 77 FR 70527 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... States: The World Trade Organization (``WTO'') General Agreement on Trade in Services; The North American... practice of a country that has entered into a trade agreement or other telecommunications trade agreement...-agreements for links to U.S. FTAs); (5) Whether any country has failed to comply with its obligations...

  17. Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2014-06-01

    New trade agreements affect how governments can regulate for health both within health systems and in addressing health protection, promotion and social determinants of health in other policies. It is essential that those responsible for health understand the impacts of these trade negotiations and agreements on policy space for health at a national and local level. While we know more about implications from negotiations concerning intellectual property rights and trade in goods, this paper provides a screening checklist for less-discussed areas of domestic regulation, services, investment and government procurement. As implications are likely to differ on the basis of the organization and structures of national health systems and policy priorities, the emphasis is on finding out key provisions as well as on how exemptions and exclusions can be used to ensure policy space for health. PMID:25217355

  18. Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2014-06-01

    New trade agreements affect how governments can regulate for health both within health systems and in addressing health protection, promotion and social determinants of health in other policies. It is essential that those responsible for health understand the impacts of these trade negotiations and agreements on policy space for health at a national and local level. While we know more about implications from negotiations concerning intellectual property rights and trade in goods, this paper provides a screening checklist for less-discussed areas of domestic regulation, services, investment and government procurement. As implications are likely to differ on the basis of the organization and structures of national health systems and policy priorities, the emphasis is on finding out key provisions as well as on how exemptions and exclusions can be used to ensure policy space for health.

  19. Health services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services.

    PubMed Central

    Adlung, R.; Carzaniga, A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for trade in health services has expanded rapidly in recent decades. More efficient communication systems have helped to reduce distance-related barriers to trade; rising incomes and enhanced information have increased the mobility of patients; and internal cost pressures have led various governments to consider possibilities for increased private participation. As yet, however, health services have played only a modest role in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is possible that Members of the World Trade Organization have been discouraged from undertaking access commitments by the novelty of the Agreement, coordination problems between relevant agencies, widespread inexperience in concepts of services trade, a traditionally strong degree of government involvement in the health sector, and concerns about basic quality and social objectives. However, more than five years have passed since GATS entered into force, allowing hesitant administrations to familiarize themselves with its main elements and its operation in practice. The present paper is intended to contribute to this process. It provides an overview of the basic structure of GATS and of the patterns of current commitments in health services and of limitations frequently used in this context. The concluding section discusses possibilities of pursuing basic policy objectives in a more open environment and indicates issues that may have to be dealt with in current negotiations on services. PMID:11357215

  20. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately apparent, but…

  1. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Eligible products from WTO GPA and FTA countries are entitled to the nondiscriminatory treatment specified in 25.402(a)(1). The WTO GPA and FTAs specify procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness (see... the WTO GPA or an FTA, calculate the estimated acquisition value as follows: (i) If a...

  2. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  3. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  4. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  5. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  6. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter...

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American-Free Trade... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American—Free Trade...

  8. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Australia FTA), Chapter 9 of the United States- Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Bahrain FTA), Chapter 9 of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Chile FTA), Chapter 9 of the Dominican...

  9. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican Nursing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses’ security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services. PMID:20595330

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2012) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2012) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American —Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUN 2012) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  13. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology... Patents and Copyrights 27.204-1 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) The requirements of this section apply to the use of technology covered by a valid patent...

  14. The high price of "free" trade: U.S. trade agreements and access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Gleeson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The United States' pursuit of increasingly TRIPS-Plus levels of intellectual property protection for medicines in bilateral and regional trade agreements is well recognized. Less so, however, are U.S. efforts through these agreements to influence and constrain the pharmaceutical coverage programs of its trading partners. Although arguably unsuccessful in the Australia- U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), the U.S. nevertheless succeeded in its bilateral FTA with South Korea (KORUS) in establishing prescriptive provisions pertaining to the operation of coverage and reimbursement programs for medicines and medical devices, which have the potential to adversely impact future access in that country. More recently, draft texts leaked from the current Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations show that U.S. objectives include not only AUSFTA-Plus and KORUS-Plus IP provisions but also ambitious inroads into the domestic health programs of its TPPA partners. This highlights the apparent conflict between trade goals - pursued through multilateral legal instruments to promote economic "health"- and public health objectives, such as the development of treatments for neglected diseases, the pursuit of efficiency and equity in priority setting, and the procurement of medicines at prices that reflect their therapeutic value and facilitate affordable access. PMID:23581666

  15. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France..., Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom....

  16. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda. PMID:26270018

  17. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda.

  18. 76 FR 71617 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    .../trade-topics/services-investment/telecom-e-commerce/section-1377-review for recent reviews); and (7... ] opportunities for telecommunications products or services, e.g., the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services... telecommunications trade agreements with the United States other than FTAs, e.g., Mutual Recognition Agreements...

  19. Improving regulatory capacity to manage risks associated with trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Walls, Helen L; Smith, Richard D; Drahos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Modern trade negotiations have delivered a plethora of bilateral and regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs), which involve considerable risk to public health, thus placing demands on governments to strengthen administrative regulatory capacities in regard to the negotiation, implementation and on-going management of PTAs. In terms of risk management, the administrative regulatory capacity requisite for appropriate negotiation of PTAs is different to that for the implementation or on-going management of PTAs, but at all stages the capacity needed is expensive, skill-intensive and requires considerable infrastructure, which smaller and poorer states especially struggle to find. It is also a task generally underestimated. If states do not find ways to increase their capacities then PTAs are likely to become much greater drivers of health inequities. Developing countries especially struggle to find this capacity. In this article we set out the importance of administrative regulatory capacity and coordination to manage the risks to public health associated with PTAs, and suggest ways countries can improve their capacity. PMID:25890343

  20. Improving regulatory capacity to manage risks associated with trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Walls, Helen L; Smith, Richard D; Drahos, Peter

    2015-03-21

    Modern trade negotiations have delivered a plethora of bilateral and regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs), which involve considerable risk to public health, thus placing demands on governments to strengthen administrative regulatory capacities in regard to the negotiation, implementation and on-going management of PTAs. In terms of risk management, the administrative regulatory capacity requisite for appropriate negotiation of PTAs is different to that for the implementation or on-going management of PTAs, but at all stages the capacity needed is expensive, skill-intensive and requires considerable infrastructure, which smaller and poorer states especially struggle to find. It is also a task generally underestimated. If states do not find ways to increase their capacities then PTAs are likely to become much greater drivers of health inequities. Developing countries especially struggle to find this capacity. In this article we set out the importance of administrative regulatory capacity and coordination to manage the risks to public health associated with PTAs, and suggest ways countries can improve their capacity.

  1. 77 FR 37948 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Lists for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Singapore AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR''). ACTION: Invitation for... Free Trade Agreement (``USMFTA''), and the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (``USSFTA... Singapore. Chapter 20 of the USSFTA sets out detailed procedures for the resolution of disputes...

  2. 17 CFR 270.5b-3 - Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying securities. 270.5b-3 Section 270.5b-3..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.5b-3 Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated...

  3. 17 CFR 270.5b-3 - Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying securities. 270.5b-3 Section 270.5b-3..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.5b-3 Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated...

  4. 17 CFR 270.5b-3 - Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying securities. 270.5b-3 Section 270.5b-3..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.5b-3 Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated...

  5. 17 CFR 270.5b-3 - Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying securities. 270.5b-3 Section 270.5b-3..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.5b-3 Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated...

  6. A Marxist Analysis of the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikowski, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). There are many WTO Agreements, but TRIPS is likely to have significant implications for areas such as information, education and libraries. The article provides an overview of TRIPS in general. Various intellectual…

  7. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Sprungle, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6517. Other Operational Aspects: Katrina Chang, Trade Policy and Programs, ] Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6532. Legal... Proclamation 8783, CBP published on March 19, 2012, CBP Dec. 12-03 in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  8. The General Agreement on Trade in Services and Educational Services: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangas, Jim; Calderon, Angel J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the implications for higher education of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) negotiations towards the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS; see http://www.wto.org/) from the perspective of Australian educational institutions.

  9. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act-Free... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free...

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy American Act-Free... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(2)(i), insert the following provision: Buy American Act—Free...

  11. 78 FR 80379 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ..., Child Labor-- Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies, with conforming changes to the clause dates in...) * * * --(27) 52.222-19, Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (DEC 2013) ERT Abbreviated..., Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (DEC 2013) (E.O. 13126). (Applies to...

  12. 77 FR 12933 - Federal Acquisition Regulation: Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Representations and Certifications, and FAR clause 52.222-19, Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and...) * * * * * (b) * * * --(27) 52.222-19, Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (MAR 2012) (E.O...) * * * * * (b) * * * (1) * * * (i) 52.222-19, Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (MAR...

  13. [The Free Trade Agreement and environmental health in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Peña, P; Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, C; Zurutuza-Fernández, R; Jiménez-González, O

    1993-01-01

    This work offers an overview of the state of the art and future state of environmental health in our country from a viewpoint of the impact of the commercial opening established in the Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the USA, and Canada. In the first section of this work, we analyze the expected economic changes resulting from the implementation of the FTA and foretells the way in which those changes will influence the present environmental and epidemiologic profiles of this country in the medium and long term. The main changes predicted by the analysis are, in the epidemiologic context, the acceleration of the transference of occupational, consumption, environmental and population risks, characteristic of industrialized countries, to the country's polarized epidemiologic profile; and, in the environmental context, a transition consisting of a broadening and composition of the spectrum of pollutants, including and important lagging of bacteriologic control. The second section offers an analysis of the predicted response capacity facing the new environmental risk dynamics in the country, encompassing regulation, normativeness and enforcement of environmental and consumer protection, as well as obstacles found in health services to the implementation of surveillance, detection and treatment of health damages caused by environmental factors. The analysis of the organized social response to these problems discloses a relative flexibility of the normativeness and enforcement functions in comparison with our northern neighbors, a paramount factor for the possible transference of environmental risks, as well as the informational and research deficiency about environmental issues, basic elements for sustaining environmental health in the country, aiming at speeding up the development and transference of technologies for prevention, detection and management of environmental risks in the country, drawing upon the systematization of our experience and that of our neighbors

  14. 2 CFR 176.90 - Non-application to acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom); (2) The following Free Trade Agreements: (i) Dominican..., Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and...

  15. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 52.225-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... Trade Agreement country means Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.225-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the..., Peru, or Singapore. Free Trade Agreement country end product means an article that— (1) Is wholly...

  17. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in accordance with these... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the...

  18. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government...

  19. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which...

  20. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came...

  1. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government...

  2. 22 CFR 124.4 - Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 124.4 Section 124.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.4 Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. (a) The United States party to...

  3. 22 CFR 124.4 - Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 124.4 Section 124.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.4 Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. (a) The United States party to...

  4. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech..., Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom....

  5. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic..., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom....

  6. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transformation test of the Trade Agreements Act, from countries that are parties to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic..., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United Kingdom....

  7. Global trade requirements and compliance with World Trade Organization agreements: the role of tracing animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Beers, P T

    2001-08-01

    The use of a measure incorporating traceability that directly or indirectly affects international trade is permitted under the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, provided that the measure is applied in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. These provisions state that the measure must be necessary, scientifically justified, no more trade restrictive than required and consistent with the appropriate level of protection of the importing country. If requested, importing countries are required to assess claims by exporting countries regarding an alternative measure(s) providing an equivalent level of protection or with regard to regionalisation. PMID:11548514

  8. Trade Liberalisation, Regional Agreements and Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    According to the OECD, the value of global annual trade in 1999 in higher education has been estimated at USD 30 billion. Australia is a major participant in international education: it is the third-largest international student destination in the English-speaking world behind the United States and the United Kingdom. In recent times, the…

  9. 32 CFR 552.38 - Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders. 552.38 Section 552.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.38 Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders....

  10. 32 CFR 552.38 - Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders. 552.38 Section 552.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.38 Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders....

  11. 32 CFR 552.38 - Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders. 552.38 Section 552.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.38 Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders....

  12. 32 CFR 552.38 - Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders. 552.38 Section 552.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.38 Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders....

  13. 32 CFR 552.38 - Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders. 552.38 Section 552.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.38 Acquisition of maneuver agreements for Army commanders....

  14. 76 FR 13436 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...-2006 ((71 FR 77559 (12/26/2006)). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Church Albertson, Deputy..., Article 17.4 of the United States--Singapore Free Trade Agreement, Article 18.4 of the United...

  15. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, ``A panel review is deemed to be terminated on the...

  16. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  17. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... antidumping or countervailing duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of...

  18. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  19. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated pursuant to... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel...) of the Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, the panel review is terminated...

  20. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel... appointed to this panel review. Pursuant to Rule 71(2) of the Rules of Procedure for Article 1904...

  1. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  2. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists...

  3. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists...

  4. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  5. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... antidumping or countervailing duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of...

  6. 76 FR 62364 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were discharged...

  7. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... antidumping or countervailing duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of...

  8. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review...

  9. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated pursuant to... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, this panel review is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  10. 17 CFR 270.5b-3 - Acquisition of repurchase agreement or refunded security treated as acquisition of underlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the repurchase agreement remains, at least equal to the Resale Price provided in the agreement; (ii... rating category by the Requisite NRSROs; or (D) Unrated Securities that are of comparable quality to.... (7) Resale Price means the acquisition price paid to the seller of the securities plus the...

  11. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman... OFTA. The proclamation, which was published in the Federal Register on December 31, 2008 (73 FR 80289... preferential tariff (duty-free or reduced duty) treatment as specified in the Agreement. Under Article...

  12. 77 FR 44063 - Federal Acquisition Regulations; DARPA-New Mexico Tax Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations; DARPA-New Mexico Tax Agreement AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD... agencies that have entered into separate tax agreements with the State of New Mexico (NM). The DARPA-NM tax... the State of New Mexico entered into the DARPA-NM tax agreement to eliminate the double taxation...

  13. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States... Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES: February 14, 2011: Deadline for filing written statements... provisions relating to the passenger vehicle sector. In its request letter, the Committee requested that...

  14. "Trade creep" and implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement for the United Kingdom National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri; Tritter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The ambitious and comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP/TAFTA) agreement between the European Union and United States is now being negotiated and may have far-reaching consequences for health services. The agreement extends to government procurement, investment, and further regulatory cooperation. In this article, we focus on the United Kingdom National Health Service and how these negotiations can limit policy space to change policies and to regulate in relation to health services, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and health industries. The negotiation of TTIP/TAFTA has the potential to "harmonize" more corporate-friendly regulation, resulting in higher costs and loss of policy space, an example of "trade creep" that potentially compromises health equity, public health, and safety concerns across the Atlantic. PMID:24684086

  15. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request for Panel Review was... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  16. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review...

  17. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request for Panel Review was filed with the Mexican Section of the... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review...

  18. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel review...

  19. The Acquisition of Tense and Agreement by Early Child Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the acquisition of tense and agreement morphology by child L2 learners in an early stage of language acquisition. The objectives of this study are twofold. The first is to observe the development of verb inflections and syntactic competence over time from an early stage by Chinese child L2 learners of English. The…

  20. [General Agreement on Trade in Services and its implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Umaña-Peña, Román; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Due to the economic importance of the service sector and its trade potential, in 1995 the World Trade Organization (WTO) launched the General Agreement on Trade in Services with the objective of liberalizing trade in services worldwide and of establishing rules and disciplines to regulate it. Until now, the Agreement has produced few case laws on its rules and some of them are in the process of being developed, which makes the Agreement ambiguous and hampers accurate forecasting of its implications. Nevertheless, some analysts consider that certain characteristics and rules represent a threat to the funding mechanisms of public services and to the sovereignty of governments to generate their own rules. Moreover, the Agreement would lead to irreversible formalization of commitments, without the possibility of returning to previous conditions in the case of failure of the market and/or private participation. In addition, the Agreement acts against exclusive monopolies and providers and to a certain extent this will affect subsidies to local providers. The ability of the European Communities Court of Justice to enforce the implementation of competitive measures in public services has produced uncertainty because of the implications for health services. The Spanish Agreement with the WTO contains many questions that remain open, representing an opportunity for the participation of the health sector in the next negotiation rounds.

  1. Health Preemption Behind Closed Doors: Trade Agreements and Fast-Track Authority

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies’ influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. “Fast-track authority,” in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests. PMID:25033124

  2. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements.

  3. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-01-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs’ interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  4. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  5. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Trade Agreement. 41.59 Section 41.59 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.59... classified and is accompanying or following to join the principal alien. (b) Visa validity. The period...

  6. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for written submissions from the public... addressing counterfeiting and piracy. USTR is requesting written comments from the public on the final text... of the agreement. The deadline for submission of written comments is, 5 p.m., Tuesday, February...

  7. 78 FR 76700 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (United States-Singapore FTA). These obligations... Chapter 13 of the United States- Singapore FTA, do hereby determine, effective on January 1, 2014: For the.... XII. United States-Singapore FTA, Chapter 13 A. Central Government Entities Listed in the...

  8. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United... Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written submissions. December 13, 2010: Transmittal of...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  9. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; follow (FAR) 48 CFR part 25 instead. (3) For solicitations, orders, exercising of an option and contracts... Free Trade Agreement (FTA) listed in (FAR) 48 CFR Subpart 25.4, this subpart is applied as follows— (1... (FAR) 48 CFR 25.402, apply (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7002-1. Section 3025.7002-2(h) will exclude...

  10. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the WTO GPA, or any FTA listed in (FAR) 48 CFR subpart 25.4, apply the restrictions of (HSAR) 48 CFR... Free Trade Agreement (FTA) listed in (FAR) 48 CFR Subpart 25.4, this subpart is applied as follows— (1... (FAR) 48 CFR 25.402, apply (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7002-1. Section 3025.7002-2(h) will exclude...

  11. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation.

  12. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. PMID:25361743

  13. Distance health services under the general agreement on trade in services.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Matthew S

    2002-01-01

    This Article discusses the state of distance health with respect to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). After examining the various aspects of telemedicine and its place in international trade, the author looks at the structure and functioning of GATS and how telemedicine is regulated under this agreement. The author argues that the potential for telemedicine under this agreement has yet to be fulfilled and suggests a number of ways to realize its potential. Ultimately, however, the author concludes that the single most important international trade objective for the United States healthcare industry should be to get its own house in order with respect to cross-border provision of health services. From an international trade perspective, the problem of non-uniform state licensure requirements within the United States makes it very difficult for the United States to negotiate market access commitments for distance health services with other countries. Therefore, it is not realistic to expect significant progress in the liberalization of distance health services until the United States has in place a reasonably uniform domestic system of licensure and regulation for telemedicine practitioners. PMID:11974523

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate...

  16. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%–3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  17. 77 FR 66870 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On March 26, 2012, OTLA...' commitments under the Labor Chapter. OTLA accepted the Submission for review on May 14, 2012 (77 FR...

  18. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.

  19. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard.

  20. U.S. blocks trade agreement on generic drug access in poor countries.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2002-12-20

    Governments can override patents for legitimate purposes, including public health. But many small or poor countries hve no pharmaceutical industry to manufacture medicines themselves, and global trade rules being phased in will prevent others from exporting to them without the patent holder's permission. Negotiations to solve this problem broke down when the U.S. insisted that any agreement apply only to AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and similar major epidemics--excluding cancer, heart disease, and hundreds of other diseases. PMID:12569874

  1. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  2. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  3. Federal Trade Commission drops challenge to California hospital acquisition.

    PubMed

    Enders, R J

    1994-07-01

    The significance of patient outmigration patterns, third-party payor reaction, and post-merger cost savings have been regularly argued by defense counsel and hospitals as important consideration in the antitrust evaluation of hospital mergers. The reliance placed by the Commission on these factors in its Ukiah decision is a welcome confirmation that the antitrust agencies are increasingly sensitive to these aspects of hospital mergers, reflecting a more sophisticated understanding of the health care market than was suggested by the staff's more mechanical evaluative approach. Hospitals and their counsel should therefore prepare for and document these factors if they anticipate antitrust agency scrutiny of a proposed acquisition or merger.

  4. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... on April 11, 2013, at 78 FR 21523, effective when the U.S.-Australia DTC Treaty entered into force on...: I. Background DoD published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 30361 on May 22, 2012... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With Australia and the United...

  5. 78 FR 47813 - In the Matter of Bergamo Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Bergamo Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 2, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate...

  6. Impact of the World Trade Organization TRIPS agreement on the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Supakankunti, S.; Janjaroen, W. S.; Tangphao, O.; Ratanawijitrasin, S.; Kraipornsak, P.; Pradithavanij, P.

    2001-01-01

    The 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) established minimum universal standards in all areas of intellectual property. It is intended to implement these standards globally through a WTO enforcement mechanism. The present article proposes a strategy for alleviating the potentially negative impact of TRIPS in Thailand in relation to the following: purchasers; prescribers and dispensers; producers; products; price control; patent-to-third-party; parallel imports; power of the customer; patentable new drugs; personnel; and prevention policies. The following TRIPS provisions are pertinent to the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand: the limited term of product and process patents; the conditions of protection; and the broad scope for compulsory licensing and enforcement procedures in the national patent system. PMID:11417042

  7. 48 CFR 653.217-70 - DOS form DS-1921, Award/Modification of Interagency Acquisition Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOS form DS-1921, Award...-1921, Award/Modification of Interagency Acquisition Agreement. As prescribed in 617.504-70(b)(5)(i), DS-1921 is prescribed for use when awarding or modifying Economy Act Interagency Acquisition...

  8. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 6627), on February 10, 2010. The NAFTA Secretariat has assigned Case Number USA... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel...

  9. 76 FR 10005 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... and Strip in Coils from Mexico. This determination was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 2332...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel...

  10. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 9547), on February 18, 2011. The NAFTA Secretariat... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request for Panel Review was filed with the United States Section... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel...

  11. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... (77 FR 59178), on September 26, 2012. The NAFTA Secretariat has assigned Case Number USA- MEX-2012...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews;...

  12. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 1915), on January 12, 2012. The NAFTA Secretariat has assigned Case Number... (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews;...

  13. 78 FR 69518 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19 Roster AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Invitation for applications. SUMMARY: Chapter.... The United States annually renews its selections for the Chapter 19 roster. Applications are...

  14. 77 FR 64578 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... the Chapter 19 Roster AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Invitation for applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... NAFTA Party. The United States annually renews its selections for the Chapter 19 roster....

  15. 76 FR 65559 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... the Chapter 19 Roster AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Invitation for applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... NAFTA Party. The United States annually renews its selections for the Chapter 19 roster....

  16. 75 FR 64390 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... the Chapter 19 Roster AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Invitation for applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... NAFTA Party. The United States annually renews its selections for the Chapter 19 roster....

  17. Past, present and future of pharmaceutical patents under Korea-US Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoon Suk

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of substance patents in 1987 was viewed with apprehension as it was believed that the system would only reinforce the domination of the technology of advanced countries based on the trade agreement between Korea and the USA. However, substance patents provided the Korean pharmaceutical industry with the driving force required to develop new substances, and the Korean pharmaceutical industry has been constantly improving its research and development capability. The patent-approval linkage system was implemented according to the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement in 2015. The system comprises the following: registering the drugs in the Green List, notifying the listed patent and marketing approval holders about the application for generic marketing approval, patent holder's request for staying generic sales and first generic exclusivity. Korean generic companies are expected to have opportunities that enable them to challenge the global market by accumulating experience of designing of generic products, making patent challenges and strategically developing of new drugs or incrementally modified drugs through the linkage system. PMID:27338849

  18. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments’ ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  19. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  20. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  1. Physician agreements to control medical prepayment plans: Federal Trade Commission. Adoption and publication of enforcement policy with respect to physician agreements to control medical prepayment plans.

    PubMed

    1981-10-01

    The Federal Trade Commission has adopted, and is publishing with this notice, a statement of enforcement policy with respect to physician agreements to control medical prepayment plans. The statement sets forth the general approach the Commission intends to use in its case-by-case enforcement program for evaluating physician agreements to form, operate, or control such plans and for evaluating the practices of plans that are controlled by a group of physicians.

  2. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Frenk, J; Cruz, C

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.

  3. Consequences of the North American Free Trade Agreement for health services: a perspective from Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Frenk, J; Gómez-Dantés, O; Cruz, C; Chacón, F; Hernández, P; Freeman, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purposes of the study were to assess the potential impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on medical care in Mexico and to identify internal measures Mexico could take to increase the benefits and minimize the risks of free trade. METHODS. The dual nature of the health sector is examined; the Mexican, Canadian, and US health care systems are compared; and modes and consequences of international exchange of health services are analyzed. RESULTS. Four issues require immediate attention: accreditation of health care facilities, licensing and certification of professionals, technology assessment, and financial equity. CONCLUSIONS. NAFTA offers opportunities for positive developments in Mexico, provided risks can be anticipated and preventive measures can be taken to avoid negative impacts on the health system. Medical services, like other elements of the Mexican economy, must be modernized to respond to the demands of global competition. The Mexican National Academy of Medicine has recommended to the Mexican government (1) internal strengthening of the Mexican health care system to improve its ability to respond to the new conditions created by NAFTA and (2) a gradual process to facilitate equitable and mutually beneficial interactions among the three countries. PMID:7943476

  4. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora.

  5. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora. PMID:25217839

  6. 77 FR 51828 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for Submission 2011-03 (Dominican Republic) AGENCY: Bureau of... Dominican Republic (the Submission) filed under Chapter Sixteen (the Labor Chapter) of the...

  7. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  8. 78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  9. Toward the Successful Implementation of the North American Free-Trade Agreement: The Integration of Language and Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    This paper examines the need for the integration of language and business studies to enhance successful implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. For college and university graduates to deal effectively with French-Canadian and Mexican business people and consumers, they must be exposed to their languages and their cultures. This…

  10. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) on... after Malaysia joined the negotiations, the Commission delivered a report to the USTR on January 7, 2011... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of Providing...

  11. 77 FR 29519 - To Implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-12220 Filed 5-17-12... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation 1. On November 22, 2006, the United States entered into the United...

  12. 3 CFR 8783 - Proclamation 8783 of March 6, 2012. To Implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the... Proclamation 8783 of March 6, 2012 Proc. 8783 To Implement the United States-Korea Free Trade AgreementBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation......

  13. The role of veterinary epidemiology and veterinary services in complying with the World Trade Organization SPS agreement.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Thiermann, A; Kellar, J; Rojas, H; Willeberg, P

    2005-02-01

    The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade (WTO, 1998a). The SPS agreement's main intent is to provide guidelines and provisions to member countries to facilitate trade while taking measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The agreement dictates that all sanitary measures must be scientifically based and not more restrictive than required to avoid the risk identified. The agreement recommends the use of international standards from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Codex Alimentarius (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as the basis for import requirements. If a country chooses to apply more restrictive measures than those in the international standards, it has to justify its position through a risk analysis, thus avoiding the use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as unjustified barriers to trade. More than ever, veterinary services worldwide are faced with having to fulfill a crucial role in protecting their country's animal health status, provide sound surveillance information on the occurrence of diseases within their territories, and conduct scientifically valid risk analyses to establish justified import requirements. During the past two decades, most countries have experienced resource reduction in their veterinary services. The effect of these policies has been severe, in many cases leading to an inability of veterinary services to conduct their disease prevention and control duties. There is a clear inconsistency between the demands placed on veterinary services and the current level of funding and support they are receiving, particularly in

  14. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  15. Expanding comparative-advantage biological market models: contingency of mutualism on partners' resource requirements and acquisition trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Hoeksema, Jason D; Schwartz, Mark W

    2003-05-01

    We expand the comparative-advantage biological market-modelling framework to show how differences between partners, both in their abilities to acquire two resources and in their requirements for those resources, can affect the net benefit of participating in interspecific resource exchange. In addition, the benefits derived from resource trading depend strongly on the nature of the trade-off between the acquisition of one resource and the acquisition of another, described here by the shape (linear, convex or concave) of the resource acquisition constraints of the individuals involved. Combined with previous results, these analyses provide a suite of predictions about whether or not resource exchange is beneficial for two heterospecific individuals relative to a strategy of non-interaction. The benefit derived from resource exchange depends on three factors: (i) relative differences between the partners in their resource acquisition abilities; (ii) relative differences between the partners in their resource requirements; and (iii) variation in the shape of resource acquisition trade-offs. We find that such an explicit consideration of resource requirements and acquisition abilities can provide useful and sometimes non-intuitive predictions about the benefits of resource exchange, and also which resources should be traded by which species.

  16. 77 FR 26009 - CoStar Group, Inc., Lonestar Acquisition Sub, Inc., and LoopNet, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...Star Group, Inc., Lonestar Acquisition Sub, Inc., and LoopNet, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing... ACoStar LoopNet, File No. 111 0172'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https... April 16, 2012. Write ACoStar LoopNet, File No. 111 0172'' on your comment. Your comment B...

  17. Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Lithuanian: Exploring the Effect of Diminutive Usage in an Elicited Production Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Ineta; Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines Lithuanian children's acquisition of gender agreement using an elicited production task. Lithuanian is a richly inflected Baltic language, with two genders and seven cases. Younger (N = 24, mean 3 ; 1, 2 ; 5-3 ; 8) and older (N = 24, mean 6 ; 3, 5 ; 6-6 ; 9) children were shown pictures of animals and asked to describe them…

  18. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-10-01

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts--if any--the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions. PMID:16209703

  19. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-10-01

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts--if any--the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  20. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions. PMID:16209703

  1. 78 FR 19566 - Request for Comments Concerning Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... agreement, and (b) the impact of the proposed agreement on U.S. employment and labor markets. Oral Testimony... the negotiations; (o) relevant labor issues that should be addressed in the negotiations; (p)...

  2. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of completion of panel review of the Department of Commerce's final determination. SUMMARY:...

  3. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 30356 on May 22... subject to review under section 6(b) of E.O. 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, dated September 30... of $100,000, DoD does not anticipate any significant economic impact on U.S. small businesses....

  4. 75 FR 32637 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2009...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Representative has specified the following new thresholds (74 FR 68907, December 29, 2009): Supply Construction... 70,079 7,804,000 Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) Chile FTA 70,079...

  5. 75 FR 38689 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-040, Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...) 52.222-19, Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (Jul 2010) (E.O. 13126... 2010) (b) * * * (1) * * * (i) 52.222-19, Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (Jul...-19 Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies. * * * * * CHILD LABOR--COOPERATION...

  6. 77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., the thirteenth line from the bottom of the page is amended to read: ``(27) 52.222-19, Child Labor... third column, the ninth line from the top of the page is amended to read: ``(i) 52.222-19, Child Labor... twenty-fifth line from the top of the page is amended to read: ``CHILD LABOR--COOPERATION...

  7. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...) 52.222-19, Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (MAR 2012) (E.O. 13126...) * * * (1) * * * (i) 52.222-19, Child Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies (MAR 2012) (E.O... Labor--Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies. * * * * * CHILD LABOR--COOPERATION WITH...

  8. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 58856) waiving the Buy American Act and other... Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic... * * * * * (b) * * * Those countries are Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech...

  9. 75 FR 26822 - In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 10, 2010. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of...

  10. Acquisition of Spanish Gender Agreement in Two Learning Contexts: Study Abroad and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelli-Garcia, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the acquisition rate for gender acquisition in Spanish and to show whether individual variability and language contact may affect this rate. The participants were intermediate second language Spanish (first language English) learners in the study abroad and at-home contexts over a 4-month period. The…

  11. Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Dutch: Evidence from Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Blom, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Across languages, children do not comprehend 3SG/3PL subject-verb agreement before age five, despite early mastery in spontaneous speech. This study investigates subject-verb agreement in a language hitherto not studied in this respect, namely Dutch. The authors examine if (1) Dutch two- and three-year-olds comprehend subject-verb agreement and…

  12. 78 FR 55135 - Request for Comments on Additional Participants in Trade in Services Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... additional trading partners, Paraguay and Liechtenstein, are willing and able to meet the high standards... http://www.regulations.gov under docket number USTR-2013-0001. With the addition of Paraguay and... Participants--Paraguay and Liechtenstein.'' In order to be assured of consideration, comments should...

  13. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... final remand determination made by the United States International Trade Commission, in the matter of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, Secretariat File No. USA-MEX-2008-1904-04. SUMMARY... Commission concerning Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico. The Secretariat was instructed...

  14. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... have expertise or experience in labor law or its enforcement, or in the resolution of disputes arising... labor law or its enforcement, international trade, or the resolution of disputes arising under... services, labor, and environment matters. USTR is inviting interested persons to apply to be on one or...

  15. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... practical utility; (b) the accuracy of the agency's estimates of the burden of the collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; (d) ways to... conditions of fair competition within the free trade area, and to liberalize conditions for investments...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart B...—Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public... acquisition and/or site development as follows: (herein called project) to serve the approved...

  17. Age of Acquisition and Proficiency as Factors in Language Production: Agreement in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Research on the production of subject-verb number agreement in monolinguals suggests differences between and within languages in how it proceeds as a function of morphological richness. When agreement morphology is relatively rich, the influence of conceptual number over grammatical number is less than when it is relatively poor. Within the…

  18. 75 FR 70770 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... following agreements regarding telecommunications products and services of the United States: the World... States. The purpose of the review is to determine whether any act, policy, or practice of a country that.... FTAs); (5) Whether any country has failed to comply with its obligations under telecommunications...

  19. 77 FR 58098 - Haier America Trading, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... accordance with the terms of 16 CFR 1118.20(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement... retailers, approximately 53,800 electric blenders (``Blenders''). The Blenders were sold at retail stores in...(e). If the Commission does not receive any written request not to accept the Agreement within...

  20. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. Design A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. Results In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. Conclusions The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. PMID:27044579

  1. 17 CFR 250.51 - Acquisitions pursuant to preliminary agreements and invitation for tenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisitions pursuant to... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Regulation and Exemption of Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.51...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development...—Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services This agreement dated , 19_, between a public body corporate organized...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development...—Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services This agreement dated , 19_, between a public body corporate organized...

  4. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, E. L.; Westover, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, the laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The “open border” approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warmwater zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries.

  5. 76 FR 30499 - To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ....014 TD25MY11.015 ] TD25MY11.016 [FR Doc. 2011-13171 Filed 5-24-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 7020-02-C ...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other Purposes By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation 1. On May 6, 2003, the President entered into the United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  6. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules. PMID:15200090

  7. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  8. Development and application of a model for the analysis of trades between space launch system operations and acquisition costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Michael B.

    2005-12-01

    Early design decisions in the development of space launch systems determine the costs to acquire and operate launch systems. Some sources indicate that as much as 90% of life cycle costs are fixed by the end of the critical design review phase. System characteristics determined by these early decisions are major factors in the acquisition cost of flight hardware elements and facilities and influence operations costs through the amount of maintenance and support labor required to sustain system function. Operations costs are also dependent on post-development management decisions regarding how much labor will be deployed to meet requirements of market demand and ownership profit. The ability to perform early trade-offs between these costs is vital to the development of systems that have the necessary capacity to provide service and are profitable to operate. An Excel-based prototype model was developed for making early analyses of trade-offs between the costs to operate a space launch system and to acquire the necessary assets to meet a given set of operational requirements. The model, integrating input from existing models and adding missing capability, allows the user to make such trade-offs across a range of operations concepts (required flight rates, staffing levels, shifts per workday, workdays per week and per year, unreliability, wearout and depot maintenance) and the number, type and capability of assets (flight hardware elements, processing and supporting facilities and infrastructure). The costs and capabilities of hypothetical launch systems can be modeled as a function of interrelated turnaround times and labor resource levels, and asset loss and retirement. The number of flight components and facilities required can be calculated and the operations and acquisition costs compared for a specified scenario. Findings, based on the analysis of a hypothetical two stage to orbit, reusable, unmanned launch system, indicate that the model is suitable for the

  9. Higher Education Crossing Borders. A Guide to the Implications of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for Cross-Border Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This Guide examines the different dimensions of cross-border education within the context of General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): the present landscape, opportunities and challenges and the implications for policy and practice in higher education. It is meant for a range of stakeholders: policymakers, senior academic leaders, faculty…

  10. An Examination of Electronic Links between the Book Trade and Library Acquisitions Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Sharon C.

    Based on interviews and correspondence conducted during 1981, this report describes British library and book trade plans for expansion of their internal order processing systems to include the eventual exchange of data through the use of telecommunications. Comparisons are made between the situation in England and the United States. The report…

  11. Modeling the carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: Mycorrhizal trade-offs and multipath resistance uptake improve predictions of retranslocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzostek, Edward R.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Phillips, Richard P.

    2014-08-01

    Accurate projections of the future land carbon (C) sink by terrestrial biosphere models depend on how nutrient constraints on net primary production are represented. While nutrient limitation is nearly universal, current models do not have a C cost for plant nutrient acquisition. Also missing are symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi, which can consume up to 20% of net primary production and supply up to 50% of a plant's nitrogen (N) uptake. Here we integrate simultaneous uptake and mycorrhizae into a cutting-edge plant N model—Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN)—that can be coupled into terrestrial biosphere models. The C cost of N acquisition varies as a function of mycorrhizal type, with plants that support arbuscular mycorrhizae benefiting when N is relatively abundant and plants that support ectomycorrhizae benefiting when N is strongly limiting. Across six temperate forested sites (representing arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated stands and 176 site years), including multipath resistance improved the partitioning of N uptake between aboveground and belowground sources. Integrating mycorrhizae led to further improvements in predictions of N uptake from soil (R2 = 0.69 increased to R2 = 0.96) and from senescing leaves (R2 = 0.29 increased to R2 = 0.73) relative to the original model. On average, 5% and 9% of net primary production in arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated forests, respectively, was needed to support mycorrhizal-mediated acquisition of N. To the extent that resource constraints to net primary production are governed by similar trade-offs across all terrestrial ecosystems, integrating these improvements to FUN into terrestrial biosphere models should enhance predictions of the future land C sink.

  12. 76 FR 42163 - Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade... Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  13. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  14. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right. PMID:19492630

  15. 75 FR 66680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-New Thresholds (DFARS 2009-D040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... changes to keep pace with inflation and thus maintain the status quo. IV. Paperwork Reduction Act This... in line with inflation and maintain the status quo. List of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 225 Government... (75 FR 32637) to amend the clause prescriptions at DFARS 225.1101 and 225.7503 to reflect...

  16. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States... quota for imports of sugar from Colombia. USTR is providing notice that the United States,...

  17. 77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quotas for sugar established by the United States-Panama... imports of sugar from Panama. USTR is providing notice that the United States, consistent with Note...

  18. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Review, made by the International Trade Administration, respecting Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada. This determination was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 34,044), on June 10, 2011... published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request for Panel Review...

  19. A vegetation management plan for Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site: Final report for interagency agreement number F154910005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This report provides Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site, a small NPS unit on the border of Montana and North Dakota, a framework and reasonable tools for future vegetation management at the site in the context of probable historic, current, and desired future vegetation.

  20. Higher Education and the General [Lack of] Agreement on Trade in Services: From Doha to Hong Kong and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim

    2006-01-01

    What international framework, if any, is higher education subject to in terms of its work, not in the sense of validating its programmes or safeguarding its academic freedom, but in terms of its funding, its operating environment and its stakeholders? Is it viewed as a business in some sense? Is it subject to trade rules and negotiations? All of…

  1. 78 FR 23954 - U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... with respect to the effect of the removal of the tariff. In addition, the USTR requested that the... economic effects of eliminating tariffs on imports from all of the EU member states of those agricultural... Effect of Providing Duty- Free Treatment for Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  2. The Application of a Trade Study Methodology to Determine Which Capabilities to Implement in a Test Facility Data Acquisition System Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougal, Kristopher J.

    2008-01-01

    More and more test programs are requiring high frequency measurements. Marshall Space Flight Center s Cold Flow Test Facility has an interest in acquiring such data. The acquisition of this data requires special hardware and capabilities. This document provides a structured trade study approach for determining which additional capabilities of a VXI-based data acquisition system should be utilized to meet the test facility objectives. The paper is focused on the trade study approach detailing and demonstrating the methodology. A case is presented in which a trade study was initially performed to provide a recommendation for the data system capabilities. Implementation details of the recommended alternative are briefly provided as well as the system s performance during a subsequent test program. The paper then addresses revisiting the trade study with modified alternatives and attributes to address issues that arose during the subsequent test program. Although the model does not identify a single best alternative for all sensitivities, the trade study process does provide a much better understanding. This better understanding makes it possible to confidently recommend Alternative 3 as the preferred alternative.

  3. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    PubMed

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam. PMID:25469870

  4. 77 FR 26252 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Administration Review. This determination was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 17422), on March 26, 2012... published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). A first Request for Panel Review was... Agreement. On April 25, 2012, an additional Request was filed on behalf of LG Electronics Monterrey...

  5. The Political Trade-offs of Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosshardt, William

    1996-01-01

    Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

  6. Second Language Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Explicit and Implicit Training Conditions: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Sanz, Cristina; Steinhauer, Karsten; Ullman, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed an artificial language learning paradigm together with a combined behavioral/event-related potential (ERP) approach to examine the neurocognition of the processing of gender agreement, an aspect of inflectional morphology that is problematic in adult second language (L2) learning. Subjects learned to speak and comprehend an…

  7. 75 FR 19168 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-005, Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Executive Order (E.O.) 13502, Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects. The E.O... promote economy and efficiency in Federal procurement. DATES: Effective Date: May 13, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For clarification of content, contact Mr. Ernest Woodson, Procurement Analyst, at...

  8. Spanish Gender Agreement under Complete and Incomplete Acquisition: Early and Late Bilinguals' Linguistic Behavior within the Noun Phrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Irma V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores knowledge of Spanish grammatical gender in both comprehension and production by heritage language speakers and second language (L2) learners, with native Spanish speakers as a baseline. Most L2 research has tended to interpret morphosyntactic variability in interlanguage production, such as errors in gender agreement, as…

  9. Tracking Irregular Morphophonological Dependencies in Natural Language: Evidence from the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzi, Thierry; Barriere, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Kresh, Sarah; Legendre, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    This study examines French-learning infants' sensitivity to grammatical non-adjacent dependencies involving subject-verb agreement (e.g., "le/les garcons lit/lisent" "the boy(s) read(s)") where number is audible on both the determiner of the subject DP and the agreeing verb, and the dependency is spanning across two syntactic phrases. A further…

  10. Tracking irregular morphophonological dependencies in natural language: evidence from the acquisition of subject-verb agreement in French.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Thierry; Barrière, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Kresh, Sarah; Legendre, Géraldine

    2011-07-01

    This study examines French-learning infants' sensitivity to grammatical non-adjacent dependencies involving subject-verb agreement (e.g., le/les garçons lit/lisent 'the boy(s) read(s)') where number is audible on both the determiner of the subject DP and the agreeing verb, and the dependency is spanning across two syntactic phrases. A further particularity of this subsystem of French subject-verb agreement is that number marking on the verb is phonologically highly irregular. Despite the challenge, the HPP results for 24- and 18-month-olds demonstrate knowledge of both number dependencies: between the singular determiner le and the non-adjacent singular verbal forms and between the plural determiner les and the non-adjacent plural verbal forms. A control experiment suggests that the infants are responding to known verb forms, not phonological regularities. Given the paucity of such forms in the adult input documented through a corpus study, these results are interpreted as evidence that 18-month-olds have the ability to extract complex patterns across a range of morphophonologically inconsistent and infrequent items in natural language.

  11. Impact of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement on India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Babovic, Sonja; Wasan, Kishor M

    2011-03-01

    This is a commentary on how the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement has impacted India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals (ARVs). We provide a systematic review of the issues related to the TRIPS agreement that affects India. This includes discussion around (a) the legal landscape underpinning India as a supplier of generic ARVs; (b) supply of second-line ARVs; and (c) the future of generic drug production in India. The proclamation into force of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property law in India is likely to affect its position as a supplier of affordable ARVs, especially drugs brought to market after 2005. Currently, mechanisms exist for the generic production of almost all ARVs in India, including second-line drugs; however, the manufacture of these drugs by generic pharmaceutical companies may require additional market incentives. Compulsory licensing may emerge as an additional mechanism by which India can provide affordable versions of patented drugs to Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

  12. A standardized set of 260 pictures for Turkish: norms of name and image agreement, age of acquisition, visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity.

    PubMed

    Raman, Ilhan; Raman, Evren; Mertan, Biran

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, normative data in Turkish are presented for the 260 color versions of the original Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set for the first time. Norms are reported for name and image agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity, together with written word frequency, and numbers of letters and syllables. We collected data from 277 native Turkish adults in a variety of tasks. The results indicated that, whilst several measures displayed language-specific variation, we also reported what seem to be language-independent-that is, universal-measures that show a systematic relationship across several languages. The implications of the reported measures in the domain of psycholinguistic research in Turkish and for wider cross-linguistic comparisons are discussed.

  13. A standardized set of 260 pictures for Turkish: norms of name and image agreement, age of acquisition, visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity.

    PubMed

    Raman, Ilhan; Raman, Evren; Mertan, Biran

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, normative data in Turkish are presented for the 260 color versions of the original Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set for the first time. Norms are reported for name and image agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), visual complexity, and conceptual familiarity, together with written word frequency, and numbers of letters and syllables. We collected data from 277 native Turkish adults in a variety of tasks. The results indicated that, whilst several measures displayed language-specific variation, we also reported what seem to be language-independent-that is, universal-measures that show a systematic relationship across several languages. The implications of the reported measures in the domain of psycholinguistic research in Turkish and for wider cross-linguistic comparisons are discussed. PMID:23943583

  14. 48 CFR 225.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., when the acquisition is of end products listed in 225.401-70 in support of operations in Afghanistan... Afghanistan. (3) Use the clause at 252.225-7002, Qualifying Country Sources as Subcontractors, in... in Afghanistan. (6)(i) Use the clause at 252.225-7021, Trade Agreements, in solicitations...

  15. 48 CFR 225.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., when the acquisition is of end products listed in 225.401-70 in support of operations in Afghanistan... Afghanistan. (3) Use the clause at 252.225-7002, Qualifying Country Sources as Subcontractors, in... in Afghanistan. (6)(i) Use the clause at 252.225-7021, Trade Agreements, instead of the clause at...

  16. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  17. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  18. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play.

  19. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 390 - Sample Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... U.S.C. 53501, which vessels are listed in Schedule A hereof; 3. The Party has a program for the construction or acquisition of qualified agreement vessels as defined in 46 U.S.C. 53501, which program is... noncontiguous domestic trade, and to provide for qualified withdrawals to achieve the program set forth...

  20. Disentangling the Impact of Semantic and Formal Factors in the Acquisition of Number Inflections: Noun, Adjective and Verb Agreement in Written French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayol, M.; Totereau, Corinne; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In written French, the acquisition of the nominal plural ("-s") occurs earlier and faster than the acquisition of the verbal plural ("-nt") (Totereau, Thevenin & Fayol, 1997, "Learning to Spell"). The reasons for this difference are not well known. The objective of the present research is to test two alternative hypotheses, which may provide an…

  1. 78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... (SMEs) since entry into force of the agreement on March 15, 2012. The Commission, to the extent..., and export strategy of U.S. SMEs, as identified by those SMEs, and describing how U.S. SMEs have benefited from specific provisions of the agreement, as well as challenges that U.S. SMEs may have faced...

  2. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  3. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Copeland “Anti-Kick Back” Act (18 USC 874) as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR, part... CFR, part 5). 18. Include in all contracts in excess of $2,500 a provision for compliance with... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart...

  5. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  6. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  7. 77 FR 68121 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... trade between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Agreement No.: 012186. Title: Crowley/Priority Ro... trade between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic for cargo originating in Puerto Rico as well as...

  8. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade...

  9. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... state regulators file suit against V to prevent the acquisition of X on the ground that the acquisition... alleging tort liability based on X's role in manufacturing certain defective products. X files a petition... proceeding is instituted. For example, an amount paid to prepare and file a petition under Chapter 11,...

  10. 48 CFR 49.109 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement agreements. 49.109 Section 49.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109 Settlement agreements....

  11. 77 FR 1689 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... . Agreement No.: 012150. Title: COSCON/POS Space Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties: COSCO Container Lines... COSCO to charter space to Hainan POS in the trade between U.S. West Coast ports and ports in China...

  12. Sustainable Trade: A New Paradigm for World Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanza, Robert; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the environmental impact of the liberalization of trade and calls for the development of a fair and sustainable trading system. Examines the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) for their impact on sustainable trade. (LZ)

  13. 48 CFR 16.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic agreements. 16.702... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 16.702 Basic agreements. (a) Description. A basic... attachment the required and applicable clauses agreed upon in the basic agreement. A basic agreement is not...

  14. 48 CFR 16.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic agreements. 16.702... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 16.702 Basic agreements. (a) Description. A basic... attachment the required and applicable clauses agreed upon in the basic agreement. A basic agreement is not...

  15. 48 CFR 16.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic agreements. 16.702... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 16.702 Basic agreements. (a) Description. A basic... attachment the required and applicable clauses agreed upon in the basic agreement. A basic agreement is not...

  16. 48 CFR 16.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic agreements. 16.702... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 16.702 Basic agreements. (a) Description. A basic... attachment the required and applicable clauses agreed upon in the basic agreement. A basic agreement is not...

  17. 48 CFR 16.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic agreements. 16.702... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 16.702 Basic agreements. (a) Description. A basic... attachment the required and applicable clauses agreed upon in the basic agreement. A basic agreement is not...

  18. TILMA: The Impact of Domestic Trade Pacts on Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frampton, Caelie

    2008-01-01

    When U.S. presidential hopeful Barack Obama suggested he would reopen the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for negotiation, the ensuing debate demonstrated that international trade agreements are controversial. A new interprovincial trade agreement between British Columbia and Alberta, the Trade, Investment and Labour Mobility Agreement…

  19. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  20. 75 FR 34138 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... appears in the Federal Register. Copies of the agreements are available through the Commission's Web site.... Synopsis: The agreement authorizes K-Line to charter space to CSAV in the trade from Mexico to the U.S... parties to sell or exchange slots to one another in the trades between U.S. ports and ports in......

  1. 75 FR 13411 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-39; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... 2008 National Defense Authorization Act. V Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru. 2008-036... will be ] conducted as other than full and open competition. Item V--Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman... Dominican Republic--Central America-- United States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica,...

  2. Free Trade Agreement in Educational Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringler, Marjorie C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the role and purpose of school administrators in international schools and obtain data helpful in redesigning principal preparation programs. An ethnographic case study was designed to obtain perceptions of issues related to leadership, curriculum, teachers, students, and parents in two U.S. accredited…

  3. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower salaries…

  4. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  5. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs)....

  6. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....303 Blanket purchase agreements....

  7. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....303 Blanket purchase agreements....

  8. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  9. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs)....

  10. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  11. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  12. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  13. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  14. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  15. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  16. 48 CFR 217.7103 - Master agreements and job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Master agreements and job orders. 217.7103 Section 217.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103 Master agreements and job orders....

  17. 48 CFR 3416.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic agreements. 3416.702... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 3416.702 Basic agreements. (a)-(d) (e) Negotiated overhead rates. Basic agreements may include negotiated overhead rates for...

  18. Trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  19. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  20. Teachers, Trade, and Taxes: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2000-01-01

    Teachers' eyes glaze over when conversation turns to how international trade agreements might affect public education. Industry Canada says GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) will open up new markets in postsecondary education without damaging elementary/secondary education. MAI was deflected, but WTO agreements pose threats. (MLH)

  1. 23 CFR 710.307 - Project agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acquisitions, including hardship acquisition and protective buying (see 23 CFR 710.503). The STD must prepare a project agreement in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart C. The agreement shall be based on an..., donations, or other contributions applied to the project provided conditions in 23 U.S.C. 323 and 23 CFR...

  2. 23 CFR 710.307 - Project agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acquisitions, including hardship acquisition and protective buying (see 23 CFR 710.503). The STD must prepare a project agreement in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart C. The agreement shall be based on an..., donations, or other contributions applied to the project provided conditions in 23 U.S.C. 323 and 23 CFR...

  3. 23 CFR 710.307 - Project agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acquisitions, including hardship acquisition and protective buying (see 23 CFR 710.503). The STD must prepare a project agreement in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart C. The agreement shall be based on an..., donations, or other contributions applied to the project provided conditions in 23 U.S.C. 323 and 23 CFR...

  4. 23 CFR 710.307 - Project agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acquisitions, including hardship acquisition and protective buying (see 23 CFR 710.503). The STD must prepare a project agreement in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart C. The agreement shall be based on an..., donations, or other contributions applied to the project provided conditions in 23 U.S.C. 323 and 23 CFR...

  5. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement will contain the following elements: (a) The name, address,...

  6. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement will contain the following elements: (a) The name, address,...

  7. 48 CFR 842.1203 - Processing agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing agreements. 842.1203 Section 842.1203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT... submit all supporting agreements and documentation to the OGC for review as to legal sufficiency....

  8. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement will contain the following elements: (a) The name, address,...

  9. 23 CFR 710.307 - Project agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acquisitions, including hardship acquisition and protective buying (see 23 CFR 710.503). The STD must prepare a project agreement in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart C. The agreement shall be based on an..., donations, or other contributions applied to the project provided conditions in 23 U.S.C. 323 and 23 CFR...

  10. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement will contain the following elements: (a) The name, address,...

  11. 48 CFR 1819.7206 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1819.7206 Section 1819.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... contents. Each mentor-protégé agreement will contain the following elements: (a) The name, address,...

  12. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  13. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  14. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  15. 22 CFR 124.6 - Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of manufacturing license agreements... Termination of manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements. The U.S. party to a manufacturing license or a technical assistance agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  16. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  17. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  18. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  19. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  20. 48 CFR 1642.7001 - Management agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Management agreement. 1642.7001 Section 1642.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION...

  1. 76 FR 38177 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... space in the trade from Vietnam to U.S. West Coast. Agreement No.: 012132. Title: Crowley/King Ocean Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties: Crowley Latin America Services, LLC and King Ocean Services..., DC 20006. Synopsis: The agreement authorizes King Ocean to charter space to Crowley in the...

  2. 77 FR 28880 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 012170. Title: Crowley/SC Line Space Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties: Crowley Latin America Services, LLC and SC Line. Filing Party: Wayne R. Rohde, Esquire... authorizes SC Line to charter space to Crowley in the trade between the U.S. Atlantic Coast and ports...

  3. Stem tilting in the inter-tropical cactus Echinocactus platyacanthus: an adaptive solution to the trade-off between radiation acquisition and temperature control.

    PubMed

    Herce, M F; Martorell, C; Alonso-Fernandez, C; Boullosa, L F V V; Meave, J A

    2014-05-01

    While plants require radiation for photosynthesis, radiation in warm deserts can have detrimental effects from high temperatures. This dilemma may be solved through plant morphological attributes. In cold deserts, stem tilting keeps reproductive organs warm by increasing radiation interception at the cost of decreased annual light interception. Conversely, little is known about stem tilting in warm deserts. We hypothesised that stem tilting in Echinocactus platyacanthus prevents high temperatures near the apex, where reproduction occurs. The study was conducted in the warm, inter-tropical portion of the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico. We found that cacti preferentially tilted towards the south, which reduced temperatures of reproductive organs during the hot season, but increased total annual near-apex PAR interception. Tilting also maximised reproduction, a likely consequence of temperature control but perhaps also of the difficulty in translocating photosynthates in cacti; therefore, annual energy acquisition near floral meristems may be largely allocated to reproduction. Unlike plants of higher latitudes, in inter-tropical deserts sunlight at noon comes either from the north or the south, depending on the season, and thus stem tilting may more strongly affect total annual radiation received in different portions of the stem. Inter-tropical cacti can synchronise reproduction with irradiance peaks if flowering occurs in a specific (north or south) portion of the stem; also, they effectively solve the conflict between maximising annual PAR interception and minimising temperature at the hottest time of day. Notably, the two inter-tropical cacti in which stem tilting has been studied successfully solve this conflict.

  4. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  5. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  6. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  7. 76 FR 78259 - Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent Agreement. SUMMARY: The consent..., mail or deliver your comment to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of...

  8. 76 FR 78258 - Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed consent agreement. SUMMARY: The consent..., mail or deliver your comment to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of...

  9. 78 FR 78956 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... on vessels operated by one another in the trade from the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts to ports in the Caribbean, South America, Central America, Mediterranean, and Middle East. Agreement No.: 201212-001....

  10. 75 FR 12748 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ....: 012092. Title: MOL/``K'' Line Space Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties: Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd... exchange slots and to coordinate sailings in the trades between the U.S. Pacific Coast and Japan,...

  11. 78 FR 70300 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... agreement authorizes the parties to share vessels and engage in related cooperative activities in the trades between each of Asia, North Europe, and the Mediterranean on the one hand and the U.S. on the other...

  12. 78 FR 64940 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... agreement authorizes the parties to share vessels and engage in related cooperative activities in the trades between each of Asia, North Europe, and the Mediterranean on the one hand and the U.S. on the other...

  13. 78 FR 68444 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... European Continent-US East Coast Service Space Charter Agreement. Parties: MSC Mediterranean Shipping... the trade between the North West European Continent and the U.S. East Coast. Dated: November 8,...

  14. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  15. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  16. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  17. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  18. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  19. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  20. 48 CFR 1819.7209 - Credit agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Credit agreements. 1819... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7209 Credit agreements. (a) The credit permits the mentor to include the cost it expends on a mentor-protégé agreement...

  1. 48 CFR 416.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic agreements. 416.702... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 416.702 Basic agreements. Promptly after execution by the Government, the HCA shall furnish to the Senior Procurement Executive a copy of each basic...

  2. 48 CFR 416.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic agreements. 416.702... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 416.702 Basic agreements. Promptly after execution by the Government, the HCA shall furnish to the Senior Procurement Executive a copy of each basic...

  3. 48 CFR 416.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic agreements. 416.702... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 416.702 Basic agreements. Promptly after execution by the Government, the HCA shall furnish to the Senior Procurement Executive a copy of each basic...

  4. 48 CFR 416.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic agreements. 416.702... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 416.702 Basic agreements. Promptly after execution by the Government, the HCA shall furnish to the Senior Procurement Executive a copy of each basic...

  5. 48 CFR 416.702 - Basic agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic agreements. 416.702... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 416.702 Basic agreements. Promptly after execution by the Government, the HCA shall furnish to the Senior Procurement Executive a copy of each basic...

  6. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  7. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  8. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  9. 48 CFR 41.206 - Interagency agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF UTILITY SERVICES Acquiring Utility Services 41.206 Interagency agreements. Agencies shall use interagency agreements (e.g., consolidated purchase, joint use, or cross-service agreements) when acquiring utility service or facilities from other Government agencies and...

  10. 48 CFR 41.206 - Interagency agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF UTILITY SERVICES Acquiring Utility Services 41.206 Interagency agreements. Agencies shall use interagency agreements (e.g., consolidated purchase, joint use, or cross-service agreements) when acquiring utility service or facilities from other Government agencies and...

  11. 48 CFR 206.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International agreement. 206.302-4 Section 206.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Competition 206.302-4 International agreement. (c) Limitations. Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2304(f)(2)(E),...

  12. 48 CFR 206.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International agreement. 206.302-4 Section 206.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Competition 206.302-4 International agreement. (c) Limitations. Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2304(f)(2)(E),...

  13. 48 CFR 206.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International agreement. 206.302-4 Section 206.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Competition 206.302-4 International agreement. (c) Limitations. Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2304(f)(2)(E),...

  14. 48 CFR 206.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International agreement. 206.302-4 Section 206.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Competition 206.302-4 International agreement. (c) Limitations. Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2304(f)(2)(E),...

  15. 48 CFR 206.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International agreement. 206.302-4 Section 206.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Competition 206.302-4 International agreement. (c) Limitations. Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2304(f)(2)(E),...

  16. 48 CFR 3413.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 3413.303 Section 3413.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Acquisition Methods 3413.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  17. 75 FR 13425 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-39; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru. 2008-036 Sakalos. VI Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect... Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru (FAR Case 2008- 036) The Councils have adopted as final, without... respect to Costa Rica, the United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru...

  18. 48 CFR 208.7403 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Enterprise Software Agreements 208.7403 Acquisition procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 208.7403 when acquiring commercial software and related services....

  19. 48 CFR 208.7403 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Enterprise Software Agreements 208.7403 Acquisition procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 208.7403 when acquiring commercial software and related services....

  20. Vocational Cooperative Education Training Agreement and Training Plan for Pennsylvania Including: Training Activities for Use on Training Plans Which Are Listed with Occupational Codes and Titles--Trade & Industrial, Technical, Health, Agriculture, Gainful Home Economics, Business Education, Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millersville State Coll., PA.

    This report on vocational training agreements and plans in Pennsylvania presents a uniform and systematic approach to formalize the relationships between vocational educators and employers in providing students with on-the-job training. First, the report briefly covers the purpose of formalizing on-the-job learning experiences, training agreement,…

  1. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  2. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  3. Global trade in satellites and launch services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives is presented. Written testimony, submittals for the record, and responses to written questions are included. Topics concerning the global trade in satellites and launch services include foreign competition, the China and Russia trade agreements, Commerce licensing on international sales and export, trade control, technology transfer, satellite communications and the economy, satellites and the global information infrastructure, commercial space revenues, and enforcement of trade policies.

  4. 77 FR 33459 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    .... Title: Hoegh/Liberty Middle East Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Hoegh Autoliners AS and Liberty....S. East Coast Slot Charter Agreement. Parties: Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd., Mistsui O.S.K... to/from one another on an ``as needed, as available'' basis in the trade from ports on the U.S....

  5. 15 CFR 296.8 - Joint venture agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint venture agreement. 296.8 Section 296.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  6. 15 CFR 296.8 - Joint venture agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint venture agreement. 296.8 Section 296.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  7. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  8. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  9. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  10. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement... trade secret chemical identity to the health purposes indicated in the written statement of need; (2... designated representative, or the health professional to disclose the trade secret chemical identity to...

  11. A General Agreement on Higher Education: GATS, Globalization, and Imperialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    Through successive rounds of negotiations, the World Trade Organization (WTO) encourages countries to commit their higher education system to the mandates of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The WTO is an organization committed to the aggressive trade liberalization of services like higher education. This ideology, known as…

  12. 2 CFR 200.2 - Acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acquisition cost in accordance with the non-Federal entity's regular accounting practices. ... and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Ancillary charges, such as taxes,...

  13. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. PMID:25986591

  14. 48 CFR 16.703 - Basic ordering agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic ordering agreements... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 16.703 Basic ordering agreements. (a) Description. A basic ordering agreement is a written instrument of understanding, negotiated between an...

  15. 48 CFR 16.703 - Basic ordering agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic ordering agreements... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 16.703 Basic ordering agreements. (a) Description. A basic ordering agreement is a written instrument of understanding, negotiated between an...

  16. 75 FR 42749 - Fidelity National Financial, Inc.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent Agreement. SUMMARY: The consent agreement in... mailed or delivered to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room...

  17. 77 FR 66867 - Corning Incorporated; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent Agreement. SUMMARY: The consent agreement in this... following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room H-113 (Annex D), 600...

  18. 48 CFR 1019.202-70-12 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement contents. 1019.202-70-12 Section 1019.202-70-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1019.202-70-12 Agreement contents. The contents of...

  19. 48 CFR 6.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International agreement. 6... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-4 International... competition need not be provided for when precluded by the terms of an international agreement or a...

  20. 48 CFR 6.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International agreement. 6... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-4 International... competition need not be provided for when precluded by the terms of an international agreement or a...

  1. 15 CFR 921.31 - Supplemental acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental acquisition and development awards. 921.31 Section 921.31 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT...

  2. 15 CFR 921.31 - Supplemental acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental acquisition and development awards. 921.31 Section 921.31 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  3. 48 CFR 801.670-5 - Letters of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letters of agreement. 801.670-5 Section 801.670-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  4. 48 CFR 606.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International agreement. 606.302-4 Section 606.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-4...

  5. 48 CFR 606.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International agreement. 606.302-4 Section 606.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-4...

  6. 48 CFR 606.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International agreement. 606.302-4 Section 606.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-4...

  7. 48 CFR 606.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International agreement. 606.302-4 Section 606.302-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-4...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government-to-government agreements. 225.7303-3 Section 225.7303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government-to-government agreements. 225.7303-3 Section 225.7303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for...

  10. The role of science in international trade law.

    PubMed

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce.

  11. 78 FR 46792 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Agreements; FAR 52.225- 11, Buy American Act--Construction Materials under Trade Agreements; and FAR 52.225... American Act--Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. * * * * * Buy American Act--Construction..., and Manufactured Goods--Buy American Act--Construction Materials Under Trade...

  12. Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2.

    PubMed

    Labonte, Ronald; Sanger, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key "trade talk" terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalization treaties.

  13. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  14. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  15. 48 CFR 1642.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... successor in interest (novation agreement). (a) (FAR) 48 CFR 42.1204 shall be implemented as provided in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Agreement to recognize a... corporate name) (Transferor), a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of (insert...

  16. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  17. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  18. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-09-16

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  19. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  20. 22 CFR 124.5 - Proposed agreements that are not concluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.5 Proposed agreements that are not... agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls if a decision is made not to conclude the... apply only if the approval of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls was obtained for the...

  1. 22 CFR 124.5 - Proposed agreements that are not concluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.5 Proposed agreements that are not... agreement must inform the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls if a decision is made not to conclude the... apply only if the approval of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls was obtained for the...

  2. 76 FR 17653 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Mexico, US East Coast Service. Parties: China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; China Shipping... agreement authorizes the parties to exchange slots and coordinate sailings in the trades between Japan, China, and the Pacific coast of the United States. By Order of the Federal Maritime Commission....

  3. 77 FR 16838 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... in the trade between The U.S. West Coast and South Korea. Agreement No.: 012162. Title: Hoegh... from South Korea to the U.S. Atlantic Coast. By order of the Federal Maritime Commission. Dated: March... No.: 011463-007. Title: East Coast of North America to West Coast of South America and...

  4. 76 FR 56194 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by Allied Energy Company, Gladieux Trading and Marketing... (``Petitioners''), in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit: Allied...

  5. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  6. 48 CFR 216.703 - Basic ordering agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic ordering agreements..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 216.703 Basic ordering agreements. (c) Limitations. The period during which orders may be placed against a basic...

  7. 48 CFR 216.703 - Basic ordering agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic ordering agreements..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 216.703 Basic ordering agreements. (c) Limitations. The period during which orders may be placed against a basic...

  8. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  9. Agreement among 2 x 2 Agreement Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Anthony J.; Ward, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen measures of reliability for two-category nominal scales are compared. Upon correcting for chance agreement, there are only five distinct indices: Fleiss's modification of A-sub-1, the phi coefficient, Cohen's kappa, and two intraclass coefficients. Recommendations for choosing an agreement index are made based on definitions, magnitude,…

  10. 3 CFR 8818 - Proclamation 8818 of May 14, 2012. To Implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., 2009, modified certain rules of origin under the North American Free Trade Agreement and incorporated... Schedule of the United States to Adjust Rules of Origin Under the North American Free Trade Agreement... commitments under the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement and incorporated by reference Publication...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-27 - Contract Not Affected by Oral Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Oral Agreement. 52.247-27 Section 52.247-27 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.247-27 Contract Not Affected by Oral Agreement. As prescribed in 47.207-8(b), insert the...: Contract Not Affected by Oral Agreement (APR 1984) No oral statement of any person shall modify...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-27 - Contract Not Affected by Oral Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Oral Agreement. 52.247-27 Section 52.247-27 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.247-27 Contract Not Affected by Oral Agreement. As prescribed in 47.207-8(b), insert the...: Contract Not Affected by Oral Agreement (APR 1984) No oral statement of any person shall modify...

  13. 77 FR 13951 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). This... WTO GPA threshold of $202,000. This interim rule is not expected to have a significant economic...

  14. 77 FR 13956 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). This... WTO GPA threshold of $202,000. This interim rule is not expected to have a significant economic...

  15. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  16. Approaches to resolving trade disputes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Thiermann, A B

    2003-08-01

    The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:15884603

  17. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  18. Remaking the World in Our Own Image: Australia's Efforts To Liberalise Trade in Education Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBurnie, Grant; Ziguras, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Describes Australia's role in promoting educational trade liberalization through the World Trade Organization's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services. The Australian government is pursuing a diversified approach to educational trade promotion, which includes building confidence in international quality assurance mechanisms and demonstrating…

  19. 15 CFR 921.21 - Initial acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND... acquisition and development phase. The preparation of architectural and engineering plans, including... the state, as provided by Department of Commerce regulations at 15 CFR part 24, and Uniform...

  20. 15 CFR 921.21 - Initial acquisition and development awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND... acquisition and development phase. The preparation of architectural and engineering plans, including... the state, as provided by Department of Commerce regulations at 15 CFR part 24, and Uniform...

  1. 48 CFR 606.302-4 - International agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-4 International agreement. (b)(2) In accordance with FAR 6.302-4, guard services shall be acquired from the host...

  2. 15 CFR 296.8 - Joint venture agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint venture agreement. 296.8 Section... PROGRAM General § 296.8 Joint venture agreement. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a joint venture and no costs shall be incurred under a TIP project by the joint venture members until such time as...

  3. 15 CFR 296.8 - Joint venture agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint venture agreement. 296.8 Section... PROGRAM General § 296.8 Joint venture agreement. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a joint venture and no costs shall be incurred under a TIP project by the joint venture members until such time as...

  4. Trade and health: an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-02-28

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet's Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts.

  5. Trade and health: an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-02-28

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet's Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts. PMID:19167056

  6. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.225-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected..., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of),...

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... clause) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.225-5, see the List of CFR Sections..., Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,...

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... clause) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.225-5, see the List of CFR Sections..., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman,...

  9. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.225-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected..., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of),...

  10. United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Baucus, Max [D-MT

    2011-10-03

    09/20/2012 By Senator Baucus from Committee on Finance filed written report. Report No. 112-224. Additional views filed. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3079, which became Public Law 112-43 on 10/21/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Baucus, Max [D-MT

    2011-10-03

    09/20/2012 By Senator Baucus from Committee on Finance filed written report. Report No. 112-223. Additional views filed. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3080, which became Public Law 112-41 on 10/21/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Baucus, Max [D-MT

    2011-10-03

    09/20/2012 By Senator Baucus from Committee on Finance filed written report. Report No. 112-222. Additional views filed. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3078, which became Public Law 112-42 on 10/21/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. 75 FR 54352 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... forms of information technology; and (e) the annual costs burden to respondents or record keepers from... with various countries, eight of which are included in this information collection: Chile,...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic..., Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore); (iii) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola,...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic..., Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore); (iii) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola,...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clause) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.225-5, see the List of CFR Sections..., Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Yemen, or Zambia); or (4) A Caribbean Basin country (Antigua and Barbuda,...

  17. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on January 22, 2009 (74 FR 4105), modified the Harmonized... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), because it pertains to a...

  18. 77 FR 15943 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... (77 FR 14265) modified the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'') as set forth in... the provisions of Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993),...

  19. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... FR 66507), modified the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'') as set forth in... a regulation or rule subject to the provisions of Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (58...

  20. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., (77 FR 29519), modified the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'') as set forth..., 1993 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), because it pertains to a foreign affairs function of the...

  1. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following: (a) Change the definition, data condition, or use of a data element or segment in a standard. (b) Add any data elements or segments to the maximum defined data set. (c) Use any code or data elements....915 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND...

  2. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... abuse. (b) Add any data elements or segments to the maximum defined data set. (c) Use any code or data....915 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... following: (a) Change the definition, data condition, or use of a data element or segment in a standard...

  3. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... abuse. (b) Add any data elements or segments to the maximum defined data set. (c) Use any code or data....915 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... following: (a) Change the definition, data condition, or use of a data element or segment in a standard...

  4. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... abuse. (b) Add any data elements or segments to the maximum defined data set. (c) Use any code or data....915 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... following: (a) Change the definition, data condition, or use of a data element or segment in a standard...

  5. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... abuse. (b) Add any data elements or segments to the maximum defined data set. (c) Use any code or data....915 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED... following: (a) Change the definition, data condition, or use of a data element or segment in a standard...

  6. 48 CFR 225.7902 - Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty with the United Kingdom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty with the United Kingdom. 225.7902 Section 225.7902 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTROL 225.7902 Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty with the United Kingdom. This section implements...

  7. 78 FR 24201 - Graco, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Graco, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... comment on paper, mail or deliver your comment to the following address: Federal Trade Commission,...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.227-76 - Project employee confidentiality agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project employee confidentiality agreement. 1552.227-76 Section 1552.227-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  9. 48 CFR 1552.227-76 - Project employee confidentiality agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Project employee confidentiality agreement. 1552.227-76 Section 1552.227-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... electrical services, provisions which shall conform substantially to the language of this clause,...

  10. Production possibility frontiers in phototroph:heterotroph symbioses: trade-offs in allocating fixed carbon pools and the challenges these alternatives present for understanding the acquisition of intracellular habitats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Malcolm S.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular habitats have been invaded by a remarkable diversity of organisms, and strategies employed to successfully reside in another species' cellular space are varied. Common selective pressures may be experienced in symbioses involving phototrophic symbionts and heterotrophic hosts. Here I refine and elaborate the Arrested Phagosome Hypothesis that proposes a mechanism that phototrophs use to gain access to their host's intracellular habitat. I employ the economic concept of production possibility frontiers (PPF) as a useful heuristic to clearly define the trade-offs that an intracellular phototroph is likely to face as it allocates photosynthetically-derived pools of energy. Fixed carbon can fuel basic metabolism/respiration, it can support mitotic division, or it can be translocated to the host. Excess photosynthate can be stored for future use. Thus, gross photosynthetic productivity can be divided among these four general categories, and natural selection will favor phenotypes that best match the demands presented to the symbiont by the host cellular habitat. The PPF highlights trade-offs that exist between investment in growth (i.e., mitosis) or residency (i.e., translocating material to the host). Insights gained from this perspective might help explain phenomena such as coral bleaching because deficits in photosynthetic production are likely to diminish a symbiont's ability to “afford” the costs of intracellular residency. I highlight deficits in our current understanding of host:symbiont interactions at the molecular, genetic, and cellular level, and I also discuss how semantic differences among scientists working with different symbiont systems may diminish the rate of increase in our understanding of phototrophic-based associations. I argue that adopting interdisciplinary (in this case, inter-symbiont-system) perspectives will lead to advances in our general understanding of the phototrophic symbiont's intracellular niche. PMID:25101064

  11. Sequence and System in the Acquisition of Tense and Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispoli, Matthew; Hadley, Pamela A.; Holt, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The relatedness of tense morphemes in the language of children younger than 3 years of age is a matter of controversy. Generativist accounts predict that the morphemes will be related, whereas usage-based accounts predict the absence of relationships. This study focused on the increasing productivity of the 5 morphemes in the tense…

  12. Suppression of antibiotic resistance acquisition by combined use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Horinouchi, Takaaki; Furusawa, Chikara

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the effect of combinatorial use of antibiotics with a trade-off relationship of resistance, i.e., resistance acquisition to one drug causes susceptibility to the other drug, and vice versa, on the evolution of antibiotic resistance. We demonstrated that this combinatorial use of antibiotics significantly suppressed the acquisition of resistance.

  13. 15 CFR 995.23 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquisition of data. 995.23 Section... § 995.23 Acquisition of data. (a) CED or CEVAD shall obtain official NOAA ENC ® files only by directly... ENC files by NOAA. This is to ensure that no NOAA ENC files have been corrupted during the...

  14. 15 CFR 995.23 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisition of data. 995.23 Section... § 995.23 Acquisition of data. (a) CED or CEVAD shall obtain official NOAA ENC ® files only by directly... ENC files by NOAA. This is to ensure that no NOAA ENC files have been corrupted during the...

  15. 15 CFR 995.23 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquisition of data. 995.23 Section... § 995.23 Acquisition of data. (a) CED or CEVAD shall obtain official NOAA ENC ® files only by directly... ENC files by NOAA. This is to ensure that no NOAA ENC files have been corrupted during the...

  16. 15 CFR 995.23 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisition of data. 995.23 Section... § 995.23 Acquisition of data. (a) CED or CEVAD shall obtain official NOAA ENC ® files only by directly... ENC files by NOAA. This is to ensure that no NOAA ENC files have been corrupted during the...

  17. 15 CFR 995.23 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquisition of data. 995.23 Section... § 995.23 Acquisition of data. (a) CED or CEVAD shall obtain official NOAA ENC ® files only by directly... ENC files by NOAA. This is to ensure that no NOAA ENC files have been corrupted during the...

  18. 77 FR 4631 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Armenia (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country and a designated country, due to the accession of Armenia to membership in the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement. DATES..., 2011, Armenia became a party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO...

  19. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...