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Sample records for acre island formation

  1. Minimum age of the Neoproterozoic Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation and the tectonic setting of the Islesboro Formation, Islesboro block, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, D.B.; Tucker, R.D.; Ayuso, R.A.; Lux, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Two platformal stratigraphic sequences occur on Islesboro, Penobscot Bay, Maine. The older Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation is at least 200 m thick, its base is not exposed, and it makes up fault-bounded blocks of siliceous colour-banded dolomitic marble, muscovite-rich quartzite, coarse-grained splendent muscovite-garnet-staurolite-andalusite schist, and calcareous metapelite, with minor garnet amphibolite and amphibolite. It was initially metamorphosed to lower amphibolite facies and was later to lower greenschist facies. The lower amphibolite facies metamorphism is Neoproterozoic (670 to 650 Ma) as inferred from the 40Ar/39Ar high temperature release spectra of hornblende separates. A U-Pb zircon age of 646.7 ?? 2.7 Ma obtained for a pegmatite that intruded deformed rocks is taken to be the minimum age of the Formation. The platformal Islesboro Formation probably unconformably overlies the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation. It is primarily turbiditic pelite with many beds of quartzite, impure dolomitic marble, some conglomerate, and a few feldsparrich volcaniclastic beds and is thought to be either Neoproterozoic or Cambrian. It was metamorphosed only to lower greenschist facies, possibly in the same event that retrograded the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation. Geochemical interpretations of minor and trace element analyses of six amphibolite and four schist samples from the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation show that the protoliths of the amphibolite samples were intermediate between tholeiitic and within-plate type basaltic flows or dikes that intruded attenuated continental crust, or were eroded from these basalts. Four amphibolite and three schist samples analyzed for Pb isotopes were found to be enriched in radiogenic Pb. The Pb isotopic compositions are similar to those in peri-Gondwanan basement rocks from Atlantic Canada. The peri-Gondwanan Islesboro block was placed against the peri-Gondwanan Middle and Late Cambrian Ellsworth terrane on the

  2. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  3. Biofilm formation ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acrAB mutants.

    PubMed

    Schlisselberg, Dov B; Kler, Edna; Kisluk, Guy; Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies offer contradictory findings about the role of multidrug efflux pumps in bacterial biofilm development. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the AcrAB efflux pump in biofilm formation by investigating the ability of AcrB and AcrAB null mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce biofilms. Three models were used to compare the ability of S. Typhimurium wild-type and its mutants to form biofilms: formation of biofilm on polystyrene surfaces; production of biofilm (mat model) on the air/liquid interface; and expression of curli and cellulose on Congo red-supplemented agar plates. All three investigated genotypes formed biofilms with similar characteristics. However, upon exposure to chloramphenicol, formation of biofilms on solid surfaces as well as the production of curli were either reduced or were delayed more significantly in both mutants, whilst there was no visible effect on pellicle formation. It can be concluded that when no selective pressure is applied, S. Typhimurium is able to produce biofilms even when the AcrAB efflux pumps are inactivated, implying that the use of efflux pump inhibitors to prevent biofilm formation is not a general solution and that combined treatments might be more efficient. Other factors that affect the ability to produce biofilms depending on efflux pump activity are yet to be identified. PMID:26260191

  4. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L.; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R.; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A. Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level. PMID:26792519

  5. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-02-01

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level. PMID:26792519

  6. New platyrrhine monkeys from the Solimões Formation (late Miocene, Acre State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Kay, Richard F; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto

    2006-06-01

    We report here a new fossil primate from the late Miocene of Brazil. The material consists of a lower first molar and a maxilla with P3-4. The fossils were collected in the Solimões Formation at the locality of Patos, upper Acre River, Acre State, Brazil. The locality is assigned to the Huayquerian South American Land Mammal Age based on faunal content (late Miocene; dated to between 9 and 6 Ma). The new material is the oldest known occurrence of fossil primates in Brazil and is recognized as a new genus and species, Solimoea acrensis. Solimoea is the oldest known member of the ateline subfamily, which includes the living genera Ateles, Lagothrix, and Brachyteles. By analogy with the molar structures and diets of extant platyrrhines, Solimoea primarily had a diet of fruit, perhaps similar to that of the spider monkey, Ateles. Two other primate teeth described previously from the same formation in Bolivia document the occurrence of alouattines and cebines. One of those specimens is a late Miocene representative of the middle Miocene Colombian genus Stirtonia. The other represents one of the largest known platyrrhine primates, for which is erected a new primate genus, Acrecebus fraileyi. PMID:16530809

  7. Formation of fractal islands on nonlattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Meng-Bo; Ye, Gao-Xiang; Xia, A.-Gen; Jin, Jin-Sheng; Yang, Bo; Xu, Jian-Min

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the formation of fractal islands on nonlattice substrates is presented. The islands, including disc aggregates and single discs, perform two-dimensional diffusion along four directions with different diffusion step lengths and rigid rotation about their centers of mass on a nonlattice square with periodic boundary conditions. It is found that the fractal dimension of the ramified islands is almost independent of the diffusion step length, rigid rotation angle, and disc size. However, the fractal dimension increases linearly with the surface coverage. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the previous experimental findings of the aggregation of the silver atomic islands on silicone oil surfaces.

  8. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  9. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda

    2016-04-01

    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  10. Advective Mechanisms in Tree Island Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, S.

    2002-05-01

    Tree islands are important landscape features in the Florida Everglades. Tres islands are formed of peat deposited on the shallow limestone bedrock, and have been stressed as the system has changed in response to anthropogenic activities due to the sensitivity of organic soils to hydrologic cycles. The plume shape aligned with flow direction for typical tree islands is characteristic of advective transport, despite the rather low flow velocities in the system. Hypothesized mechanisms for the plume shape include sediment transport downstream from the head of the island (often anchored by a bedrock rise), or nutrient transport downstream allowing plants to produce more sediments in situ. Understanding mechanisms controlling tree island shape will aid in understanding the response of tree islands to hydrologic management. An integrated system of field, laboratory, and modeling studies is underway, with the first effort aimed at bounding the importance of the simpler sediment transport processes before tackling more-complex nutrient transport processes. The numerical model integrating the field and laboratory efforts is a 3D finite volume model considering water flow in the shallow groundwater/surface-water system together with sediment transport. The model can account for variable vegetative resistance through the flow column, including the important case where a dense mat forms at the surface. Model components specific for this system and associated data requirements are presented.

  11. Tree island pattern formation in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Joel; D'Odorico, P.; Engel, Victor C.; Redwine, Jed

    2016-01-01

    The Florida Everglades freshwater landscape exhibits a distribution of islands covered by woody vegetation and bordered by marshes and wet prairies. Known as “tree islands”, these ecogeomorphic features can be found in few other low gradient, nutrient limited freshwater wetlands. In the last few decades, however, a large percentage of tree islands have either shrank or disappeared in apparent response to altered water depths and other stressors associated with human impacts on the Everglades. Because the processes determining the formation and spatial organization of tree islands remain poorly understood, it is still unclear what controls the sensitivity of these landscapes to altered conditions. We hypothesize that positive feedbacks between woody plants and soil accretion are crucial to emergence and decline of tree islands. Likewise, positive feedbacks between phosphorus (P) accumulation and trees explain the P enrichment commonly observed in tree island soils. Here, we develop a spatially-explicit model of tree island formation and evolution, which accounts for these positive feedbacks (facilitation) as well as for long range competition and fire dynamics. It is found that tree island patterns form within a range of parameter values consistent with field data. Simulated impacts of reduced water levels, increased intensity of drought, and increased frequency of dry season/soil consuming fires on these feedback mechanisms result in the decline and disappearance of tree islands on the landscape.

  12. Thermodynamic model of coherent island formation on vicinal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu Sun, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Yanguang; Ren, Xiaomin

    2014-04-28

    A thermodynamic model has been proposed to address the formation of coherent island on the vicinal substrate. The morphological transition from square based island to elongated based one with various substrate misorientations is described. The initial stage of nucleation and growth process of islands in Stranski–Krastanow system is studied by taking into account the elastic deformations and the change of energy in the case of two-dimensional growth mode. The theoretical analysis shows the minimum nucleation barrier of island is on the decrease with increment of substrate misorientation, which means the nucleation of island on vicinal substrate is more favorable than that on flat substrate. By using the fitting data of experimental results done by Persichetti et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 036104 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 82, 121309(R) (2010)], we provide a meaningful explanation of the experimental observations.

  13. Increase of island density via formation of secondary ordered islands on pit-patterned Si (001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Schmidt, O.G.; Bauer, G.

    2005-09-26

    Site-controlled groups of Ge islands are grown on pit-patterned Si (001) substrates. By varying the deposited amount of Ge, we find that the growth starts with the formation of a single island at the pit bottom and then proceeds to the formation of a highly symmetric Ge island group around the pit top. A bimodal size distribution of dome-shaped islands at the bottom and at the top corners of the pits is observed. A growth mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain these phenomena. Our experiments help to promote a further understanding of Ge island growth on patterned substrates.

  14. Formation of strained ring-shaped islands around square notches.

    PubMed

    Colin, Jérôme

    2012-06-01

    The location and morphology of a two-dimensional island has been studied theoretically as a function of the misfit stress in the neighbourhood of a square notch present on the free surface of an epitaxially stressed film deposited on a substrate. From a static energy calculation, it has been shown that the notches can drive the motion of the islands towards the notches. It was then found that, depending on the side length and depth of the notch, self-organized formation at constant volume of a two-dimensional ring-shaped island can be favoured along the periphery of the pre-existing notch with respect to the notch shrinking. PMID:22565196

  15. TEXAS DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dickinson Bay Islands Restoration Project will restore approximately ten acres of intertidal marsh, three acres of oyster reef, and 18 acres of bird rookery habitat. The total acreage of restored habitat will be close to 30 acres.

  16. Island Formation through Bar Deposition and Channel Cutoff in the Bedrock Controlled South River, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurk, D.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Islands in braided and meandering alluvial channels form by bar accretion and channel cutoff, however, island formation in bedrock-controlled channels is poorly understood. The South River is a single-thread, sinuous, gravel-bed, bedrock river. It is neither meandering nor braided but aerial photographs show the development of gravel bars and the formation of islands that have formed through channel cutoff. This study deciphers processes that lead to both types of island formation and their role in the channel morphology of the South River. The South River was analyzed using aerial photographs and work in the field provided additional data that were used to identify islands and their properties. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to evaluate historical aerial photographs dating back to 1937 for location, morphology, origin, and development of islands along an approximately 40 km study reach. Field studies included the surveying of cross sections to determine elevations of islands relative to neighboring floodplains, as well as pebble counts and cores to define sediment characteristics. Aerial photographs indicate that six islands had formed before and an additional 12 islands formed after 1937, placing the average island formation frequency at 0.005 islands per km per year since 1937. Field data indicate that elevation, grain size, stratigraphy, and vegetation of some islands closely resemble those of the floodplains supporting the hypothesis that those islands formed through cutoff, while one island’s sediment was similar to that of the channel and did not show similarities to floodplains or any other islands indicating formation through in-channel sediment deposition. Studies of bank erosion rates along the South River demonstrate that 33% of bank erosion along the South River occurs in divided reaches of the channel associated with islands. Understanding the formation and evolution of these islands may allow for an accurate prediction of future

  17. Radiometric evidence for involvement of floating islands in the formation of Florida Everglades tree islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Patrick J.; Piepgras, Donald; Stone, Peter A.; Stipp, Jerry

    1980-04-01

    Inversions of radiocarbon dates were determined on samples from the peat profiles of two small extant tree islands in the northeastern Everglades, Florida. These reversals were predicted from the theory that such tree islands developed on laterally displaced floating islands.

  18. Soil formation in Seymour Island, Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Katia Karoline Delpupo; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello; Spinola, Diogo Noses; de Paula, Mayara Daher

    2014-11-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula marks the climatic transition between Maritime and Continental Antarctica. Ice-free areas at the western side of the Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica) have been increasingly studied in the last 10 years whereas soils on the eastern coast have been relatively less studied. The objective of the present study is to analyze the properties of soils developed on Seymour Island, in the Weddell sea sector, eastern coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, in order to identify the main factors and processes involved in soil formation under semi-polar desert conditions in this part of Antarctica. Twenty-one pedons were described, sampled and analyzed for their physical, chemical and mineralogical attributes. Most of the soils were classified as Gelisols and Cryosols by the Soil Taxonomy and WRB/FAO, respectively. Three soil groups were found: immature alkaline soils on sandstones and siltstones, acid sulfate and ornithogenic soils. Soils have little cryoturbation and are all affected by salinization with natric and salic characters. Acid sulfate soils are the most weathered soils in Seymour Island. Due to the dry climate, phosphatization is still incipient with P-rich ornithogenic layers with little interaction with the mineral substrate. The Soil Taxonomy and WRB/FAO systems lack adequate classification criteria to classify all soils developed in transitional areas that are affected by a combination of salinization, sulfurization and phosphatization.

  19. Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, E; Ivarsson, M; Kilias, S P; Frings, P J; Hemmingsson, C; Broman, C; Bengtson, S; Chatzitheodoridis, E

    2015-05-01

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ(13) C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl-CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ(34) S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ(30) Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ(30) Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs. PMID:25645266

  20. Praise Acres Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the "Praise Acres Project," which was initiated from a letter written by a local resident. The resident wrote about an idea to develop a wetlands and outdoor lab facility on his property for students. Thus, a plan was conceived that would not only benefit the owner, but also enhance high school science…

  1. Strain E?ect on the Instability of Island Formation in Submonolayer Heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, yugui; Li, Maozhi; Wu, Biao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Enge

    2009-01-01

    Strain e ect on the instability of island formation in submonolayer heteroepitaxy is studied in both thermodynamic and kinetic regimes. By using linear stability analysis, the energy change of an island due to small perturbations is analyzed. A phase diagram is constructed to illustrate the interplay between kinetic processes and strain e ect on the shape instability. Critical island sizes beyond which islands grow unstable are also derived for various growth conditions and can be used to estimate energy parameters. The scaling forms of shape instability are also discussed.

  2. ACR process for ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.L.; Kamm, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the advanced cracking reactor process, which is ready for a logical commercial application, offers total liquids feedstock flexibility from light naphthenes through vacuum gas oils in the same production unit. Several processes are presently being developed which are aimed at maintaining olefin selectivity when cracking the heaviest feeds. Addresses the problems posed by such heavy feedstocks. The following trends favor the ACR process in the 1980s: natural gas price decontrol; limited natural gas reserves; few new domestic LPG-based ethylene plants will be built; an economic recovery will create the need for more ethylene capacity; modest increases in ''real'' crude oil prices; plentiful supplies of vacuum gas oil at prices making it an attractive ethylene feedstock; and increasing supplies of light naphtha at prices making it an attractive ethylene feedstock as well. Predicts that these factors will swing the preferred feedstocks for ethylene manufacture back to crude oil distillates before the end of the decade. Argues that in this environment, the ACR process can deliver the lowest cost ethylene in the industry. ACR has full-range feedstock flexibility, high selectivity to ethylene, and less sensitivity to feedstock costs and co-product credits.

  3. Scaling properties of pyramidal islands formation process at epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Dvornichenko, Alina V.

    2015-01-01

    We study scaling properties of the surface morphology at epitaxial growth in a generalized phase-field model by taking into account dynamics of the adsorbate temperature. We have found that growth processes are defined by a set of roughness and growth exponents. It is shown that the growth rate of the averaged mean area of islands can be controlled by deposition flux, interaction strength of adsorbate and time scale for the temperature relaxation. We have shown, that both number of islands and average island size behave in a power-law form over exposing time. We have discussed two different numerical approaches allowing one to determine the distribution function of islands over sizes. Obtained distributions are universal and do not change with variation in main system parameters.

  4. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Mary E; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  5. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Mary E.; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  6. Whistler wave interaction with magnetic islands and electron scale structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Neha

    2016-07-01

    The present work aims to investigate the role of whistler waves in facilitating reconnection and to explore relationship between magnetic reconnection and turbulence. The key role of the whistler waves in the formation of coherent structures during their propagation in the pre-existing fully developed chain of magnetic islands has been investigated. For this scenario, the dynamical equation of whistler wave has been derived in the presence of magnetic islands and has been solved semi-analytically as well as numerically. Due to pre-existing magnetic islands, background field gets perturbed and localization of the whistler waves and formation of current sheets of electron scale takes place, contributing to the generation of magnetic turbulence. In this way whistler wave propagating through fully developed magnetic islands may provide a physical mechanism underlying the formation of electron scale current sheet.

  7. Secondary island formation in collisional and collisionless kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, William S; Roytershteyn, Vadim; Gary, Peter; Yin, L; Albright, B J; Bowers, K J; Karimabadi, H

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic reconnection in large-scale systems often gives rise to extended current layers that are unstable to the formation of secondary magnetic islands. The role of these islands in the reconnection process and the conditions under which they form remains a subject of debate. In this work, we benchmark two different kinetic particle-in-cell codes to address the formation of secondary islands for several types of global boundary conditions. The influence on reconnection is examined for a range of conditions and collisionality limits. Although secondary islands are observed in all cases, their influence on reconnection may be different depending on the regime. In the collisional limit, the secondary islands playa key role in breaking away from the Sweet-Parker scaling and enabling faster reconnection. In the collisionless limit, their formation is one mechanism for controlling the length of the diffusion region. In both limits, the onset of secondary islands leads to a time dependent behavior in the reconnection rate. In all cases considered, the number of secondary islands increases for larger systems.

  8. Targeted Gene Deletion Demonstrates that Cell Adhesion MoleculeICAM-4 is Critical for Erythroblastic Island Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Lo, Annie; Short, Sarah A.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Spring, Frances; Parsons, Stephen F.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-02-15

    Erythroid progenitors differentiate in erythroblastic islands, bone marrow niches composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. Evidence suggests that within islands adhesive interactions regulate erythropoiesis and apoptosis. We are exploring whether erythroid intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), animmunoglobulin superfamily member, participates in island formation. Earlier, we identified alpha V integrins as ICAM-4 counter receptors. Since macrophages express alpha V, ICAM-4 potentially mediates island attachments. To test this, we generated ICAM-4 knockout mice and developed quantitative, live cell techniques for harvesting intact islands and for reforming islands in vitro. We observed a 47 percent decrease in islands reconstituted from ICAM-4 null marrow compared to wild type. We also found a striking decrease in islands formed in vivo in knockout mice. Further, peptides that block ICAM-4 alpha V adhesion produced a 53-57 percent decrease in reconstituted islands, strongly suggesting that ICAM-4 binding to macrophage alpha V functions in island integrity. Importantly, we documented that alpha V integrin is expressed in macrophages isolated from erythro blastic islands. Collectively, these data provide convincing evidence that ICAM-4 is critical in erythroblastic island formation via ICAM-4/alpha V adhesion and also demonstrate that the novel experimental strategies we developed will be valuable in exploring molecular mechanisms of erythroblastic island formation and their functional role in regulating erythropoiesis.

  9. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26653797

  10. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  11. The upper Bow Island (Blackleaf) Formation of southwestern Alberta: Geological aspects and exploration approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.; Christensen, S.L. )

    1991-06-01

    The upper parts of the Bow Island Formation (Albian) of southwestern Alberta are significant gas reservoirs. The main westernmost reservoir zone is part of a complex package of interbedded lenticular sandstones, mudstones, and localized chert pebble conglomerates. The depositional setting for these sediments comprised a wave-dominated shoreline with conglomerates found proximal to drowned river mouths. The coarse nature of the upper Bow Island is related to tectonic movements associated with Crowsnest (Vaughn) volcanism. Conglomerates form the most impressive Bow Island reservoirs because of their thickness (up to 25 m) and petrophysical properties (17% porosity, 24 d permeability). Diagenesis dominantly comprises compaction features within grain-supported conglomerates. Increasing quartz content is related to decreasing grain size and is associated with porosity occlusion by quartz overgrowths. Bow Island reservoirs in southwestern Alberta are cool (under 50C) and significantly underpressured (0.2 psi). The high permeabilities and low pressures at depths of 1,000 to 1,500 m suggest the potential for formation damage is high, and many wells in the region were targeted for deeper, high-pressure zones. In spite of the low pressures, however, many Bow Island wells are capable of excellent gas deliveries with individual well recoveries of up to 10 bcf. All significant Bow Island porosity in the deepest, undisturbed parts of southwestern Alberta is gas saturated with updip aquifers flanking the gas. Seismic definition of the thickest Bow Island targets is feasible but has been hampered, in part, by difficult surface conditions and a prior emphasis on deeper targets.

  12. Dynamics of seed magnetic island formation due to geometrically coupled perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.; LaHaye, R.J.

    1998-06-01

    Seed magnetic island formation due to a dynamically growing external source in toroidal confinement devices is modeled as an initial value forced reconnection problem. For an external source whose amplitude grows on a time scale quickly compared to the Sweet-Parker time of resistive magnetohydrodynamics, the induced reconnection is characterized by a current sheet and a reconnected flux amplitude which lags in time the source amplitude. This suggests that neoclassical tearing modes, whose excitation requires a seed magnetic island, are more difficult to cause in high Lundquist number plasmas.

  13. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Epitaxial Thin Film Growth: Formation of Submonolayer Islands and Multilayer Mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.; Li, Maozhi

    2007-06-14

    We consider homoepitaxy (or low-misfit heteroepitaxy) via vapor deposition or MBE under UHV conditions. Thin film growth is initiated by nucleation and growth of 2D islands in the submonolayer regime. For atoms subsequently deposited on top of islands, a step edge barrier often inhibits downward transport and produces kinetic roughening during multilayer growth. Such unstable growth is characterized by the formation of 3D mounds (multilayer stacks of 2D islands). Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation of suitable atomistic lattice-gas models can address fundamental or general issues related to both submonolayer and multilayer film evolution, and can also provide a predictive tool for morphological evolution in specific systems. Examples of the successes of KMC modeling are provided for metal homoepitaxial film growth, specifically for contrasting behavior in the classic Ag/Ag(100) and Ag/Ag(111) systems.

  14. Holocene sea-level changes and barrier reef formation on an oceanic island, Palau Islands, western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Yamano, Hiroya; Randall, Richard H.

    2002-06-01

    Internal facies and development of an oceanic island's barrier reef were revealed by the stratigraphical study of six drill cores in Palau Islands, western Pacific. The Holocene reef development is primarily constrained at its foundation by the antecedent topography of Pleistocene substratum. Holocene barrier reef is an increment on the Pleistocene barrier reef, which had been subaerially exposed during glacial stages. About 8300 cal. year BP (calibrated calendar years B.P.), branching Acropora facies initially formed a bank on the seaward side of a Pleistocene limestone surface with a vertical accumulation rate as high as 30 m/ka (ka=1000 years). After 7200 cal. year BP, when the sea-level rise rate decreased, reef crest facies caught up with the sea surface with an accumulation rate of less than 2.2 m/ka. Corals found in the reef crest facies are similar to the present-day reef crest corals dominated by Acropora digitifera and A. humilis. After the reef crest was formed, bioclastic sand and gravel facies prograded lagoonward of the reef crest and consisted mostly of reef derived materials. The construction of patch reefs post-dated the barrier reef formation. The mature barrier reef provided calm conditions inside the lagoon, which then led to the construction of patch reefs and fringing reefs. Sea-level changes deduced from the accumulation curves show rapid rise before 7200 cal. year BP followed by a slight rise of 4 m at its maximum. This change in sea-level rise rate inspired the change in reef facies from branching Acropora to reef crest.

  15. AcrS/EnvR Represses Expression of the acrAB Multidrug Efflux Genes in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Takumi-Kobayashi, Asuka; Theisen, Ulrike; Hirata, Takahiro; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Akihito

    2008-01-01

    The acrS regulatory gene is located upstream of the acrEF multidrug efflux system genes. However, the roles of AcrS in regulation of drug efflux pumps have not been clearly understood. Here we show that AcrS represses other multidrug efflux genes, acrAB, which encode a major efflux system in Escherichia coli. PMID:18567659

  16. 78 FR 79020 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  17. 78 FR 70597 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  18. 78 FR 70598 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  19. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR The ACRS... Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  20. Striated boulder pavements within glaciomarine diamicts of the Yakataga Formation, Middleton Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eyles, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of striated boulder pavements in glacial sequences is often cited as evidence of transport and deposition by grounded glacier ice. However, recent reports show that striated pavements also form in non-glacial environments by the abrasion of boulder lag surfaces by floating glacier and seasonal ice. Several striated boulder pavements are identified within Early Pleistocene upper Yakataga Formation sediments exposed on Middleton Island close to the southern edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. The sequence is dominated by thick stratiform units of massive and stratified diamict formed by the settling of fine-grained sands and muds from suspension together with ice-rafted debris. Boulder pavements outcrop as extensive planar horizons within the diamicts, can be traced for several kilometers along strike and consist of single lines of clasts with faceted upper surfaces showing consistently oriented striation directions. Clasts are not preferentially aligned, however, and do not have the characteristic bullet shape of boulders transported at a glacier base and deposited by lodgement processes. Striated boulder pavements on Middleton Island appear to have formed as boulder lag surfaces generated by wave and tidal current reworking of diamict on relatively shallow banks. Lags were then overridden and abraded by a grounding ice shelf. The glacially-abraded boulder pavements on Middleton Island record the repeated expansion of a continuous ice shelf to the edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf during the Early Pleistocene.

  1. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest formation and land cover maps for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest formation types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland formations. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest formations and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each mapping area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. Mapping forest formations with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest formations, without the aid of ecological zone maps, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in maps of forest formations with comparable or better detail

  2. Freshwater lens formation below juvenile dunes on a barrier island (Spiekeroog, Northwest Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röper, Tania; Greskowiak, Janek; Freund, Holger; Massmann, Gudrun

    2013-04-01

    Morphodynamic changes of barrier islands and the consequences for underlying freshwater reservoirs are of major interest for coastal environments and drinking water supply in coastal areas. Here, a geomorphological and hydrological reconstruction of dune formation on a barrier island and their freshwater reservoirs is presented. The aim was to provide an integrated analysis of the co-evolution of dunes and freshwater resources during the development of a barrier island. The study area is the eastern part of Spiekeroog Island, the so-called 'Ostplate', at the Northwest German coast, that expanded significantly in the last 360 years due to coastal land reclamation. The first dune growth was initiated in the 1940s at the newly formed sand flat, and dune freshening started around 1970. Pore water measurements in November 2011, March and August 2012 confirm the existence of freshwater below the dune area and indicate a landward movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface in winter and a seaward movement in summer, respectively, in response to storms and corresponding coastal flooding. A density-dependent groundwater flow model was used to estimate the present thickness and shape of the lenses as well as to reconstruct the evolution of the freshwater reservoirs. The simulations suggest an asymmetric lens shape with a freshwater discharge "tube" below the beach to the sea and an extended brackish transition zone below the salt marsh area towards the tidal flat. The simulation results also indicate that the freshwater reservoirs are still in a stage of development (after 40 years of simulation time) and are estimated to reach steady-state after about 300-500 years under the given conditions without taking into account possible impacts of climate change.

  3. Island-corner barrier effect in two-dimensional pattern formation at surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Jianxin; Zhang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Lagally, Max G.

    2001-03-15

    Using rate-equation analysis, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, and embedded-atom model calculations, we establish the crucial importance of island-corner crossing in determining the island morphology during submonolayer epitaxy. We show that compact islands can be formed only if adatoms can frequently cross island corners; conversely, without effective corner crossing the islands must be noncompact with fractional dimensionality. These conclusions provide the basis for understanding initial island morphologies in existing experiments.

  4. 76 FR 32240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... ACRS meetings ] were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation...

  5. 76 FR 52715 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation...

  6. 77 FR 60480 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation...

  7. 78 FR 17944 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  8. 75 FR 27841 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials...

  9. 76 FR 36160 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  10. 76 FR 27101 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-05-10

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  11. 75 FR 27840 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-05-18

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials...

  12. 78 FR 20959 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2013-04-08

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) will hold a...

  13. 78 FR 37595 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2013-06-21

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  14. 76 FR 34276 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  15. 78 FR 24441 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary...

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    2013-04-25

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S....

  16. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

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    2012-08-01

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 14, 2012, Room...

  17. 78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

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    2013-08-21

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room...

  18. 77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

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    2012-05-16

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room...

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    2012-09-28

    ... in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room...

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  1. 77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room...

  2. 77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

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    2012-05-15

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room...

  3. 77 FR 45700 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 15, 2012, Room...

  4. Pumice in the interglacial Whidbey Formation at Blowers Bluff, central Whidbey Island, WA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dethier, D.P.; Dragovich, J.D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new 40Ar/39Ar age of 128??9 ka and chemical analyses of pumice layers from interglacial alluvium at Blowers Bluff, Whidbey Island, WA, show that the deposits are part of the Whidbey Formation, a widespread, mainly subsurface unit. Glass chemistry of the dated dacitic pumice does not match any analyzed northern Cascade source, but upper Pleistocene dacites from Glacier Peak and early Pleistocene silicic rocks from the Kulshan caldera are chemically similar. The chemistry of pumiceous dacite in younger units, including the latest Pleistocene Partridge Gravel, is similar to that of the dated material. The deep troughs of the modern northern Puget lowland must have been filled during deposition of the Whidbey Formation, allowing volcanic-rich sediment to reach what is now Whidbey Island. Topographic analysis of LIDAR images demonstrates that extensive erosion occurred during latest Pleistocene ice retreat. The Partridge Gravel likely records subglacial fluvial erosion along an ice tunnel and ice-marginal deposition into adjacent marine waters. Pumice in the Partridge Gravel probably was reworked from stratigraphically and topographically lower deposits, including those at Blowers Bluff. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  5. Cellular network formation of hydrophobic alkanethiol capped gold nanoparticles on mica surface mediated by water islands.

    PubMed

    John, Neena S; Raina, Gargi; Sharma, Ashutosh; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2010-09-01

    Dendritic and cellular networks of nanoparticles are known to form commonly either by random diffusion-limited aggregation or by solvent evaporation dynamics. Using alkanethiol capped gold nanoparticles deposited on mica imaged under ambient and controlled water vapor conditions by atomic force microscope and in situ scanning electron microscope, respectively, we show a third mechanism in action. The cellular network consisting of open and closed polygons is formed by the nucleation and lateral growth of adsorbed water islands, the contact lines of which push the randomly distributed hydrophobic nanoparticles along the growth directions, eventually leading to the polygonal structure formation as the boundaries of the growing islands meet. Such nanoparticle displacement has been possible due to the weakly adhering nature of the hydrophilic substrate, mica. These results demonstrate an important but hitherto neglected effect of adsorbed water in the structure formation on hydrophilic substrates and provide a facile tool for the fabrication of nanoparticle networks without specific particle or substrate modifications and without a tight control on particle deposition conditions during the solvent evaporation. PMID:20831330

  6. Structural Complexities Influencing Biostratigraphic Interpretations of the Permian Nansen Formation type-section, Ellesmere Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M.; Guest, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Carboniferous to Permian aged Nansen Formation is a cyclic carbonate shelf deposit and potential hydrocarbon reservoir. This formation is the thickest, most widespread carbonate sequence in the Sverdrup Basin. Deformed during the Eurekan Orogeny, the Nansen Fm. is topographically prominent and responsible for the rugged topography on Axel Heiburg and Ellesmere Island. The type-section for the Nansen Fm. is located on the north side of Hare Fiord, along Girty Creek. At this location there is an estimated stratigraphic thickness of 2 km. Due to easier access most of the stratigraphic work has been completed on nearby glacially exposed sections that traverse parallel to Girty Creek along glacial margins. Extensive biostratigraphy was completed on a glacier section to the west, however, in a glacier section to the east of Girty Creek, structural complexities appear to be repeating sections of the formation. Here, the Nansen formation is bounded by two regional reverse faults. This has produced duplex structures, with clearly exposed stacked horses, footwall synclines, and truncations. By projecting the structures observed along the eastern glacier section to the western glacier section that was used for biostratigraphic studies, it is clear that these structures would affect biostratigraphic interpretations. It was previously noted by biostratigraphers that thrust faults appear to be repeating sections of the Nansen formation. However by correlating all observed faults with the biostratigraphy, we can determine the extent to which the faulting has affected the interpretations, and whether all faults or stratigraphic repetitions are accounted for.

  7. Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Carruthers, Emily A.; Stone, Byron D.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Details of the internal architecture and local geochronology of Plum Island, the longest barrier in the Gulf of Maine, have refined our understanding of barrier island formation in paraglacial settings. Ground-penetrating radar and shallow-seismic profiles coupled with sediment cores and radiocarbon dates provide an 8000-year evolutionary history of this barrier system in response to changes in sediment sources and supply rates as well as variability in the rate of sea-level change. The barrier sequence overlies tills of Wisconsinan and Illinoian glaciations as well as late Pleistocene glaciomarine clay deposited during the post-glacial sea-level highstand at approximately 17 ka. Holocene sediment began accumulating at the site of Plum Island at 7–8 ka, in the form of coarse fluvial channel-lag deposits related to the 50-m wide erosional channel of the Parker River that carved into underlying glaciomarine deposits during a lower stand of sea level. Plum Island had first developed in its modern location by ca. 3.6 ka through onshore migration and vertical accretion of reworked regressive and lowstand deposits. The prevalence of southerly, seaward-dipping layers indicates that greater than 60% of the barrier lithosome developed in its modern location through southerly spit progradation, consistent with a dominantly longshore transport system driven by northeast storms. Thinner sequences of northerly, landward-dipping clinoforms represent the northern recurve of the prograding spit. A 5–6-m-thick inlet-fill sequence was identified overlying the lower stand fluvial deposit; its stratigraphy captures events of channel migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling and inlet infilling associated with the migration and eventual closure of the inlet. This inlet had a maximum cross-sectional area of 2800 m2 and was active around 3.5–3.6 ka. Discovery of this inlet suggests that the tidal prism was once larger than at present. Bay infilling

  8. Cryosols Formation and classification in the semiarid Antarctica: the Weddel Sea sector of northern Seymour Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjorup, Davi; Schaefer, Carlos; Francelino, Marcio

    2015-04-01

    The Seymour Island is located in the northern sector of the Weddell Sea zone, at the Antarctic Peninsular area, representing a transitional zone between Maritime and Continental Antarctica, with a subpolar, semiarid climate. The Seymour Island is predominantly composed by marine sedimentary rocks of Cretaceus to Eocene age. The aims of this work were to study the chemical, physical, mineralogical and morphological attributes of a selected, representative toposequence of soils at the northern sector of Seymour Island. Soil formation processes and taxonomical implications were discussed. Nine soil profiles were described, collected and analysed, following a toposequence according to different parent materials and landforms. Samples were subjected to textural analysis, routine chemical analysis, chemical extractions by ammonium oxalate and CBD, as well as X ray diffraction. Permafrost is continuous and widespread, generally at depths of less than 100 cm, so the Gelisols order (Soil Taxonomy), or Cryosols (WRB), are the dominant soils. Cryoturbation and organic matter accumulation were not observed. Soils were separated into two groups: acid-sulphate soils and alkaline soils, unaffected by sulphates. The first are the best developed in the study area, meaning a significant physico-chemical and mineralogical alteration. Low pH and high Al saturation and potential acidity are typical. This accounts for primary mineral dissolution, and its absence in the clay fraction. Secondary minerals are those related to sulphide oxidation: soluble and insoluble sulphates, low crystalline Fe-hydroxides and little crystalline Fe phases. The peculiar yellowish colour of these soils are attributed to the presence of Fe-oxides and Jarosite. The presence of 2:1 clays (smectite and illite) in the Clay fraction despite the acidity is due to low leaching. The alkaline soils, non affected by sulphates do not showed any marked weathering or transformation, with high pH, low potential acidity

  9. Stratigraphic setting of transgressive barrier-island reservoirs with an example from the Triassic Halfway Formation, Wembley field, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, A.J.; Moslow, T.F. )

    1994-05-01

    Established models for landward barrier-island migration focus primarily on the preservation pattern of transgressive facies in the shoreface which are typically thin and buried beneath finer grained marine lower shoreface-to-offshore sediments. In contrast, transgressive barrier-island sandstones in the Triassic Halfway Formation of Wembley field in Alberta are preserved interbedded with, and overlain by, backbarrier and nonmarine sediments. These transgressive barrier sandstones formed from coalescing washover fans during shoreface retreat and were subsequently [open quotes]abandoned[close quotes] as the shoreline stabilized and resumed progradation. The abandoned transgressive barrier sandstones were subsequently blanketed by backbarrier and nonmarine sediments as the coastline continued to prograde. Abandoned transgressive barrier island sandstones in the Halfway Formation are 2-6 m thick, up to 2 km wide, and form paleocoastline-parallel trends tens of kilometers in length. The trends define the paleolandward limit of transgressive events. The updip pinch-out of these sandstones in backbarrier mudstones forms a stratigraphic trap for hydrocarbons in Wembley field. Top seal is provided by nonmarine mudstones and evaporites which buried and abandoned transgressive barrier island. The sandstone has porosities and permeabilities averaging 11% and 63 md, respectively. By using well logs and cores to correlate individual parasequences in the Halfway Formation to their updip termination, it is possible to define the extent of associated marine flooding events and therefore identify hydrocarbon exploration targets for abandoned transgressive barrier-island sandstones. 58 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Paleomagnetism of Harutagawa formation in the Hohi Volcanic Zone in northeastern part of Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudou, T.; Shibuya, H.

    2008-12-01

    The Beppu-Shimabara graben in the Hohi Volcanic Zone (HVZ) in northeastern part of Kyushu Island, Japan is thought to be a volcano-tectonic depression. Volcanic stratigraphy and age studies of the area have unraveled the late Pliocene structural formation history of HVZ (e.g. Kamata, 1994, Kido, 2007). The age and sedimentation rate of lacustrine deposits in HVZ is one of the keys for interpreting the temporal relation between the formation of Beppu-Shimabara graben and the huge pyroclastic flows appeared in the area. We study the magnetostratigraphy of the Harutagawa formation, which is one of those lacustrine deposits. The formation is dominated by conglomerates and mad stones to siltstones, in the lower and upper parts, respectively, but bares many tuff layers all over the formation. Fission track ages of two tuff layers, one is from lower part and the other is from upper part of Harutagawa formation, are determined as 3.86 ± 0.77Ma and 3.6 ± 0.2Ma, respectively (Kido, 2007). Samples for paleomagnetic analyses have been collected at 28 sites in several continuous outcrop of the Harutagawa formation. The sites are set to be spaced equally in the stratigraphy. Samples were collected by a portable electric motor drill. A few pilot specimens from each site are subjected to progressive thermal and alternating field (AF) demagnetization. However, AF demagnetization is not effective. All remaining specimens are, therefore, submitted to the progressive thermal demagnetization. The samples have mean magnetic intensity of 1.7 × 10- 4A/m and 7.7 × 10-5A/m before and after demagnetization, respectively. Samples from 6 sites have no stable component or are thought to be completely remagnetized by the present magnetic field. As the result, 22 sites are determined their polarities; 8 were reversed and 14 were normal. The normal polarity sites were correlative to Sidufjall, Nunivak and Cochiti subchrons in the Gilbert reversed polarity chron. This correlation indicates that

  11. Formation of Garnet Granulite in the Lower Crust of a paleo-Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Carlos J.; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly

    2016-04-01

    The Jijal complex (Kohistan paleo-island arc complex, NW Pakistan) is a unique occurrence of high-pressure (HP), mafic, opx-free, garnet granulite formed in the lower crust of an island arc. The upper part of the Jijal Granulitic Gabbro Unit (GGU) records the arrested transformation of hornblende gabbronorite to garnet granulite, involving the coeval breakdown of amphibole and orthopyroxene, and the formation of garnet and quartz. Close to the transformation front (2-3 cm), clinopyroxene from the granulite displays a strong Ca-tschermak zoning with lower Al-contents at rims. REE zoning of clinopyroxene and pseudosection diagrams indicate that only clinopyroxene rims reflect chemical equilibrium with garnet in the reaction front (P = 1.1 ± 0.1 GPa, T = 800 ± 50 °C), whereas the cores retained high-Al contents inherited from precursor gabbronorite clinopyroxene and remained in chemical disequilibrium within a few centimeters of the garnet granulite assemblage. Clinopyroxene of garnet granulites from the Jijal lower GGU are completely re-equilibrated with garnet (P = 1.5 ± 0.1 GPa, T = 800 ± 50 °C). If ferric iron corrections are disregarded, equilibration pressure and temperature are highly overestimated yielding exceedingly high pressures for an island arc setting. The pressure difference between the upper and lower Jijal GGU granulites (~0.4 GPa) and its current thickness (<5 km) implies delamination of the denser parts of Jijal crust. Thermodynamically computed phase diagram sections for upper GGU bulk compositions show that, at the equilibration conditions of Jijal garnet granulite, the equilibrium assemblage is orthopyroxene-free and amphibole-free garnet granulite coexisting with melt or a fluid phase, depending on the water activity at the onset of amphibole breakdown. Pseudosections indicate that hornblende gabbronorite assemblages are highly metastable at lower arc crust depths. The transformation to garnet granulite was therefore substantially

  12. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA will hold a meeting... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039)....

  13. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on November 8, 2013 (78 FR 67205-67206..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  14. 75 FR 66803 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039)....

  15. 76 FR 11524 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Boiling Water Reactors (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactors... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-...

  16. 75 FR 30077 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR The... Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  17. Sedimentology of an early Cambrian tide-dominated embayment: Quyuk formation, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbano, Andrew M.; Pratt, Brian R.; Hadlari, Thomas; Dewing, Keith

    2015-05-01

    The early Cambrian (series 2, stage 4) Quyuk formation is exposed in the Minto Inlier of western Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic Islands, and forms the base of the Phanerozoic succession. Coeval with other sandstones of this age in Laurentia, it was deposited in a shallow-marine embayment on a passive margin during the initial phase of the early Paleozoic transgression. Four facies associations are recognized: (1) offshore muds consisting dominantly of dark gray laminated mudstone with discontinuous laminae of medium- to coarse sand; (2) offshore sand dune fields characterized by laterally continuous, planar cross-stratified beds up to 1.4 m thick of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone; (3) distal nearshore consisting dominantly of fine- to medium-grained bioturbated sandstone and fine- to medium-grained sandstone interbedded with laminated mudstone; and (4) proximal nearshore characterized by laterally continuous fine- to medium-grained bioturbated sandstone and medium-grained oolitic ironstone. Large scale dunes of facies association 2 record areas where tidal currents were amplified and had available sediment supply in contrast to facies association 1, which was sediment starved. Dunes are, for the most part, non-bioturbated or contain just a few individual burrows belonging to Skolithos. In nearshore settings, bioturbation in the form of a typical early Cambrian suite of shallow-subtidal ichnofossils predominated, representing a low-diversity Cruziana ichnofacies. Oolitic ironstone horizons in the proximal nearshore mark periods of low sedimentation rates when iron became concentrated and calcite was the primary cementing agent. The coastline is envisaged as a complex of bays and lagoons.

  18. Degradation of mangrove tissues and implications for peat formation in Belizean island forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    1. Macrofaunal leaf consumption and degradation of leaves, woody twigs and roots were studied in mangrove island forests on a Belizean island. Factors influencing accumulation of organic matter deposited both above and below ground in this oligotrophic, autochothonous system were assessed. 2. Leaf degradation rates of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) measured in mesh bags, were much faster in the lower than the upper intertidal zone. Mass loss was most rapid in A. germinans but zonal effects were much larger than species differences. 3. Exposure to invertebrates such as crabs and amphipods tripled overall rates of leaf litter breakdown. In the lower intertidal, crabs completely consumed some unbagged leaves within 23 days. Crabs also had an effect on some upper intertidal sites, where degradation of leaves placed in artificial burrows was 2.4 times faster than when placed on the soil surface. 4. In contrast to leaves (27??5% remaining after 230 days), roots and woody twigs were highly refractory (40??2% and 51??6% remaining after 584 and 540 days, respectively). Root degradation did not vary by soil depth, zone or species. Twigs of R. mangle and A. germinans degraded faster on the ground than in the canopy, whereas those of L. racemosa were highly resistant to decay regardless of position. 5. Peat formation at Twin Cays has occurred primarily through deposition and slow turnover of mangrove roots, rather than above-ground tissues that are either less abundant (woody twigs) or more readily removed (leaves).

  19. 75 FR 82093 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License Renewal; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License Renewal will hold a meeting on January 12, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  20. 75 FR 25303 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will hold a meeting on May 19, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  1. 78 FR 20958 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

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    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will hold a meeting on April 23, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545...

  2. 77 FR 5063 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

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    2012-02-01

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena will hold...

  3. 75 FR 82092 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-12-29

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  4. 77 FR 56240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2012-09-12

    ..., (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  5. 77 FR 31044 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2012-05-24

    ..., (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  6. 76 FR 34779 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on June...

  7. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on...

  8. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on December...

  9. 75 FR 16874 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-04-02

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 52829-52830). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  10. 75 FR 82093 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-12-29

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  11. 76 FR 44964 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-07-27

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  12. 77 FR 38099 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2012-06-26

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  13. 75 FR 58447 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-09-24

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials...

  14. 78 FR 66967 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommitte on Radiation...

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    2013-11-07

    ..., 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommitte on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  15. 75 FR 4881 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-01-29

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 52829-52830). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  16. 76 FR 55716 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on...

  17. 76 FR 61119 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-10-03

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  18. 76 FR 5218 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2011-01-28

    ... Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water...

  19. 77 FR 76089 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2012-12-26

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  20. 76 FR 27102 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

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    2011-05-10

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified...

  1. 77 FR 59678 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  2. 75 FR 52999 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On ESBWR The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on September 23-24, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  3. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on...

  4. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012 (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S....

  5. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Regulatory...

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    2010-09-21

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268- 58269). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Regulatory Policies and Practices The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will hold a meeting...

  6. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1,...

  7. 78 FR 17945 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on April 10, 2013, Room...

  8. 77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room...

  9. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Register on October 18, 2012 (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room...

  10. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room...

  11. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room...

  12. 77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011 (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room...

  13. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 5, 2012, Room...

  14. 77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room...

  15. 78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory..., September 16, 2013--8:30 a.m. Until 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review the State-of-the-Art Reactor... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147)....

  16. 77 FR 33004 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... White Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  17. 78 FR 12800 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... White Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  18. 75 FR 58448 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268- 58269... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  19. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, David H; Carucci, Laura R; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Gage, Kenneth L; Noto, Richard B; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Lalani, Tasneem

    2015-10-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26435118

  20. Tree island pattern formation and alternative equilibria in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; D'Odorico, P.; Engel, V.

    2012-12-01

    The tree islands of the Florida Everglades are patterned ecogeomorphic features where elevated woody vegetation patches are surrounded by wet marsh filled with herbaceous vegetation. This wet savanna landscape exhibits an uneven distribution of soil resources with enhanced soil phosphorus concentrations underlying elevated tree islands. In contrast, the surrounding low lying marsh has low phosphorous availability. This patchy patterned landscape sustains high levels of biodiversity, but the processes determining the stability and resilience of the patterned tree island landscape remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear what controls the relation between individual form and processes within a tree island and the spatial organization of tree islands on the landscape. To this end, a process-based model that relates vegetation dynamics to nutrients and soil accretion/loss through ecogeomorphic feedbacks and interactions with hydrologic drivers was developed. The model reveals that the stable coexistence of tree islands and marshes emerges as an effect of their both being (meta-) stable states of the system. Self organization of patterns on the landscape occurs within a subset of the parameter space. As such, tree islands are found to have only a limited resilience. Change in hydroperiod and or vegetation cover can result in an rapid shift to a stable marsh state. Under certain hydrologic conditions this state can become destabilized and promote once again ontogenesis of tree islands. As such, the tree island susceptibility to a rapid (slow) transition between alternative equilibria needs to be accounted for while developing a plan for their management, conservation and restoration.

  1. Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: From island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Baird, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic continental arcs in the North American Cordillera were examined here to establish a baseline model for Phanerozoic continent formation. We combine new trace-element data on lower crustal xenoliths from the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada Batholith with an extensive grid-based geochemical map of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, the southern equivalent of the Sierras. Collectively, these observations give a three-dimensional view of the crust, which permits the petrogenesis and tectonics of Phanerozoic crust formation to be linked in space and time. Subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America during the Triassic to early Cretaceous was characterized by trench retreat and slab rollback because old and cold oceanic lithosphere was being subducted. This generated an extensional subduction zone, which created fringing island arcs just off the Paleozoic continental margin. However, as the age of the Farallon plate at the time of subduction decreased, the extensional environment waned, allowing the fringing island arc to accrete onto the continental margin. With continued subduction, a continental arc was born and a progressively more compressional environment developed as the age of subducting slab continued to young. Refinement into a felsic crust occurred after accretion, that is, during the continental arc stage, wherein a thickened crustal and lithospheric column permitted a longer differentiation column. New basaltic arc magmas underplate and intrude the accreted terrane, suture, and former continental margin. Interaction of these basaltic magmas with pre-existing crust and lithospheric mantle created garnet pyroxenitic mafic cumulates by fractional crystallization at depth as well as gabbroic and garnet pyroxenitic restites at shallower levels by melting of pre-existing lower crust. The complementary felsic plutons formed by these deep-seated differentiation processes rose into the upper crust, stitching together the accreted terrane, suture and former

  2. Formation of 'Beach Rock' at Siesta Key, Florida and its influence on barrier island development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurgeon, D.; Davis, R.A., Jr.; Shinnu, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seaward-dipping strata of carbonate-cemented shell debris located along the coast of Siesta Key on the Gulf Coast of the Florida peninsula have long been interpreted to be beachrock equivalent in age to the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation (Stage 5e) of the east coast of Florida. Detailed examination of thin sections along with radiometric dating and isotopic analyses demonstrates clearly that this is a Holocene deposit that is not beachrock but was lithified in a meteoric environment. Whole rock dates, dates from shells only, and from cement only demonstrate that these beach deposits were in place by at least 1800 yr BP and might have been there as long ago as 4300 yr BP. This means that some type of barrier island was in place at that time. Previous investigations have depicted Siesta Key as having a maximum age of 3000 yr with these deposits being located about 2 km landward of the beach deposits. This suggests that the beach deposits might have been the site of the original position of Siesta Key. These data also indicate that sea level must have been near its present position at the time that these foreshore beach deposits were deposited; sometime between 1800 and 4300 yr ago. This scenario indicates that sea level along this coastal reach probably reached its present level at least about 2000 yr ago. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rethinking conditions necessary for pseudotachylyte formation: Observations from the Otago schists, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnerud, M.

    2010-07-01

    Pseudotachylytes and two distinct types of cataclasite in the Otago Schist at Tucker Hill, South Island, New Zealand, provide evidence for both seismic slip and aseismic creep on a normal fault zone during regional crustal extension in late Cretaceous time. Regional geologic evidence suggests that the fault had its present low-angle dip (ca. 10°) at the time it was active. 'Type A' cataclasites, presumably aseismic, can be recognized by bi-fractal grain size distributions, monomict composition, angular clasts of uniform textural maturity, and a crude fabric defined by oriented grains and transgranular fractures. 'Type B' cataclasites, possibly cosesimic, have characteristics consistent with fluidized grain flow, including heterogeneous clast shapes and types, a bimodal grain size distribution, intrusive relationships with other rocks, and the absence of any fabric or transecting fractures. Pseudotachylyte, which occurs as fault veins, injection veins and more complex types of intrusive structures, consistently cuts across and invades Type A cataclasites but is both intrusive into and included as clasts in Type B cataclasites. These relationships are consistent with a fault evolution model in which the development of a damage zone through aseismic cataclasis (Type A) facilitates the formation of pseudotachylyte in a subsequent seismic event by providing a permeable matrix through which fluids can drain in the early stages of slip, thereby maintaining frictional contact between rock surfaces. The formation of pseudotachylyte, in turn, may seal the fault zone and lead to thermal pressurization in a later seismic cycle, forming fluidized (Type B) cataclasites. Seismic slip on the low-angle normal fault zone at Tucker Hill may have occurred by two distinct modes of dynamic weakening — melt lubrication and thermal pressurization — in successive seismic events. Although there is a perception among geologists that pseudotachylyte is most likely to form in intact

  4. A sedimentary model for early Palaeozoic fluvial fans, Alderney Sandstone Formation (Channel Islands, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ielpi, Alessandro; Ghinassi, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    Fluvial fans in the rock record are inferred based on critical criteria such as: downstream grain-size fining; evidence for drainage fractionation along bifurcating channels; increasing fluvial-aeolian interaction in the basinward direction; and radial palaeoflow dispersion. Since pre-vegetation fluvial rocks often lack heterolithic alluvium and channelisation at the outcrop scale, the recognition of pre-Silurian fluvial fans has, so far, not been straightforward. This research proposes a sedimentary model for the Alderney Sandstone Formation of Channel Islands (UK), so far considered as a fine record of early Palaeozoic axial-fluvial sedimentation. Here, outcrop-based and remote-sensing analysis of the formation's type-section reveal the interaction of fluvial and aeolian processes, expressed by the alternation of: compound fluvial bars enclosing macroform surfaces, related to phases of perennial discharge; fluvial sandsheets containing antidunal forms and soft-sediment deformations, related to seasonal (i.e. flashy) discharge; and aeolian bedforms overlying thin stream-flow deposits. An up-section increase in aeolian deposits is accompanied by the shrinking of fluvial bars and minor-channel cuts, suggesting that drainage was fractioned along smaller channels terminating into marginal aeolian environments. Together with a propensity towards more dispersed values of fluvial cross-set thickness up-section (again due to discharge fractionation along intermittently active channels), these features depict an aeolian-influenced fluvial fan. This work discusses a set of criteria for the identification of fluvial fans in pre-vegetation environments. In doing so, it also explores possible parallels to modern environments, and underscores the potential of integrated outcrop and remotely sensed observations on ancient fluvial rocks and modern sedimentary realms.

  5. Rapid formation of large aggregates during the spring bloom of Kerguelen Island: observations and model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouandet, M.-P.; Jackson, G. A.; Carlotti, F.; Picheral, M.; Stemmann, L.; Blain, S.

    2014-08-01

    While production of aggregates and their subsequent sinking is known to be one pathway for the downward movement of organic matter from the euphotic zone, the rapid transition from non-aggregated to aggregated particles has not been reported previously. We made one vertical profile of particle size distributions (PSD; sizes ranging from 0.052 to several millimeters in equivalent spherical diameter) at pre-bloom stage and seven vertical profiles 3 weeks later over a 48 h period at early bloom stage using the Underwater Vision Profiler during the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau Compared Study cruise 2 (KEOPS2, October-November 2011). In these naturally iron-fertilized waters southeast of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean), the total particle numerical abundance increased by more than fourfold within this time period. A massive total volume increase associated with particle size distribution changes was observed over the 48 h survey, showing the rapid formation of large particles and their accumulation at the base of the mixed layer. The results of a one-dimensional particle dynamics model support coagulation as the mechanism responsible for the rapid aggregate formation and the development of the VT subsurface maxima. The comparison of VT profiles between early bloom stage and pre-bloom stage indicates an increase of particulate export below 200 m when bloom has developed. These results highlight the role of coagulation in forming large particles and triggering carbon export at the early stage of a naturally iron-fertilized bloom, while zooplankton grazing may dominate later in the season. The rapid changes observed illustrate the critical need to measure carbon export flux with high sampling temporal resolution. Our results are the first published in situ observations of the rapid accumulation of marine aggregates and their export and the general agreement of this rapid event with a model of phytoplankton growth and coagulation.

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vilaas S; Reis, Martin N; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Broder, Joshua; Choudhri, Asim F; Kendi, A Tuba; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; Prall, J Adair; Raksin, Patricia B; Roth, Christopher J; Sharma, Aseem; West, O Clark; Wintermark, Max; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Neuroimaging plays an important role in the management of head trauma. Several guidelines have been published for identifying which patients can avoid neuroimaging. Noncontrast head CT is the most appropriate initial examination in patients with minor or mild acute closed head injury who require neuroimaging as well as patients with moderate to severe acute closed head injury. In short-term follow-up neuroimaging of acute traumatic brain injury, CT and MRI may have complementary roles. In subacute to chronic traumatic brain injury, MRI is the most appropriate initial examination, though CT may have a complementary role in select circumstances. Advanced neuroimaging techniques are areas of active research but are not considered routine clinical practice at this time. In suspected intracranial vascular injury, CT angiography or venography or MR angiography or venography is the most appropriate imaging study. In suspected posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid leak, high-resolution noncontrast skull base CT is the most appropriate initial imaging study to identify the source, with cisternography reserved for problem solving. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27262056

  7. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.

    2016-01-01

    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  8. 30,000 Degrees: Steps toward the Formation of a Staten Island Higher Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanuzzi, Robert; Gold, Kenneth; Seigel, Samantha; Cuccia, Christopher; Kress, Michael; Sanchez, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    In order to confront lower than average completion rates in New York City and to provide a strong economic and civic foundation for Staten Island, the borough's three institutions of higher education, College of Staten Island/City University of New York, St. John's University, and Wagner College, have brought together their high school and…

  9. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  10. The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Ted; Musliner, Andrew; Wampler, David

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS) is a mission-current scheduling aid that predicts periods of mutual interference when two or more orbiting spacecraft are scheduled to communicate with the same Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) at the same time. The mutual interference predicted has the potential to degrade or prevent communications. Thus the ACRS system is a useful tool for aiding in the scheduling of Space Network (SN) communications.

  11. Assessing the origin of unusual organic formations in lava caves from Canary Islands (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ana Z.; de la Rosa, Jose M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Angela M.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Jurado, Valme; Fernández, Octavio; Knicker, Heike; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-04-01

    Lava tubes, like other caves, contain a variety of speleothems formed in the initial stage of a lava tube formation or due to leaching and subsequent precipitation of secondary minerals. Primary and secondary mineral formations in lava caves are mainly composed of silicate minerals, although secondary minerals common in limestone caves have been also reported in this type of caves. In addition, unusual colored deposits have been found on the walls and ceilings of lava tubes, some of them of unknown origin and composition. A brown to black-colored mud-like deposits was observed in "Llano de los Caños" Cave, La Palma Island, Canary Islands, Spain. These black deposits coat the wall and ceiling of the lava tube where sub-horizontal fractures occur. FESEM-EDS, X-ray micro-computed tomography and mineralogical analyses were conducted for morphological, 3D microstructural and compositional characterization of these unusual speleothem samples. These techniques revealed that they are mainly composed of amorphous materials, suggesting an organic carbon composition. Hence, analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS), solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and stable isotope analysis were applied to assess the nature and origin of the black deposits. The combination of these analytical tools permits the identification of specific biomarkers (di- and triterpenoids) for tracing the potential sources of the organic compounds in the speleothems. For comparison purposes, samples from the topsoil and overlaying vegetation were also analyzed. Chromatograms resulting from the Py-GC/MS showed an abundance of polysaccharides, lipids and terpenoids typically derived from the vegetation of the area (Erica arborea). In addition, levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-containing heterocyclic compounds were detected. They probably derived from the leaching of charred vegetation resulting from a wildfire occurred in the area in 2012. The lack of the typical pattern of odd

  12. Constraining the age and formation of stone runs in the Falkland Islands using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansom, James D.; Evans, David J. A.; Sanderson, David C. W.; Bingham, Robert G.; Bentley, Michael J.

    2008-02-01

    The stone runs of the Falkland Islands are thought to be periglacial blockfields but their age and detailed origin remain enigmatic. We examine the fine sediments that underlie two stone runs in order to establish whether Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating is an appropriate technique to constrain the date of emplacement of the fine sediments and, hence, the stone runs. Six samples were collected from two accessible sections during the Scotia Centenary Antarctic expedition in 2003. All samples were used to explore the main luminescence characteristics of the sediment, followed by quartz SAR dating procedures on four of the samples. Age estimates range from in excess of 54 ka to 16 ka, suggesting that the overlying stone runs remained active until 16 ka or later. Saturation of luminescence from quartz limits age estimates for the oldest samples in the sequences, however these are not critical to define the upper limit to the emplacement age for the overlying stone runs. The sediments also contain feldspars and initial results suggest that these may be useful in extending the timescale further, but require further samples to be obtained from other parts of the sequence. Extending the method to other stone runs in the Port Stanley Formation may allow estimates of the age of stabilisation of the stone runs to be extended into the 1-250 ka timescale. Luminescence dating of the underlying sediments, used in conjunction with cosmogenic isotope dating of the surface boulders from a range of locations along the stone runs, appears to offer a useful route towards decoding the depositional history of these impressive deposits.

  13. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... materials and metallurgy. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions with the...

  14. Divergence preceding island formation among Aegean insular populations of the freshwater snail genus Pseudorientalia (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea).

    PubMed

    Szarowska, Magdalena; Hofman, Sebastian; Osikowski, Artur; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Freshwater snails that inhabit islands are excellent model organisms for testing relationships between geological events and phylogeography, especially in the Aegean region. Although many Aegean islands were searched in the present study, species of the genus Pseudorientalia were only found on Lesvos, Samos, and Chios. Phylogenetic relationships between specimens living on these three islands were analysed using COI and 16S rRNA molecular markers and morphological data. A high level of diversity was found between islands. Genetic distances between clades showed differences high enough for the samples from different islands to be considered distinct species (p-distance: 0.105-0.133). These results are also supported by obvious morphological differences in shell morphology between islands. The mean divergence time between the Lesvos clade and Samos/Chios clade was 24.13 ± 3.30 Mya; between the Samos and Chios clades the divergence time was 14.80 ± 1.11 Mya. Our data suggest that high divergence may have occurred between Pseudorientalia populations during the Upper and Middle Miocene, when the Aegean region was part of a united landmass. It is possible that the observed highly divergent Pseudorientalia clades are relicts of high regional diversity that existed in the past. PMID:25284387

  15. Mesoarchean oceanic sedimentary sequences: Dixon Island-Cleaverville formations of Pilbara vs Komati section of Fig Tree Group in Barberton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Takehara, M.; Teraji, S.

    2011-12-01

    During the Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic, atmospheric conditions varied from lower levels of oxygen contents to oxic conditions in atmosphere, with the Great Oxidation Event occurring at 2.5 Ga (e.g. Canfield, 2005, Farquhar et al., 2007). However, many iron formations and oxic iron rich sediments occur in the Mesoarchean. We evaluate the sedimentation history of some well-preserved Mesoarchean iron rich sequences by focusing on their stratigraphic pattern and geochemical characteristics. Our study focuses on three iron formation bearing deeper facies sedimentary sequences in Mesoarchean - 1) Dixon Island (Pilbara), 2) Cleaverville (Pilbara) and 3) Mapepe (Barberton) formations. The Dixon Island-Cleaverville formations include volcano-sedimentary sequences as indicated by drill core samples (DXCL) (Kiyokawa et al., 2006, Yamaguchi et al., 2009). It shows coarsening and thickening upward black shale-BIF sequences which indicate oceanic caldera environment. Estimated sedimentation rate from Dixon Island Formation (3195+15 Ma) to Cleaverville Formation (3108+13 Ma) is 2-4 cm/1000year. The Komati section of the Mappepe Formation in the Fig Tree Group consists of a more than 300m thick bedded black shale-chert-iron formation sequence. Based on mapping at 1/100 and 1/1000 scales, we reconstructed 150m thick stratigraphic section. This sequence conformably overlies volcanic rocks, which are in turn overlain by iron rich red bed sequences. Organic rich sequences of three different thickness were identified; 1) less than 1mm thick thin laminated black and white chert and pyrite lamination sequence, 2) 3-5 cm thick black shale-chert-iron rich sequence, and 3) 20 cm thick black chert with fine grained volcanic rocks to banded iron formation sequence. Each sequence contains cycles of organic matter rich shale at the bottom, with chert, pyrite or iron rich bed to the top. Total organic carbon of DXCL core reaches maximum values over 3.0 wt%. (ave 1.2 wt%). Total organic carbon

  16. Formation of Graphene p n Superlattices on Pb Quantum Wedged Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wenguang; Chen, Hua; Bevan, Kirk H; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we report on a novel scheme to create graphene p n superlattices on Pb wedged islands with quantum stability. Pb(111) wedged islands grown on vicinal Si(111) extend over several Si steps, forming a wedged structure with atomically flat tops. The monolayer thickness variation due to the underlying substrate steps is a sizable fraction of the total thickness of the wedged islands and gives rise to a bilayer oscillation in the work function of Pb(111) due to quantum size effects. Here, we demonstrate that when a graphene sheet is placed on the surface of such a Pb wedged island, the spatial work function oscillation on the Pb wedged island surface caused by the underlying steps results in an oscillatory shift in the graphene Dirac point with respect to the Fermi level. Furthermore, by applying an external electric field of 0.5 V/ in the surface normal direction, the Fermi level of the system can be globally tuned to an appropriate position such that the whole graphene layer becomes a graphene p n superlattice of seamless junctions, with potentially exotic physical properties and intriguing applications in nanoelectronics.

  17. Tracing formation and durability of calcite in a Punic-Roman cistern mortar (Pantelleria Island, Italy).

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Martin; Schön, Frerich; Heinrichs, Jens; Deditius, Artur P; Leis, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Ancient hydraulic lime mortar preserves chemical and isotopic signatures that provide important information about historical processing and its durability. The distribution and isotopic composition of calcite in a mortar of a well-preserved Punic-Roman cistern at Pantelleria Island (Italy) was used to trace the formation conditions, durability, and individual processing periods of the cistern mortar. The analyses of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite revealed four individual horizons, D, E, B-1 and B-2, of mortar from the top to the bottom of the cistern floor. Volcanic and ceramic aggregates were used for the production of the mortar of horizons E/D and B-1/B-2, respectively. All horizons comprise hydraulic lime mortar characterized by a mean cementation index of 1.5 ± 1, and a constant binder to aggregate ratio of 0.31 ± 0.01. This suggests standardized and highly effective processing of the cistern. The high durability of calcite formed during carbonation of slaked lime within the matrix of the ancient mortar, and thus the excellent resistance of the hydraulic lime mortar against water, was documented by (i) a distinct positive correlation of δ(18)Ocalcite and δ(13)Ccalcite; typical for carbonation through a mortar horizon, (ii) a characteristic evolution of δ(18)Ocalcite and δ(13)Ccalcite through each of the four mortar horizons; lighter follow heavier isotopic values from upper to lower part of the cistern floor, and (iii) δ(18)Ocalcite varying from -10 to -5 ‰ Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB). The range of δ(18)Ocalcite values rule out recrystallization and/or neoformation of calcite through chemical attack of water stored in cistern. The combined studies of the chemical composition of the binder and the isotopic composition of the calcite in an ancient mortar provide powerful tools for elucidating the ancient techniques and processing periods. This approach helps to evaluate the durability of primary calcite and demonstrates the

  18. 76 FR 22934 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on May 11, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038- 65039)....

  19. 76 FR 71609 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

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    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on December 14, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-...

  20. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on September 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-...

  1. 78 FR 2695 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... Operations and Fire Protection; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire... onsite emergency response capabilities such as Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), Severe...

  2. 75 FR 61781 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

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    2010-10-06

    ... representatives of the NRC staff, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and other interested persons regarding this... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  3. 75 FR 71154 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

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    2010-11-22

    ... would result in a major inconvenience. Dated: November 15, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed...

  4. 76 FR 27103 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Subcommittee will review recent events at the Fukushima site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on...

  5. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Subcommittee will review recent events at the Fukushima site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on...

  6. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835)...

  7. 78 FR 27443 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

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    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  8. 77 FR 36582 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to...

  9. 77 FR 18873 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

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    2012-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory... Subcommittee will review the Draft NUREG Report on the State- of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA... were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed...

  10. 76 FR 63329 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

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    2011-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to...

  11. 78 FR 59074 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

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    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835)...

  12. 78 FR 31988 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown...

  13. 75 FR 58447 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... Branch A, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

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    2010-08-26

    ..., (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory..., 2010. Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  15. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Systems will hold a meeting...

  16. 75 FR 51501 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on September 8, 2010,...

  17. Stratigraphic interpretation of the Kulu Formation (Early Miocene, Rusinga Island, Kenya) and its implications for primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Peppe, Daniel J; McNulty, Kieran P; Cote, Susanne M; Harcourt-Smith, William E H; Dunsworth, Holly M; Van Couvering, John A

    2009-05-01

    Early Miocene fossils from Rusinga Island, Kenya, provide some of the best evidence for catarrhine evolution and diversification, and, together with more than eighty-five other mammalian species, form an important comparative reference for understanding faunal succession in East Africa. While there is consensus over the stratigraphic position of most of Rusinga's volcaniclastic deposits, the lacustrine Kulu Formation has been placed in various parts of the geological sequence by different researchers. To resolve this discrepancy, we conducted detailed geological analyses which indicate that the Kulu Formation was formed in the Early Miocene during a period of volcanic inactivity and subsidence following the early, mainly explosive hyper-alkaline phase of the Kisingiri complex and prior to the final eruptions of nephelinitic lavas. The underlying Hiwegi and older formations were locally deformed and deeply eroded before sedimentation began in the Kulu basin, so that the Kulu sediments may be significantly younger than the 17.8 Ma Hiwegi Formation and not much older than the overlying Kiangata Agglomerata-Lunene Lava series, loosely dated to ca. 15 Ma. The overall similarities between Kulu and Hiwegi faunas imply long-term ecological stability in this region. Our stratigraphic interpretation suggests that the Kulu fauna is contemporaneous with faunas from West Turkana, implying that differences between these assemblages-particularly in the primate communities--reflect paleobiogeographic and/or paleocological differences. Finally, the position of the Kulu Formation restricts the time frame during which the substantial faunal turnover seen in the differences between the primate and mammalian communities of Rusinga and Maboko Islands could have occurred. PMID:19427023

  18. The Expanding Significance of One Acre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Daniel R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A management class assignment requires students to study the history and complexity of one acre of land. The intent is to develop connections between the natural environment and human acts of management, focusing on the concept of privilege. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  19. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment acres. 760.632 Section 760.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... considered the same as a planting of an initial crop in tropical regions as defined in part 1437, subpart...

  20. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment acres. 760.632 Section 760.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... considered the same as a planting of an initial crop in tropical regions as defined in part 1437, subpart...

  1. Breccia Formation at a Complex Impact Crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a approximately 30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earliest breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic elastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of approximately 2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing

  2. Breccia formation at a complex impact crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-07-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a ˜30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earlist breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of ˜2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing shatter-coned fragments

  3. Facies control on reservoir properties within a barrier island complex, Sparta Formation, Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.C.; Moslow, T.F.; Ferrell, R.E.

    1988-02-01

    Analysis of conventional core, well logs, and petrophysical data has yielded an interpretation of the Sparta B sandstone in south-central Louisiana as a prograding barrier island complex. Four sedimentary facies possess reservoir potential: lower shoreface, upper shoreface, storm washover, and tidal-inlet channel sandstone facies. Distinct porosity and permeability values are associated with each reservoir facies. Predictable porosity and permeability trends associated with the Sparta B sandstone barrier island complex allows for identification of distinct fluid flow units within the sequence. In addition, individual sedimentary facies possess characteristic well log signatures; therefore, the geometry, thickness variability, and lateral continuity of each fluid flow unit can be determined and heterogeneities within the reservoir interval can be resolved.

  4. Formation of Si nanocrystals utilizing a Au nanoscale island etching mask

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.M.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, D.Y. . E-mail: dykim@dongguk.edu; Kim, T.W.; Woo, Y.-D.; Wang, K.L.

    2005-01-04

    Si nanocrystals were formed by using a Au nanoscale island etching mask. A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image showed that the Si nanocrystals were created on a SiO{sub x} layer, and the luminescence peak related to Si nanocrystals was observed in the cathodoluminescence spectrum. Capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate a metal-insulator-semiconductor behavior with a flatband voltage shift for the Al/SiO{sub 2}/nanocrystalline Si/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si structures, indicative of the existence of the Si nanocrystals embedded into the SiO{sub x} layer. These results indicate that Si nanocrystals embedded into the SiO{sub x} layer can be formed by using a Au island etching mask.

  5. Fast Formation of Magnetic Islands in a Plasma in the Presence of Counterstreaming Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Califano, F.; Attico, N.; Pegoraro, F.; Bertin, G.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2001-06-04

    With the help of 2D-3V (two dimensional in space and three dimensional in velocity) Vlasov simulations we show that the magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic current filamentation instability develops magnetic islands due to the onset of a fast reconnection process that occurs on the electron dynamical time scale. This process is relevant to magnetic channel coalescence in relativistic laser plasma interactions.

  6. Mismatch relaxation by stacking fault formation of AlN islands in AlGaN/GaN structures on m-plane GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Grzegory, Izabella

    2011-08-08

    We study the mismatch relaxation of 2-5 nm thin elongated AlN islands formed during growth of AlGaN on bulk m-plane GaN by molecular beam epitaxy. The relaxation of these m-plane AlN layers is anisotropic and occurs through the introduction of stacking faults in [0001] planes during island coalescence, while no relaxation is observed along the perpendicular [1120] direction. This anisotropy in the mismatch relaxation and the formation of stacking faults in the AlN islands are explained by the growth mode of the AlN platelets and their coalescence along the [0001] direction.

  7. Formation of U-depleted rhyolite from a basanite at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Laporte, Didier; Carpentier, Marion; Devouard, Bertrand; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Marti, Joan

    2013-03-01

    Phonolite and trachyte are the felsic magmas of the alkaline magma suites, which characterize the Canary Islands. The October 2011 submarine eruption off El Hierro, the westernmost island, nevertheless, produced a small volume of rhyolitic magma. The rhyolite occurred as highly vesicular, white coloured pumices enveloped in and mingled with darker coloured basanitic pumice. The basanitic pumice is relatively crystal poor with a few euhedral olivines (mostly Fo77-79), clinopyroxenes and Fe-rich spinels, whereas very rare olivine of same composition is found together with equally rare Fe-sulphide and FeTi-rich oxides in the rhyolite. The Fe-Mg exchange equilibrium in the oxides permits to calculate an equilibrium temperature of 970-890 °C for the rhyolite, in agreement with quartz-melt equilibrium at ca. 930 °C. A striking mineralogical feature of the rhyolite is the presence of rounded to contorted grains of milky quartz, which are xenocrysts incorporated and partly dissolved into the magma. Analyses of residual volatile concentrations in the glasses show that the rhyolite melt was highly degassed, whereas the basanitic glass still has important halogen concentrations. Trace element patterns of the mafic glasses and their elevated incompatible element concentrations are typical of the western Canary Island basanites. In contrast, the trace element composition of the rhyolite shows surprisingly low concentrations for all elements except the most incompatible ones (e.g. Rb, Ba, K and Th). All other measured LILE, HFSE and REE have significantly lower concentration than the basanitic counterpart that can be explained by fractionation of accessory phases (1 % apatite, 1 % sphene and 0.1 % zircon). Surprisingly, low U concentration is presumably related to elevated oxygen fugacity in the rhyolite, causing U to be in a hexavalent state, and fluxing of F-rich gas leading to volatilization of UF6, known to emanate at low temperature. The results suggest that a gas

  8. 77 FR 68160 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... develop a revision to the Station Blackout Rule. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147)....

  9. 77 FR 64563 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... efforts to develop a revision to the Station Blackout Rule. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR...

  10. 77 FR 59677 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127... p.m. The Subcommittee will review and discuss SECY-12-0110, ``Consideration of Economic...

  11. 77 FR 47680 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittees on Reliability...

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    2012-08-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on Wednesday, August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45698-45699). Further information... and PRA and Fukushima; Revision to Notice of Meetings The (ACRS) Subcommittee on Fukushima...

  12. 78 FR 29159 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

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    2011-09-08

    ... (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a...

  14. 76 FR 72451 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

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    2013-09-13

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ..., (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  17. 77 FR 74698 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2012-12-17

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  18. 78 FR 34677 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  19. 78 FR 31987 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  20. 75 FR 58449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a...

  1. 78 FR 3474 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  2. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy And Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy and...

  3. 75 FR 65036 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... protection program transition to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 805. The Subcommittee... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR...

  4. 76 FR 16458 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on April... Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts...

  5. 77 FR 64148 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Reactors,'' Revision 2 and RG 1.79.1, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128)....

  6. 76 FR 18585 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  7. 75 FR 16203 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ....'' This supplement extends the GEH/GNF computational methods to include GNF-2 fuel design. The... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR...

  8. 77 FR 24745 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Hydraulic Phenomena; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena will hold...

  9. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268- 58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Hydraulics Phenomena The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulics Phenomena will hold a meeting on September...

  10. 76 FR 44378 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... for Nuclear Power Plants''; NUREG/CR-4461, Revision 2, ``Tornado Climatology of the Contiguous...

  11. Radiology practice models: the 2008 ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Van Moore, Arl; Hillman, Bruce J; Neiman, Harvey L; Thrall, James H

    2008-09-01

    The 2008 ACR Forum brought together a diverse group of participants from clinical radiology, radiology leadership and practice management, managed care, economics, law, and entrepreneurship in Washington, DC, in January 2008 to discuss current models of radiology practice and anticipate new ones. It addressed what forces shape the practice of radiology, how these forces are changing, and how radiology practices can most effectively respond to them in the future. PMID:18755435

  12. Nematode diversity, abundance and community structure 50 years after the formation of the volcanic island of Surtsey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva-Makulec, K.; Bjarnadottir, B.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    The soil nematode fauna can give important insights into soil development and other habitat changes that occur during primary succession. We investigated the generic composition, density, distribution and community structure of nematodes 50 years after the formation of a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland. Part of the island has received additional nutrient inputs from seagulls breeding there since 1985, while the reminder has been much less affected and is at present found at a different successional sere. In total, 25 genera of nematodes were identified, of which 14 were reported on Surtsey for the first time. Nematode communities were more diverse in the more infertile area outside the gull colony, where 24 genera were found, compared to 18 inside. The trophic structure of the nematode communities showed relatively higher abundance of fungal feeders in the infertile areas, but relatively more bacterial- and plant-feeders inside the colony. Nematode abundance in surface soil was, however, significantly higher within the gull colony, with 16.7 ind. cm-2 compared to 3.6 ind. cm-2 outside. A multivariate analysis indicated that the nematode abundance and distribution on Surtsey were most strongly related to the soil C : N ratio, soil acidity, plant cover and biomass, soil temperature and soil depth.

  13. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such...

  14. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  15. Mechanism for persistent hexagonal island formation in AlN buffer layer during growth on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.-Y.; Chung, H.-C.; Liu, C.-P.; Tu, L.-W.

    2007-05-21

    The characteristics of structure and morphology of AlN grown by a growth interruption method on Si (111) with plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. It is found that the growth interruption method would improve the surface flatness of the AlN layer without the formation of Al droplets. However, AlN hexagonal islands were present and persistent throughout the entire growth owing to effective strain relaxation and Eherlich-Schowebel barrier effect of preexistent surface islands grown on higher terraces of the Si substrate. The density of threading dislocations underneath the hexagonal islands is much less than elsewhere in the film, which is presumably due to dislocation annihilation during the island growth process.

  16. 76 FR 44964 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  17. 76 FR 5220 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on February 9, 2011, at...

  18. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on April 5, 2011, at...

  19. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... identification of digital system failure modes and use of hazard analysis methods for digital safety systems. The... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

  20. 75 FR 16203 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on the U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) will hold a meeting on April 20-21, 2010, at 11545 Rockville Pike, T2-...

  1. 76 FR 7882 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C) Systems will hold a meeting on February 23, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545...

  2. 75 FR 67783 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on December 1, 2010, in Room... conduct of the meeting, persons planning to attend should check with these references if such...

  3. 76 FR 23630 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ..., Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR...

  4. 75 FR 82094 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR) will hold a meeting on January...

  5. 76 FR 16458 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. EPR will hold a meeting on April 5, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545...

  6. 76 FR 27102 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor... follows: Friday, May 27, 2011--8:30 a.m. Until 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review Chapter 5,...

  7. 78 FR 12800 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room....

  8. 78 FR 31987 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147... security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room. Dated: May...

  9. 77 FR 67688 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C... Instrumentation and Control of the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) mPower reactor. The Subcommittee will hear presentations... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR...

  10. 77 FR 10784 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor... were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed...

  11. 77 FR 36581 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  12. 77 FR 36583 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room. Dated: June...

  13. 77 FR 33003 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C... for reviewing the mPower reactor. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127)....

  14. 75 FR 74103 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000; Notice... exception of portions that may be closed to protect unclassified safeguards information, pursuant to 5...

  15. 75 FR 55366 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning And...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning And... Branch A, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  16. 75 FR 81318 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000; Notice... Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  17. Holocene landscape change, anthropogenic land-use change and arroyo formation on southwestern Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroy, R.; Bookhagen, B.; Chadwick, O.; Howarth, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we untangle the relative importance of climatic, tectonic, and anthropogenic drivers as triggers of arroyo formation and geomorphic change for a small watershed on southwestern Santa Cruz Island, off the central California coast. Within the Pozo watershed, historic arroyo incision occurred contemporaneously with arroyo incision across many of the world's dryland regions. Unlike many of these other sites, Pozo contains a dateable record that allows quantification of aggradation rates from the mid-to-late Holocene to the 20th century. Basin-wide environmental changes were assessed using a combination of cosmogenic radionuclide inventories, midden and marine-shell deposits, relict soil properties, airborne and ground-based lidar data, ranching artifacts, and historic written records. Shortly after the introduction of grazing animals in the mid-nineteenth century, localized aggradation rates on the Pozo floodplain increased by two orders of magnitude from 0.4 mm/yr to ~25 mm/yr. Accelerated aggradation was followed by arroyo formation ca. 1878 and rapid expansion of the incipient gully network, the lateral extent of which has been largely maintained since 1929. Basin-averaged erosion rates from cosmogenic radionuclide measurements indicate that pre-settlement rates were <0.08 mm/yr, while lidar-derived measurements of historic gully erosion produce estimates almost two orders of magnitude higher (~4 mm/yr). Measurements since 2005 indicate that the active channel of the Pozo basin is aggrading. We argue that accelerated aggradation due to overgrazing set the stage for arroyo formation in Pozo watershed between 1875 and 1886. This period coincides with an unusually large rainstorm event in 1878 that further facilitated arroyo formation.

  18. Geodynamic settings of microcontinents, non-volcanic islands and submerged continental marginal plateau formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, Evgeny; Grokholsky, Andrey; Makushkina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Complex process of continental lithosphere breakup is often accompanied by full or semi isolation of small continental blocks from the parent continent such as microcontinents or submerged marginal plateaus. We present different types of continental blocks formed in various geodynamic settings. The process depends on thermo-mechanical properties of rifting. 1) The continental blocks fully isolated from the parent continent. This kind of blocks exist in submerged form (Elan Bank, the Jan-Mayen Ridge, Zenith Plateau, Gulden Draak Knoll, Batavia Knoll) and in non-submerged form in case of large block size. Most of listed submerged blocks are formed in proximity of hot-spot or plume. 2) The continental blocks semi-isolated from the parent continent. Exmouth Plateau, Vøring, Agulhas, Naturaliste are submerged continental plateaus of the indicated category; Sri Lanka, Tasmania, Socotra are islands adjacent to continent here. Nowadays illustration of this setting is the Sinai block located between the two continental rifts. 3) The submerged linear continental blocks formed by the continental rifting along margin (the Lomonosov Ridge). Suggested evolution of this paragraph is the rift propagation along existing transtensional (or another type) transform fault. Future example of this type might be the California Peninsula block, detached from the North American plate by the rifting within San-Andreas fault. 4) The submerged continental blocks formed by extensional processes as the result of asthenosphere flow and shear deformations. Examples are submerged blocks in the central and southern Scotia Sea (Terror Bank, Protector Basin, Discovery Bank, Bruce Bank etc.). 5) The continental blocks formed in the transform fault systems originated in setting of contradict rifts propagation in presence of structure barriers, rifts are shifted by several hundreds kilometers from each other. Examples of this geodynamic setting are Equatorial Atlantic at the initial development stage

  19. Processes controlling the remobilization of surficial sediment and formation of sedimentary furrows in North-Central Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Knebel, H. J.; Lewis, R.S.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Sidescan sonar, bathymetric, subbottom, and bottom-photographic surveys and sediment sampling have improved our understanding of the processes that control the complex distribution of bottom sediments and benthic habitats in Long Island Sound. Although the deeper (>20 m) waters of the central Sound are long-term depositional areas characterized by relatively weak bottom-current regimes, our data reveal the localized presence of sedimentary furrows. These erosional bedforms occur in fine-grained cohesive sediments (silts and clayey silts), trend east-northeast, are irregularly spaced, and have indistinct troughs with gently sloping walls. The average width and relief of the furrows is 9.2 m and 0.4 m, respectively. The furrows average about 206 m long, but range in length from 30 m to over 1,300 m. Longitudinal ripples, bioturbation, and nutclam shell debris are common within the furrows. Although many of the furrows appear to end by gradually narrowing, some furrows show a "tuning fork" joining pattern. Most of these junctions open toward the east, indicating net westward sediment transport. However, a few junctions open toward the west suggesting that oscillating tidal currents are the dominant mechanism controlling furrow formation. Sedimentary furrows and longitudinal ripples typically form in environments which have recurring, directionally stable, and occasionally strong currents. The elongate geometry and regional bathymetry of Long Island Sound combine to constrain the dominant tidal and storm currents to east-west flow directions and permit the development of these bedforms. Through resuspension due to biological activity and the subsequent development of erosional bedforms, fine-grained cohesive sediment can be remobilized and made available for transport farther westward into the estuary.

  20. Processes controlling the remobilization of surficial sediment and formation of sedimentary furrows in north-central Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Knebel, H. J.; Lewis, R.S.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Sidescan sonar, bathymetric, subbottom, and bottom-photographic surveys and sediment sampling have improved our understanding of the processes that control the complex distribution of bottom sediments and benthic habitats in Long Island Sound. Although the deeper (>20 m) waters of the central Sound are long-term depositional areas characterized by relatively weak bottom-current regimes, our data reveal the localized presence of sedimentary furrows. These erosional bedforms occur in fine-grained cohesive sediments (silts and clayey silts), trend east-northeast, are irregularly spaced, and have indistinct troughs with gently sloping walls. The average width and relief of the furrows is 9.2 m and 0.4 m, respectively. The furrows average about 206 m long, but range in length from 30 m to over 1,300 m. Longitudinal ripples, bioturbation, and nutclam shell debris are common within the furrows. Although many of the furrows appear to end by gradually narrowing, some furrows show a "tuning fork" joining pattern. Most of these junctions open toward the east, indicating net westward sediment transport. However, a few junctions open toward the west suggesting that oscillating tidal currents are the dominant mechanism controlling furrow formation. Sedimentary furrows and longitudinal ripples typically form in environments which have recurring, directionally stable, and occasionally strong currents. The elongate geometry and regional bathymetry of Long Island Sound combine to constrain the dominant tidal and storm currents to east-west flow directions and permit the development of these bedforms. Through resuspension due to biological activity and the subsequent development of erosional bedforms, fine-grained cohesive sediment can be remobilized and made available for transport farther westward into the estuary.

  1. 76 FR 22140 - Parker River and Thacher Island National Wildlife Refuges, Essex County, MA; Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    .... The refuge occupies 4,653 acres on Plum Island, a 9-mile-long barrier island off the northeastern... issues. Concerns about the management of the barrier island system as a unit involves issues of public... Fish and Wildlife Service Parker River and Thacher Island National Wildlife Refuges, Essex County,...

  2. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas...

  3. 76 FR 18586 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on April 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas...

  4. 75 FR 66803 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... ACRS meetings were ] published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268- 58269... with the NRC staff, AREVA, UniStar, and other interested persons. The Subcommittee will gather... rescheduling would result in a major inconvenience. Dated: October 21, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief,...

  5. 75 FR 55365 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ..., (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... Operations and Fire Protection The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection will hold a..., October 6, 2010--8:30 a.m. until 12 p.m. The subcommittee will discuss the construction, inspection,...

  6. 76 FR 38212 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and... Operations and Fire Protection; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire... Region II to discuss the construction inspection program at the Vogtle site and discuss other items...

  7. 75 FR 44818 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Racks,'' NEDC- 33374P, ``Safety Analysis Report for Fuel Storage Racks Criticality Analysis for ESBWR... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... Subcommittee will discuss Chapters 2, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 21 of the final Safety Evaluation...

  8. 76 FR 62866 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on October 21, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  9. 76 FR 68793 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and... Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on November 30, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  10. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed... and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Christopher Brown (Telephone 301-415-7111 or Email: Christopher.Brown@nrc.gov ) five days prior to the meeting, if possible,...

  11. 75 FR 28824 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on APWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    .... Detailed procedures for the conduct of and participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  12. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... Hydraulic Phenomena The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena will hold a meeting on October 18... 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review the thermal-hydraulic research activities in the Office...

  13. Piezometric levels from 1948 through 1950 for wells screened in the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan formation on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, Norbert J.

    1950-01-01

    Since 1932, the United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors, and later also with the Suffolk County Water Authority, has been making both general and detailed studied dealing with the occurrence, movement, quantity, quality, and temperature of ground water found in the several water-bearing formations on Long Island. In the first years most of the emphasis was placed on studying the shallow water-table beds of Pleistocene age, although geologic and hydrologic information was obtained for the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan formation of upper Cretaceous age, the deepest water-bearing beds on Long Island, as well as for other artesian formations above the Lloyd.

  14. Chloride content of water from wells screened in the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan formation on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, C.M.

    1950-01-01

    Since 1932 the United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors, and later also the Suffolk County Water Authority, has been making general and specific studies dealing with the occurrence, movement, quantity, quality, and temperature of ground water found in several water-bearing formations on Long Island. In the first years most of the emphasis was placed on studying the shallow water-table beds, although geologic and hydrologic information was obtained for the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan formation, the deepest water-bearing beds on Long Island, as well as for other shallower artesian formations.

  15. A study of pyramidal islands formation in epitaxy within the generalized phase-field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Zhylenko, Tetyana; Dvornichenko, Alina V.

    2013-04-01

    We study epitaxial growth of pyramidal patterns in a framework of the phase-field model generalized by introduction of temperature field dynamics and an assumption of interacting adsorbate due to elastic effects. We have shown that in the system with different rates of the phase-field change oscillatory dynamics of surface pattern formation can be realized. Analytical results are verified by numerical simulations. We compare properties of surface structures within the framework of the standard phase-field model and proposed a generalized model of epitaxial growth using statistical approach. It is shown that in the generalized model pyramidal patterns can be sustained by thermodynamical force governing flux of interacting adsorbate.

  16. Geoarchaeology of a 'drowning' island: geomorphologic formation and prehistoric human habitation of Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Kobayashi, R.

    2012-12-01

    There seem to be a variety to vulnerability of atolls. In fact our archaeological investigations of Majuro in Marshall and Funafuti in Tuvalu revealed diverse duration of human settlement histories. The most reliable charcoal ages for earliest human habitation on Oceanic atolls were obtained from Majuro Atoll, which date back to 1800 - 2000 yr. BP, but radiocarbon ages of charcoal samples retrieved from Funafuti and Vaitupu suggest that Tuvalu were inhabited around ca. 500 yr. BP. It should be helpful to examine geomorphic formation of each atoll islet in considering this temporal difference of human settlement histories. During the mid-Holocene period, the paleoreef had grown up to reach the highstand sea level over the bedrock of Pleistocene limestone. The emergence of the Holocene reef is estimated around 2000 yr. BP in the central Pacific, which is viewed as a trigger of depositional process of atoll islets. There is, however, the possibility that the process was not uniform and sedimentation of foraminiferal sand and coral shingle was affected with more local conditions. Several results of our geoarchaeological excavations in Fongafale, Funafuti Atoll, would be related with this topic. Synthesizing them with the late 18th century's topographic information reported by the Royal Society of London, I then discuss a tentative scenario of geomorphologic formation and prehistoric human settlement of Fongafale. The diversity of human settlement histories could be an indicator of the relative vulnerability of atoll islets.

  17. Molecular basis for inhibition of AcrB multidrug efflux pump by novel and powerful pyranopyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sjuts, Hanno; Vargiu, Attilio V; Kwasny, Steven M; Nguyen, Son T; Kim, Hong-Suk; Ding, Xiaoyuan; Ornik, Alina R; Ruggerone, Paolo; Bowlin, Terry L; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Pos, Klaas M; Opperman, Timothy J

    2016-03-29

    TheEscherichia coliAcrAB-TolC efflux pump is the archetype of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) exporters from Gram-negative bacteria. Overexpression of RND-type efflux pumps is a major factor in multidrug resistance (MDR), which makes these pumps important antibacterial drug discovery targets. We have recently developed novel pyranopyridine-based inhibitors of AcrB, which are orders of magnitude more powerful than the previously known inhibitors. However, further development of such inhibitors has been hindered by the lack of structural information for rational drug design. Although only the soluble, periplasmic part of AcrB binds and exports the ligands, the presence of the membrane-embedded domain in AcrB and its polyspecific binding behavior have made cocrystallization with drugs challenging. To overcome this obstacle, we have engineered and produced a soluble version of AcrB [AcrB periplasmic domain (AcrBper)], which is highly congruent in structure with the periplasmic part of the full-length protein, and is capable of binding substrates and potent inhibitors. Here, we describe the molecular basis for pyranopyridine-based inhibition of AcrB using a combination of cellular, X-ray crystallographic, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations studies. The pyranopyridines bind within a phenylalanine-rich cage that branches from the deep binding pocket of AcrB, where they form extensive hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the increasing potency of improved inhibitors correlates with the formation of a delicate protein- and water-mediated hydrogen bond network. These detailed insights provide a molecular platform for the development of novel combinational therapies using efflux pump inhibitors for combating multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:26976576

  18. Understanding the Formation Mechanism of Two-Dimensional Atomic Islands on Crystal Surfaces by the Condensing Potential Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Cong; Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Li, Min; Tang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    A condensing potential (CP) model was established for predicting the geometric structure of two-dimensional (2D) atomic islands on crystal surfaces. To further verify the CP model, statistical molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the trapping adatom process of atomic island steps on Pt (111). According to the detailed analysis on the adatom trapping process, the CP model should be a universal theory to understand the shape of the 2D atomic islands on crystal surfaces.

  19. ACR appropriateness criteria on metastatic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Catherine C; Daffner, Richard H; Weissman, Barbara N; Bancroft, Laura; Bennett, D Lee; Blebea, Judy S; Bruno, Michael A; Fries, Ian Blair; Germano, Isabelle M; Holly, Langston; Jacobson, Jon A; Luchs, Jonathan S; Morrison, William B; Olson, Jeffrey J; Payne, William K; Resnik, Charles S; Schweitzer, Mark E; Seeger, Leanne L; Taljanovic, Mihra; Wise, James N; Lutz, Stephen T

    2010-06-01

    Appropriate imaging modalities for screening, staging, and surveillance of patients with suspected and documented metastatic disease to bone include (99m)Tc bone scanning, MRI, CT, radiography, and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-PET. Clinical scenarios reviewed include asymptomatic stage 1 breast carcinoma, symptomatic stage 2 breast carcinoma, abnormal bone scan results with breast carcinoma, pathologic fracture with known metastatic breast carcinoma, asymptomatic well-differentiated and poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma, vertebral fracture with history of malignancy, non-small-cell lung carcinoma staging, symptomatic multiple myeloma, osteosarcoma staging and surveillance, and suspected bone metastasis in a pregnant patient. No single imaging modality is consistently best for the assessment of metastatic bone disease across all tumor types and clinical situations. In some cases, no imaging is indicated. The recommendations contained herein are the result of evidence-based consensus by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria((R)) Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Radiology. PMID:20522392

  20. Initiation and early evolution of the Franklin magmatic event preserved in the 720 Ma Natkusiak Formation, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Nicole M. B.; Ootes, Luke; Rainbird, Robert H.; Bédard, Jean H.; Cousens, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Our understanding of the onset and evolution of flood basalt volcanism is rooted in the study of the character and internal architecture of its eruptive products. Neoproterozoic continental flood basalts of the ca. 720 Ma Franklin magmatic event are preserved as the Natkusiak Formation and are exposed within the Minto Inlier on Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. The 200 m volcanic succession evaluated in this study has features similar to those of other continental flood basalt provinces and consists of four volcanic units: a basal unit of laterally discontinuous flows with evidence for lava-sediment interactions, a mafic volcaniclastic deposit emplaced as a mass flow, a quartz-rich volcanic sandstone that records the re-establishment of small river channels, and a unit of thick, high-titanium tholeiitic sheet flows that mark the onset of the main phase of flood volcanism. The basal units show marked lateral thickness variations that imply the existence of paleotopography during their eruption and/or deposition. In addition, two newly discovered volcanic vent complexes within the Natkusiak succession preserve the products of explosive, vent-forming basaltic pyroclastic fall eruptions. Differences in major element geochemistry between the basal and upper basaltic flow units, in conjunction with the lithological characteristics of each volcanic unit, are used to correlate the units on a scale of over 100 km from the south of the Minto Inlier to the north.

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Stuart T.; Midwinter, Robyn G.; Coupland, Lucy A.; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S.; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Chong, Beng H.; Parish, Christopher R.; Stocker, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119+-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119+-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes. PMID:25682599

  2. Analytical modelling of wave refraction and convergence on coral reef platforms: Implications for island formation and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlier, Philipp Georg; Kench, Paul Simon

    2012-07-01

    An analytical model was constructed to simulate the refraction of waves on coral reef platforms comprising an idealised bathymetry of uniform depth and vertical reef faces. Model simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of key parameters such as reef shape and depth as well as wave period on the propagation behaviour of incident waves. Results of the refraction analysis demonstrate that different reef shapes produce characteristic patterns of wave convergence on reef surfaces. The location and stability of focal zones and hence wave convergence is largely controlled by the shape of platforms. Platform configuration further controls the distribution of wave energy across platform surfaces and determines the influence of incident wave forcing on different reef sections. Results have significant implications for sedimentation processes and hence the formation and stability of islands on reef platforms. Wave propagation patterns define sediment transport vectors and subsequently control the transport and deposition of different sized material. Platforms which promote marked wave convergence behaviour, such as elliptical and circular reefs, are more likely to retain sediment on reef surfaces, whereas narrow linear structures have a higher potential for the off-reef evacuation of sediment over leeward reef margins and the subsequent infill of deeper lagoonal areas. The study provides a physical basis for future investigations of reef hydrodynamics and platform sedimentation processes.

  3. Interactions between plutonism and detachments during metamorphic core complex formation, Serifos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Le Breton, Nicole; Gumiaux, Charles; Augier, Romain; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the interactions between plutonic activity and strain localization during metamorphic core complex formation, the Miocene granodioritic pluton of Serifos (Cyclades, Greece) is studied. This pluton (11.6-9.5 Ma) intruded the Cycladic Blueschists during thinning of the Aegean domain along a system of low-angle normal faults belonging to the south dipping West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). Based on structural fieldwork, together with microstructural observations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, we recognize a continuum of deformation from magmatic to brittle conditions within the magmatic body. This succession of deformation events is kinematically compatible with the development of the WCDS. The architecture of the pluton shows a marked asymmetry resulting from its interaction with the detachments. We propose a tectonic scenario for the emplacement of Serifos pluton and its subsequent cooling during the Aegean extension: (1) A first stage corresponds to the metamorphic core complex initiation and associated southwestward shearing along the Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. (2) In the second stage, the Serifos pluton has intruded the dome at shallow crustal level, piercing through the ductile/brittle Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. Southwest directed extensional deformation was contemporaneously transferred upward in the crust along the more localized Kàvos Kiklopas detachment. (3) The third stage was marked by synmagmatic extensional deformation and strain localization at the contact between the pluton and the host rocks resulting in nucleation of narrow shear zones, which (4) continued to develop after the pluton solidification.

  4. Acres of Rhinestones: Temple Betrays Its Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelnick, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Liberal education has been disappearing, and what remains is diminished and compromised. At Temple University, the largest department in the college of liberal arts is criminal justice. The second largest is counseling psychology, and the humanities disciplines have become left-veering sociology. While islands of traditional learning survive, the…

  5. Sourcing Phenocrysts in Zoned Eruption Sequences Using Trace Elements: the Diego Hernandez Formation, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Neumann, E.

    2001-12-01

    The Diego Hernandez Formation (DHF) consists of several plinian fallout and ignimbrite sequences. With few exceptions, the dominant volume of each eruptive package consists of compositionally variable phonolite with smaller amounts of basaltic and intermediate components. In addition to mixing with the mafic components, compositional variations among the phonolitic component are due to crystal-liquid separation corresponding to up to 60% crystallization of a phonolitic starting liquid. Sphene crystallization plays a dominant role in controlling abundances of REE and HFSE among Tenerife phonolites. Sphene preferentially sequesters MREE, leading to strongly parabolic REE patterns among residual liquids. We have used this feature of the zoned Tenerife phonolites to match the REE content of individual pyroxene crystals, analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS, to observed liquids using the elastic strain mineral-melt partitioning model of Blundy and Wood [1]. The strongly parabolic REE patterns of the liquids allow matching solely using the calculated Young's modulus of the host M2 cation site in pyroxene, without any independent constraint on the strain-free partition coefficient D0. For sodian salite pyroxenes in the phonolites, we find that most did not grow from the host liquid represented by the pumice clasts in which the crystals were erupted. Instead, most grew from liquids significantly more evolved, with lower MREE/LREE and MREE/HREE than the observed host. Elevated Zr contents in the salites support this conclusion, although the Zr abundances cannot be modelled with the same degree of confidence as the REE. The required liquids correspond to both the most-evolved phonolite compositions observed within the DHF, and to cognate syenite fragments found in the ignimbrites. Sodian salite also occurs as cores to titanaugite grains that grew from the basaltic component. These observations are consistent with a model in which invading basaltic magma melts syenite, and

  6. Recent coastal evolution in a carbonate sandy environments and relation to beach ridge formation: the case of Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    In a changing climate context coastal areas will be affected by more frequent extreme events. Understanding the relationship between extreme events and coastal geomorphic response is critical to future adaptation plans. Beach ridge landforms commonly identified as hurricane deposits along tropical coasts in Australia and in the Caribbean Sea. However their formative processes in such environments are still not well understood. In particular, the role of different extreme wave events (storm waves, tsunami waves and extreme swell), in generating beach ridges is critical to their use as palaeotempestology archives. Anegada Island is a carbonate platform situated in the British Virgin Island between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Pleistocene in age, Anegada is surrounded by the Horseshoe fringing coral reef. Two Holocene sandy beach ridge plains are present on the western part of the island. The north beach ridge plain is Atlantic facing and has at least 30 ridges; the south beach ridge plain is Caribbean Sea facing and contains 10 ridges. Historical aerial photos enabled the shoreline evolution from 1953 to 2012 to be studied. Three different coastal domains are associate with the beach ridge plains: strong east-west longshore transport affects the north coastline, the south-west coastline from West End to Pomato Point represents an export corridor for these sediments and finally, along the southern coastline, from Pomato Point to Settling Point the area presents a depositional zone with little to no change in the last 70 years. The link between the extreme wave events that have affected Anegada Island in the last 70 years and beach ridge creation is discussed. Hurricane Donna crossed over Anegada Island in 1960: its geomorphological signature is tracked in the shoreline change analysis and its implication in beach ridge formation is discussed. Anegada Island has also been impacted by tsunami waves (Atwater et al., 2012) and a comparative discussion of the

  7. Photochemical Formation of Fe(II) and Peroxides in Coastal Seawater Collected around Okinawa Island, Japan - Impact of Red Soil Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Taira, H.

    2003-12-01

    In a study to elucidate the impacts of red soil pollution on the oxidizing power of seawater, photochemical formation of Fe(II) and peroxides was studied in seawaters collected around Okinawa Island, Japan. The northern part of Okinawa Island suffers from red soil pollution which is caused mainly by land development such as pineapple farming and the construction of recreational facilities. We studied photochemical formation of peroxides and Fe(II) in the same seawater samples because the reaction between HOOH and Fe(II) forms hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent environmental oxidant. Photochemical formation of Fe(II) was fast and reached steady-state in 30 minutes of simulated sunlight illumination and the steady-state Fe(II) concentrations were about 80% of total iron concentrations. Photochemical formation of peroxides was relatively slow and formation kinetics varied, depending on the initial peroxide concentrations. Because photochemical formation of peroxides was faster and total iron concentrations in the red soil polluted seawater were higher, red soil polluted seawater is expected to have greater oxidizing power than seawater that is not polluted with red soil.

  8. Licensing the ACR in the USA - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Victor; Langman, Vince; Ion, Robert; Reid, Calvin

    2004-07-01

    The ACR-700 (ACR) is an evolutionary reactor design, which incorporates the inherent safety features of the Candu products, as well as the successful operating experience of the current Candu 6 reactors. The improvements to the ACR from Candu 6 result in significant reductions in capital and operating costs as well as enhanced safety. AECL Technologies (AECLT, a wholly owned US subsidiary of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) is the proponent for the ongoing pre-application review of the ACR with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. This pre-application review will be completed shortly and will support an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification (SDC). AECL Technologies' overall objective for the pre-application review of the ACR is to obtain an understanding of the scope, cost, and the schedule to obtain a Standard Design Certification for the ACR. The pre-application review will address licensing issues associated with the Candu reactor technologies in ACR that depart from the light water reactor, pressure-vessel based regulatory framework in the USA. Therefore, during the course of the ACR pre-application review, major USNRC issues with the ACR design will be identified early and the scope of the work required to address these concerns, along with associated completion schedules, will be formulated and ultimately agreed upon with the USNRC. AECLT has been informed by the NRC staff that the results of their pre-application review will be documented in a Safety Assessment Report (SAR), which will state whether there are any major impediments to licensing the ACR in the United States. In particular, the SAR should provide confirmation of the licensing criteria applicable to the ACR, provide an assessment of the completeness of AECL's Research and Development (R and D) programs that exist or are planned in support of the ACR, provide an assessment of the suitability for purpose of the computer codes used in the safety

  9. High-speed ACR/NEMA interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijns, Gerard L.; Santilli, D.; Schellingerhout, G.; Jochem, A. J.; Ottes, Fenno P.; van Aken, I. W.

    1990-08-01

    The design and implementation of a standard high speed ACR-NEMA communications interface is described. The upper layers e.g. the Presentation layer, Session layer and part of the Transport/Network layer have been implemented in software. In order to reach the speed requirement of 8M byte/sec. the lower layers e.g. part of the Transport/Network layer and Data Link layer have been implemented in hardware. We have developed and built an interface for an IBM personal computer P5/2 model 50, working under the operating system OS/2. The PS/2, model 50 has been equipped with a fast micro-channel bus, which enables a large throughput. The operating systern OS/2 has a multitasking capability, which enables concurrent programming. In order to minimize the delays, we used this multitasking facility to create a number of parallel operating "threads". The Transport/Network layer functions have been implemented using a receive thread, two send threads and a device driver with three hardware registers. The time to transfer a packet by DMA, to initiate the DMA logic and to execute the required Kernal functions have each been measured and figures are shown. The Data Link layer provides for storage of two packets in two separate random access memories (RAM's). These two RAM's enable a pipelined operation, which minimizes the delay in the Data Link layer.

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Breast Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B; Lourenco, Ana; Mahoney, Mary C; Newell, Mary S; Bailey, Lisa; Barke, Lora D; D'Orsi, Carl; Harvey, Jennifer A; Hayes, Mary K; Huynh, Phan Tuong; Jokich, Peter M; Lee, Su-Ju; Lehman, Constance D; Mankoff, David A; Nepute, Joshua A; Patel, Samir B; Reynolds, Handel E; Sutherland, M Linda; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is the recommended method for breast cancer screening of women in the general population. However, mammography alone does not perform as well as mammography plus supplemental screening in high-risk women. Therefore, supplemental screening with MRI or ultrasound is recommended in selected high-risk populations. Screening breast MRI is recommended in women at high risk for breast cancer on the basis of family history or genetic predisposition. Ultrasound is an option for those high-risk women who cannot undergo MRI. Recent literature also supports the use of breast MRI in some women of intermediate risk, and ultrasound may be an option for intermediate-risk women with dense breasts. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of other imaging modalities, such as thermography, breast-specific gamma imaging, positron emission mammography, and optical imaging, for breast cancer screening. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:23290667

  11. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Renal Cell Carcinoma Staging.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Raghunandan; Beland, Michael D; Blaufox, M Donald; Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Gore, John L; Harvin, Howard J; Heilbrun, Marta E; Liauw, Stanley L; Nguyen, Paul L; Nikolaidis, Paul; Preminger, Glenn M; Purysko, Andrei S; Raman, Steven S; Taffel, Myles T; Wang, Zhen J; Weinfeld, Robert M; Remer, Erick M; Lockhart, Mark E

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-3% of all visceral malignancies. Preoperative imaging can provide important staging and anatomic information to guide treatment decisions. Size of the primary tumor and degree of local invasion, such as involvement of perinephric fat or renal sinus fat, and tumor thrombus in renal veins and inferior vena cava are important detriments to local staging of primary tumor. Both kidneys are assessed for presence of other synchronous lesions. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and application by the panel of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27016804

  12. 77 FR 36017 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ...; Cancellation of the June 19, 2012 ACRS Subcommittee Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee meeting on Digital I&C scheduled for June 19, 2012 has been cancelled. The notice of this meeting was previously published in the Federal Register on Monday, June 4, 2012, (77 FR 33003-33004). Information regarding this meeting can...

  13. 75 FR 58448 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269... Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on October 21, 2010, at 11545... Subcommittee will review current Design Acceptance Criteria associated with Digital Instrumentation and...

  14. 76 FR 78951 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Information regarding topics to be discussed, changes to the... with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone (240) 888- 9835) to be escorted to...

  15. 76 FR 64123 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Information regarding topics to be discussed, changes to... with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room....

  16. 77 FR 68160 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and..., (77 FR 64146- 64147). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has been... registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting...

  17. 76 FR 64123 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835) to...

  18. 78 FR 59076 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  19. 77 FR 59677 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and..., (76 FR 64126- 64127). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has been... registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting...

  20. 77 FR 36582 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835)...

  1. 75 FR 57537 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000 The...: September 15, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  2. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). ] Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000..., Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  3. 75 FR 52556 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). ] Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000 The... a portion that may be closed to protect unclassified safeguards information or information that...

  4. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  5. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Osteonecrosis of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Mark D; Roberts, Catherine C; Bencardino, Jenny T; Appel, Marc; Arnold, Erin; Chang, Eric Y; Dempsey, Molly E; Fox, Michael G; Fries, Ian Blair; Greenspan, Bennett S; Hochman, Mary G; Jacobson, Jon A; Mintz, Douglas N; Newman, Joel S; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Rubin, David A; Small, Kirstin M; Weissman, Barbara N

    2016-02-01

    Osteonecrosis of the hip (Legg-Calvé-Perthes) is a common disease, with 10,000-20,000 symptomatic cases annually in the United States. The disorder affects both adults and children and is most frequently associated with trauma and corticosteroid usage. The initial imaging evaluation of suspected hip osteonecrosis is done using radiography. MRI is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the hip. The clinical significance of hip osteonecrosis is dependent on its potential for articular collapse. The likelihood of articular collapse is significantly increased with involvement of greater than 30%-50% of the femoral head area, which is optimally evaluated by MRI, often in the sagittal plane. Contrast-enhanced MRI may be needed to detect early osteonecrosis of the hip in pediatric patients, revealing hypoperfusion. In patients with a contraindication for MRI, use of either CT or bone scintigraphy with SPECT (single-photon emission CT) are alternative radiologic methods of assessment. Imaging helps guide treatment, which may include core decompression, osteotomy, and ultimately, need for joint replacement. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26846390

  7. Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge1-xSnx layer on Ge(0 0 1) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Zhou, Qian; Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Zheng; Tok, Eng Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2014-12-01

    Annealing of strained Ge1-xSnx epitaxial layers grown on Ge(0 0 1) substrate results in two distinctive regimes marked by changes in composition and morphology. Annealing at low temperatures (200-300 °C or Regime-I) leads to surface enrichment of Sn due to Sn segregation, as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, while the bulk Sn composition (from X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and the surface morphology (from atomic force microscopy (AFM)) do not show discernible changes as compared to the as-grown sample. Annealing at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 500 °C (Regime-II) leads to a decrease in the surface Sn composition. While the Ge1-xSnx layer remains fully strained, a reduction in the bulk Sn composition is observed when the annealing temperature reaches 500 °C. At this stage, surface roughening also occurs with formation of 3D islands. The island size increases as the annealing temperature is raised to 600 °C. The decrease in the Sn composition at the surface and in the bulk in Regime-II is attributed to additional thermally activated kinetic processes associated with Sn desorption and formation of Sn-rich 3D islands on the surface.

  8. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  9. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  10. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  11. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  12. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  13. Continental rifting and metamorphic core complex formation ahead of the Woodlark spreading ridge, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Baldwin, S. L.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Monteleone, B.

    2007-02-01

    We evaluate the role of a metamorphic core complex (MCC) on Normanby Island in the Woodlark rift. Located <30 km from an active mid-ocean ridge (MOR), a >1 km thickness of blueschist-derived mylonites formed in a midcrustal shear zone during the Pliocene at ˜400-500°C. This top-to-the-north zone appears to have reactivated the gently dipping base of the Papuan ophiolite (Papuan Ultramafic Body, PUB), and its continued activity appears to control the north dipping asymmetry of active half grabens to the north of the MCC and rapid subsidence of the Woodlark Rise. Mylonites in the MCC's lower plate have been exhumed along a detachment as a result of >50 km of slip at rates of >12 mm/yr. The inactive, back-tilted detachment preserves fault surface megamullions and mylonitic lineations parallel to the Plio-Pleistocene plate motion. A second SE vergent detachment has been established on the opposite flank of this rolling-hinge style MCC, probably since <0.5 Ma. Centimeters per year slip rates on these two faults can account for most of the Pleistocene plate motion in this eastern sector of the Woodlark rift, and confirm the important role of MCCs in exhuming very young HP rocks in this rift. Paleopiezometry of mylonites using recrystallized quartz grain size indicates flow stresses of ˜30 MPa before the rocks were overprinted by extension fractures. These results imply high pore fluid pressures (λ > 0.8) at depth, and provide a sufficient mechanism for activating low-angle normal faults in the rift. MCC inception was not localized to the tip of the Woodlark MOR. Instead, extreme crustal thinning near the MCC preconditioned later continental breakup. The lower crust appears to be weak, thickening beneath unloaded footwalls to uplift MCCs above sea level, and flowing laterally to even out regional crustal thickness contrasts on a 1-6 m.y. timescale. Deep-seated transforms separate rheologically distinct domains in which extension has been localized along the weak PUB

  14. Detrital thermochronology and sedimentology of the Sabine Bay and Assistance formations, Ellesmere Island: insights into the source of the Melvilian Disturbance event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Y.; Leier, A.; Guest, B.; Beauchamp, B.; Morris, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Melvillian Disturbance in the Sverdrup Basin of the Canadian Arctic occurred between early and middle Permian time and is characterized by angular unconfomities, basaltic flows, and is linked to a broader mid-Permian circum-Arctic tectonic event.We examined the lower-middle Permian Sabine Bay and Assistance formations exposed in northwestern Ellesmere Island in order to better understand the depositional and tectonic history of this region during the middle Permian time. Detailed sections of these units were measured at multiple locations and samples were collected for zircon/apatite thermochronology. The Sabine Bay Formation is present in limited locations where it consists of white, medium-grained, quartzose sediments. Beds contain trough cross-strata with drapes of mud-sized organic material, ripples, and rare bioturbation. Preliminary paleocurrent data indicate transport to the west. We interpret the Sabine Bay Formation to have been deposited in a fluvial environment, possibly with some tidal influence. The Assistance Formation unconformably overlies the Sabine Bay Formation and appears to be more regionally extensive than the Sabine Bay Formation. The Assistance Formation consists of fine-grained quartzose sandstone with abundant Zoophycos burrows, shell biota and other marine trace fossils. The character of the Assistance Formation varies between locations, but in some locations the formation contains hummocky and swaley cross-stratification bedding. Vertically, the Assistance Formation grades from sandstone beds into mudstone beds with deeper-water marine trace fossils. We interpret the Assistance Formation to have been deposited in a lower-shoreface, storm-influenced, shelf setting that was progressively transgressed during deposition. The isolated occurrences of the Sabine Bay Formation and large lateral thickness variations of the Assistance Formation suggest these units were deposited in fault-bounded sub-basins within the Sverdrup Basin. The larger

  15. Investigation of island formation due to RMPs in DIII-D plasmas with the SIESTA resistive MHD equilibrium code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshman, S. P.; Shafer, M. W.; Seal, S. K.; Canik, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    > The SIESTA magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium code has been used to compute a sequence of ideally stable equilibria resulting from numerical variation of the helical resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) applied to an axisymmetric DIII-D plasma equilibrium. Increasing the perturbation strength at the dominant , resonant surface leads to lower MHD energies and increases in the equilibrium island widths at the (and sidebands) surfaces, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Island overlap at large perturbation strengths leads to stochastic magnetic fields which correlate well with the experimentally inferred field structure. The magnitude and spatial phase (around the dominant rational surfaces) of the resonant (shielding) component of the parallel current are shown to change qualitatively with the magnetic island topology.

  16. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  17. 6. View northeast of Ten Acre Lot with Joseph Fry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View northeast of Ten Acre Lot with Joseph Fry Farm complex (center) and Beehive House (right)in the background - Joseph Fry Farm Landscape, 2153 South County Trail Road (U.S. Route 2), East Greenwich, Kent County, RI

  18. 75 FR 61781 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... obtained from the website cited above or by contacting the identified DFO. Moreover, in view of...

  19. 76 FR 4739 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are.... Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. EPR will hold a...

  20. 76 FR 22935 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  1. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on.... Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. EPR will hold a...

  2. 77 FR 4838 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on.... Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary...

  3. 76 FR 67232 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  4. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  5. Non-twist map bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island formation in saturated 3D MHD equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.

    2015-11-01

    Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist maps. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.

  6. Identifying source and formation altitudes of nitrates in drinking water from Réunion Island, France, using a multi-isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Karyne M.; Nicolini, Eric; Gauthier, Virginie

    2012-09-01

    Nitrate concentrations, water isotopes (δ2H and δ18Owater) and associated nitrate isotopes (δ15Nnitrate and δ18Onitrate) from 10 drinking water wells, 5 fresh water springs and the discharge from 3 wastewater treatment stations in Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean, were analysed. We used a multi isotopic approach to investigate the extent of nitrate contamination, nitrate formation altitude and source of nitrates in Réunion Island's principal aquifer. Water from these study sites contained between 0.1 and 85.3 mg/L nitrate. δ15Nnitrate values between + 6 and + 14‰ suggested the main sources of contamination were animal and/or human waste, rather than inorganic (synthetic) fertilisers, infiltrating through the subsurface into the saturated zone, due to rainfall leaching of the unsaturated zone at various altitudes of precipitation. Based on δ15Nnitrate values alone, it was not possible to distinguish between animal and human activities responsible for the contamination of each specific catchment. However, using a multi isotope approach (δ18Owater and δ15Nnitrate), it was possible to relate the average altitude of rainfall infiltration (δ18Owater) associated with the nitrate contamination (δ18Onitrate). This relationship between land use, rainfall recharge altitude and isotopic composition (δ15Nnitrate and δ18Owater) discriminated between the influences of human waste at lower (below 600 m elevation) or animal derived contamination (at elevations between 600 and 1300 m). By further comparing the theoretical altitude of nitrate formation calculated by the δ18Onitrate, it was possible to determine that only 5 out of 15 fresh water wells and springs followed the conservative nitrate formation mechanism of 2/3δ18Owater + 1/3δ18Oair, to give nitrate formation altitudes which corresponded to land use activities.

  7. Thrust belt Formation followed by Back-Arc Extension: Mantle Dynamics from central North Island, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, T.; Stratford, W.; Salmon, M.; Pulford, A.

    2008-12-01

    In central North Island a useful geological and geophysical data exists to examine the evolution from retro-arc compression to back-arc extension in the Neogene. We show that the switch from compression to extensional deformation is related in space and time with an event that rapidly removed much of the mantle lithosphere beneath central and western North Island at about 5 Ma. The geophysical smoking gun for this removal process is in two parts: a regional surface uplift at about 5 Ma, and a sharp east-west, lithospheric boundary across which there is a 7 km jump in Moho as determined by a common conversion point stack of receiver functions. Also associated with the boundary is sharp change in mantle properties such as seismic P-wave attenuation, isostatic gravity and Pn wave speeds. A cluster of earthquakes in the depth range 20-35 km tightly correlates with the Moho step. Thickening then removal of mantle lithosphere within central and western North Island is consistent with its geological history. About 20 my of compression and fold and thrust development within western North Island built much of the Taranaki (foreland) basin during the Miocene. This 600 km long and 200 km wide basin is now the principal source of hydrocarbons for New Zealand. Up to 100 km of shortening in both crust and mantle is estimated from deep seismic reflection profiling, subsidence curves and plate reconstructions. At the close of the Miocene thrusting ceased and a rapid (post 5 Ma) and regional (400 km wide) exhumation event began. Based on mudstone porosity data, a maximum 2.5 km of rock uplift (1 km of surface uplift) occurred and this gave shape to much of the North Island land mass as we see today. The edge of the foreland basin was exhumed by up to 1.5 km and oil wells drilled in the margin date this event as starting at 5 Ma. After 5 Ma a switch to extension occurred with present day back-arc extension occurring at rates between 8-20 mm/y. This extension is accompanied by

  8. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  9. ACRS elections can minimize taxes on oil and gas income

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, D.

    1983-06-01

    The Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) is composed of elections which make either increases or decreases on oil and gas income possible. Current taxes can be elected to be reduced, but future taxes will be increased as a result of that decision. The various decisions that can be made on ACRS elections and the impact they will make on taxes are discussed, using an after-tax rate of return and showing the before- and after-tax returns when possible. Pertinent areas of discussion include full investment credit vs. full basis; equipment trade-in considerations; factors to be considered in the disposition of real estate; and the impact of alternative minimum tax on ACRS elections. 3 tables.

  10. Impacts of Dust on Tropical Volcanic Soil Formation: Insights from Strontium and Uranium-Series Isotopes in Soils from Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, Y.; Ma, L.; Sak, P. B.; Gaillardet, J.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dust inputs play an important role in soil formation, especially for thick soils developed on tropical volcanic islands. In these regions, soils are highly depleted due to intensive chemical weathering, and mineral nutrients from dusts have been known to be important in sustaining soil fertility and productivity. Tropical volcanic soils are an ideal system to study the impacts of dust inputs on the ecosystem. Sr and U-series isotopes are excellent tracers to identify sources of materials in an open system if the end-members have distinctive isotope signatures. These two isotope systems are particularly useful to trace the origin of atmospheric inputs into soils and to determine rates and timescales of soil formation. This study analyzes major elemental concentrations, Sr and U-series isotope ratios in highly depleted soils in the tropical volcanic island of Basse-Terre in French Guadeloupe to determine atmospheric input sources and identify key soil formation processes. We focus on three soil profiles (8 to 12 m thick) from the Bras-David, Moustique Petit-Bourg, and Deshaies watersheds; and on the adjacent rivers to these sites. Results have shown a significant depletion of U, Sr, and major elements in the deep profile (12 to 4 m) attributed to rapid chemical weathering. The top soil profiles (4 m to the surface) all show addition of elements such as Ca, Mg, U, and Sr due to atmospheric dust. More importantly, the topsoil profiles have distinct Sr and U-series isotope compositions from the deep soils. Sr and U-series isotope ratios of the top soils and sequential extraction fractions confirm that the sources of the dust are from the Saharan dessert, through long distance transport from Africa to the Caribbean region across the Atlantic Ocean. During the transport, some dust isotope signatures may also have been modified by local volcanic ashes and marine aerosols. Our study highlights that dusts and marine aerosols play important roles in element cycles and

  11. 24 CFR 1710.9 - Twenty acre lots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Twenty acre lots. 1710.9 Section 1710.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  12. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... pulse crops are equal to the sum of the following: (i) The 4-year average of the acreage planted or prevented planted to the pulse crops during each of the 1998 through 2001 crop years for harvest,...

  13. "Forty Acres and a Mule" as a Pedagogical Motif

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    This essay revisits an iconic yet now languishing phrase in United States political culture--"Forty Acres and a Mule"--to clarify the meaning of freedom and to assess the contemporary meaning of its betrayal by the U.S. government immediately after the Civil War. Among the few citizens for whom the phrase still retains a semblance of…

  14. ACR Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This document contains a teacher's guide and student guide for a high school-level competency-based course in air conditioning and refrigeration (ACR) equipment electrical systems. Presented in the teacher's guide are the following: explanation of the instructional units' use; competency profile for recording students' performance of the tasks in…

  15. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... Administrator. (c) Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, the total acreage of a pulse crop on the farm...) of this section results in a negative number, the pulse crop acreage on the farm for that crop...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... Administrator. (c) Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, the total acreage of a pulse crop on the farm...) of this section results in a negative number, the pulse crop acreage on the farm for that crop...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... Administrator. (c) Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, the total acreage of a pulse crop on the farm...) of this section results in a negative number, the pulse crop acreage on the farm for that crop...

  18. 75 FR 28823 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268- 58269). Detailed... oral statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Peter Wen (Telephone 301-415-2832 or E-mail ( Peter.Wen@nrc.gov ) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so...

  19. 75 FR 1831 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed ACRS meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available... prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate arrangements can be made. Thirty-five hard copies... compact disk containing each presentation at least 30 minutes before the meeting. Electronic...

  20. 75 FR 66401 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...; Revision to October 21, 2010, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the..., October 21, 2010, . All other items remain the same as previously published. Further information regarding...- 6279, E-mail: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov between 7:30 a.m. and 5:15 p.m. (ET)). Dated: October 21,...

  1. 78 FR 8202 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Girija Shukla...

  2. 76 FR 62867 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... procedures for the conduct of and participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  3. Formation and Evolution of the San Cristobal Trough Transform Fault Linking the Southern Solomon Islands and Northern New Hebrides Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Hayes, G. P.; Herman, M. W.; Benz, H.

    2014-12-01

    The San Cristobal Trough, which occupies the southern segment of the South Solomon Trench, hosts a dominantly left-lateral transform plate boundary (SCTF) linking the southern end of the Solomon Islands subduction zone (SISZ) to the northern end of the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) subduction zone (NHSZ). At its western end (SISZ), the Australia plate is torn as a result of the transition from subduction to transform motion. The southern side of the tear translates approximately 375 km along the SCTF before subducting beneath the Santa Cruz Islands at the NHSZ. Earthquakes occurring along this transform reflect the processes of plate tearing, fault zone evolution, and subsequent underthrusting and subduction of the Australia-plate-side of the transform. A knot of earthquake activity at the western end of the SCTF juxtaposes high-angle thrust faulting events with left-lateral strike slip events. These record the tearing of Australian lithosphere, as shown by a recent pair of large earthquakes in that region - a Mw 7.6 strike-slip event (12 April 2014) followed 22 hours later by a Mw 7.4 high-angle reverse faulting event (13 April 2014). Associated displacements reflect oblique tearing (northern-side down and west), allowing the Australia Plate to follow two disparate paths - subduction at the SISZ to the north and translation along the SCTF to the south. Moving eastward along the transform, the plate boundary shows three styles of earthquake activity. The main transform is dominated by shallow, E-W striking, left-lateral faulting and E-W striking thrust faults (with a north-dipping shallow fault plane) - these reflect partitioning of oblique motion along the transform between the Australia and Pacific plates. Outboard (+/- 100 km) of the plate boundary, a group of E-W striking shallow normal faulting events reflect upward bending driven by the convergent component of plate motions. Approaching the NHSZ, normal faulting earthquakes in the Australia Plate rotate clockwise

  4. Percolation Cooling of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Lower Head by Way of Thermal Cracking and Gap Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.L.

    2002-01-15

    Two partial models have been developed to elucidate the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head coolability by water percolation from above into the thermally cracking debris bed and into a gap between the debris and the wall. The bulk permeability of the cracked top crust is estimated based on simple fracture mechanics and application of Poiseuille's law to the fractures. The gap is considered as an abstraction representing an initially rugged interface, which probably expanded by thermal deformation and cracking in connection with the water ingress. The coupled flow and heat conduction problem for the top crust is solved in slab geometry based on the two-phase Darcy equations together with quasi-steady mass and energy conservation equations. The resulting water penetration depth is in good agreement with the depth of the so-called loose debris bed. The lower-head and bottom-crust problem is treated analogously by a two-dimensional axisymmetric model. The notion of a gap is maintained as a useful concept in the flow analysis. Simulations show that a central hot spot with a peak wall temperature of 1075 to 1100 deg. C can be obtained, but the quenching rates are not satisfactory. It is concluded that a three-dimensional model with an additional mechanism to explain the sudden water ingress to the hot spot center would be more appropriate.

  5. Formation of composite pyroclasts by welding inside a lithic-rich mafic eruption column (Los Marteles Caldera, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrionandia, F.; Carracedo Sánchez, M.; Arostegui, J.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The tuff ring of the Los Marteles phreatomagmatic maar (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands) includes a particular unit that comprises abundant composite spheroidal clasts. However, these clasts differ from cored clasts elsewhere that consist of erupted lithic pyroclasts with an adhering rim of coherent chilled magma. The composite clasts here studied range from lapilli to bombs, and are cored or concentrically banded. Among the welded components, several types of primary clasts are discerned that include: (i) juvenile clasts, resultant of the magma inertial fragmentation, and (ii) cognate or accessory lithic clasts. Juvenile clasts include glass spheres (nano- and microachneliths) and crystals. Lithic clasts include lava fragments, scoriae and olivine xenocrysts. Primary clasts are interpreted to have been produced by the explosion of a partially crystallized mafic (SiO2 ≈ 50-55%) magma that erupted into a maar, filled-up with scoriae plus lava fragments. The explosion would have originated as a dense and turbulent gas thrust into which the repeated collisions of melt droplets with solid clasts generated droplet-coated crystals, lithic clasts and single glass spheres. We interpret the cored and concentrically banded pyroclasts to be made of coalesced and/or agglutinated particles coated with a melt rim to the rest of the components. These composite clasts developed spheroidal shapes during transport within a violent Strombolian eruption column due to spin effect and, finally, landed in solid state.

  6. Quantifying rind formation and chemical weathering rates in weathering clasts with uranium-series isotopes: a case study from Basse-Terre Island, Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Chabaux, F. J.; Pelt, E.; Granet, M.; Sak, P. B.; Gaillardet, J.; Lebedeva, M.; Brantley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Weathering of tropical volcanic islands is rapid because of the reactive nature of the volcanic rock and the hot humid climate. In the tropics, rock fragments in the regolith zone commonly form alteration rinds. Weathering rinds are excellent samples to understand key chemical weathering processes. To quantify rock weathering rates in a tropical climate and to understand the environmental factors that control these rates, we combined a novel U-series isotopic technique with chemical and electron microprobe analyses to study weathering rinds formed at Basse-Terre Island, Guadeloupe. U-series isotopes and element concentrations were analyzed in a basaltic/andesitic weathering rind collected from the Bras David watershed on Basse-Terre Island. From the clast, core and rind samples were obtained by drilling along two linear profiles. Elemental profiles reveal that elemental loss varies in the order of Ca, Na, Sr > K, Mg, Rb > Mn > Si > Ba > Al > Fe, and Ti =0 across the core-rind interface, consistent with relative reactivity of phases in the clast from plagioclase ≈ pyroxene ≈ glass matrix > apatite > ilmenite. Elemental profiles also reveal conservative behavior of Th and external addition of U into the rind during clast weathering. Measured (234U/238U) activity ratios of the rind samples (1.001 to 1.031) are mostly higher than the core samples (average at ~1.003). Measured (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th) activity ratios of the core and rind samples range from 0.973 to 1.817, and 0.971 to 1.375, respectively. Most importantly, both (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th) activity ratios increase systematically from the core into the weathering rind for the two profiles. The elemental profiles and electronic microprobe observations suggest that weathering reactions include dissolution of pyroxene, plagioclase, and glass matrix, and formation of Fe oxyhydroxides, gibbsite and minor kaolinite. The dissolution of plagioclase leads to significant porosity growth within the rind

  7. 78 FR 2694 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ..., (77 FR 64146-64147). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has been... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  8. 76 FR 57082 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels Revision to September 21, 2011, ACRS Meeting; Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels is...

  9. 76 FR 9835 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Instrumentation & Control (DI&C); Revision to February 23, 2011, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C) scheduled...

  10. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of segregation and critical floating-layer content of indium for island formation in InxGa1-xAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinov, D.; Gerthsen, D.; Rosenauer, A.; Schowalter, M.; Passow, T.; Feinäugle, P.; Hetterich, M.

    2006-10-01

    We have investigated InxGa1-xAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. InGaAs layers with In concentrations of 16, 25, and 28% and respective thicknesses of 20, 22, and 23 monolayers were deposited at 535°C . The parameters were chosen to grow layers slightly above and below the transition between the two- and three-dimensional growth mode. In-concentration profiles were obtained from high-resolution TEM images by composition evaluation by lattice fringe analysis. The measured profiles can be well described applying the segregation model of Muraki [Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 557 (1992)]. Calculated photoluminescence peak positions on the basis of the measured concentration profiles are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Evaluating experimental In-concentration profiles it is found that the transition from the two-dimensional to the three-dimensional growth mode occurs if the indium content in the In floating layer exceeds 1.1±0.2 monolayers. The measured exponential decrease of the In concentration within the cap layer on top of the islands reveals that the In floating layer is not consumed during island formation. In addition, In0.25Ga0.75As quantum wells were grown at different temperatures between 500°C and 550°C . The evaluation of concentration profiles shows that the segregation efficiency increases from R=0.65 to R=0.83 . The strong increase of R with the growth temperature is explained by the large growth rate of 1.5ML/s . Comparison with the temperature dependence of published segregation efficiencies obtained at lower growth rates reveals increasing temperature dependence and decreasing segregation efficiency with increasing growth rate.

  11. Altitude of the top of the Matawan Group-Magothy Formation, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krulikas, Richard K.; Koszalka, E.J.; Doriski, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    The Magothy aquifer, with its irregular surface and deeply eroded buried valleys, has become the major source of fresh water in most of Suffolk Country. With the availability of recent data from deep wells and test holes, refinement of the surface-altitude contours has been possible and resulted in substantial revision in some areas. This 1-sheet map delineates the surface altitude of the Magothy aquifer (Matawan Group-Magothy Formation) and includes a brief text and bibliography. (USGS).

  12. Two chip ACR-NEMA datalink/physical layer implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJarnette, Wayne T.

    1990-08-01

    A high performance ACR-NEMA computer interface board for the IBM PC/AT bus will be described. The interface board (AT/NSIF) implements the transport/network thru physical layers of the R-NEW standard. The interface board also supplies a session layer mapping function. The session layer mapping function, the transport/network layer protocol and the datalink layer protocol are implented via an on board microprocessor and resident firmware. The interface board makes use of a pair of gate arrays to implement the datalink frame checksum calculation and the physical layer protocol. The two gate array datalink/physical layer implementation will be described. One gate array interfaces the ACR-NEMA EIA-485 transceivers to high speed buffer memory. This gate array, the Datalink/Physical Layer Pipeline Processor (DLPP), is responsible for the ACR-NEMA physical layer word transfer protocol as well as the physical layer parity calculation. The DLPP also handles the datalink layer checksum calculation in real time. The second gate array, the Datalink/Physical Layer Controller (DLC), contains control and status registers for controlling and monitoring the DLPP. The PLC is also responsible for managing the CR-NEM physical layer interface arbitration. Performance measurements for the Datalink/Physical Layer Pipeline Processor will be detailed. AT/PASIF board level point to point communication performance measurements will be described.

  13. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the ACRS. The...

  14. 76 FR 40406 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection; Revision to an ACRS Subcommittee Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting...

  15. Chabazite and dolomite formation in a dolocrete profile: An example of a complex alkaline paragenesis in Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Bustamante, Leticia; Huerta, Pedro; Rodríguez-Berriguete, Álvaro; Huertas, María José

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the weathering and soil formation processes operating on detrital sediments containing alkaline volcanic rock fragments of the Mirador del Río dolocrete profile. The profile consists of a lower horizon of removilised weathered basalts, an intermediate red sandy mudstones horizon with irregular carbonate layers and a topmost horizon of amalgamated carbonate layers with root traces. Formation occurred in arid to semiarid climates, giving place to a complex mineralogical association, including Mg-carbonates and chabazite, rarely described in cal/dolocretes profiles. Initial vadose weathering processes occurred in the basalts and in directly overlying detrital sediments, producing (Stage 1) red-smectites and dolomicrite. Dominant phreatic (Stage 2) conditions allowed precipitation of coarse-zoned dolomite and chabazite filling porosities. In Stages 3 and 4, mostly pedogenic, biogenic processes played an important role in dolomite and calcite accumulation in the profile. Overall evolution of the profile and its mineralogical association involved initial processes dominated by alteration of host rock, to provide silica and Mg-rich alkaline waters, suitable for chabazite and dolomite formation, without a previous carbonate phase. Dolomite formed both abiogenically and biogenically, but without a previous carbonate precursor and in the absence of evaporites. Dominance of calcite towards the profile top is the result of Mg/Ca decrease in the interstitial meteoric waters due to decreased supply of Mg from weathering, and increased supply of Ca in aeolian dust. Meteoric origin of the water is confirmed by C and O isotope values, which also indicate lack of deep sourced CO2. The dolocrete studied and its complex mineral association reveal the complex interactions that occur at surface during weathering and pedogenesis of basalt-sourced rocks.

  16. Pyroclastic flows and lavas of the Mogan and Fataga formations, Tejeda Volcano, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: mineral chemistry, intensive parameters, and magma chamber evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Spera, Frank J.

    1987-12-01

    The Mogan and Fataga formations on the island of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, represent a sequence of approximately 30 intercalated pyroclastic and lava flows (total volume about 500 km3 dense-rock equivalent) including subalkaline rhyolitic, peralkaline rhyolitic and trachytic pyroclastic flows, nepheline trachyte lavas and a small volume of alkali basaltic lavas and tephra deposits. The eruption of the intermediate to silicic rocks of the Mogan and Fataga formations follows the roughly 4 Ma duration of basaltic shield volcanism. The most common assemblage in the evolved (Mogan and Fataga) rocks is anorthoclase+ edenitic amphibole+ilmenite+magnetite±augite±hypersthene +apatite+pyrrhotite. A few flows also contain plagioclase, biotite, or sphene. Coexisting Fe-Ti oxides yield equilibrium temperatures between 835 and 930° C and logf_{O_2 } between -11.2 and -12.6. The lowermost pyroclastic flow of the Mogan formation is zoned from a rhyolitic base (848° C) to a basaltic top (931° C). Unit P1 has an oxygen isotope feldspar-magnetite temperature (850° C) very close to its Fe-Ti oxide temperature. One of the youngest Mogan flows is zoned from a comendite (836° C) at the base to a comenditic trachyte (899° C) at the top. The Fataga formation pyroclastic flows show only slight compositional zonation, and one flow has the same Fe-Ti oxide compositions at top and base. Calculations using the reaction 1/3 magnetite+SiO2 (melt)=ferrosilite+1/6 O2 indicate total pressures of 1 4 (±3) kb for six of the Mogan flows and one of the Fataga flows. For four of the pyroclastic flows, equilibria involving tremolite-SiO2-diopside-enstatite-H2O and phlogopite-SiO2-sanidine-enstatite-H2O imply water contents of 0.9 to 2.6 (±0.5) wt% andf_{H_2 O} between 80 and 610 bars, which indicates that magma within the Tejeda reservoir was H2O-undersaturated throughout the entire history of Mogan to Fataga volcanism. The fluorine contents of amphibole, biotite, and apatite, and chlorine

  17. A model of tephra dispersal from an early Palaeogene shallow submarine Surtseyan-style eruption(s), the Red Bluff Tuff Formation, Chatham Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Leonor; Stilwell, Jeffrey D.; Mays, Chris

    2014-03-01

    The Red Bluff Tuff Formation, an early Palaeogene volcano-sedimentary shallow marine succession from the Chatham Islands (New Zealand), provides a unique framework, in eastern 'Zealandia', to explore tephra dispersal processes associated with ancient small phreatomagmatic explosions (i.e. Surtseyan-style eruptions). Detailed sedimentological mapping, logging and sampling integrated with the results of extensive laboratory analyses (i.e. grain-size, componentry and applied palaeontological methods) elucidated the complex mechanisms of transport and deposition of nine identified resedimented fossiliferous volcaniclastic facies. These facies record the subaqueous reworking and deposition of tephra from the erosion and degradation of a proximal, entirely submerged ancient Surtseyan volcanic edifice (Cone II). South of this volcanic cone, the lowermost distal facies provides significant evidence of deposition as water-supported volcanic- or storm-driven mass flows (e.g. turbidity currents and mud/debris flows) of volcaniclastic and bioclastic debris, whereas the uppermost distal facies exhibit features of tractional sedimentary processes caused by shallow subaqueous currents. Further north, within the proximity of the volcanic edifice, the uppermost facies are represented by an abundant, diverse, large, and well preserved in situ fauna of shallow marine sessile invertebrates (e.g. corals and sponges) that reflect the protracted biotic stabiliszation and rebound following pulsed volcanic events. Over a period of time, these stable and wave-eroded volcanic platforms were inhabited by a flourishing and diversifying marine community of benthic and sessile pioneers (corals, bryozoans, molluscs, brachiopods, barnacles, sponges, foraminifera, etc.). This succession exhibits a vertical progression of sedimentary structures (i.e. density, cohesive and mass flows, and cross-bedding) and our interpretations indicate a shallowing upwards succession. This study reports for the first

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Clinically Suspected Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Michael; Ahmed, Osmanuddin; Chandra, Ankur; Gage, Kenneth L; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Ginsburg, Michael; Gornik, Heather L; Johnson, Pamela T; Oliva, Isabel B; Ptak, Thomas; Steigner, Michael L; Strax, Richard; Rybicki, Frank J; Dill, Karin E

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are often included in the differential diagnosis of common clinical presentations, including hypoxemia, hemoptysis, brain abscesses, and paradoxical stroke, as well as affecting 30% to 50% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Various imaging studies are used in the diagnostic and screening settings, which have been reviewed by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria Vascular Imaging Panel. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation screening in patients with HHT is commonly performed with transthoracic echocardiographic bubble study, followed by CT for positive cases. Although transthoracic echocardiographic bubble studies and radionuclide perfusion detect right-to-left shunts, they do not provide all of the information needed for treatment planning and may remain positive after embolization. Pulmonary angiography is appropriate for preintervention planning but not as an initial test. MR angiography has a potential role in younger patients with HHT who may require lifelong surveillance, despite lower spatial resolution compared with CT. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27209598

  19. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call "transporter exchange." This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  1. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call “transporter exchange.” This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3(1)21/P3(2)21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 A and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 A, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 A. PMID:17012788

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  4. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  5. Formation and evolution of the Solander Basin, southwestern South Island, New Zealand, controlled by a major fault in continental crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Melhuish, Anne

    2000-02-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data from the Solander Basin, southern New Zealand, show that its structural evolution has been controlled by a major fault, named here the Tauru Fault, that cuts the entire crust and splays into a diffuse zone in the upper mantle. The tectonic setting of the Solander Basin has evolved from Eocene-Oligocene extension and transtension to Miocene-Quaternary transpression and subduction. The Tauru Fault is 100 km east of the active Puysegur subduction zone thrust and is part of the overriding plate. On the basis of lower crustal reflectivity, the base of the crust beneath the adjacent Stewart Island shelf is at ˜30 km depth (˜9 s two-way time (TWT)), and rises to ˜20 km (˜8 s TWT) beneath the Solander Basin. This is consistent with gravity data. Prominent dipping reflections show that the Tauru Fault can be traced to ˜30 km depth (˜12 s TWT), where it merges with a zone of subhorizontal reflectors in the upper mantle. The Tauru Fault dips ˜30° northeast and appears to offset the Moho in a reverse sense. Stratigraphic relationships show that the Tauru Fault was active as a normal fault during Eocene extension, when Solander Basin crust was thinned and ocean crust was generated farther south in the Solander Trough. It has been reactivated as a reverse fault during at least two phases of Miocene-Quaternary compression and is still active. The strike of the Tauru Fault, which is parallel to Paleozoic-Mesozoic structures and was poorly oriented for the known Eocene extension direction, strongly suggests that it formed prior to Eocene time. The Tauru Fault significantly influenced the geometry of Eocene basin formation, producing a strongly asymmetric basin dominated by east dipping normal faults, with a single eastern boundary fault. Our data demonstrate that Miocene-Quaternary simple shear associated with the Tauru Fault cuts the whole crust and continues into the upper mantle. We conclude that variations in strength of the

  6. TU-A-18C-01: ACR Accreditation Updates in CT, Ultrasound, Mammography and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R; Berns, E; Hangiandreou, N; McNitt-Gray, M

    2014-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, the ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, mammography, ultrasound, and computed tomography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program. To understand the new requirements of the ACR ultrasound accreditation program, and roles the physicist can play in annual equipment surveys and setting up and supervising the routine QC program. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process.

  7. A reconnaissance of hydrogeologic conditions in Lehigh Acres and adjacent areas of Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lehigh Acres, a residential community with a population of about 13,500 and comprising an area of about 94 square miles (243 square kilometres) in the eastern part of Lee County, has been under development since 1954. Prior to development the area was poorly drained. By 1974, more than 150 miles (241 kilometres) of drainageways had been constructed to drain the area. The water-bearing formations underlying Lehigh Acres include the water-table, sandstone, lower Hawthorn, and Suwannee aquifers. The water-table aquifer is usually not more than 30 feet (9 metres) thick; it contains water of relatively good quality, except for iron and color. Water levels in this aquifer probably have been affected by construction of drainage canals. The sandstone aquifer, used extensively throughout the area as a source of water supply usually contains water of good quality although the water is hard and in places may contain concentrations of dissolved solids and iron which exceed the recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service and the State of Florida for drinking water. The lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers, usually encountered at depths between 440 and 850 feet (135 and 262 metres), contains water with relatively high concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Three streams, the Orange River, Hickey Creek, and Bedman Creek and the canals connected to them, provide drainage of the area. Except for the Orange River, where the water is of good chemical quality, little is known of the water quality. Similarly, little information is available on stream discharge except for the Orange River where the average annual discharge was 41.1 cubic feet per second (11.6 cubic metres per second) between 1935-46. Most lakes and ponds in Lehigh Acres are hydraulically connected to the water-table aquifer such that factors which affect one also affect the other. Theoretical drawdown curves indicate that the drainage canals may affect ground-water levels to a

  8. Small Break LOCA Analysis of ACR-700 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Limin Zheng; Sen Shen; Wright, David

    2006-07-01

    A small break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) analysis to assess a preliminary conceptual design of the ACR-700 PHWR nuclear power plant (NPP) developed by AECL has been performed with CATHENA MOD 3.5d, a PHWR system thermal-hydraulic analysis code. The limiting break size has been found by performing a sensitivity study for three different break locations [i.e. reactor inlet header (RIH), HTS pump suction (PS) pipe and reactor outlet head (ROH)] under the limiting case (i.e. SB-LOCA with subsequent loss of class IV power with all safety systems available). The analysis results indicate that the SB-LOCA acceptance criteria are satisfied. (authors)

  9. The ACR BI-RADS® Experience: Learning From History

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sickles, Edward A.; Bassett, Lawrence W.; Rubin, Daniel L.; Lee, Carol H.; Ikeda, Debra M.; Mendelson, Ellen B.; Wilcox, Pamela A.; Butler, Priscilla F.; D’Orsi, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System® (BI-RADS®) initiative, instituted by the ACR, was begun in the late 1980s to address a lack of standardization and uniformity in mammography practice reporting. An important component of the BI-RADS initiative is the lexicon, a dictionary of descriptors of specific imaging features. The BI-RADS lexicon has always been data driven, using descriptors that previously had been shown in the literature to be predictive of benign and malignant disease. Once established, the BI-RADS lexicon provided new opportunities for quality assurance, communication, research, and improved patient care. The history of this lexicon illustrates a series of challenges and instructive successes that provide a valuable guide for other groups that aspire to develop similar lexicons in the future. PMID:19945040

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Trauma to the Foot.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Laura W; Kransdorf, Mark J; Adler, Ronald; Appel, Marc; Beaman, Francesca D; Bernard, Stephanie A; Bruno, Michael A; Dempsey, Molly E; Fries, Ian B; Khoury, Viviane; Khurana, Bharti; Mosher, Timothy J; Roberts, Catherine C; Tuite, Michael J; Ward, Robert J; Zoga, Adam C; Weissman, Barbara N

    2015-06-01

    This ACR Appropriateness Criteria article offers imaging triage guidance for several variants of patients presenting with acute foot trauma. Patients meeting inclusion criteria for the Ottawa Rules should undergo a 3-view radiographic series. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy should undergo radiography, even though they do not meet the Ottawa Rules inclusion criteria. Patients with suspected midfoot and/or Lisfranc injury should undergo 3-view radiographs with weight bearing on at least the anterior-posterior view. Patients with suspected Lisfranc injury and normal radiographs should be considered for MRI and CT on a case-by-case basis. MRI or ultrasound could confirm cases of suspected acute tendon rupture. Radiography is the initial imaging modality for suspected plantar plate injury after metatarsal-phalangeal joint injury. Weight-bearing anterior-posterior, lateral, and sesamoid axial views may detect proximal migration of the hallux sesamoids. Ultrasound or MRI can directly evaluate the capsuloligamentous complex, specifically the plantar plate. Radiography can detect radiopaque penetrating foreign bodies, and ultrasound can be helpful in detecting those that are nonradiopaque. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures, by the panel. In instances in which evidence is lacking or is not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging and treatment. PMID:25935824

  11. The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof. Methods Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation. Results There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42) to 'almost perfect' (0.87). Conclusions The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. PMID:20609250

  12. Substrate path in the AcrB multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fasahath; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A major tripartite multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli, AcrAB-TolC, confers resistance to a wide variety of compounds. The drug molecule is captured by AcrB probably from the periplasm or the periplasm/inner membrane interface, and is passed through AcrB and then TolC to the medium. Currently there exist numerous crystallographic and mutation data concerning the regions of AcrB and its homologs that may interact with substrates. Starting with these data, we devised fluorescence assays in whole cells to determine the entire substrate path through AcrB. We tested 48 residues in AcrB along the predicted substrate path and 25 gave positive results, based on the covalent labeling of cysteine residues by a lipophilic dye-maleimide and the blocking of Nile Red efflux by covalent labeling with bulky maleimide reagents. These residues are all located in the periplasmic domain, in regions we designate as the lower part of the large external cleft, the cleft itself, the crystallographically defined binding pocket, and the gate between the pocket and the funnel. Our observations suggest that the substrate is captured in the lower cleft region of AcrB, then transported through the binding pocket, the gate, and finally to the AcrB funnel that connects AcrB to TolC. PMID:20804453

  13. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  14. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  15. Drainage-return, surface-water withdrawal, and land-use data for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, with emphasis on Twitchell Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; Cherry, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    Partial data on drainage returns and surface-water withdrawals are presented for areas of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, for March 1994 through February 1996. These areas cover most of the delta. Data are also presented for all drainage returns and some surface-water withdrawals for Twitchell Island, which is in the western part of the delta. Changes in land use between 1968 and 1991 are also presented for the delta. Measurements of monthly drainage returns and surface-water withdrawals were made using flowmeters installed in siphons and drain pipes on Twitchell Island. Estimates of monthly returns throughout the delta were made using electric power-consumption data with pump-efficiency-test data. For Twitchell Island, monthly measured drainage returns for the 1995 calendar year totaled about 11,200 acre-feet, whereas drainage returns estimated from power-consumption data totaled 5 percent less at about 10,600 acre-feet. Monthly surface-water withdrawals onto Twitchell Island through 12 of the 21 siphons totaled about 2,400 acre-feet for 1995. For most of the delta, the monthly estimated drainage returns for 1995 totaled about 430,000 acre-feet. The area consisting of Bouldin, Brannan, Staten, Tyler, and Venice Islands had the largest estimated drainage returns for calendar year 1995. Between 1968 and 1991, native vegetation in the delta decreased by 25 percent (about 40,000 acres), and grain and hay crops increased by 340 percent (about 71,000 acres). For Twitchell Island, native vegetation decreased about 77 percent (about 850 acres), while field crop acreage increased by about 44 percent (about 780 acres).

  16. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  17. An integrative geologic, geochronologic and geochemical study of Gorgona Island, Colombia: Implications for the formation of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Lina; Ferrari, Luca; Martínez, Margarita López; Petrone, Chiara Maria; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The genesis of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) has been associated to the melting of the Galapagos plume head at ~ 90 Ma or to the interaction between the plume and the Caribbean slab window. Gorgona Island, offshore western Colombia, is an accreted fragment of the CLIP and its highly heterogeneous igneous suite, ranging from enriched basalts to depleted komatiites and picrites, was assumed to have formed at ~ 89 Ma from different part of the plume. Here we present new geologic, geochronologic and geochemical data of Gorgona with significant implications for the formation of the CLIP. A new set of 40Ar- 39Ar ages documents a magmatic activity spanning the whole Late Cretaceous (98.7 ± 7.7 to 64.4 ± 5 Ma) followed by a shallower, picritic pyroclastic eruption in the Paleocene. Trace element and isotope geochemistry confirm the existence of an enriched (EDMM: La/Sm N ≥ 1 and ɛNd i of 5.7 to 7.8) and a depleted (DMM: La/Sm N < 1 and ɛNd i of 9.5 to 11.3) mantle sources. A progressive increase in the degree of melting and melt extraction with time occurred in both groups. Petrologic modeling indicates that low but variable degrees of wet melting (< 5%) of an EDMM can produce the LREE-enriched rocks. Higher degree of melting (> 10%) of a mixed DMM + EDMM (40 to 60%) may reproduce the more depleted rocks with temperatures in the range of ambient mantle in absence of plumes. Our results contradict the notion that the CLIP formed by melting of a plume head at ~ 90 Ma. Multiple magmatic pulses over several tens of Ma in small areas like Gorgona, also recognized in other CLIP areas, suggest a long period of diffuse magmatism without a clear pattern of migration. The age span of this magmatism is broadly concurrent with the Caribbean slab window. During this time span the Farallon oceanic lithosphere (later becoming the Caribbean plate) advanced eastward ~ 1500 km, overriding the astenosphere feeding the proto-Caribbean spreading ridge. This hotter mantle

  18. Proliferation Resistance Evaluation of ACR-1000 Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and to enhance the spent fuel proliferation resistance. It consists of both innovative nuclear reactors and innovative research in separation and transmutation. The merits of nuclear energy are high-density energy, with low environmental impacts (i.e. almost zero greenhouse gas emission). Planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current light water reactors (LWRs) as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. For future advanced nuclear systems, minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs can play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In this work, an Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel unit lattice cell model with 43 UO2 fuel rods will be used to investigate the effectiveness of a Minor Actinide Reduction Approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. The main MARA objective is to increase the 238Pu / Pu isotope ratio by using the transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel and thereby increase the proliferation resistance even for a very low fuel burnup. As a result, MARA is a very effective approach to enhance the proliferation resistance for the on power refueling ACR system nuclear fuel. The MA transmutation characteristics at different MA loadings were compared and their impact on neutronics

  19. Effectiveness of urban stormwater control measures in a 100-acre test site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kansas City, Missouri chose a test area (100 acres) and a control area (80 acres) to test the effectiveness of urban stormwater control (SCM) deployment in conjunction with the USEPA, University of Alabama, University of Missouri-Kansas City and TetraTech. Both the test and cont...

  20. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  1. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  2. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... adjusted community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1... community rating system as defined in § 417.104(b); or (ii) A system, approved by CMS, under which the...

  3. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... adjusted community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1... community rating system as defined in § 417.104(b); or (ii) A system, approved by CMS, under which the...

  4. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... adjusted community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1... community rating system as defined in § 417.104(b); or (ii) A system, approved by CMS, under which the...

  5. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  6. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application for an early...

  7. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  8. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  9. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  10. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application for an early...

  11. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  12. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  13. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  14. 75 FR 7632 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on March 2, 2010, at...

  15. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  16. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  17. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  18. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  19. 75 FR 13611 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... would result in major inconvenience. Dated: March 15, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor...

  20. 75 FR 10840 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on March...

  1. 75 FR 7634 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    .... Dated: February 12, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR...

  2. 75 FR 1830 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    .... Dated: January 7, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR...

  3. 76 FR 76442 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy... Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels scheduled to be held...

  4. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting...

  5. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  6. ACR CT Accreditation Program and the Lung Cancer Screening Program Designation.

    PubMed

    Kazerooni, Ella A; Armstrong, Mark R; Amorosa, Judith K; Hernandez, Dina; Liebscher, Lawrence A; Nath, Hrudaya; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Stern, Eric J; Wilcox, Pamela A

    2016-02-01

    The ACR recognizes that low-dose CT for lung cancer screening has the potential to significantly reduce mortality from lung cancer in the appropriate high-risk population. The ACR supports the recommendations of the US Preventive Services Task Force and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for screening patients. To be effective, lung cancer screening should be performed at sites providing high-quality low-dose CT examinations overseen and interpreted by qualified physicians using a structured reporting and management system. The ACR has developed a set of tools necessary for radiologists to take the lead on the front lines of lung cancer screening. The ACR Lung Cancer Screening Center designation is built upon the ACR CT accreditation program and requires use of Lung-RADS or a similar structured reporting and management system. This designation provides patients and referring providers with the assurance that they will receive high-quality screening with appropriate follow-up care. PMID:26846533

  7. Is it time for a dedicated pediatric MRI ACR accreditation program?

    PubMed

    Serai, Suraj D; Jones, Blaise V; Podberesky, Daniel J; Coley, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Participation in ACR accreditation programs has become an essential practice for adult and pediatric imaging centers across the country. The responsibility for these ACR programs is vested in the Commission on Quality and Safety, 1 of 7 operational commissions in the ACR. The MRI Accreditation Program evaluates the qualifications of personnel, quality control programs, MR safety policies, and image quality specific to MRI. Currently, the ACR MRI Accreditation Program is designed primarily to evaluate adult MRI practices, which are in many ways not applicable to pediatric applications and facilities. In this article, the authors describe the difficulties faced during the ACR MRI Accreditation Program at a dedicated children's hospital and offer suggested changes for the process. PMID:23245436

  8. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  9. In vitro drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Kremsner, P. G.; Zotter, G. M.; Feldmeier, H.; Graninger, W.; Kollaritsch, M.; Wiedermann, G.; Rocha, R. M.; Wernsdorfer, W. H.

    1989-01-01

    In Acre, the westernmost state of Brazil in the Amazon region, the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine, quinine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was determined in vitro by the Rieckmann microtechnique. The study was performed between January and June 1987; the in vitro parasite responses to all antimalarial drugs were determined according to the recommendations of WHO. Of 83 isolates of P. falciparum, all were sensitive to mefloquine and of 87 isolates of P. falciparum, 84 (97%) were sensitive to quinine. The EC50 for mefloquine was 0.27 mumol/l and for quinine 4.60 mumol/l. In contrast, 65 of 89 (73%) and 70 of 83 (84%) isolates were resistant to amodiaquine and chloroquine, respectively; 11 isolates even grew at 6.4 mumol chloroquine/l. The EC50 for amodiaquine was 0.34 mumol/l and for chloroquine 0.73 mumol/l. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance was seen in 23 of 25 (92%) cases. These data clearly indicate that in the western part of the Amazon region the 4-aminoquinolines, as well as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, can no longer be recommended for the treatment of P. falciparum infections. PMID:2670298

  10. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of snakebites in Rio Branco, Acre].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Edna; Queiroz-Andrade, Marcony; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Tavares-Neto, José

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical epidemiological profile of the snake bites attended at the reference hospital of Acre. One hundred-forty four patients were studied prospectively, from January to December 2002. One hundred-thirteen (78.5%) cases were classified as accidents by venomous snakes. The genera Bothrops, Lachesis and Micrurus were responsible, respectively, for 75.7%, 2.1% e 0.7% cases. The accidents predominated in males (78.5%), rural workers (51.4%) and between 10 and 29 years old (43.8%). The distribution according to the severity of poisoning by genera Bothrops was: moderate (48.6%), mild (31.2%) or severe (20.2%). Two cases of Bothrops accident did not receive serum therapy. However, the antivenom was administered in twenty-three patients without envenoming. In conclusion, the results obtained were different of the observed by another authors with respect to the severity of accidents and suitable treatment. PMID:15717089

  11. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Radiologic Management of Hepatic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kouri, Brian E; Abrams, Ross A; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Azad, Nilofer; Farrell, James; Gaba, Ron C; Gervais, Debra A; Gipson, Matthew G; Kolbeck, Kenneth J; Marshalleck, Francis E; Pinchot, Jason W; Small, William; Ray, Charles E; Hohenwalter, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancy is a complex problem. Achieving optimal care for this challenging population often requires the involvement of multiple medical and surgical disciplines. Because of the wide variety of potential therapies, treatment protocols for various malignancies continue to evolve. Consequently, development of appropriate therapeutic algorithms necessitates consideration of medical options, such as systemic chemotherapy; surgical options, such as resection or transplantation; and loco-regional therapies, such as thermal ablation and transarterial embolization techniques. This article provides a review of treatment strategies for the three most common subtypes of hepatic malignancy treated with loco-regional therapies: hepatocellular carcinoma, neuroendocrine metastases, and colorectal metastases. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26944037

  12. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  13. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  14. Tectonic evolution of Early Paleozoic island-arc systems and continental crust formation in the Caledonides of Kazakhstan and the North Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarev, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The extended Saryarka and Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belts that underwent secondary deformation are traced in the Caledonides of Kazakhstan and the North Tien Shan. These belts are composed of igneous rocks pertaining to Early Paleozoic island-arc systems of various types and the conjugated basins with oceanic crust. The Saryarka volcanic belt has a complex fold-nappe structure formed in the middle Arenigian-middle Llanvirnian as a result of the tectonic juxtaposition of Early-Middle Cambrian and Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician complexes of ensimatic island arcs and basins with oceanic crust. The Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belt is characterized by a rather simple fold structure and consists of Middle-Late Ordovician volcanic and plutonic associations of ensialic island arcs developing on heterogeneous basement, which is composed of complexes belonging to the Saryarka belt and Precambrian sialic massifs. The structure and isotopic composition of the Paleozoic igneous complexes provide evidence for the heterogeneous structure of the continental crust in various segments of the Kazakh Caledonides. The upper crust of the Shyngyz segment consists of Early Paleozoic island-arc complexes and basins with oceanic crust related to the Saryarka and Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belts in combination with Middle and Late Paleozoic continental igneous rocks. The deep crustal units of this segment are dominated by mafic rocks of Early Paleozoic suprasubduction complexes. The upper continental crust of the Stepnyak segment is composed of Middle-Late Ordovician island-arc complexes of the Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belt and Early Ordovician rift-related volcanics. The middle crustal units are composed of Riphean, Paleoproterozoic, and probably Archean sialic rocks, whereas the lower crustal units are composed of Neoproterozoic mafic rocks.

  15. 77 FR 56231 - Minor Boundary Revision at Virgin Islands National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 4601- 9(c)(1)(ii), the boundary of the Virgin Islands National Park is modified to include an additional 3.57 acres of unimproved land identified as Tract 03-157, which will then be donated to the United States. The land is located at Estate Haulover on the east end of the Island of St. John, immediately adjacent to the current boundary of the......

  16. Pseudoatomic Structure of the Tripartite Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC Reveals the Intermeshing Cogwheel-like Interaction between AcrA and TolC.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeongseop; Kim, Jin-Sik; Song, Saemee; Shigematsu, Hideki; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hyun, Jaekyung; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2016-02-01

    The resistance-nodulation-division type tripartite pump AcrAB-TolC and its homologs are responsible for multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria by expelling a wide variety of toxic substrates. The three essential components, AcrA, AcrB, and TolC, must function in concert with each respective binding partner within the complex. In this study, we report an 8.2-Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) 3D reconstruction of the complex that consists of an AcrAB fusion protein and a chimeric TolC protein. The pseudoatomic structure derived from the cryo-EM reconstruction clearly demonstrates a model only compatible with the adaptor bridging mechanism, wherein the funnel-like AcrA hexamer forms an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction with the α-barrel tip region of TolC. These observations provide a structural milestone for understanding multidrug resistance in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and may also lead to the design of new antibacterial drugs. PMID:26777412

  17. Authigenic pyrite formation and re-oxidation as an indicator of an unsteady-state redox sedimentary environment: Evidence from the intertidal mangrove sediments of Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hai; Yao, Suping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Two cores of intertidal mangrove sediments from the Tanmen and Qinglan Harbors on Hainan Island, China, were investigated for their geochemical characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, iron and sulfur and the pyrite morphology and framboidal pyrite size distribution. A modified sequential iron extraction procedure revealed extremely high FeHR/FeT ratios (0.81±0.07, n=28). The pyrite results determined by the nitric acid digestion and chromium reduction method show a strong correlation (r=0.91, n=28), indicating that most of the chromium-reducible sulfur is pyrite, whereas the proportion of elemental sulfur is minor. The organic carbon concentrations and the atomic C/N ratios demonstrate that the organic carbon in the mangrove sediments is derived predominantly from higher plants. The chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS) values show a good linear logarithmic correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the process of sulfate reduction increases rapidly with the concentration of TOC at Qinglan Harbor (QL), which has low TOC contents (<5 wt%). In contrast, sulfate reduction increases slowly with high TOC (>5 wt%) at Tanmen Harbor (TM). These data suggest that pyrite formation at the QL site is controlled by the TOC contents, whereas at the TM site, the primary factor controlling the pyritization process is the supply rate of sulfate. Both sites have significantly high sulfate contents (average 1.67±0.45 wt% and 0.80±0.32 wt% at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively), which are isotopically depleted in 34S (average -6.15±7.17‰ and -6.72±7.33‰ at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively) suggesting that the sulfate is mainly from the reoxidation of reduced sulfides (mainly pyrite) instead of seawater sulfate during burial. The distributions of pyrite textures suggest that the pyrite in the mangrove swamps is formed mainly as framboids and only a few pyrite crystals are formed directly as euhedral crystals. The high mean diameters and standard deviations (7.0±4

  18. Mantle heterogeneity during the formation of the North Atlantic Igneous Province: Constraints from trace element and Sr-Nd-Os-O isotope systematics of Baffin Island picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J. R.; Stolper, E. M.; Francis, D.; Woodhead, J.; Frei, R.; Eiler, J.

    2004-11-01

    Sr-Nd-Os-O isotope and major and trace element data from ˜62 Ma picrites from Baffin Island constrain the composition of mantle sources sampled at the inception of North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) magmatism. We recognize two compositional types. Depleted (N-type) lavas have low 87Sr/86Sri (0.702990-0.703060) and 187Os/188Osi (0.1220-0.1247) and high 143Nd/144Ndi (0.512989-0.512999) and are depleted in incompatible elements relative to primitive mantle. Enriched (E-type) lavas have higher 87Sr/86Sri (0.703306-0.703851) and 187Os/188Osi (0.1261-0.1303), lower 143Nd/144Ndi (0.512825-0.512906), and incompatible element concentrations similar to, or more enriched than, primitive mantle. There is also a subtle difference in oxygen isotope composition; E-type lavas are marginally lower in δ18Oolivine value (5.16-4.84‰) than N-type lavas (5.15-5.22‰). Chemical and isotopic variations between E- and N-type lavas are inconsistent with assimilation of crust and/or subcontinental lithospheric mantle and appear to instead reflect mixing between melts derived from two distinct mantle sources. Strontium-Nd-O isotope compositions and incompatible trace element abundances of N-type lavas suggest these are largely derived from the depleted upper mantle. The 187Os/188Osi ratios of N-type lavas can also be explained by such a model but require that the depleted upper mantle had γOs of approximately -5 to -7 at 62 Ma. This range overlaps the lowest γOs values measured in abyssal peridotites. Baffin Island lava compositions are also permissive of a model involving recharging of depleted upper mantle with 3He-rich material from the lower mantle (Stuart et al., Nature, 424, 57-59, 2003), with the proviso that recharge had no recognizable effect on the lithophile trace element and Sr-Nd-Os-O isotope composition. The origin of the enriched mantle component sampled by Baffin Island lavas is less clear but may be metasomatized and high-temperature-altered recycled oceanic

  19. Update of ACR guidelines for osteoarthritis: role of the coxibs.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Thomas J

    2002-04-01

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recently provided an update to the guidelines published in 1995 on the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee on OA Guidelines followed an evidence-based medicine approach to revise the guidelines by reviewing an extensive literature search of the Cochrane and Medline databases and published abstracts, and discussing evidence with expert rheumatologists. The goal of the guidelines is to provide recommendations to control patients' OA pain, improve function and health-related quality of life, and avoid therapeutic toxicity. As in the original guidelines, nonpharmacologic interventions involving patient education and physical measures are recommended following initial diagnosis of OA. The pharmacologic algorithm was updated to include currently available therapeutic agents. Acetaminophen remains first-line therapy because of its cost, efficacy, and safety profiles. Cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors (coxibs) have been included as an alternative to nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients at risk for upper gastrointestinal adverse events. Tramadol is an available alternative for patients who have a contraindication to coxibs or nonselective NSAIDs or for those who have not responded to previous oral therapy. Intra-articular injections or topical therapy may be used as monotherapy, or as an adjunct to oral analgesia. Surgical treatment of OA remains a last resort for patients who have failed to respond to nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment approaches, and have progressive limitation in their activities of daily living. Several therapies for the prevention or treatment of OA are currently under investigation, including nutritional supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin, disease-modifying OA drugs, and devices, such as acupuncture and electromagnetic therapy. It is anticipated that the guidelines for the management of OA will

  20. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nandini D; Broderick, Daniel F; Burns, Judah; Deshmukh, Tejaswini K; Fries, Ian Blair; Harvey, H Benjamin; Holly, Langston; Hunt, Christopher H; Jagadeesan, Bharathi D; Kennedy, Tabassum A; O'Toole, John E; Perlmutter, Joel S; Policeni, Bruno; Rosenow, Joshua M; Schroeder, Jason W; Whitehead, Matthew T; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Corey, Amanda S

    2016-09-01

    Most patients presenting with uncomplicated acute low back pain (LBP) and/or radiculopathy do not require imaging. Imaging is considered in those patients who have had up to 6 weeks of medical management and physical therapy that resulted in little or no improvement in their back pain. It is also considered for those patients presenting with red flags raising suspicion for serious underlying conditions, such as cauda equina syndrome, malignancy, fracture, and infection. Many imaging modalities are available to clinicians and radiologists for evaluating LBP. Application of these modalities depends largely on the working diagnosis, the urgency of the clinical problem, and comorbidities of the patient. When there is concern for fracture of the lumbar spine, multidetector CT is recommended. Those deemed to be interventional candidates, with LBP lasting for > 6 weeks having completed conservative management with persistent radiculopathic symptoms, may seek MRI. Patients with severe or progressive neurologic deficit on presentation and red flags should be evaluated with MRI. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27496288

  1. A Fluorescent Microplate Assay Quantifies Bacterial Efflux and Demonstrates Two Distinct Compound Binding Sites in AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R.; Erwin, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux. PMID:25645845

  2. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A CASE STUDY AT THE JONES ISLAND CDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) is a 44 acre in-lake area that receives dredged material from Milwaukee Harbor and the surrounding waterways. Some of those materials are contaminated with industrial waste and urban run-off. The CDF is nearing the end of its desi...

  3. ACR/NEMA Digital Image Interface Standard (An Illustrated Protocol Overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. Robert

    1985-09-01

    The American College of Radiologists (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have sponsored a joint standards committee mandated to develop a universal interface standard for the transfer of radiology images among a variety of PACS imaging devicesl. The resulting standard interface conforms to the ISO/OSI standard reference model for network protocol layering. The standard interface specifies the lower layers of the reference model (Physical, Data Link, Transport and Session) and implies a requirement of the Network Layer should a requirement for a network exist. The message content has been considered and a flexible message and image format specified. The following Imaging Equipment modalities are supported by the standard interface... CT Computed Tomograpy DS Digital Subtraction NM Nuclear Medicine US Ultrasound MR Magnetic Resonance DR Digital Radiology The following data types are standardized over the transmission interface media.... IMAGE DATA DIGITIZED VOICE HEADER DATA RAW DATA TEXT REPORTS GRAPHICS OTHERS This paper consists of text supporting the illustrated protocol data flow. Each layer will be individually treated. Particular emphasis will be given to the Data Link layer (Frames) and the Transport layer (Packets). The discussion utilizes a finite state sequential machine model for the protocol layers.

  4. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  5. 75 FR 38564 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... and Fire Protection The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection will hold a...

  6. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  7. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  8. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  9. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  10. 75 FR 7634 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Power Uprates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Power Uprates... Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  11. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  12. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  13. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  14. BVOCs concentration in the Reunion Island tropical forests and the impact on photooxidants formation during the BIO-MAIDO 2015 campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, Aurelie; Duflot, Valentin; Tulet, Pierre; Flores, Olivier; Fournel, Jacques; Strasberg, Dominique; Deguillaume, Laurent; Vaitilingom, Mickael; Burnet, Frederic; Bourrianne, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    In March-April 2015 took place an intensive field campaign in the Reunion Island : BIO-MAÏDO 2015 campaign. The main objective of the campaign was to study the interactions between forests, gases, aerosols and clouds in this unique tropical natural science lab (Duflot at al, in prep). During this campaign volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were sampled at different part of the Reunion island. BVOCs (including isoprene, terpenes, and some oxygenated compounds) have different temporal and spatial variations depending on vegetation, on plant species and on environmental factors (ambient temperature, light intensity, air pollution..) (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998, Kesselmeier and Staudt, 1999). BVOCs are important atmospheric constituent of the troposphere. Due to high reactivity they have an important impact on the tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (Granier et al., 2000; Poisson et al., 2000; Pfister et al., 2008), thus thave a significantey influence on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere (Houweling et al., 1998; Taraborrelli et al., 2012) on regional and global scales. BVOCs were studied at different locations: Maido Observatory (2160m) with semi-continous measurement (12 March - 9 April 2015); Tamarins forest; Cryptomeria forest; Primary forest (Belouve) and Mare Longue forest . BVOCs were sampled on adsorbents cartridges containing 250 mg Tenax TA and analysed later with a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde concentrations were determined at the Maido observatory using an AEROLASER 4021 instrument, based on the so called "Hantzsch"-reaction, and with a 30s resolution. Isoprene was the most important BVOCs concentration found in the Reunion Island forest, especially from the endemic Tamarins trees, followed by limonene and alpha-pinene. Formaldehyde at the Maido facility show a strong diurnal variation and a maximum concentration during day-time from 1 to 4 ppbv. The local emission of

  15. Formation and evolution of a metasomatized lithospheric root at the motionless Antarctic plate: the case of East Island, Crozet Archipelago (Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyzen, Christine; Marzoli, Andrea; Bellieni, Giuliano; Levresse, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Sitting atop the nearly stagnant Antarctic plate (ca. 6.46 mm/yr), the Crozet archipelago midway between Madagascar and Antarctica constitutes a region of unusually shallow (1543-1756 m below sea level) and thickened oceanic crust (10-16.5 km), high geoid height, and deep low-velocity zone, which may reflect the surface expression of a mantle plume. Here, we present new major and trace element data for Quaternary sub-aerial alkali basalts from East Island, the easterly and oldest island (ca. 9 Ma) of the Crozet archipelago. Crystallization at uppermost mantle depth and phenocryst accumulation have strongly affected their parental magma compositions. Their trace element patterns show a large negative K anomaly relative to Ta-La, moderate depletions in Rb and Ba with respect to Th-U, and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletions relative to light REE. These characteristics allow limits to be placed upon the composition and mineralogy of their mantle source. The average trace element spectrum of East Island basalts can be matched by melting of about 2 % of a garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotite source. The stability field of phlogopite restricts melting depth to lithospheric levels. The modelled source composition requires a multistage evolution, where the mantle has been depleted by melt extraction before having been metasomatized by alkali-rich plume melts. The depleted mantle component may be sourced by residual mantle plume remnants stagnated at the melting locus due to a weak lateral flow velocity inside the melting regime, whose accumulation progressively edifies a depleted lithospheric root above the plume core. Low-degree alkali-rich melts are likely derived from the plume source. Such a mantle source evolution may be general to both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments where the lateral component velocity of the mantle flow field is extremely slow.

  16. Constraints on formation processes of two coarse-grained calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions: a study of mantles, islands and cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    Many coarse-grained calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) contain features that are inconsistent with equilibrium liquid crystallization models of origin. Spinel-free islands (SFIs) in spinel-rich cores of Type B CAIs are examples of such features. One model previously proposed for the origin of Allende 5241, a Type B1 CAI containing SFIs, involves the capture and assimilation of xenoliths by a liquid droplet in the solar nebula (El Goresy et al, 1985; MacPherson et al 1989). This study reports new textural and chemical zoning data from 5241 and identifies previously unrecognized chemical zoning patterns in the melilite mantle and in a SFI. -from Author

  17. Association between ACR1 gene product expression and cardiomyopathy in children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Niu, Ling; He, Xiuhua; Xue, Ying; Ling, Nan; Wang, Zhenzhou; An, Xinjiang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous heart disease. Although morbidity of pediatric cardiomyopathy has been on the increase, effective treatments have not been identified. The aim of the study was to examine the expression of ACR1 gene products in association with cardiomyopathy in children. In total, 73 patients and 76 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, from April, 2013 to April, 2015. The relative expression of ACR1 mRNA and protein were quantified in all cases, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), ELISA and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to stain cardiac tissue samples to reveal differences between the patients and the control group. The results showed that the level of ACR1 mRNA by RT-qPCR was not different between the two study groups. However, ELISA and western blot analysis showed a significant difference, with patients expressing lower levels of ACR1. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed the levels of ACR1 were reduced in patients as the time course of disease increased. Thus, there is an association between the inhibition of ACR1 expression and the development of the disease. These findings are useful in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of pediatric cardiomyopathy, a severe disease with few effective treatment options available. PMID:27588091

  18. Substrate binding accelerates the conformational transitions and substrate dissociation in multidrug efflux transporter AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Weng, Jingwei; Wang, Wenning

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite efflux pump assembly AcrAB-TolC is the major multidrug resistance transporter in E. coli. The inner membrane transporter AcrB is a homotrimer, energized by the proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The asymmetric crystal structures of AcrB with three monomers in distinct conformational states [access (A), binding (B) and extrusion (E)] support a functional rotating mechanism, in which each monomer of AcrB cycles among the three states in a concerted way. However, the relationship between the conformational changes during functional rotation and drug translocation has not been totally understood. Here, we explored the conformational changes of the AcrB homotrimer during the ABE to BEA transition in different substrate-binding states using targeted MD simulations. It was found that the dissociation of substrate from the distal binding pocket of B monomer is closely related to the concerted conformational changes in the translocation pathway, especially the side chain reorientation of Phe628 and Tyr327. A second substrate binding at the proximal binding pocket of A monomer evidently accelerates the conformational transitions as well as substrate dissociation in B monomer. The acceleration effect of the multi-substrate binding mode provides a molecular explanation for the positive cooperativity observed in the kinetic studies of substrate efflux and deepens our understanding of the functional rotating mechanism of AcrB. PMID:25918513

  19. Increased expression of the multidrug efflux genes acrAB occurs during slow growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rand, Jonathan D; Danby, Simon G; Greenway, David L A; England, Reg R

    2002-01-22

    Intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli is elicited by the gene products of the multidrug efflux acrAB-tolC operon. In this paper, we have shown that acrAB is regulated as a function of the growth rate of E. coli during growth in batch and chemostat culture. In chemostat culture, expression of acrAB is inversely related to growth rate irrespective of the limiting nutrient. The level of expression of acrAB is greater under glucose limitation compared with either iron or nitrogen limitation. Increase in expression of acrAB confers a greater resistance to ciprofloxacin, and the implications for a clinical situation are discussed. Slow growth rate regulation of acrAB transcription does not require the presence of the stationary-phase sigma factor. A putative gearbox consensus sequence was identified at the -10 region of the acrAB promoter. PMID:11886757

  20. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  1. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  2. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    PubMed

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes. PMID:16803325

  3. Effects of epigallocatechin gallate, L-ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and dihydrolipoic acid on the formation of deoxyguanosine adducts derived from lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Nath, Raghu G; Wu, Mona Y; Emami, Armaghan; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) releases alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes that modify deoxyguanosine (dG) to form cyclic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts. One of the major adducts detected in vivo is acrolein (Acr)-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine (Acr-dG). We used a chemical model system to examine the effects of 4 antioxidants known to inhibit fatty acid oxidation on the formation of Acr-dG and 8-oxodeoxyguaonsine (8-oxodG) from the PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) under oxidative conditions. We found that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) inhibit both Acr-dG and 8-oxodG formation. In contrast, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol actually increase Acr-dG at high concentrations and do not show a concentration-dependant inhibition of 8-oxodG. We also studied their effects on blocking Acr-dG formation directly from Acr. EGCG and DHLA can both effectively block Acr-dG formation, but ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol show weak or little effect. These results highlight the complexity of antioxidant mechanisms and also reveal that EGCG and DHLA are effective at suppressing lipid peroxidation-induced Acr-dG and 8-oxodG formation as well as blocking the reaction of dG with Acr. PMID:20574923

  4. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  5. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of Poro Point and vicinity, Luzon Island, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worts, George Frank

    1964-01-01

    In 1961 a reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of Poro Point, on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, was made on behalf of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Poro Point, which marks the northern end of Lingayen Gulf, is about half a mile wide and projects northwestward about 2 miles into the China Sea. The point is underlain by coralline limestone of probable Pleistocene age. The aquifer system consists of a fresh-water lens floating on salt water within the coralline limestone. Several tube wells obtain fresh water from the lens, but in May, at the end of the 6-month dry season during which rainfall totals only 40 inches, the water becomes brackish. 'Skimming wells' are considered the best method of obtaining fresh water from the lens, whose annual range in average thickness is probably 25 to 40 feet. Recharge is about 2,000-3,000 acre-feet per year and is derived wholly from precipitation during the 6-month wet season in which rainfall totals about 92 inches. The approximate amount of ground water stored in the fresh-water lens ranges from about 3,000 acre-feet at the end of the dry season to about 5,000 acre-feet at the end of the wet season. Most of the ground water is discharged through seeps and submarine springs around Poro Point; pumpage in 1961 was only about 100 acre-feet.

  6. Expression of homologous RND efflux pump genes is dependent upon AcrB expression: implications for efflux and virulence inhibitor design

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jessica M. A.; Smith, Helen E.; Ricci, Vito; Lawler, Amelia J.; Thompson, Louisa J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Enterobacteriaceae have multiple efflux pumps that confer intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. AcrB mediates clinically relevant multidrug resistance and is required for virulence and biofilm formation, making it an attractive target for the design of inhibitors. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of single transporters as a target for efflux inhibition using Salmonella Typhimurium as the model pathogen. Methods The expression of resistance–nodulation–division (RND) efflux pump genes in response to the inactivation of single or multiple homologues was measured using real-time RT–PCR. Phenotypes of mutants were characterized by measuring antimicrobial susceptibility, dye accumulation and the ability to cause infection in vitro. Results The expression of all RND efflux pump genes was increased when single or multiple acr genes were inactivated, suggesting a feedback mechanism that activates the transcription of homologous efflux pump genes. When two or three acr genes were inactivated, the mutants had further reduced efflux, altered susceptibility to antimicrobials (including increased susceptibility to some, but conversely and counterintuitively, decreased susceptibility to some others) and were more attenuated in the tissue culture model than mutants lacking single pumps were. Conclusions These data indicate that it is critical to understand which pumps an inhibitor is active against and the effect of this on the expression of homologous systems. For some antimicrobials, an inhibitor with activity against multiple pumps will have a greater impact on susceptibility, but an unintended consequence of this may be decreased susceptibility to other drugs, such as aminoglycosides. PMID:25288678

  7. Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Installing a small wind turbine can sometimes be difficult due to economics, zoning issues, public perception, and other barriers. Persistence and innovation, however, can result in a successful installation. Dani Baker and David Belding own Cross Island Farms, a 102-acre certified organic farm on Wellesley Island in northern New York. In 2009, they took their interest in renewable energy to the next level by researching the logistics of a small wind installation on their land to make their farm even more sustainable. Their renewable energy system consists of one 10-kilowatt Bergey Excel wind turbine, a solar array, and a propane-powered generator. This case study describes funding for the project and the installation process.

  8. Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-30

    Installing a small wind turbine can sometimes be challenging due to economics, zoning issues, public perception, and other barriers. Persistence and innovation, however, can result in a successful installation. Dani Baker and David Belding own Cross Island Farms, a 102-acre certified organic farm on Wellesley Island in northern New York. In 2009, they took their interest in renewable energy to the next level by researching the logistics of a small wind installation on their land to make their farm even more sustainable. Their renewable energy system consists of one 10-kilowatt Bergey Excel wind turbine, a solar array, and a propane-powered generator. This case study describes funding for the project and the installation process.

  9. Applicability of ACR breast dosimetry methodology to a digital mammography system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomon, John J.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Swenson, Kristin N.; Schauer, David A.

    2006-03-15

    Determination of mean glandular dose (MGD) to breast tissue is an essential aspect of mammography equipment evaluations and exposure controls. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Quality Control Manual outlines the procedure for MGD determination in screen-film mammography based upon conversions of entrance skin exposures (ESEs) measured with an ionization chamber (IC). The development of digital mammography has increased with the demand for improved object resolution and tissue contrast. This change in image receptor from screen-film to a solid-state detector has led to questions about the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography. This research has validated the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography in the GE digital mammography system Senographe 2000D[reg]. MGD was determined using light output measurements from thermoluminescent dosimeters (MGD{sub TL}), exposure measurements from an IC (MGD{sub IC}) and conversion factors from the ACR Mammography Quality Control Manual. MGD{sub TL} and MGD{sub IC} data indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the two measurements with the Senographe 2000D[reg]. However, the applicability of the ACR's methodology was validated by calculating MGD at various depths in a 50/50 breast phantom. Additionally, the results of backscatter measurements from the image receptors of both mammography modalities indicate there is a difference (all P values <0.001) in the radiation backscattered from each image receptor.

  10. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  11. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  12. Structures of Gate Loop Variants of the AcrB Drug Efflux Pump Bound by Erythromycin Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli use tripartite efflux pumps such as AcrAB-TolC to expel antibiotics and noxious compounds. A key feature of the inner membrane transporter component, AcrB, is a short stretch of residues known as the gate/switch loop that divides the proximal and distal substrate binding pockets. Amino acid substitutions of the gate loop are known to decrease antibiotic resistance conferred by AcrB. Here we present two new AcrB gate loop variants, the first stripped of its bulky side chains, and a second in which the gate loop is removed entirely. By determining the crystal structures of the variant AcrB proteins in the presence and absence of erythromycin and assessing their ability to confer erythromycin tolerance, we demonstrate that the gate loop is important for AcrB export activity but is not required for erythromycin binding. PMID:27403665

  13. Geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolites from Hormuz Island, southern Iran: A new record of Cadomian arc magmatism in the Hormuz Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Narges Sadat; Amini, Sadraddin; Schmitt, Axel Karl; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Borg, Gregor; McKeegan, Kevin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Hosein; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    Hormuz Island, a salt-gypsum dome in the Persian Gulf in southern Iran, is a complex halotectonic melange comprising evaporites, carbonates, volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as low-grade metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Based on trace element (including rare earth elements REE) compositions of whole rocks and zircon, Hormuz rhyolites are inferred to have formed from subduction-related magmas generated in an active continental margin setting. Ion microprobe analyses of zircon crystals yielded concordant U-Pb ages with weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 558 ± 7 Ma (juvenile zircons in contrast to those from previous magmatic episodes or xenocrysts) along with younger and older discordant ages which likely represent Pb loss and the presence of xenocrystic domains, respectively. Trace element ratios and in particular REE patterns of juvenile zircon from Hormuz rhyolites indicate crystallization from continental crustal source rocks typical for subduction environments. The concordant 206Pb/238U zircon age agrees with ages obtained from most other structural zones of Iran which indicate regional consolidation of igneous basement during the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian. Furthermore, Hormuz rhyolite ages and compositions correlate with counterparts that co-evolved along the northern margin of Gondwana, and are now preserved along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. Hormuz rhyolites erupted synchronously with the deposition of carbonates and evaporites, suggesting that volcanism occupied an extensional backarc or retroarc setting. Such depositional environments predominated in the northern Gondwana continental margin where convergent (Proto-Tethyan) and extensional (Najd) tectonic regimes coexisted.

  14. Furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance in Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutants.

    PubMed

    Luhe, Annette Lin; Lim, Chan Yuen; Gerken, Henri; Wu, Jinchuan; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The presence of the highly toxic furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass prompted the investigation of the Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutant for higher tolerance to these compounds, to facilitate the production of biofuels and biochemicals, and further biocatalytic conversions. In comparison with the parental strain, the regulatory mutant with the upregulated efflux pump AcrAB-TolC produced moderately better growth and higher tolerance to concentrations of furfural and HMF between 1 and 2 g L(-1) . PMID:24716991

  15. Paleoecological insights on fixed tree island development in the Florida Everglades: I. environmental controls: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, Debra A.; Murray, James B.; Holmes, Charles W.; Korvela, Michael S.; Mason, Daniel; Orem, William H.; Towles, D. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Palynological and geochemical analyses of sediment cores collected on two tree islands in the Florida Everglades indicate long-term hydrologic and chemical differences between tree islands and surrounding marshes and sloughs. Gumbo Limbo and Nuthouse tree islands are elongate, teardrop-shaped islands in Water Conservation Area 3B. Prior to tree island formation at both sites, pollen records indicate that sites on modern tree island heads were covered with sawgrass marshes with abundant weedy annuals. Such vegetation is characteristic of moderate water depths and hydroperiods with frequent droughts or disturbances. Contemporaneously deposited sediments on tree island tails indicate progressively deeper water conditions with increasing distance from the head; wetlands surrounding tree islands were covered by sloughs with deep water and long hydroperiods. Tree island formation occurred at about 1200 BC on Gumbo Limbo Island, with mature tree island vegetation established by about 800 AD. On Nuthouse Island, tree island formation occurred around 300 AD, shifting to mature tree island vegetation around 1400 AD. Thus, tree island formation began on these islands between 3.2 Ka and 1.7 Ka. Maturation of tree islands took between 1,000 and 2,000 years, and vegetation on these tree islands has been relatively stable for the last 600–1,200 years. Phosphorus levelson tree island heads have been extremely high (approximately six times greaterthan baseline levels in marshes) throughout the history of the sites, and phosphorus content in tree island tails began increasing when tree island formation occurred. Elevated phosphorus content may reflect the long-termpresence of wading birds at these sites and provide a proxy for reconstructing the historic distribution of wading bird populations.

  16. Isotopic variations within upper oceanic crust at IODP Site 1256: Implications for crustal recycling and the formation of ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggen, S.; Hoernle, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Hauff, F.

    2007-12-01

    The origin of ocean island basalts (OIBs) is a fundamental question facing Earth scientists. It is commonly agreed that lithospheric material recycled in the mantle is involved in the magma source of OIBs. The relative importance of 1) subducted altered oceanic basaltic crust (AOC), 2) subducted marine sediments and/or 3) delaminated metasomatised subcontinental lithosphere and continental lower crust remains to be resolved. We examine the geochemical composition of a complete in situ section of oceanic crust drilled at Site 1256 during IODP Expeditions 309 and 312. It includes the extrusive layer, sheeted dikes and gabbros of ca. 15 Ma old oceanic crust of the Cocos Plate formed during a period of superfast spreading at the East Pacific Rise. Modeling in the Sr-Nd-Pb-isotope space and comparison with present day radiogenic isotope ratios of OIBs provides constraints on the significance of recycled oceanic crust in the OIB mantle source(s). Our study shows that the generation of sulphides during low- and high-temperature alteration of oceanic crust has a strong influence on U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios and whether an AOC domain evolves relatively low or high Pb-isotope ratios over geological timescales. The model suggests that AOC as the sole precursor material, modified during the subduction process, and after relatively low to moderate recycling ages of ca. 300-800 Ma, is sufficient to explain the Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic composition of OIBs with Pb-isotopic compositions along or below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) and relatively high Nd-isotope ratios (e.g. Canaries, Galapagos, Iceland, Madeira). This indicates that additional EM-components, potentially associated with recycled lithospheric material such as subducted sediments, lower continental crust or subcontinental lithosphere, are not required for an array of OIBs, but are only necessary to explain OIBs with Pb-isotope ratios above the NHRL and relatively low Nd- isotope ratios (e.g. Pitcairn, Tristan

  17. A gene in the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Hrp pathogenicity island conserved effector locus, hopPtoA1, contributes to efficient formation of bacterial colonies in planta and is duplicated elsewhere in the genome.

    PubMed

    Badel, J L; Charkowski, A O; Deng, W L; Collmer, A

    2002-10-01

    The ability of Pseudomonas syringae to grow in planta is thought to be dependent upon the Hrp (type III secretion) system and multiple effector proteins that this system injects into plant cells. ORF5 in the conserved effector locus of the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Hrp pathogenicity island was shown to encode a Hrp-secreted protein and to have a similarly secreted homolog encoded in an effector-rich pathogenicity island located elsewhere in the genome. These putative effector genes were designated hopPtoA1 and hopPtoA2, respectively. DNA gel blot analysis revealed that sequences hybridizing with hopPtoA1 were widespread among P. syringae pathovars, and some strains, like DC3000, appear to have two copies of the gene. uidA transcriptional fusions revealed that expression of hopPtoA1 and hopPtoA2 can be activated by the HrpL alternative sigma factor. hopPtoA1 and hopPtoA1/hopPtoA2 double mutants were not obviously different from wild-type P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in their ability to produce symptoms or to increase their total population size in host tomato and Arabidopsis leaves. However, confocal laser-scanning microscopy of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-labeled bacteria in Arabidopsis leaves 2 days after inoculation revealed that the frequency of undeveloped individual colonies was higher in the hopPtoA1 mutant and even higher in the hopPtoA1/hopPtoA2 double mutant. These results suggest that hopPtoA1 and hopPtoA2 contribute redundantly to the formation of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 colonies in Arabidopsis leaves. PMID:12437299

  18. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  19. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  20. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23 Section 1412.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT AND COUNTER-CYCLICAL PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE...

  1. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23 Section 1412.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT AND COUNTER-CYCLICAL PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE...

  2. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23 Section 1412.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT AND COUNTER-CYCLICAL PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE...

  3. SUBSURFACE DESIGN SUPPORT LOW THERMAL LOAD REPOSITORY (25 MTU/ACRE)

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Lahnalampi

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this document is to present a comparison between the Viability Assessment Design Layout and a 25 MTU/acre conceptual repository design. The scope of this analysis is comparing the linear dimensions and the quantities of the major design elements, for example, emplacement drifts, perimeter mains, exhaust mains, performance confirmation drifts, connecting ramps and vertical development.

  4. 76 FR 80410 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material.'' The Subcommittee will hear presentations by... and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on January 18, 2012, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  5. Putting the Pieces Together: Using Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres" in Sociology of Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kelley J.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of fiction to teach undergraduate students about sociological theories and concepts. Discusses how "A Thousand Acres" (Jane Smiley) was used in a sociology of families course. Includes descriptions of the plot and themes in the book and the group work and paper assigned in conjunction with Smiley's novel. (CMK)

  6. Incest, Incorporation, and "King Lear" in Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres" is a faithful and a "profoundly subversive" revision of Shakespeare's "King Lear." Argues that the terms in which the novel have been most frequently praised, no less than the case made for banning it, raise important questions about the relationship between the novel's secret and the source of…

  7. 75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... proposed action in the Federal Register on October 27, 2004 (69 FR 62721). The BIA held a public scoping... Availability for the Draft EIS (DEIS) was published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2008 (73 FR 8898...-Acre Trust Acquisition and Hotel/Casino Project, Madera County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...

  8. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  9. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  10. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  11. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  12. 75 FR 7633 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...: February 12, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). ] Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  13. 7 CFR 1412.41 - Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Provisions for Covered Commodities and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.41 Direct and counter-cyclical... respect to fiscal years 2010 through 2012 payments, CCC will annually allow offers for a DCP or ACRE... 2012 fiscal year contracts. (ii) Except as may otherwise be provided in statute for 2008, enrollment...

  14. 7 CFR 1412.41 - Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisions for Covered Commodities and Peanuts 2008 Through 2012 § 1412.41 Direct and counter-cyclical... respect to fiscal years 2010 through 2012 payments, CCC will annually allow offers for a DCP or ACRE... 2012 fiscal year contracts. (ii) Except as may otherwise be provided in statute for 2008, enrollment...

  15. 76 FR 61118 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and... Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  16. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  17. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  18. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  19. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  20. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  1. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  2. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  3. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  4. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  5. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  6. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  7. Experimental evolution and gene knockout studies reveal AcrA-mediated isobutanol tolerance in Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Amanda C; Gai, Claudia S; Lu, Jingnan; Sinskey, Anthony J; Brigham, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Isobutanol (IBT) has attracted much attention from researchers as a next generation drop-in biofuel. Ralstonia eutropha is a gram-negative bacterium which naturally produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and has been reported to produce IBT after metabolic engineering. Similar to other microbes, R. eutropha experiences toxicity from branched-chain alcohols and is unable to grow in the presence of IBT concentrations higher than 0.5% (v v(-1)). Such low tolerance greatly limits the ability of R. eutropha to grow and produce IBT. In order to study toxicity to the cells, IBT-tolerant strains were developed by experimental evolution, revealing that two genes, previously described as being related to IBT tolerance in Escherichia coli (acrA and acrA6), also presented mutations in R. eutropha evolved strains. The effect on the physiology of the cells of in-frame deletions of each of these genes was assessed in wild type and engineered IBT-producing strains in an attempt to reproduce a tolerant phenotype. The mutant strains' ability to tolerate, consume, and produce IBT were also analyzed. Although deletions of acrA6 and acrA did not significantly improve R. eutropha growth in the presence of IBT, these deletions improved cell survival in the presence of high concentrations of IBT in the extracellular milieu. Moreover, an in-frame acrA deletion in an engineered IBT-producing R. eutropha enhanced the strain's ability to produce IBT, which could potentially be associated with enhanced survival at high IBT concentrations. PMID:26811221

  8. Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

    2007-05-01

    The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

  9. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  10. Impact of generational differences on the future of radiology: proceedings of the 11th annual ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Ellenbogen, Paul H; Patti, John A; Hillman, Bruce J

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 ACR Forum focused on the impact of generational differences on the future of radiology, seeking to inform ACR leadership and members on how best to address the influence of the new integrated workforce on the specialty of radiology and on individual practices. PMID:22305696

  11. 77 FR 9707 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics... for the ACRS Subcommittee meeting on Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena scheduled to be held on February...

  12. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  13. In-plane electric fields in magnetic islands during collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lijen; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Torbert, Roy B.; Bessho, Naoki; Daughton, William; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2012-11-15

    Magnetic islands are a common feature in both the onset and nonlinear evolution of magnetic reconnection. In collisionless regimes, the onset typically occurs within ion-scale current layers leading to the formation of magnetic islands when multiple X lines are involved. The nonlinear evolution of reconnection often gives rise to extended electron current layers (ECL) which are also unstable to formation of magnetic islands. Here, we show that the excess negative charge and strong out-of-plane electron velocity in the ECL are passed on to the islands generated therein, and that the corresponding observable distinguishing the islands generated in the ECL is the strongly enhanced in-plane electric fields near the island core. The islands formed in ion-scale current layers do not have these properties of the ECL-generated islands. The above result provides a way to assess the occurrence and importance of extended ECLs that are unstable to island formation in space and laboratory plasmas.

  14. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope variations within Cretaceous continental flood-basalt suites of the Canadian High Arctic, with a focus on the Hassel Formation basalts of northeast Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Solveig

    2015-11-01

    Early- to mid-Cretaceous flood-basalt suites of the northeast Canadian High Arctic assigned to a High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) were studied for their whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes. Data from basalt flows within the upper Albian to lower Cenomanian Hassel Formation of northeast Ellesmere Island are compared with former published data and new inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry data of the stratigraphic equivalent Strand Fiord basalts and the older, late Hauterivian to Aptian Isachsen basalts from Axel Heiberg Island. The transitional to mildly alkaline aphyric Hassel basalts, with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like geochemical signatures in parts, have an Ar-Ar whole-rock age of on average 96.4 ± 1.6 Ma. They represent two geochemically different flow units without a fractional crystallization relationship: the high-phosphorous (HP) and low-phosphorous (LP) basalts. The Hassel HP basalts differ from the LP basalts by additionally higher Ba, K, Rb, Th and LREE contents, a pronounced positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 1.74-1.76), as well as lower Ta, Nb, Zr and Hf concentrations. The Nd and Sr isotope ratios of the Hassel HP basalts [ ɛ Nd( t) of -1.3 to -1.4, 87Sr/86Sr( t) of 0.70706-0.70707] and the LP basalts [ ɛ Nd( t) of 4.5-4.9, 87Sr/86Sr( t) of 0.7038-0.7040] indicate an origin from different mantle sources. The geochemically similar tholeiitic Isachsen (ca. 130-113 Ma) and Strand Fiord basalts (ca. 105-95 Ma) are also incompatible element enriched relative to the primitive mantle, however, with negative Sr-P anomalies as well as partially negative K, Ta and Nb anomalies. In terms of incompatible element ratios (Zr/Nb, Nb/Th), several mantle components are involved in the formation of the flood-basalt suites: a component with primitive mantle composition, an OIB-like component (probably subducted and recycled oceanic crust) and an enriched lithospheric component. The latter component, probably metasomatized subcontinental

  15. Reduction of Cu2O Islands Grown on a Cu(100) Surface through Vacuum Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangwen; Yang, Judith C.

    2004-11-01

    The reduction of Cu2O islands grown on Cu(100) surfaces through vacuum annealing was visualized by an in situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope. The shrinkage of the island followed a linear decay behavior. The complete reduction of the oxide islands leads to the formation of nanoindentations on the Cu surfaces. A simple phenomenological kinetic model based on the dissociation along the island perimeter suitably describes the reduction behavior of the surface oxide islands.

  16. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  17. The subtype I-F CRISPR-Cas system influences pathogenicity island retention in Pectobacterium atrosepticum via crRNA generation and Csy complex formation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Corinna; Fineran, Peter C

    2013-12-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) arrays and Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins confer acquired resistance against mobile genetic elements in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. The phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 encodes a single subtype I-F CRISPR system, which is composed of three CRISPR arrays and the cas operon encoding Cas1, Cas3 (a Cas2-Cas3 fusion), Csy1, Csy2, Csy3 and Cas6f (Csy4). The CRISPR arrays are transcribed into pre-crRNA (CRISPR RNA) and then processed by Cas6f to generate crRNAs. Furthermore, the formation of Cas protein complexes has been implicated in both the interference and acquisition stages of defence. In the present paper, we discuss the development of tightly controlled 'programmable' CRISPR arrays as tools to investigate CRISPR-Cas function and the effects of chromosomal targeting. Finally, we address how chromosomal targeting by CRISPR-Cas can cause large-scale genome deletions, which can ultimately influence bacterial evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:24256239

  18. An osprey at home in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Rough-legged hawk stares at the landscape from a perch in a tree in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. This type of hawk is rarely seen in Florida, ranging from northern Alaska through Manitoba and Newfoundland and wintering from California east to Virginia. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with the Kennedy Space Center, is habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  19. An osprey at home in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Rough-legged Hawk fans its wings as it gently lands in a tree in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. This type of hawk is rarely seen in Florida, ranging from northern Alaska through Manitoba and Newfoundland and wintering from California east to Virginia. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with the Kennedy Space Center, is habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  20. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR

    PubMed Central

    Raczkowska, Adrianna; Trzos, Joanna; Lewandowska, Olga; Nieckarz, Marta; Brzostek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches. PMID:25893523

  1. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR.

    PubMed

    Raczkowska, Adrianna; Trzos, Joanna; Lewandowska, Olga; Nieckarz, Marta; Brzostek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches. PMID:25893523

  2. ACR white paper on teleradiology practice: a report from the Task Force on Teleradiology Practice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ezequiel; Breslau, Jonathan; Barr, Robert M; Liebscher, Lawrence A; Bohl, Michael; Hoffman, Thomas; Boland, Giles W L; Sherry, Cynthia; Kim, Woojin; Shah, Samir S; Tilkin, Mike

    2013-08-01

    Teleradiology services are now embedded into the workflow of many radiology practices in the United States, driven largely by an expanding corporate model of services. This has brought opportunities and challenges to both providers and recipients of teleradiology services and has heightened the need to create best-practice guidelines for teleradiology to ensure patient primacy. To this end, the ACR Task Force on Teleradiology Practice has created this white paper to update the prior ACR communication on teleradiology and discuss the current and possible future state of teleradiology in the United States. This white paper proposes comprehensive best-practice guidelines for the practice of teleradiology, with recommendations offered regarding future actions. PMID:23684535

  3. [Cancer mortality trends in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 1980-2006].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Juliano de Pádua; Koifman, Sérgio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2011-06-01

    Time trends in cancer incidence and mortality in the Western Amazon remain unknown. This study explored age-standardized cancer mortality rates according to anatomical site in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, by constructing linear regression time trend models. Cancer mortality showed an increasing but inconstant trend in men and stability in women. At the end of the time series, the highest cancer rates among women were for the cervix, lung, liver and intrahepatic biliary tract, stomach, and breast. Among men, the highest rates were for cancer of the lung, prostate, liver and intra-hepatic biliary tract, stomach, and esophagus. The study showed an increasing mortality time trend for cancer of the prostate, breast, and lung and declining mortality rates for cervical cancer in women, lung cancer in men, and stomach cancer in both sexes. The high mortality rate from liver cancer merits attention, considering the high hepatitis B and C infection rates in the State of Acre. PMID:21710013

  4. The future of imaging screening: proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACR FORUM.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Bruce J; Amis, E Stephen; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Neiman, Harvey L

    2005-01-01

    The FORUM is an ACR planning activity focused on a specific topic deemed to be of long-range importance to the college. A select panel of multidisciplinary experts met in 2004 to consider the ramifications of imaging screening from diverse perspectives. Considerations included the nature of screening for disease, its technological issues, and biases associated with the perceived success of screening; potential technologies and target diseases; business and economics; insurance coverage; ethics and the law; how imaging screening could be paired with nonimaging screening; and how the lay public perceives screening. The FORUM participants considered how imaging screening might develop over the next 5 to 10 years and made recommendations to the ACR on actions it might take to benefit both the specialty and patients. PMID:17411759

  5. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  6. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G.; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for productionmore » in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.« less

  7. Regulation of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in response to indole and paraquat.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Eiji; Shirosaka, Ikue; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nishino, Kunihiko

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has at least nine multidrug efflux pumps. Among these, AcrAB is constitutively expressed and is the most efficient, playing a role in both drug resistance and virulence. The acrAB locus is induced by indole, Escherichia coli-conditioned medium, and bile salts. This induction is dependent on RamA through the binding sequence in the upstream region of acrA that binds RamA. In the present study, we made a detailed investigation of the ramA and acrAB induction mechanisms in Salmonella in response to indole, a biological oxidant for bacteria. We found that acrAB and ramA induction in response to indole is dependent on RamR. However, the cysteine residues of RamR do not play a role in the induction of ramA in response to indole, and the oxidative effect of indole is therefore not related to ramA induction via RamR. Furthermore, we showed that paraquat, a superoxide generator, induces acrAB but not ramA. We further discovered that the mechanism of acrAB induction in response to paraquat is dependent on SoxS. The data indicate that there are at least two independent induction pathways for acrAB in response to extracellular signals such as indole and paraquat. We propose that Salmonella utilizes these regulators for acrAB induction in response to extracellular signals in order to adapt itself to environmental conditions. PMID:21148208

  8. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  9. Development and validation of a simple lupus severity index using ACR criteria for classification of SLE

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Ghalib A; Brown, Michael A; Kelly, Jennifer A; Thanou, Aikaterini; James, Judith A; Montgomery, Courtney G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) severity index that requires knowledge of only American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and subcriteria. Methods This study used demographic, mortality and medical records data of 1915 patients with lupus from the Lupus Family Registry and Repository. The data were randomly split (2:1 ratio) into independent training and validation sets. A logistic regression with ridge penalty was used to model the probability of being prescribed major immunosuppressive drugs—a surrogate indicator of lupus severity. ACR criteria and subcriteria were used as predictor variables in this model, and the resulting regression coefficient estimates obtained from the training data were used as item weightings to construct the severity index. Results The resulting index was tested on the independent validation dataset and was found to have high predictive accuracy for immunosuppressive use and early mortality. The index was also found to be strongly correlated with a previously existing severity score for lupus. In addition, demographic factors known to influence lupus severity (eg, age of onset, gender and ethnicity) all showed robust associations with our severity index that were consistent with observed clinical trends. Conclusions This new index can be easily computed using ACR criteria, which may be among the most readily available data elements from patient medical records. This tool may be useful in lupus research, especially large dataset analyses to stratify patients by disease severity, an important prognostic indicator in SLE. PMID:27026812

  10. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2015-01-31

    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  11. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  12. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  13. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  15. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. 77 FR 74697 - Meeting of the ACRS, Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  17. Wind resource assessment: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, E.; Olsen, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    San Nicolas Island (SNI) is the site of the Navy Range Instrumentation Test Site which relies on an isolated diesel-powered grid for its energy needs. The island is located in the Pacific Ocean 85 miles southwest of Los Angeles, California and 65 miles south of the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. SNI is situated on the continental shelf at latitude N33{degree}14` and longitude W119{degree}27`. It is approximately 9 miles long and 3.6 miles wide and encompasses an area of 13,370 acres of land owned by the Navy in fee title. Winds on San Nicolas are prevailingly northwest and are strong most of the year. The average wind speed is 7.2 m/s (14 knots) and seasonal variation is small. The windiest months, March through July, have wind speeds averaging 8.2 m/s (16 knots). The least windy months, August through February, have wind speeds averaging 6.2 m/s (12 knots).

  18. Molecular Mechanism of MBX2319 Inhibition of Escherichia coli AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump and Comparison with Other Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vargiu, Attilio V.; Ruggerone, Paolo; Opperman, Timothy J.; Nguyen, Son T.

    2014-01-01

    Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) superfamily, such as AcrB, make a major contribution to multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The development of inhibitors of the RND pumps would improve the efficacy of current and next-generation antibiotics. To date, however, only one inhibitor has been cocrystallized with AcrB. Thus, in silico structure-based analysis is essential for elucidating the interaction between other inhibitors and the efflux pumps. In this work, we used computer docking and molecular dynamics simulations to study the interaction between AcrB and the compound MBX2319, a novel pyranopyridine efflux pump inhibitor with potent activity against RND efflux pumps of Enterobacteriaceae species, as well as other known inhibitors (D13-9001, 1-[1-naphthylmethyl]-piperazine, and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide) and the binding of doxorubicin to the efflux-defective F610A variant of AcrB. We also analyzed the binding of a substrate, minocycline, for comparison. Our results show that MBX2319 binds very tightly to the lower part of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB, strongly interacting with the phenylalanines lining the hydrophobic trap, where the hydrophobic portion of D13-9001 was found to bind by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, MBX2319 binds to AcrB in a manner that is similar to the way in which doxorubicin binds to the F610A variant of AcrB. In contrast, 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide appear to bind to somewhat different areas of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB than does MBX2319. However, all inhibitors (except D13-9001) appear to distort the structure of the distal pocket, impairing the proper binding of substrates. PMID:25114133

  19. Hydrostratigraphy of Tree Island Cores from Water Conservation Area 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNeill, Donald F.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2003-01-01

    Cores and borehole-geophysical logs collected on and around two tree islands in Water Conservation Area 3 have been examined to develop a stratigraphic framework for these ecosystems. Especially important is the potential for the exchange of ground water and surface water within these features. The hydrostratigraphic results from this study document the lithologic nature of the foundation of the tree islands, the distribution of porous intervals, the potential for paleotopographic influence on their formation, and the importance of low-permeability, subaerial-exposure horizons on the vertical exchange of ground water and surface water. Figure 1. Location of Tree Islands 3AS3 and 3BS1. [larger image] Results from this hydrostratigraphic study indicate that subtle differences occur in lithofacies and topography between the on-island and off-island subsurface geologic records. Specifics are described herein. Firstly, at both tree-island sites, the top of the limestone bedrock is slightly elevated beneath the head of the tree islands relative to the off-island core sites and the tail of the tree islands, which suggests that bedrock 'highs' acted as 'seeds' for the development of the tree islands of this study and possibly many others. Secondly, examination of the recovered core and the caliper logs tentatively suggest that the elevated limestone beneath the tree islands may have a preferentially more porous framework relative to limestone beneath the adjacent areas, possibly providing a ground-water-to-surface-water connection that sustains the tree island system. Finally, because the elevation of the top of the limestone bedrock at the head of Tree Island 3AS3 is slightly higher than the surrounding upper surface of the peat, and because the wetland peats have a lower hydraulic conductivity than the limestone bedrock (Miami Limestone and Fort Thompson Formation), it is possible that there is a head difference between surface water of the wetlands and the ground water

  20. Correlation between AcrB trimer association affinity and efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cui; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lu, Wei; Zhong, Meng; Chai, Qian; Wei, Yinan

    2014-06-17

    The majority of membrane proteins function as oligomers. However, it remains largely unclear how the oligomer stability of protein complexes correlates with their function. Understanding the relationship between oligomer stability and activity is essential to protein research and to virtually all cellular processes that depend on the function of protein complexes. Proteins make lasting or transient interactions as they perform their functions. Obligate oligomeric proteins exist and function exclusively at a specific oligomeric state. Although oligomerization is clearly critical for such proteins to function, a direct correlation between oligomer affinity and biological activity has not yet been reported. Here, we used an obligate trimeric membrane transporter protein, AcrB, as a model to investigate the correlation between its relative trimer affinity and efflux activity. AcrB is a component of the major multidrug efflux system in Escherichia coli. We created six AcrB constructs with mutations at the transmembrane intersubunit interface, and we determined their activities using both a drug susceptibility assay and an ethidium bromide accumulation assay. The relative trimer affinities of these mutants in detergent micelles were obtained using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A correlation between the relative trimer affinity and substrate efflux activity was observed, in which a threshold trimer stability was required to maintain efflux activity. The trimer affinity of the wild-type protein was approximately 3 kcal/mol more stable than the threshold value. Once the threshold was reached, an additional increase of stability in the range observed had no observable effect on protein activity. PMID:24854514

  1. Structure of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dijun; Wang, Zhao; James, Nathan R.; Voss, Jarrod E.; Klimont, Ewa; Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Venter, Henrietta; Chiu, Wah; Luisi, Ben F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of numerous bacterial species to tolerate antibiotics and other toxic compounds arises in part from the activity of energy-dependent transporters. In Gram-negative bacteria, many of these transporters form multicomponent ‘pumps’ that span both inner and outer membranes and are driven energetically by a primary or secondary transporter component1-7. A model system for such a pump is the acridine resistance complex of Escherichia coli1. This pump assembly comprises the outer-membrane channel TolC, the secondary transporter AcrB located in the inner membrane, and the periplasmic AcrA, which bridges these two integral membrane proteins. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is able to vectorially transport a diverse array of compounds with little chemical similarity, and accordingly confers resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Homologous complexes are found in many Gram-negative species, including pathogens of animals and plants. Crystal structures are available for the individual pump components2-7 and these have provided insights into substrate recognition, energy coupling and the transduction of conformational changes associated with the transport process. How the subunits are organised in the pump, their stoichiometry and the details of their interactions are not known and are under debate. In this manuscript, we present the pseudoatomic structure of a complete multidrug efflux pump in complex with a modulatory protein partner8. The model defines the quaternary organization of the pump, identifies key domain interactions, and suggests a cooperative process for channel assembly and opening. These findings illuminate the basis for drug resistance in numerous pathogenic bacterial species. PMID:24747401

  2. Characterization of a Novel Pyranopyridine Inhibitor of the AcrAB Efflux Pump of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kwasny, Steven M.; Kim, Hong-Suk; Nguyen, Son T.; Houseweart, Chad; D'Souza, Sanjay; Walker, Graham C.; Peet, Norton P.; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family of efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC of Escherichia coli, play major roles in multidrug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria. A strategy for combating MDR is to develop efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) for use in combination with an antibacterial agent. Here, we describe MBX2319, a novel pyranopyridine EPI with potent activity against RND efflux pumps of the Enterobacteriaceae. MBX2319 decreased the MICs of ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin, and piperacillin versus E. coli AB1157 by 2-, 4-, and 8-fold, respectively, but did not exhibit antibacterial activity alone and was not active against AcrAB-TolC-deficient strains. MBX2319 (3.13 μM) in combination with 0.016 μg/ml CIP (minimally bactericidal) decreased the viability (CFU/ml) of E. coli AB1157 by 10,000-fold after 4 h of exposure, in comparison with 0.016 μg/ml CIP alone. In contrast, phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), a known EPI, did not increase the bactericidal activity of 0.016 μg/ml CIP at concentrations as high as 100 μM. MBX2319 increased intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 in wild-type but not AcrAB-TolC-deficient strains and did not perturb the transmembrane proton gradient. MBX2319 was broadly active against Enterobacteriaceae species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MBX2319 is a potent EPI with possible utility as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:24247144

  3. Structure of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Du, Dijun; Wang, Zhao; James, Nathan R; Voss, Jarrod E; Klimont, Ewa; Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Venter, Henrietta; Chiu, Wah; Luisi, Ben F

    2014-05-22

    The capacity of numerous bacterial species to tolerate antibiotics and other toxic compounds arises in part from the activity of energy-dependent transporters. In Gram-negative bacteria, many of these transporters form multicomponent 'pumps' that span both inner and outer membranes and are driven energetically by a primary or secondary transporter component. A model system for such a pump is the acridine resistance complex of Escherichia coli. This pump assembly comprises the outer-membrane channel TolC, the secondary transporter AcrB located in the inner membrane, and the periplasmic AcrA, which bridges these two integral membrane proteins. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is able to transport vectorially a diverse array of compounds with little chemical similarity, thus conferring resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Homologous complexes are found in many Gram-negative species, including in animal and plant pathogens. Crystal structures are available for the individual components of the pump and have provided insights into substrate recognition, energy coupling and the transduction of conformational changes associated with the transport process. However, how the subunits are organized in the pump, their stoichiometry and the details of their interactions are not known. Here we present the pseudo-atomic structure of a complete multidrug efflux pump in complex with a modulatory protein partner from E. coli. The model defines the quaternary organization of the pump, identifies key domain interactions, and suggests a cooperative process for channel assembly and opening. These findings illuminate the basis for drug resistance in numerous pathogenic bacterial species. PMID:24747401

  4. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species. PMID:26487825

  5. Comparison of European (ESR) and American (ACR) white papers on teleradiology: patient primacy is paramount.

    PubMed

    Ranschaert, Erik R; Boland, Giles W; Duerinckx, Andre J; Barneveld Binkhuysen, Frits H

    2015-02-01

    The ACR and European Society of Radiology white papers on teleradiology propose best practice guidelines for teleradiology, with each body focusing on its respective local situation, market, and legal regulations. The organizations have common viewpoints, the most important being patient primacy, maintenance of quality, and the "supplementary" position of teleradiology to local services. The major differences between the white papers are related mainly to the market situation, the use of teleradiology, teleradiologist credentialing and certification, the principles of "international" teleradiology, and the need to obtain "informed consent" from patients. The authors describe these similarities and differences by highlighting the background and context of teleradiology in Europe and the United States. PMID:25652303

  6. Characterization of AcrD, a Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-type multidrug efflux pump from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidrug efflux pumps are membrane translocases that have the ability to extrude a variety of structurally unrelated compounds from the cell. AcrD, a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) transporter, was shown to be involved in efflux of highly hydrophilic aminoglycosides and a limited number of amphiphilic compounds in E. coli. Here, a homologue of AcrD in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora was identified. Results The substrate specificity of AcrD was studied by overexpression of the corresponding gene from a high-copy plasmid in E. amylovora Ea1189-3, which is hypersensitive to many drugs due to a deficiency of the major multidrug pump AcrB. AcrD mediated resistance to several amphiphilic compounds including clotrimazole and luteolin, two compounds hitherto not described as substrates of AcrD in enterobacteria. However, AcrD was not able to expel aminoglycosides. An acrD mutant exhibited full virulence on apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. RT-PCR analysis revealed an induction of acrD expression in infected apple tissue but not on pear fruits. Moreover, a direct binding of BaeR, the response regulator of the two-component regulatory system BaeSR, to the acrD promoter was observed as has already been shown in other enterobacteria. Conclusions AcrD from E. amylovora is involved in resistance to a limited number of amphiphilic compounds, but in contrast to AcrD of E. coli, it is not involved in resistance to aminoglycosides. The expression of acrD was up-regulated by addition of the substrates deoxycholate, naringenin, tetracycline and zinc. AcrD appears to be regulated by the BaeSR two-component system, an envelope stress signal transduction pathway. PMID:24443882

  7. Stochastic simulation of fluctuation stage of phase transfer on solid surface during thin film formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bondareva, A.L.; Zmievskaya, G.I.

    2005-05-16

    Ions irradiation leads to nano-scale islands of thin cover formation. Influence on a solid surface of the following processes: fluctuation stage of phase transition (new phase island formation), its migration under long-range potentials of interaction which leads to brownian motion of islands on the surface, inelastic collisions of islands has been simulated by stochastic analogue method. The calculated time evolution of islands kinetic distribution function from islands square sizes and coordinates of its masses centres on the surface is calculated taking into account non-linear Gibbs energy of islands formation, which depends on lattice elastic responses as well on dislocation influence.

  8. Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Everett, R.

    1998-12-31

    The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

  9. Self Organization of Pb Islands on Si(111) Caused by Quantum Size Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hawoong; Basile, Leo; Czoschke, Peter; Gray, Aaron; Chiang, Tai-Chang

    2007-03-01

    Growth of metallic Pb islands on Si(111) by vacuum deposition was studied in real time using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The islands coarsen and order, maintaining a nearly uniform inter-island distance but without angular correlation. The resulting inter-island structure is akin to a two-dimensional liquid. Over a wide temperature range, the inter-island ordering is well correlated with the development of ``magic'' island heights caused by energy minimization of the Pb electrons. The results demonstrate quantum confinement effects as a driving force for self organization, as opposed to strain effects that generally govern the formation of semiconductor quantum dot arrays.

  10. The 2014 ACR annual meeting: a bird's eye view of autoimmunity in 2015.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Cantarini, Luca; Kivity, Shaye; Dagaan, Amir; Shovman, Ora; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Perricone, Carlo; Amital, Howard; Toubi, Elias; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-07-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms leading to rheumatic diseases is growing at unprecedented pace thanks to the worldwide network of clinical and translational researchers who gather at major scientific meetings to share their progresses. Further, these meetings allow the contamination of unrelated research areas and thus the spreading of ideas, hypotheses, and research tools. The annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) serves this purpose by allowing thousands of rheumatologists, immunologists, health care professionals, and basic scientists to attend the same sessions and present their work. The 2014 ACR meeting was held in Boston, MA, and was attended by over 16,000 participants who had the opportunity to directly witness the presentation of over 3000 abstracts. As such is the case, a full attendance of all update opportunities was not feasible. To fill this gap we arbitrarily selected the abstracts the appeared most interesting in a few fields of interest and we herein discuss the presented data and their further implications. In particular, we were intrigued by research advances in biomarkers for rheumatic diseases, and by advances on Sjögren syndrome, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia, and B cell mechanisms. While we are well aware of the numerous blind spots that are expected in this type of article, we submit that this is far from a comprehensive overview and refer to the abstract book for a more complete analysis of the presented abstracts. PMID:25801806

  11. Significance of Breast Lesion Descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS MRI Lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Garima; Su, Min-Ying; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Feig, Stephen A.; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has altered the clinical management for women with breast cancer. In March 2007, the American Cancer Society (ACS) issued a new guideline recommending annual MRI screening for high-risk women. This guideline is expected to substantially increase the number of women each year who receive breast MRI. The diagnosis of breast MRI involves the description of morphological and enhancement kinetics features. To standardize the communication language, the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon was developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR). In this article, we will review various appearances of breast lesions on MRI using the standardized terms of ACR BI-RADS MRI lexicon. The purpose is to familiarize all medical professionals with the breast MRI lexicon, since the use of this imaging modality is rapidly growing in the field of breast disease. Using this common language, a comprehensive analysis of both morphological and kinetic features used in image interpretation will help radiologists and other clinicians to communicate more clearly and consistently. This may in turn help physicians and patients to jointly select an appropriate management protocol for each patient’s clinical situation. PMID:19197974

  12. Demystifying "oxi" cocaine: Chemical profiling analysis of a "new Brazilian drug" from Acre State.

    PubMed

    da Silva Junior, Ronaldo C; Gomes, Cezar S; Goulart Júnior, Saulo S; Almeida, Fernanda V; Grobério, Tatiane S; Braga, Jez W B; Zacca, Jorge J; Vieira, Maurício L; Botelho, Elvio D; Maldaner, Adriano O

    2012-09-10

    Recent information from various sources suggests that a new illicit drug, called "oxi", is being spread across Brazil. It would be used in the smoked form and it would look like to crack cocaine: usually small yellowish or light brown stones. As fully released in the media, "oxi" would differ from crack cocaine in the sense that crack would contain carbonate or bicarbonate salts whereas "oxi" would include the addition of calcium oxide and kerosene (or gasoline). In this context, this work presents a chemical profiling comparative study between "oxi" street samples seized by the Civil Police of the State of Acre (CP/AC) and samples associated with both international and interstate drug trafficking seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in Acre (FP/AC). The outcome of this work assisted Brazilian authorities to stop inaccurate and alarmist releases on this issue. It may be of good use by the forensic community in order to better understand matters in their efforts to guide local law enforcement agencies in case such claims reach the international illicit market. PMID:22571827

  13. Organic maturation and thermal history of Queen Charlotte Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bustin, R.M.; Vellutini, D. )

    1989-09-01

    The level of organic maturation and thermal history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata of the Queen Charlotte Islands have been determined with vitrinite reflectance (R{sub 0}), numerical modeling (modified Arrhenius model), and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis. The level of organic maturation increases from northern Graham to southern Moresby Island, which primarily reflects high heat flow resulting from Middle to Late Jurassic and Eocene to Oligocene plutonism and cospatial dyking. Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic and most Cretaceous strata are overmature on Moresby Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 2.40 to 5.80%. Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata are immature to overmature on Graham Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 0.15% (Skonun Formation) to 2.4% (Haida Formation). Locally, R{sub 0} values up to 3.2% on Graham Island and 8.3% on Moresby Island occur adjacent to igneous intrusives. Modeling measured levels of organic maturation suggests that elevated geothermal gradients ranging from 83{degree} to 150{degree}C/km existed during Yakoun (183-178 Ma) and Masset (35-10 Ma) volcanism on Graham Island. Numerical modeling further suggests that Triassic strata on Fredrick Island and Kennecott Point (Graham Island) entered the oil window during the early Miocene, whereas Jurassic strata at Rennell Junction and Cumshewa Inlet entered the oil window during the Bajocian. Cretaceous strata on north and south Graham Island entered the oil window during the early Miocene and are currently within the oil window. The Tertiary Skonun Formation is generally immature except for strata on west and northeast Graham Island, which entered the oil window in the late Miocene.

  14. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  15. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  16. Simulated microgravity affects ciprofloxacin susceptibility and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli ATCC25922.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Zheng, Yanhua; Si, Shaoyan; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Yuling; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan; Cui, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    As a representative fluoroquinolone antibacterial, ciprofloxacin is frequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. It is much meaningful to explore ciprofloxacin susceptibility and investigate a possible mechanism of drug susceptibility changes in E. coli ATCC25922 exposed to the environmental stress of simulated microgravity. The subculture of E. coli lasted for 7 days under simulated microgravity conditions (SMG) and normal microgravity (NG) conditions. On the 8th day, the cultures were divided into three groups: (1) NG group (continuous NG cultures); (2) SMG group (continuous SMG cultures); (3) SMCNG group (simulated microgravity change into normal gravity cultures). Ciprofloxacin (a final concentration of 0.125 μg/ml) sensitivity and expression of acrAB-tolC genes were detected in E. coli cells. The count and percentage of viable cells in the SMG cultures bacteria exposed to ciprofloxacin were higher than that in NG cultures and reduced to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. The expressions of efflux pump genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) were upregulated in SMG culture and downregulated to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli could be reversibly affected by SMG conditions. Over expression of efflux pump genes acrAB-tolC perhaps played an important role in decreased CIP susceptibility under SMG. PMID:26339360

  17. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Qiu, Xi; Su, Chih-Chia; Long, Feng; Gu, Ruoyu; McDermott, Gerry; Yu, Edward W.

    2006-11-01

    The transcriptional regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. This paper describes the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray data analysis of the AcrR regulatory protein. The Escherichia coli AcrR is a member of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. It regulates the expression of the AcrAB multidrug transporter. Recombinant AcrR with a 6×His tag at the C-terminus was expressed in E. coli and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The protein was crystallized using hanging-drop vapor diffusion. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals at a synchrotron light source. The best crystal diffracted to 2.5 Å. The space group was determined to be P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 46.61, c = 166.16 Å.

  18. Simulated microgravity affects ciprofloxacin susceptibility and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli ATCC25922

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Zheng, Yanhua; Si, Shaoyan; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Yuling; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan; Cui, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    As a representative fluoroquinolone antibacterial, ciprofloxacin is frequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. It is much meaningful to explore ciprofloxacin susceptibility and investigate a possible mechanism of drug susceptibility changes in E. coli ATCC25922 exposed to the environmental stress of simulated microgravity. The subculture of E. coli lasted for 7 days under simulated microgravity conditions (SMG) and normal microgravity (NG) conditions. On the 8th day, the cultures were divided into three groups: (1) NG group (continuous NG cultures); (2) SMG group (continuous SMG cultures); (3) SMCNG group (simulated microgravity change into normal gravity cultures). Ciprofloxacin (a final concentration of 0.125 μg/ml) sensitivity and expression of acrAB-tolC genes were detected in E. coli cells. The count and percentage of viable cells in the SMG cultures bacteria exposed to ciprofloxacin were higher than that in NG cultures and reduced to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. The expressions of efflux pump genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) were upregulated in SMG culture and downregulated to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli could be reversibly affected by SMG conditions. Over expression of efflux pump genes acrAB-tolC perhaps played an important role in decreased CIP susceptibility under SMG. PMID:26339360

  19. The Features of the Synovium in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis According to the 2010 ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Marleen G. H.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Schuller, Yvonne; van de Sande, Gijs P. M.; Wijbrandts, Carla A.; Dinant, Huib J.; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Tak, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It has been shown in early arthritis cohorts that the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) enable an earlier diagnosis, perhaps at the cost of a somewhat more heterogeneous patient population. We describe the features of synovial inflammation in RA patients classified according to these new criteria. Methods At baseline, synovial tissue biopsy samples were obtained from disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve early RA patients (clinical signs and symptoms <1 year). Synovial tissue was analyzed for cell infiltration, vascularity, and expression of adhesion molecules. Stained sections were evaluated by digital image analysis. Patients were classified according to the two different sets of classification criteria, autoantibody status, and outcome. Findings Synovial tissue of 69 RA patients according to 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria was analyzed: 56 patients who fulfilled the criteria for RA at baseline and 13 who were initially diagnosed as undifferentiated arthritis but fulfilled criteria for RA upon follow up. The synovium at baseline was infiltrated by plasma cells, macrophages, and T cells as well as other cells, and findings were comparable to those when patients were selected based on the 1987 ACR criteria for RA. There was no clear cut difference in the characteristics of the synovium between RA patients initially diagnosed as undifferentiated arthritis and those who already fulfilled classification criteria at baseline. Conclusion The features of synovial inflammation are similar when the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria are used compared to the 1987 ACR criteria. PMID:22574210

  20. Native Americans, regional drought and tree Island evolution in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses palynologic data to determine the effects of regional climate variability and human activity on the formation and development of tree islands during the last ~4000 years. Although prolonged periods of aridity have been invoked as one mechanism for their formation, Native American land use has also been hypothesized as a driver of tree island development. Using pollen assemblages from head and near tail sediments collected on two tree islands and documented archeological data, the relative roles of Native Americans, climate variability, and recent water-management practices in forming and structuring Everglades tree islands are examined. The timing of changes recorded in the pollen record indicates that tree islands developed from sawgrass marshes ~3800 cal. yr BP, prior to human occupation. Major tree island expansion, recorded near tail sediments, occurred ~1000 years after initial tree island formation. Comparison of the timing of pollen assemblages with other proxy records indicates that tree island expansion is related to regional and global aridity correlated with southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Local fire associated with droughts may also have influenced tree island expansion. This work suggests that Native American occupation did not significantly influence tree island formation and that the most important factors governing tree island expansion are extreme hydrologic events due to droughts and intense twentieth century water management.